Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6622: 5G Beyond 3GPP Release 15 for Connected Automated Mobility in Cross-Border Contexts
Edward Mutafungwa Fifth-generation (5G) mobile networks aim to be qualified as the core connectivity infrastructures to address connected automated mobility (CAM), both from a technological and from a business perspective, for the higher automation levels defined by the automotive industry. Specifically, in some territories such as the European Union the cross-border corridors have relevance, as they are the cohesive paths for terrestrial transport. Therefore, 5G for CAM applications is planned to be deployed there first. However, cross-border contexts imply paramount communication challenges, such as seamless roamin...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gorka Velez Ángel Martín Giancarlo Pastor Edward Mutafungwa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6624: Visual Guidance and Egg Collection Scheme for a Smart Poultry Robot for Free-Range Farms
This study proposes a smart mobile robot for poultry farms that can recognize eggs of two different colors on free-range farms. The robot can also pick up and sort eggs without damaging them. An egg feature extraction method with automatic thresholding is employed to detect both white and brown eggs, and a behavior-based navigation method is applied to allow the robot to reach the eggs while avoiding obstacles. The robot can move towards the position of each egg via visual tracking. Once the egg is within the collection area of the robot, it is gathered, sorted and stored in the tank inside the robot. Experiments are carri...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chung-Liang Chang Bo-Xuan Xie Chia-Hui Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6618: Assessment of Sit-to-Stand Transfers during Daily Life Using an Accelerometer on the Lower Back
Shyamal Patel The ability to perform sit-to-stand (STS) transfers has a significant impact on the functional mobility of an individual. Wearable technology has the potential to enable the objective, long-term monitoring of STS transfers during daily life. However, despite several recent efforts, most algorithms for detecting STS transfers rely on multiple sensing modalities or device locations and have predominantly been used for assessment during the performance of prescribed tasks in a lab setting. A novel wavelet-based algorithm for detecting STS transfers from data recorded using an accelerometer on the lower bac...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lukas Adamowicz F. Isik Karahanoglu Christopher Cicalo Hao Zhang Charmaine Demanuele Mar Santamaria Xuemei Cai Shyamal Patel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6626: Remaining Useful Life Prognosis for Turbofan Engine Using Explainable Deep Neural Networks with Dimensionality Reduction
This study prognoses the remaining useful life of a turbofan engine using a deep learning model, which is essential for the health management of an engine. The proposed deep learning model affords a significantly improved accuracy by organizing networks with a one-dimensional convolutional neural network, long short-term memory, and bidirectional long short-term memory. In particular, this paper investigates two practical and crucial issues in applying the deep learning model for system prognosis. The first is the requirement of numerous sensors for different components, i.e., the curse of dimensionality. Second, the deep ...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chang Woo Hong Changmin Lee Kwangsuk Lee Min-Seung Ko DaeEun Kim Kyeon Hur Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6625: A Stackelberg Game-Based Caching Incentive Scheme for Roadside Units in VANETs
n Shi As a key technology of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been promising to provide safety and infotainment for drivers and passengers. To support different applications about traffic safety, traffic efficiency, autonomous driving and entertainment, it is important to investigate how to effectively deliver content in VANETs. Since it takes resources such as bandwidth and power for base stations (BSs) or roadside units (RSUs) to deliver content, the optimal pricing strategy for BSs and the optimal caching incentive scheme for RSUs need to be studied. In this paper,...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Lin Chen Shi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6621: Empirical Model of Radio Wave Propagation in the Presence of Vegetation inside Greenhouses Using Regularized Regressions
ez Lao Alejandro Cama-Pinto Spain is Europe’s leading exporter of tomatoes harvested in greenhouses. The production of tomatoes should be kept and increased, supported by precision agriculture to meet food and commercial demand. The wireless sensor network (WSN) has demonstrated to be a tool to provide farmers with useful information on the state of their plantations due to its practical deployment. However, in order to measure its deployment within a crop, it is necessary to know the communication coverage of the nodes that make up the network. The multipath propagation of radio waves between the trans...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dora Cama-Pinto Miguel Damas Juan Antonio Holgado-Terriza Francisco Manuel Arrabal-Campos Francisco G ómez-Mula Juan Antonio Mart ínez Martínez Lao Alejandro Cama-Pinto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6627: Wearable Health Technology to Quantify the Functional Impact of Peripheral Neuropathy on Mobility in Parkinson ’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6627: Wearable Health Technology to Quantify the Functional Impact of Peripheral Neuropathy on Mobility in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20226627 Authors: Marta Francisca Corrà Elke Warmerdam Nuno Vila-Chã Walter Maetzler Luís Maia The occurrence of peripheral neuropathy (PNP) is often observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with a prevalence up to 55%, leading to more prominent functional deficits. Motor assessment with mobile health technologies allows high sensitivity and accuracy and is widely adopted...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marta Francisca Corr à Elke Warmerdam Nuno Vila-Ch ã Walter Maetzler Lu ís Maia Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6628: Building a Graph Signal Processing Model Using Dynamic Time Warping for Load Disaggregation
kovic Building on recent unsupervised Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) algorithms that use graph Laplacian regularization (GLR) and achieve state-of-the-art performance, in this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised approach to design an underlying graph to model the correlation within time-series smart meter measurements. We propose a variable-length data segmentation approach to extract potential events, assign all measurements associated with an identified event to each graph node, employ dynamic time warping to define the adjacency matrix of the graph, and propose a robust cluster labeling approach. Our simula...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kanghang He Vladimir Stankovic Lina Stankovic Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6630: Illumination-Invariant Feature Point Detection Based on Neighborhood Information
lvin Wong Feature point detection is the basis of computer vision, and the detection methods with geometric invariance and illumination invariance are the key and difficult problem in the field of feature detection. This paper proposes an illumination-invariant feature point detection method based on neighborhood information. The method can be summarized into two steps. Firstly, the feature points are divided into eight types according to the number of connected neighbors. Secondly, each type of feature points is classified again according to the position distribution of neighboring pixels. The theoretical deduction pr...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruiping Wang Liangcai Zeng Shiqian Wu Wei Cao Kelvin Wong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6629: Face Memorization Using AIM Model for Mobile Robot and Its Application to Name Calling Function
isawa We are developing a social mobile robot that has a name calling function using a face memorization system. It is said that it is an important function for a social robot to call to a person by her/his name, and the name calling can make a friendly impression of the robot on her/him. Our face memorization system has the following features: (1) When the robot detects a stranger, it stores her/his face images and name after getting her/his permission. (2) The robot can call to a person whose face it has memorized by her/his name. (3) The robot system has a sleep–wake function, and a face classifier is ...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Masahiko Mikawa Haolin Chen Makoto Fujisawa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6631: Global Revisit Interval Analysis of Landsat-8 -9 and Sentinel-2A -2B Data for Terrestrial Monitoring
In this study, combinations of four sensors were used to examine the revisit interval by modelled orbit swath information. To investigate different factors that could influence data availability, an analysis was carried out for one year based on daytime surface observations of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A -2B. We found that (i) the global median average of revisit intervals for the combination of four sensors was 2.3 days; (ii) the global mean average number of surface observations was 141.4 for the combination of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A -2B; (iii) the global mean average cloud-weighted number of observations for the three ...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jian Li Baozhang Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6632: Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Investigate Some Endogenic Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivars
i Mednyánszky Fourteen different Pleurotus ostreatus cultivars (Po_1–Po_14) were tested for free amino acid content (fAA), total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant capacity (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma—FRAP) to select the cultivars with the most favorable traits. Automatic amino acid analyzer (fAA) and spectrophotometric assay (TPC, FRAP) results as well as Fourier-transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectra were evaluated with different chemometric methods (Kruskal–Wallis test, Principal Component Analysis—PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis&...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fodor Mikola Ge ösel Stefanovits-B ányai Medny ánszky Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6633: Detection of County Economic Development Using LJ1-01 Nighttime Light Imagery: A Comparison with NPP-VIIRS Data
Hu Nighttime light (NTL) remote sensing data have been widely used to derive socioeconomic indicators at the national and regional scales to study regional economic development. However, most previous studies only chose a single measurement indicator (such as GDP) and adopted simple regression methods to investigate the economic development of a certain area based on DMSP-OLS or NPP-VIIRS stable NTL data. The status quo shows the problems of using a single evaluation index—it has a low evaluation precision. The LJ1-01 satellite is the first dedicated NTL remote sensing satellite in the world, launched...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Liu Luo Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6634: A Robust Localization Algorithm Based on NLOS Identification and Classification Filtering for Wireless Sensor Network
yang Bi With the rapid development of information and communication technology, the wireless sensor network (WSN) has shown broad application prospects in a growing number of fields. The non-line-of-sight (NLOS) problem is the main challenge to WSN localization, which seriously reduces the positioning accuracy. In this paper, a robust localization algorithm based on NLOS identification and classification filtering for WSN is proposed to solve this problem. It is difficult to use a single filter to filter out NLOS noise in all cases since NLOS cases are extremely complicated in real scenarios. Therefore, in order to imp...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Long Cheng Sihang Huang Mingkun Xue Yangyang Bi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6619: A Fast Deploying Monitoring and Real-Time Early Warning System for the Baige Landslide in Tibet, China
ao Chen Landslide early warning systems (EWSs) have been widely used to reduce disaster losses. The effectiveness of a landslide EWS depends highly on the prediction methods, and it is difficult to correctly predict landslides in a timely manner. In this paper, we propose a real-time prediction method to provide real-time early warning of landslides by combining the Kalman filtering (KF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), and support vector machine (SVM) methods. We also designed a fast deploying monitoring system (FDMS) to monitor the displacement of landslides for real-time prediction. The FDMS can be quickly deployed co...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yongbo Wu Ruiqing Niu Yi Wang Tao Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6635: High Magnetic Field Sensitivity in Ferromagnetic –Ferroelectric Composite with High Mechanical Quality Factor
In this study, composite devices were fabricated using ferromagnetic FeSiB-based alloys (Metglas) and ferroelectric ceramics, and their magnetic field sensitivity was evaluated. Sintered 0.95Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-0.05Pb(Mn1/3Sb2/3)O3 (PZT-PMS) ceramic exhibited a very dense microstructure with a large piezoelectric voltage coefficient (g31 = −16.8 × 10−3 VmN−1) and mechanical quality factor (Qm > 1600). Owing to these excellent electromechanical properties of the PZT-PMS, the laminate composite with a Metglas/PZT-PMS/Metglas sandwich structure exhibited large ...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee Soh Yoo Cho Ahn Choi Hahn Cho Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6636: Washing Machine Dynamic Model to Prevent Tub Collision during Transient State
n Albero Roberto Latre In horizontal-axis washing machines, the front gasket as well as the damping system are crucial owing to the possible collision of the tub with the housing during the transient period. However, most dynamic models for predicting tub motion focus on the steady state and consider only the suspension system without including the gasket. We conducted an experimental study to analyze the effect of the gasket on the transient motion of the tub. The results obtained indicate the necessity of implementing the gasket in the multibody model of a washing machine to accurately predict the tub behavior duri...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Beatriz S ánchez-Tabuenca Carmen Gal é Juan Llad ó Cristian Albero Roberto Latre Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6637: Effects of Wearable Devices with Biofeedback on Biomechanical Performance of Running —A Systematic Review
This article reviews challenges in this area and suggests future studies can evaluate the long-term effects in running biomechanics produced by wearable devices with biofeedback. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexandra Giraldo-Pedroza Winson Chiu-Chun Lee Wing-Kai Lam Robyn Coman Gursel Alici Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6638: Damage Identification and Quantification in Beams Using Wigner-Ville Distribution
n The paper presents the novel method of damage identification and quantification in beams using the Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD). The presented non-parametric method is characterized by high sensitivity to a local stiffness decrease due to the presence of damage, comparable with the sensitivity of the wavelet-based approaches, however the lack of selection of the parameters of the algorithm, like wavelet type and its order, and the possibility of reduction of the boundary effect make this method advantageous with respect to the mentioned wavelet-based approaches. Moreover, the direct relation between the energy den...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrzej Katunin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6639: DBOS: A Dialog-Based Object Query System for Hospital Nurses
uang Due to the advance of indoor positioning technology, it is now possible to trace mobile medical equipment (such as electrocardiography machines, patient monitors, and so on) being moved around a hospital ward. With the support of an object tracking system, nurses can easily locate and find a device, especially when they prepare for a shift change or a medical treatment. As nurses usually face high workloads, it is highly desirable to provide nurses with a user-friendly search interface integrated into a popular mobile app that they use daily. For this, DBOS, a dialog-based object query system, is proposed, which s...
