Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6522: Path-Tracking of a WMR Fed by Inverter-DC/DC Buck Power Electronic Converter Systems
agdalena Marciano-Melchor This paper is concerned with path-tracking control of a wheeled mobile robot. This robot is equipped with two permanent magnet brushed DC-motors which are fed by two inverter-DC/DC Buck power converter systems as power amplifiers. By taking into account the dynamics of all the subsystems we present, for the first time, a formal stability proof for this control problem. Our control scheme is simple, in the sense that it is composed by four internal classical proportional-integral loops and one external classical proportional-derivative loop for path-tracking purposes. This is the third paper of...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Victor Manuel Hern ández-Guzmán Ram ón Silva-Ortigoza Salvador Tavera-Mosqueda Mariana Marcelino-Aranda Magdalena Marciano-Melchor Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6523: Study on the Vibration Characteristics of the Telescope T80 in the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory (JAO) Aimed at Detecting Invalid Images
o Pedro Ramos Lorente The location of large telescopes, generally far from the data processing centers, represents a logistical problem for the supervision of the capture of images. In this work, we carried out a preliminary study of the vibration signature of the T80 telescope at the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory (JAO). The study analyzed the process of calculating the displacement that occurs because of the vibration in each of the frequencies in the range of interest. We analyzed the problems associated with very low frequencies by means of simulation, finding the most critical vibrations below 20 Hz, since...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fernando Arranz Mart ínez Ra úl Martín Ferrer Guillermo Palacios-Navarro Pedro Ramos Lorente Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6524: A Submillimeter Level Relative Navigation Technology for Spacecraft Formation Flying in Highly Elliptical Orbit
Dengfeng Wang Spacecraft formation flying (SFF) in highly elliptical orbit (HEO) has attracted much attention since many applications in space explore, while precise guidance navigation and control (GNC) technology, especially precise ranging, conducted the basis of success for such SFF missions. In this paper, we introduced a novel K band microwave ranging (MWR) equipment that aimed for the on-orbit verification of submillimeter level precise ranging technology in future HEO SFF missions. The ranging technique is a synchronous dual one-way ranging (DOWR) microwave phase accumulation system, which achieved tens of mi...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaoliang Wang Deren Gong Yifei Jiang Qiankun Mo Zeyu Kang Qiang Shen Shufan Wu Dengfeng Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6525: Probabilistic Load Forecasting for Building Energy Models
te;ndez Bandera In the current energy context of intelligent buildings and smart grids, the use of load forecasting to predict future building energy performance is becoming increasingly relevant. The prediction accuracy is directly influenced by input uncertainties such as the weather forecast, and its impact must be considered. Traditional load forecasting provides a single expected value for the predicted load and cannot properly incorporate the effect of these uncertainties. This research presents a methodology that calculates the probabilistic load forecast while accounting for the inherent uncertainty in forecast...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Eva Lucas Segarra Germ án Ramos Ruiz Carlos Fern ández Bandera Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6526: Deep-Asymmetry: Asymmetry Matrix Image for Deep Learning Method in Pre-Screening Depression
This study proposes a deep-asymmetry methodology that converts the EEG’s asymmetry feature into a matrix image and uses it as input to a convolutional neural network. The asymmetry matrix image in the alpha band achieved 98.85% accuracy and outperformed most of the methods presented in previous studies. This study indicates that the proposed method can be an effective tool for pre-screening major depressive disorder patients. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Min Kang Hyunjin Kwon Jin-Hyeok Park Seokhwan Kang Youngho Lee Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6527: Ka Band Holographic Imaging System Based on Linear Frequency Modulation Radar
We present a new planar system at Ka band for the three-dimensional simultaneous imaging of both sides of an inspected person where the images are produced in real time by a recently proposed generalized holographic reconstruction algorithm. