Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4237: An Unsupervised Framework for Online Spatiotemporal Detection of Activities of Daily Living by Hierarchical Activity Models
Brémond Automatic detection and analysis of human activities captured by various sensors (e.g., sequences of images captured by RGB camera) play an essential role in various research fields in order to understand the semantic content of a captured scene. The main focus of the earlier studies has been widely on supervised classification problem, where a label is assigned to a given short clip. Nevertheless, in real-world scenarios, such as in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), the challenge is to automatically browse long-term (days and weeks) stream of videos to identify segments with semantics corresponding to t...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Farhood Negin Fran çois Brémond Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4238: An Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Reliable Data Transmission in Wireless Body Area Networks
uahong Ma Wireless body area networks will inevitably bring tremendous convenience to human society in future development, and also enable people to benefit from ubiquitous technological services. However, one of the reasons hindering development is the limited energy of the network nodes. Therefore, the energy consumption in the selection of the next hop must be minimized in multi-hop routing. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an energy efficient routing protocol for reliable data transmission in a wireless body area network. The protocol takes multiple parameters of the network node into account, such as res...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yating Qu Guoqiang Zheng Honghai Wu Baofeng Ji Huahong Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4239: An Aggregate Signature Scheme Based on a Trapdoor Hash Function for the Internet of Things
Qi Huang With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT), it becomes challenging to ensure its security. Identity authentication and integrity verification can be achieved by secure hash functions and digital signature algorithms for IoT applications. In order to solve the issues of bandwidth limitation and computational efficiency of secure communication in IoT applications, an aggregate signature scheme based on multi- trapdoor hash function is proposed in this paper. Firstly, to prevent key exposition, based on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP), we constructed a double trapdoor has...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shu Chen Xie Sun Qi Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4240: The Effect of Selected Operational Factors on the Vibroactivity of Upper Gearbox Housings Made of Composite Materials
ski This paper presents the results of laboratory tests in which evaluation was performed regarding the effect of selected operating factors on the vibroactivity of upper gearbox housings made of three different fiber reinforced polymer composite materials with diverse layouts (cross and random) and types of reinforcing fibers: glass fiber and carbon fiber. The results of tests for composite housings were compared with those for a steel housing. The tests showed that composite housings had a weight lower by more than 60% compared to the steel housing. A multisensor measuring system consisting of vibration acceleration...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Figlus Kozio ł Kuczy ński Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4213: Solvent Treatment of Wet-Spun PEDOT: PSS Fibers for Fiber-Based Wearable pH Sensing
s Crean There is a growing desire for wearable sensors in health applications. Fibers are inherently flexible and as such can be used as the electrodes of flexible sensors. Fiber-based electrodes are an ideal format to allow incorporation into fabrics and clothing and for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibers were produced from a dispersion of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS). Fibers were wet spun from two PEDOT: PSS sources, in three fiber diameters. The effect of three different chemical treatments on the fibers were investigated and compared. Short 5 min tre...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Reid Smith Garcia-Torres Watts Crean Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4214: Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Recent Advances and Future Prospects
Chen During recent years, field-effect transistor biosensors (Bio-FET) for biomedical applications have experienced a robust development with evolutions in FET characteristics as well as modification of bio-receptor structures. This review initially provides contemplation on this progress by briefly summarizing remarkable studies on two aforementioned aspects. The former includes fabricating unprecedented nanostructures and employing novel materials for FET transducers whereas the latter primarily synthesizes compact molecules as bio-probes (antibody fragments and aptamers). Afterwards, a future perspective on research...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vu Chen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4215: Wearable Sensors for Estimation of Parkinsonian Tremor Severity during Free Body Movements