Source: Sensors - November 19, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chu Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6589: Marine Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions Measured in Ship ’s Dynamic Operating Conditions
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6589: Marine Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions Measured in Ship’s Dynamic Operating Conditions Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20226589 Authors: Artur Bogdanowicz Tomasz Kniaziewicz The paper presents the results of research on measuring the emissions from marine diesel engines in dynamic states. The problem is as follows: How to measure emissions of the composition of exhaust gases on board a ship, without direct measurement of fuel consumption and an air flow to marine diesel engine, during maneuvering the ship in the port area. The authors proposed a measurement methodology using an exhaust g...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Artur Bogdanowicz Tomasz Kniaziewicz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6588: Locally Controlled Sensing Properties of Stretchable Pressure Sensors Enabled by Micro-Patterned Piezoresistive Device Architecture
Sung Kyu Park For wearable health monitoring systems and soft robotics, stretchable/flexible pressure sensors have continuously drawn attention owing to a wide range of potential applications such as the detection of human physiological and activity signals, and electronic skin (e-skin). Here, we demonstrated a highly stretchable pressure sensor using silver nanowires (AgNWs) and photo-patternable polyurethane acrylate (PUA). In particular, the characteristics of the pressure sensors could be moderately controlled through a micro-patterned hole structure in the PUA spacer and size-designs of the patterned hole area. Wi...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jun Ho Lee Jae Sang Heo Keon Woo Lee Jae Cheol Shin Jeong-Wan Jo Yong-Hoon Kim Sung Kyu Park Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6587: A Privacy-Preserving Healthcare Framework Using Hyperledger Fabric
Buchanan Electronic health record (EHR) management systems require the adoption of effective technologies when health information is being exchanged. Current management approaches often face risks that may expose medical record storage solutions to common security attack vectors. However, healthcare-oriented blockchain solutions can provide a decentralized, anonymous and secure EHR handling approach. This paper presents PREHEALTH, a privacy-preserving EHR management solution that uses distributed ledger technology and an Identity Mixer (Idemix). The paper describes a proof-of-concept implementation that uses the Hyper...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Charalampos Stamatellis Pavlos Papadopoulos Nikolaos Pitropakis Sokratis Katsikas William J. Buchanan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6590: Comparison of Subjective and Objective Assessments on Improvement in Gait Function after Carotid Endarterectomy
Kuniaki Ogasawara The purpose of the present study was to determine whether objective gait test scores obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer can detect subjective improvement in gait as determined by the patient after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Each patient undergoing CEA for ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis determined whether their gait was subjectively improved at six months after CEA when compared with preoperatively. Gait testing using a tri-axial accelerometer was also performed preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Twelve (15%) of 79 patients reported subjectively improved gait. Areas...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tatsuhiko Takahashi Shunrou Fujiwara Suguru Igarashi Toshihiko Ando Kohei Chida Masakazu Kobayashi Kenji Yoshida Takahiro Koji Yoshitaka Kubo Kuniaki Ogasawara Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6592: Multi-Branch Convolutional Neural Network for Automatic Sleep Stage Classification with Embedded Stage Refinement and Residual Attention Channel Fusion
In this study, the sleep stage refinement process was incorporated into the neural network model to form real end-to-end processing. In addition, for multi-channel signals, the multi-branch convolutional neural network was combined with a proposed residual attention method. This approach further improved the model classification accuracy. The proposed method was evaluated on the Sleep-EDF Expanded Database (Sleep-EDFx) and University College Dublin Sleep Apnea Database (UCDDB). It achieved respective accuracy rates of 85.7% and 79.4%. The results also showed that sleep stage refinement based on a neural network is more eff...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tianqi Zhu Wei Luo Feng Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6594: Recent Progress in Distributed Fiber Acoustic Sensing with Φ-OTDR
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6594: Recent Progress in Distributed Fiber Acoustic Sensing with Φ-OTDR Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20226594 Authors: Zhaoyong Wang Bin Lu Qing Ye Haiwen Cai Distributed fiber acoustic sensing (DAS) technology can continuously spatially detect disturbances along the sensing fiber over long distance in real time. It has many unique advantages, including, large coverage, high time-and-space resolution, convenient implementation, strong environment adaptability, etc. Nowadays, DAS becomes a versatile technology in many fields, such as, intrusion detection, railway transportation, seismology...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhaoyong Wang Bin Lu Qing Ye Haiwen Cai Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6595: Reinforcement Learning-Based Data Association for Multiple Target Tracking in Clutter