horaani Tremor is one of the main symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) that reduces the quality of life. Tremor is measured as part of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III. However, the assessment is based on onsite physical examinations and does not fully represent the patients’ tremor experience in their day-to-day life. Our objective in this paper was to develop algorithms that, combined with wearable sensors, can estimate total Parkinsonian tremor as the patients performed a variety of free body movements. We developed two methods: an ensemble model based on gradie...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Murtadha D. Hssayeni Joohi Jimenez-Shahed Michelle A. Burack Behnaz Ghoraani Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4216: Classification of Micro-Damage in Piezoelectric Ceramics Using Machine Learning of Ultrasound Signals
Prasad Ultrasound based structural health monitoring of piezoelectric material is challenging if a damage changes at a microscale over time. Classifying geometrically similar damages with a difference in diameter as small as 100 μ m is difficult using conventional sensing and signal analysis approaches. Here, we use an unconventional ultrasound sensing approach that collects information of the entire bulk of the material and investigate the applicability of machine learning approaches for classifying such similar defects. Our results show that appropriate feature design combined with simple k-nearest neighb...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gaurav Tripathi Habib Anowarul Krishna Agarwal Dilip K. Prasad Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4217: A Multi-Protocol IoT Platform Based on Open-Source Frameworks
oulos Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have evolved rapidly during the last decade, and many architecture types have been proposed for distributed and interconnected systems. However, most systems are implemented following fragmented approaches for specific application domains, introducing difficulties in providing unified solutions. However, the unification of solutions is an important feature from an IoT perspective. In this paper, we present an IoT platform that supports multiple application layer communication protocols (Representational State Transfer (REST)/HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Message Queuing...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Charilaos Akasiadis Vassilis Pitsilis Constantine D. Spyropoulos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4218: Machine Learning-Based Fast Banknote Serial Number Recognition Using Knowledge Distillation and Bayesian Optimization
e Kim We investigated a machine-learning-based fast banknote serial number recognition method. Unlike existing methods, the proposed method not only recognizes multi-digit serial numbers simultaneously but also detects the region of interest for the serial number automatically from the input image. Furthermore, the proposed method uses knowledge distillation to compress a cumbersome deep-learning model into a simple model to achieve faster computation. To automatically decide hyperparameters for knowledge distillation, we applied the Bayesian optimization method. In experiments using Japanese Yen, Korean Won, and Euro ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Eunjeong Choi Somi Chae Jeongtae Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4219: A Potassium Ion-Exchanged Glass Optical Waveguide Sensor Locally Coated with a Crystal Violet-SiO2 Gel Film for Real-Time Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides Simulant
ao Zhi-Mei Qi An optical waveguide (OWG) sensor was developed for real-time detection of diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) vapor, which is a typical simulant for organophosphorus pesticides and chemical weapon agents. Silica gel, crystal violet (CV), and potassium ion-exchange (PIE) OWG were used to fabricate the sensor’s device. In the real-time detection of the DCP vapor, the volume fraction of DCP vapor was recorded to be as low as 1.68 × 10−9. Moreover, the detection mechanism of CV-SiO2 gel film coated the PIE OWG sensor for DCP, which was evaluated by absorption spectra. Th...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bin Du Zhaoyang Tong Xihui Mu Jianjie Xu Shuai Liu Zhiwei Liu Wei Cao Zhi-Mei Qi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4220: Printed Strain Gauge on 3D and Low-Melting Point Plastic Surface by Aerosol Jet Printing and Photonic Curing
rdini Printing sensors and electronics directly on the objects is very attractive for producing smart devices, but it is still a challenge. Indeed, in some applications, the substrate that supports the printed electronics could be non-planar or the thermal curing of the functional inks could damage temperature-sensitive substrates such as plastics, fabric or paper. In this paper, we propose a new method for manufacturing silver-based strain sensors with arbitrary and custom geometries directly on plastic objects with curvilinear surfaces: (1) the silver lines are deposited by aerosol jet printing, which can print on no...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michela Borghetti Mauro Serpelloni Emilio Sardini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4221: Influence of BMI on Gait Characteristics of Young Adults: 3D Evaluation Using Inertial Sensors
Gastaldi Overweight/obesity is a physical condition that affects daily activities, including walking. The main purpose of this study was to identify if there is a relationship between body mass index (BMI) and gait characteristics in young adults. 12 normal weight (NW) and 10 overweight/obese (OW) individuals walked at a self-selected speed along a 14 m indoor path. H-Gait system, combining seven inertial sensors (fixed on pelvis and lower limbs), was used to record gait data. Walking speed, spatio-temporal parameters and joint kinematics in 3D were analyzed. Differences between NW and OW and correlations between BMI ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Valeria Rosso Valentina Agostini Ryo Takeda Shigeru Tadano Laura Gastaldi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4222: Analysis of Spectral Sensing Using Angle-Time Cyclostationarity
veira This work presents a novel spectral sensing method for the detection of signals presenting nonlinear phase variation over time. The introduced method is based on the angle-time cyclostationarity theory, which applies transformations to the signal to be sensed in order to mitigate the effects of nonlinear phase variation. The architecture is employed for sensing binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signals, being also compared with time cyclostationarity. The obtained simulation results clearly demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, while presenting improved performance in terms of the detection rate of ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pedro Souza Vinicius Souza Luiz F. Silveira Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4223: Optical Detection of Fe3+ Ions in Aqueous Solution with High Selectivity and Sensitivity by Using Sulfasalazine Functionalized Microgels
inyang Du A highly selective and sensitive optical sensor was developed to colorimetric detect trace Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution. The sensor was the sulfasalazine (SSZ) functionalized microgels (SSZ-MGs), which were fabricated via in-situ quaternization reaction. The obtained SSZ-MGs had hydrodynamic radius of about 259 ± 24 nm with uniform size distribution at 25 °C. The SSZ-MG aqueous suspensions can selectively and sensitively response to Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution at 25 °C and pH of 5.6, which can be quantified by UV-visible spectroscopy and also easily distinguished by t...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Weiming Ji Zumei Zhu Shunni Dong Jingjing Nie Binyang Du Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4224: A Novel, Portable and Fast Moisture Content Measuring Method for Grains Based on an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Radar Module and the Mode Matching Method
ir S. Jayas To perform fast and portable grain moisture measurements under field conditions, a novel moisture sensor was designed, which consisted of a coaxial waveguide, a circular waveguide, and an isolation layer. The electromagnetic characteristics of the sensor were simulated and measured. The analytical model, which represented the relationship between the reflection coefficient of the sensor and the complex permittivity of grain, was established by using the mode matching method. The reflection coefficient of the sensor was measured by using an ultra-wideband (UWB) radar module, and the moisture content of grain...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chi Zhang Zhichao Shi Haiying Yang Xiaoguang Zhou Zidan Wu Digvir S. Jayas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4225: Edible Gelatin Diagnosis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Partial Least Square Assisted Support Vector Machine
This study reveals that the hybrid PLS-SVM model, with the advantages of low computational time and high prediction accuracy, can be employed as a preferred method for the accurate estimation of edible gelatin adulteration. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hao Zhang Shun Wang Dongxian Li Yanyan Zhang Jiandong Hu Ling Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4226: A Computationally Efficient Labeled Multi-Bernoulli Smoother for Multi-Target Tracking
ie Xiao A forward–backward labeled multi-Bernoulli (LMB) smoother is proposed for multi-target tracking. The proposed smoother consists of two components corresponding to forward LMB filtering and backward LMB smoothing, respectively. The former is the standard LMB filter and the latter is proved to be closed under LMB prior. It is also shown that the proposed LMB smoother can improve both the cardinality estimation and the state estimation, and the major computational complexity is linear with the number of targets. Implementation based on the Sequential Monte Carlo method in a representative scenario ha...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rang Liu Hongqi Fan Tiancheng Li Huaitie Xiao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4227: Synchronous Response Analysis of Features for Remote Sensing Crop Classification Based on Optical and SAR Time-Series Data
In this study, we designed an improved crop planting structure mapping framework for cloudy and rainy regions by combining optical data and SAR data, and we revealed the synchronous-response relationship of these two data types. First, we extracted geo-parcels from optical images with high spatial resolution. Second, we built a recurrent neural network (RNN)-based classifier suitable for remote sensing images on the geo-parcel scale. Third, we classified crops based on the two datasets and established the network. Fourth, we analyzed the synchronous response relationships of crops based on the results of the two classifica...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yingwei Sun Jiancheng Luo Tianjun Wu Ya ’nan Zhou Hao Liu Lijing Gao Wen Dong Wei Liu Yingpin Yang Xiaodong Hu Lingyu Wang Zhongfa Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4228: All-Fiber Highly Sensitive Bragg Grating Bend Sensor