Yang Data association is a crucial component of multiple target tracking, in which each measurement obtained by the sensor can be determined whether it belongs to the target. However, many methods reported in the literature may not be able to ensure the accuracy and low computational complexity during the association process, especially in the presence of dense clutters. In this paper, a novel data association method based on reinforcement learning (RL), i.e., the so-called RL-JPDA method, has been proposed for solving the aforementioned problem. In the presented method, the RL is leveraged to acquire available inf...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qu Zhang Zhang Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6597: Reliability Evaluation of the Data Acquisition Potential of a Low-Cost Climatic Network for Applications in Agriculture
Marco Painho Temperature, humidity and precipitation have a strong influence on the generation of diseases in different crops, especially in vine. In recent years, advances in different disciplines have enabled the deployment of sensor nodes on agricultural plots. These sensors are characterised by a low cost and so the reliability of the data obtained from them can be compromised, as they are built from low-confidence components. In this research, two studies were carried out to determine the reliability of the data obtained by different SEnviro nodes installed in vineyards. Two networks of meteorological stations w...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sergio Trilles Pablo Juan Carlos D íaz-Avalos Sara Ribeiro Marco Painho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6598: An Indoor Robust Localization Algorithm Based on Data Association Technique
yang Bi As a key technology of the Internet of Things, wireless sensor network (WSN) has been used widely in indoor localization systems. However, when the sensor is transmitting signals, it is affected by the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) transmission, and the accuracy of the positioning result is decreased. Therefore, solving the problem of NLOS positioning has become a major focus for indoor positioning. This paper focuses on solving the problem of NLOS transmission that reduces positioning accuracy in indoor positioning. We divided the anchor nodes into several groups and obtained the position information of the target ...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Long Cheng Yong Wang Mingkun Xue Yangyang Bi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6599: 2D Scanning Micromirror with Large Scan Angle and Monolithically Integrated Angle Sensors Based On Piezoelectric Thin Film Aluminum Nitride
er Otto Kuhn A 2D scanning micromirror with piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride (AlN), separately used as actuator and sensor material, is presented. For endoscopic applications, such as fluorescence microscopy, the devices have a mirror plate diameter of 0.7 mm with a 4 mm² chip footprint. After an initial design optimization procedure, two micromirror designs were realized. Different spring parameters for x- and y-tilt were chosen to generate spiral (Design 1) or Lissajous (Design 2) scan patterns. An additional layout, with integrated tilt angle sensors, was introduced (Design 1-S) to enable ...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Meinel Melzer Stoeckel Shaporin Forke Zimmermann Hiller Otto Kuhn Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6600: Tracing Your Smart-Home Devices Conversations: A Real World IoT Traffic Data-Set
sto-Gonzalez Smart-home installations exponential growth has raised major security concerns. To this direction, the GHOST project, a European Union Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation funded project, aims to develop a reference architecture for securing smart-homes IoT ecosystem. It is required to have automated and user friendly security mechanisms embedded into smart-home environments, to protect the users’ digital well being. GHOST project aims to fulfill this requirement and one of its main functionalities is the traffic monitoring for all IoT related network protocols. In this paper, the traffic cap...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marios Anagnostopoulos Georgios Spathoulas Brais Via ño Javier Augusto-Gonzalez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6593: Vital Signs Prediction and Early Warning Score Calculation Based on Continuous Monitoring of Hospitalised Patients Using Wearable Technology
a Jean-Marie Aerts Bart Vanrumste In this prospective, interventional, international study, we investigate continuous monitoring of hospitalised patients’ vital signs using wearable technology as a basis for real-time early warning scores (EWS) estimation and vital signs time-series prediction. The collected continuous monitored vital signs are heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and oxygen saturation of a heterogeneous patient population hospitalised in cardiology, postsurgical, and dialysis wards. Two aspects are elaborated in this study. The first is the high-rate (every minute) estimatio...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ahmed Youssef Ali Amer Femke Wouters Julie Vranken Dianne de Korte-de Boer Val érie Smit-Fun Patrick Duflot Marie-H élène Beaupain Pieter Vandervoort Stijn Luca Jean-Marie Aerts Bart Vanrumste Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6601: An Efficient Topology Discovery Protocol With Node ID Assignment Based on Layered Model for Underwater Acoustic Networks †
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6601: An Efficient Topology Discovery Protocol With Node ID Assignment Based on Layered Model for Underwater Acoustic Networks † Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20226601 Authors: Ruiqin Zhao Yuan Liu Octavia A. Dobre Xiaohong Shen Haiyan Wang Underwater acoustic networks are widely used in survey missions and environmental monitoring. When an underwater acoustic network (UAN) is deployed in a marine region or two UANs merge, each node hardly knows the entire network and may not have a unique node ID. Therefore, a network topology discovery protocol that can complete node discovery, link...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruiqin Zhao Yuan Liu Octavia A. Dobre Xiaohong Shen Haiyan Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6596: Influence of Neighborhood Size and Cross-Correlation Peak-Fitting Method on Location Accuracy
;n Ferrer David Mas A known technique to obtain subpixel resolution by using object tracking through cross-correlation consists of interpolating the obtained correlation function and then refining peak location. Although the technique provides accurate results, peak location is usually biased toward the closest integer coordinate. This effect is known as the peak-locking error and it strongly limits this calculation technique’s experimental accuracy. This error may differ depending on the scene and algorithm used to fit and interpolate the correlation peak, but in general, it may be attributed to a samp...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mar ía-Baralida Tomás Bel én Ferrer David Mas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6602: Adaptive Quasi-Unsupervised Detection of Smoke Plume by LiDAR
Gaudio The early detection of fire is one of the possible applications of LiDAR techniques. The smoke generated by a fire is mainly compounded of CO2, H2O, particulate, and other combustion products, which involve the local variation of the scattering of the electromagnetic wave at specific wavelengths. The increases of the backscattering coefficient are transduced in peaks on the signal of the backscattering power recorded by the LiDAR system, located exactly where the smoke plume is, allowing not only the detection of a fire but also its localization. The signal processing of the LiDAR signals is critical in the de...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rossi Gelfusa Malizia Gaudio Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6591: Nanobiosensors for the Detection of Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV and Other Pandemic/Epidemic Respiratory Viruses: A Review
xandra Vidu The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is considered a public health emergency of international concern. The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused this pandemic has spread rapidly to over 200 countries, and has drastically affected public health and the economies of states at unprecedented levels. In this context, efforts around the world are focusing on solving this problem in several directions of research, by: (i) exploring the origin and evolution of the phylogeny of the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome; (ii) developing nanobiosen...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Badriyah Alhalaili Ileana Nicoleta Popescu Olfa Kamoun Feras Alzubi Sami Alawadhia Ruxandra Vidu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6604: A Novel MIMO-SAR System Based on Simultaneous Digital Beam Forming of Both Transceiver and Receiver
Li Wu Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) chirp waveform, which is composed of two or more successive identical linear frequency modulated sub pulses, is a newly proposed orthogonal waveform scheme for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. However, according to the waveform model, there will be range ambiguity if the mapping width exceeds the maximum unambiguous width determined by the transmitted signal. This greatly limits its application in high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS) remote sensing. The traditional system divides the echoes by digital beam forming (DBF) to ...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhao Chen Zhang Li Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6603: Method of Calculating Short-Wavelength-Ratio-Based Color Temperature Supporting the Measurement of Real-Time Natural Light Characteristics through RGB Sensor
n Lim The characteristics of natural light are mostly collected through specialized measuring equipment, such as a spectroradiometer, and some suggested measurement methods through a small RGB sensor. However, specialized measuring equipment presents difficulty in its high cost, and the RGB-sensor-based method has the limitation of being unable to measure the wavelength characteristics of natural light that are needed to implement lighting that supports circadian rhythms. This paper presents a method for calculating the short-wavelength-ratio-based color temperature of natural light in real time. First, an analysis of ...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seung-Taek Oh Geon-Woo Jeon Jae-Hyun Lim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6606: Kalman Filter-Based RAIM for Reliable Aircraft Positioning with GPS and NavIC Constellations