A. Shevtsov In this paper, we demonstrated a novel, all-fiber highly sensitive bend sensor based on a four-core fiber rod with a diameter of 2.1 mm. We observed a high resolution of the sensor at a level of 3.6 × 10−3 m−1. Such a sensor design can be used in harsh environments due to the relatively small size and all-fiber configuration, containing no adhesive, nor welded joints. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Oleg V. Butov Alexey P. Bazakutsa Yuri K. Chamorovskiy Artem N. Fedorov Igor ’ A. Shevtsov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4220: Printed Strain Gauge on 3D and Low-Melting Point Plastic Surface by Aerosol Jet Printing and Photonic Curing
rdini Printing sensors and electronics directly on the objects is very attractive for producing smart devices, but it is still a challenge. Indeed, in some applications, the substrate that supports the printed electronics could be non-planar or the thermal curing of the functional inks could damage temperature-sensitive substrates such as plastics, fabric or paper. In this paper, we propose a new method for manufacturing silver-based strain sensors with arbitrary and custom geometries directly on plastic objects with curvilinear surfaces: (1) the silver lines are deposited by aerosol jet printing, which can print on no...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michela Borghetti Mauro Serpelloni Emilio Sardini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4221: Influence of BMI on Gait Characteristics of Young Adults: 3D Evaluation Using Inertial Sensors
Gastaldi Overweight/obesity is a physical condition that affects daily activities, including walking. The main purpose of this study was to identify if there is a relationship between body mass index (BMI) and gait characteristics in young adults. 12 normal weight (NW) and 10 overweight/obese (OW) individuals walked at a self-selected speed along a 14 m indoor path. H-Gait system, combining seven inertial sensors (fixed on pelvis and lower limbs), was used to record gait data. Walking speed, spatio-temporal parameters and joint kinematics in 3D were analyzed. Differences between NW and OW and correlations between BMI ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Valeria Rosso Valentina Agostini Ryo Takeda Shigeru Tadano Laura Gastaldi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4222: Analysis of Spectral Sensing Using Angle-Time Cyclostationarity
veira This work presents a novel spectral sensing method for the detection of signals presenting nonlinear phase variation over time. The introduced method is based on the angle-time cyclostationarity theory, which applies transformations to the signal to be sensed in order to mitigate the effects of nonlinear phase variation. The architecture is employed for sensing binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signals, being also compared with time cyclostationarity. The obtained simulation results clearly demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, while presenting improved performance in terms of the detection rate of ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pedro Souza Vinicius Souza Luiz F. Silveira Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4223: Optical Detection of Fe3+ Ions in Aqueous Solution with High Selectivity and Sensitivity by Using Sulfasalazine Functionalized Microgels
inyang Du A highly selective and sensitive optical sensor was developed to colorimetric detect trace Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution. The sensor was the sulfasalazine (SSZ) functionalized microgels (SSZ-MGs), which were fabricated via in-situ quaternization reaction. The obtained SSZ-MGs had hydrodynamic radius of about 259 ± 24 nm with uniform size distribution at 25 °C. The SSZ-MG aqueous suspensions can selectively and sensitively response to Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution at 25 °C and pH of 5.6, which can be quantified by UV-visible spectroscopy and also easily distinguished by t...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Weiming Ji Zumei Zhu Shunni Dong Jingjing Nie Binyang Du Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4224: A Novel, Portable and Fast Moisture Content Measuring Method for Grains Based on an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Radar Module and the Mode Matching Method
Wu Jayas To perform fast and portable grain moisture measurements under field conditions, a novel moisture sensor was designed, which consisted of a coaxial waveguide, a circular waveguide, and an isolation layer. The electromagnetic characteristics of the sensor were simulated and measured. The analytical model, which represented the relationship between the reflection coefficient of the sensor and the complex permittivity of grain, was established by using the mode matching method. The reflection coefficient of the sensor was measured by using an ultra-wideband (UWB) radar module, and the moisture content of grai...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Shi Yang Zhou Wu Jayas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4225: Edible Gelatin Diagnosis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Partial Least Square Assisted Support Vector Machine
This study reveals that the hybrid PLS-SVM model, with the advantages of low computational time and high prediction accuracy, can be employed as a preferred method for the accurate estimation of edible gelatin adulteration. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hao Zhang Shun Wang Dongxian Li Yanyan Zhang Jiandong Hu Ling Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4226: A Computationally Efficient Labeled Multi-Bernoulli Smoother for Multi-Target Tracking
ie Xiao A forward–backward labeled multi-Bernoulli (LMB) smoother is proposed for multi-target tracking. The proposed smoother consists of two components corresponding to forward LMB filtering and backward LMB smoothing, respectively. The former is the standard LMB filter and the latter is proved to be closed under LMB prior. It is also shown that the proposed LMB smoother can improve both the cardinality estimation and the state estimation, and the major computational complexity is linear with the number of targets. Implementation based on the Sequential Monte Carlo method in a representative scenario ha...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rang Liu Hongqi Fan Tiancheng Li Huaitie Xiao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4227: Synchronous Response Analysis of Features for Remote Sensing Crop Classification Based on Optical and SAR Time-Series Data
In this study, we designed an improved crop planting structure mapping framework for cloudy and rainy regions by combining optical data and SAR data, and we revealed the synchronous-response relationship of these two data types. First, we extracted geo-parcels from optical images with high spatial resolution. Second, we built a recurrent neural network (RNN)-based classifier suitable for remote sensing images on the geo-parcel scale. Third, we classified crops based on the two datasets and established the network. Fourth, we analyzed the synchronous response relationships of crops based on the results of the two classifica...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yingwei Sun Jiancheng Luo Tianjun Wu Ya ’nan Zhou Hao Liu Lijing Gao Wen Dong Wei Liu Yingpin Yang Xiaodong Hu Lingyu Wang Zhongfa Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4228: All-Fiber Highly Sensitive Bragg Grating Bend Sensor
A. Shevtsov In this paper, we demonstrated a novel, all-fiber highly sensitive bend sensor based on a four-core fiber rod with a diameter of 2.1 mm. We observed a high resolution of the sensor at a level of 3.6 × 10−3 m−1. Such a sensor design can be used in harsh environments due to the relatively small size and all-fiber configuration, containing no adhesive, nor welded joints. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Oleg V. Butov Alexey P. Bazakutsa Yuri K. Chamorovskiy Artem N. Fedorov Igor ’ A. Shevtsov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4213: Solvent Treatment of Wet-Spun PEDOT: PSS Fibers for Fiber-Based Wearable pH Sensing
s Crean There is a growing desire for wearable sensors in health applications. Fibers are inherently flexible and as such can be used as the electrodes of flexible sensors. Fiber-based electrodes are an ideal format to allow incorporation into fabrics and clothing and for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibers were produced from a dispersion of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS). Fibers were wet spun from two PEDOT: PSS sources, in three fiber diameters. The effect of three different chemical treatments on the fibers were investigated and compared. Short 5 min tre...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Reid Smith Garcia-Torres Watts Crean Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4214: Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Recent Advances and Future Prospects
Chen During recent years, field-effect transistor biosensors (Bio-FET) for biomedical applications have experienced a robust development with evolutions in FET characteristics as well as modification of bio-receptor structures. This review initially provides contemplation on this progress by briefly summarizing remarkable studies on two aforementioned aspects. The former includes fabricating unprecedented nanostructures and employing novel materials for FET transducers whereas the latter primarily synthesizes compact molecules as bio-probes (antibody fragments and aptamers). Afterwards, a future perspective on research...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vu Chen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4215: Wearable Sensors for Estimation of Parkinsonian Tremor Severity during Free Body Movements
horaani Tremor is one of the main symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) that reduces the quality of life. Tremor is measured as part of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III. However, the assessment is based on onsite physical examinations and does not fully represent the patients’ tremor experience in their day-to-day life. Our objective in this paper was to develop algorithms that, combined with wearable sensors, can estimate total Parkinsonian tremor as the patients performed a variety of free body movements. We developed two methods: an ensemble model based on gradie...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Murtadha D. Hssayeni Joohi Jimenez-Shahed Michelle A. Burack Behnaz Ghoraani Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4216: Classification of Micro-Damage in Piezoelectric Ceramics Using Machine Learning of Ultrasound Signals