ute This paper presents a novel Kalman filter (KF)-based receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) algorithm for reliable aircraft positioning with global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The presented method overcomes major limitations of the authors’ previous work, and uses two GNSS, namely, Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) of India and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The algorithm is developed in the range domain and compared with two existing approaches—one each for the weighted least squares navigation filter and KF. Extensive simulations were carried out for ...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Susmita Bhattacharyya Dinesh Mute Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6605: Global Positioning System Analysis of Physical Demands in Small and Large-Sided Games with Floaters and Official Matches in the Process of Return to Play in High Level Soccer Players
Castillo José Luis Arjol The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to analyze the physical demands in the return to play (RTP) process of high-level soccer players in the role of floater in different soccer sided games (SGs) formats (i.e., 4vs4 + 2 and 8vs8 + 1); and (ii) to analyze the differences in physical demands encountered by regular and floater players among the SGs formats and official matches by means of global positioning system technology (GPS APEX pod, North Ireland) was used. Twenty-six highly trained, male soccer players (U16 years) participated in this investigation. Players were classified into ...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Demetrio Lozano Miguel Lampre Adri án Díez Oliver Gonzalo-Skok Diego Ja én-Carrillo Daniel Castillo Jos é Luis Arjol Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6607: A Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor for Tissue Stiffness Detection with Arbitrary Contact Angle
oyao Wang In this paper, a piezoelectric tactile sensor for detecting tissue stiffness in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) is proposed. It can detect the stiffness not only when the probe is normal to the tissue surface, but also when there is a contact angle between the probe and normal direction. It solves the problem that existing sensors can only detect in the normal direction to ensure accuracy when the degree of freedom (DOF) of surgical instruments is limited. The proposed senor can distinguish samples with different stiffness and recognize lump from normal tissue effectively when the contact ang...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yingxuan Zhang Feng Ju Xiaoyong Wei Dan Wang Yaoyao Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6609: Switching from Multiplex to Multimodal Colorimetric Lateral Flow Immunosensor
In this study, we demonstrated three strategies to upgrade standard multiplex LFIA to multimodal capacity. As a proof-of-concept, we applied the strategies to the differential diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, a widespread pathogen, for which conventional multiplex LFIA testing is well-established. In the new two-parameter LFIA (x2LFIA), we exploited color encoding, in which the binding of multiple targets occurs in one reactive band and the color of the probe reveals which one is present in the sample. By combining the sequential alignment of several reactive zones along the membrane of the LFIA s...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cavalera Di Nardo Forte Marinoni Chiarello Baggiani Anfossi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6610: Stray Current Protection and Monitoring Systems: Characteristic Quantities, Assessment of Performance and Verification
ti Electrified transportation systems (ETSs) are affected by stray current problems impacting within and outside the right of way on reinforcement, buried metal structures and foundations. Stray current protection systems have recently been integrated in the track structure. Track electrical quantities are, thus, usually measured to assess track insulation and protection efficiency but should be backed up by additional measurements at the affected structures and installations, in order to assess their exposure and risk of corrosion. Ideally, a stray current monitoring system proceeds from the measurement of these quant...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mariscotti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6608: The Influence and Compensation Method of Eccentricity for Cylindrical Specimens in Eddy Current Displacement Measurement
ntao Yu The eddy current displacement sensor (ECDS) is used to realize the precise detection of the rotor radial position in the magnetic suspension motor. The eccentricity between the probe axis and the measured surface normal reduces the measurement accuracy. An ECDS mathematical model is established to analyze the influence of the measured surface curvature and eccentricity on detection results. The eddy current density distribution law of the measured surface is obtained by using the finite element method (FEM). The experimental platform is set up based on the practical engineering structure, which contains two kin...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hao Zhan Li Wang Tingting Wang Juntao Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6612: Convolutional Autoencoder-Based Flaw Detection for Steel Wire Ropes