Prasad Ultrasound based structural health monitoring of piezoelectric material is challenging if a damage changes at a microscale over time. Classifying geometrically similar damages with a difference in diameter as small as 100 μ m is difficult using conventional sensing and signal analysis approaches. Here, we use an unconventional ultrasound sensing approach that collects information of the entire bulk of the material and investigate the applicability of machine learning approaches for classifying such similar defects. Our results show that appropriate feature design combined with simple k-nearest neighb...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gaurav Tripathi Habib Anowarul Krishna Agarwal Dilip K. Prasad Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4217: A Multi-Protocol IoT Platform Based on Open-Source Frameworks
oulos Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have evolved rapidly during the last decade, and many architecture types have been proposed for distributed and interconnected systems. However, most systems are implemented following fragmented approaches for specific application domains, introducing difficulties in providing unified solutions. However, the unification of solutions is an important feature from an IoT perspective. In this paper, we present an IoT platform that supports multiple application layer communication protocols (Representational State Transfer (REST)/HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Message Queuing...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Charilaos Akasiadis Vassilis Pitsilis Constantine D. Spyropoulos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4218: Machine Learning-Based Fast Banknote Serial Number Recognition Using Knowledge Distillation and Bayesian Optimization
e Kim We investigated a machine-learning-based fast banknote serial number recognition method. Unlike existing methods, the proposed method not only recognizes multi-digit serial numbers simultaneously but also detects the region of interest for the serial number automatically from the input image. Furthermore, the proposed method uses knowledge distillation to compress a cumbersome deep-learning model into a simple model to achieve faster computation. To automatically decide hyperparameters for knowledge distillation, we applied the Bayesian optimization method. In experiments using Japanese Yen, Korean Won, and Euro ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Eunjeong Choi Somi Chae Jeongtae Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4219: A Potassium Ion-Exchanged Glass Optical Waveguide Sensor Locally Coated with a Crystal Violet-SiO2 Gel Film for Real-Time Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides Simulant
ao Zhi-Mei Qi An optical waveguide (OWG) sensor was developed for real-time detection of diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) vapor, which is a typical simulant for organophosphorus pesticides and chemical weapon agents. Silica gel, crystal violet (CV), and potassium ion-exchange (PIE) OWG were used to fabricate the sensor’s device. In the real-time detection of the DCP vapor, the volume fraction of DCP vapor was recorded to be as low as 1.68 × 10−9. Moreover, the detection mechanism of CV-SiO2 gel film coated the PIE OWG sensor for DCP, which was evaluated by absorption spectra. Th...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bin Du Zhaoyang Tong Xihui Mu Jianjie Xu Shuai Liu Zhiwei Liu Wei Cao Zhi-Mei Qi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4189: Lossy Mode Resonance Generation on Sputtered Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited on Multimode Optical Fiber Structures for Sensing Applications in the 1.55 µm Wavelength Range
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4189: Lossy Mode Resonance Generation on Sputtered Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited on Multimode Optical Fiber Structures for Sensing Applications in the 1.55 µm Wavelength Range Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194189 Authors: Patricia Prieto-Cortés Ricardo I. Álvarez-Tamayo Manuel García-Méndez Manuel Durán-Sánchez In this work, we demonstrated lossy mode resonance (LMR) generation in optical fiber structures based on multimode fibers coated with aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films. AZO thin films were deposited by using radio fr...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Patricia Prieto-Cort és Ricardo I. Álvarez-Tamayo Manuel Garc ía-Méndez Manuel Dur án-Sánchez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4190: Improving Imaging Quality of Real-time Fourier Single-pixel Imaging via Deep Learning
Qun Hao Fourier single pixel imaging (FSPI) is well known for reconstructing high quality images but only at the cost of long imaging time. For real-time applications, FSPI relies on under-sampled reconstructions, failing to provide high quality images. In order to improve imaging quality of real-time FSPI, a fast image reconstruction framework based on deep learning (DL) is proposed. More specifically, a deep convolutional autoencoder network with symmetric skip connection architecture for real time 96 × 96 imaging at very low sampling rates (5–8%) is employed. The network is trained on a l...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Saad Rizvi Jie Cao Kaiyu Zhang Qun Hao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4191: Cryptographic Considerations for Automation and SCADA Systems Using Trusted Platform Modules
Silea The increased number of cyber threats against the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation systems in the Industrial-Internet-of-Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 era has raised concerns in respect to the importance of securing critical infrastructures and manufacturing plants. The evolution towards interconnection and interoperability has expanded the vulnerabilities of these systems, especially in the context of the widely spread legacy standard protocols, by exposing the data to the outside network. After gaining access to the system data by launching a variety of attacks, an intruder can c...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexandra Tidrea Adrian Korodi Ioan Silea Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4192: Feasibility Analysis of LTE-Based UAS Navigation in Deep Urban Areas and DSRC Augmentation
hin The current autonomous navigation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) heavily depends on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). However, in challenging environments, such as deep urban areas, GNSS signals can be easily interrupted, so that UAS may lose navigation capability at any instant. For urban positioning and navigation, Long Term Evolution (LTE) has been considered a promising signal of opportunity due to its dense network in urban areas, and there has recently been great advancement in LTE positioning technology. However, the current LTE positioning accuracy is found to be insufficient for safe UAS navi...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Euiho Kim Yujin Shin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4193: Intelligent Lecturer Tracking and Capturing System Based on Face Detection and Wireless Sensing Technology
n Liu In this paper, we propose an intelligent lecturer tracking and capturing (ILTC) system to automatically record course videos. Real-time and stable lecturer localization is realized by combining face detection with infrared (IR) thermal sensors, preventing detection failure caused by abrupt and rapid movements in face detection and solving the non-real-time sensing problem for IR thermal sensors. Further, the camera is panned automatically by a servo motor controlled with a microcontroller to keep the lecturer in the center of the screen. Experiments were conducted in a classroom and a laboratory. Experimental res...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tan-Hsu Tan Tien-Ying Kuo Huibin Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4195: Mechanical Behaviors and Fatigue Performances of Ballastless Tracks Laid on Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges with Different Arrangements
i Zhu In this paper, we present a new attempt to lay ballastless tracks on long-span cable-stayed bridges on high-speed railways. The arrangements of ballastless tracks laid on cable-stayed bridges can be divided into two conditions: (i) across the cable suspension-point cross-section or (ii) in discontinuity at the cable suspension-point cross-section. At present, there is a lack of in-depth research on ballastless tracks laid on long-span cable-stayed bridges, especially on the mechanical behaviors and fatigue performances of the ballastless tracks with different arrangements. For this paper, a segmental model of a l...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xingwang Sheng Weiqi Zheng Zhihui Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4194: A Robust Balance-Control Framework for the Terrain-Blind Bipedal Walking of a Humanoid Robot on Unknown and Uneven Terrain
Oh Research on a terrain-blind walking control that can walk stably on unknown and uneven terrain is an important research field for humanoid robots to achieve human-level walking abilities, and it is still a field that needs much improvement. This paper describes the design, implementation, and experimental results of a robust balance-control framework for the stable walking of a humanoid robot on unknown and uneven terrain. For robust balance-control against disturbances caused by uneven terrain, we propose a framework that combines a capture-point controller that modifies the control reference, and a balance contro...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hyun-Min Joe Jun-Ho Oh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4196: Inertial-Navigation-Aided Single-Satellite Highly Dynamic Positioning Algorithm
ng Song Nowadays, research on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) has reached a certain level of maturity to provide high-precision positioning services in many applications. Nonetheless, there are challenging GNSS-denial environments where a temporarily deployed single-satellite positioning system is a promising choice. To further meet the emergency call of highly dynamic targets in such situations, an augmented single-satellite positioning algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the initial location of the highly dynamic target is found by real-time displacement feedback from the inertial navigation system...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lingling Zhang Chengkai Tang Yi Zhang Houbing Song Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4197: Massive Automatic Identification System Sensor Trajectory Data-Based Multi-Layer Linkage Network Dynamics of Maritime Transport along 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road