hua Gui Visual perception-based methods are a promising means of capturing the surface damage state of wire ropes and hence provide a potential way to monitor the condition of wire ropes. Previous methods mainly concentrated on the handcrafted feature-based flaw representation, and a classifier was constructed to realize fault recognition. However, appearances of outdoor wire ropes are seriously affected by noises like lubricating oil, dust, and light. In addition, in real applications, it is difficult to prepare a sufficient amount of flaw data to train a fault classifier. In the context of these issues, this study pr...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guoyong Zhang Zhaohui Tang Jin Zhang Weihua Gui Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6573: Multipath TCP-Based IoT Communication Evaluation: From the Perspective of Multipath Management with Machine Learning
i Yong Ma With the development of wireless networking technology, current Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices are equipped with multiple network access interfaces. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) technology can improve the throughput of data transmission. However, traditional MPTCP path management may cause problems such as data confusion and even buffer blockage, which severely reduces transmission performance. This research introduces machine learning algorithms into MPTCP path management, and proposes an automatic learning selection path mechanism based on MPTCP (ALPS-MPTCP), which can adaptively select some high-quality paths...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruiwen Ji Yuanlong Cao Xiaotian Fan Yirui Jiang Gang Lei Yong Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6574: Remote Pain Monitoring Using Fog Computing for e-Healthcare: An Efficient Architecture
ad Shafiq The integration of medical signal processing capabilities and advanced sensors into Internet of Things (IoT) devices plays a key role in providing comfort and convenience to human lives. As the number of patients is increasing gradually, providing healthcare facilities to each patient, particularly to the patients located in remote regions, not only has become challenging but also results in several issues, such as: (i) increase in workload on paramedics, (ii) wastage of time, and (iii) accommodation of patients. Therefore, the design of smart healthcare systems has become an important area of research to ove...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Syed Rizwan Hassan Ishtiaq Ahmad Shafiq Ahmad Abdullah Alfaify Muhammad Shafiq Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6575: Cultivar Discrimination of Single Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seed via Multispectral Imaging Combined with Multivariate Analysis
In this study, the potential of a new method was evaluated that used multispectral imaging combined with object-wise multivariate image analysis to distinguish alfalfa cultivars with a single seed. Three multivariate analysis methods including principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and support vector machines (SVM) were applied to distinguish seeds of 12 alfalfa cultivars based on their morphological and spectral traits. The results showed that the combination of morphological features and spectral data could provide an exceedingly concise process to classify alfalfa seeds of different cu...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lingjie Yang Zuxin Zhang Xiaowen Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6576: An Integrated Deep Learning Method towards Fault Diagnosis of Hydraulic Axial Piston Pump
peng Li A hydraulic axial piston pump is the essential component of a hydraulic transmission system and plays a key role in modern industry. Considering varying working conditions and the implicity of frequent faults, it is difficult to accurately monitor the machinery faults in the actual operating process by using current fault diagnosis methods. Hence, it is urgent and significant to investigate effective and precise fault diagnosis approaches for pumps. Owing to the advantages of intelligent fault diagnosis methods in big data processing, methods based on deep learning have accomplished admirable performance for fa...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shengnan Tang Shouqi Yuan Yong Zhu Guangpeng Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6577: Novel Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunochromatography Paper-Based Sensor with Signal Amplification Strategy for Detection of Deoxynivalenol
Sun Yemin Guo Immunoassay has the advantages of high sensitivity, high specificity, and simple operation, and has been widely used in the detection of mycotoxins. For several years, time-resolved fluorescence immunochromatography (TRFIA) paper-based sensors have attracted much attention as a simple and low-cost field detection technology. However, a traditional TRFIA paper-based sensor is based on antibody labeling, which cannot easily meet the current detection requirements. A second antibody labeling method was used to amplify the fluorescence signal and improve the detection sensitivity. Polystyrene fluorescent mi...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haowei Dong Xingshuang An Yaodong Xiang Fukai Guan Qi Zhang Qingqing Yang Xia Sun Yemin Guo Tags: Letter Source Type: research