This study examines the global maritime network dynamics from multi-layers (bulk, container, and tanker) and multidimensional (e.g., point, link, and network) structure perspectives. A spatial-temporal framework is introduced to construct and analyze the global maritime transportation network dynamics by means of big trajectory data. Transport capacity and stability are exploited to infer spatial-temporal dynamics of system nodes and links. Maritime network structure changes and traffic flow dynamics grouping are then possible to extract. This enables the global maritime network between 2013 and 2016 to be investigated, an...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongchu Yu Zhixiang Fang Feng Lu Alan T. Murray Zhiyuan Zhao Yang Xu Xiping Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4198: Analysis of the Influence of Different Settings of Scan Sequence Parameters on Vibration and Noise Generated in the Open-Air MRI Scanning Area
; Ivan Frollo A system of gradient coils of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device produces significant vibration and noise. Energetic relations of these phenomena are analyzed depending on MRI scan parameters (sequence type, repetition time (TR), echo time (TE), slice orientation, body weight). This issue should be investigated because of negative physiological and psychological effects on a person exposed to vibration and acoustic noise. We also measured the sound pressure level in the MRI scanning area and its vicinity in order to minimize these negative impacts, depending on intensity and time duration of ex...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ji ří Přibil Anna P řibilová Ivan Frollo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4199: Conditional Artificial Potential Field-Based Autonomous Vehicle Safety Control with Interference of Lane Changing in Mixed Traffic Scenario
Naixue Xiong Car-following is an essential trajectory control strategy for the autonomous vehicle, which not only improves traffic efficiency, but also reduces fuel consumption and emissions. However, the prediction of lane change intentions in adjacent lanes is problematic, and will significantly affect the car-following control of the autonomous vehicle, especially when the vehicle changing lanes is only a connected unintelligent vehicle without expensive and accurate sensors. Autonomous vehicles suffer from adjacent vehicles’ abrupt lane changes, which may reduce ride comfort and increase energy consu...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kai Gao Di Yan Fan Yang Jin Xie Li Liu Ronghua Du Naixue Xiong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4200: Using MODIS Land Surface Temperatures for Permafrost Thermal Modeling in Beiluhe Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
This study presents a comparison of MODIS-LST values with in situ near-surface air temperature (Ta), and ground surface temperature (GST) obtained from 2014 to 2016 at five sites in Beiluhe basin, a representative permafrost region on the QTP. Furthermore, the performance of the thermal permafrost model forced by MODIS-LSTs was studied. Averaged LSTs are found to strongly correlated with Ta and GST with R2 values being around 0.9. There is a significant warm bias (4.43–4.67 °C) between averaged LST and Ta, and a slight warm bias (0.67–2.66 °C) between averaged LST and GST...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anyuan Li Caichu Xia Chunyan Bao Guoan Yin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4201: Fiber Link Health Detection and Self-Healing Algorithm for Two-Ring-Based RoF Transport Systems
Ying Yang A two-ring-based radio over fiber (RoF) transport system with a two-step fiber link failure detection and self-healing algorithm is proposed to ensure quality of service (QoS) by automatically monitoring the health of each fiber link in the transport system and by resourcefully detecting, locating, and bypassing the blocked fiber links. With the assistance of the fiber Bragg grating remote sensing technique, preinstalled optical switches, and novel single-line bidirectional optical add/drop multiplexers, the optical routing pathways in the RoF transport system can be dynamically adjusted by the proposed algor...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wen-Shing Tsai Ching-Hung Chang Zhin-Guei Lin Dong-Yi Lu Tsung-Ying Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4202: Fatigue Detection during Sit-To-Stand Test Based on Surface Electromyography and Acceleration: A Case Study
acute;a Cuesta Vargas The latest studies of the 30-second sit-to-stand (30-STS) test aim to describe it by employing kinematic variables, muscular activity, or fatigue through electromyography (EMG) instead of a number of repetitions. The aim of the present study was to develop a detection system based on acceleration measured using a smartphone to analyze fatigue during the 30-STS test with surface electromyography as the criterion. This case study was carried out on one woman, who performed eight trials. EMG data from the lower limbs and trunk muscles, as well as trunk acceleration were recorded. Both signals from...
Source: Sensors - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rold án Jiménez Bennett Ortiz Garc ía Cuesta Vargas Tags: Article Source Type: research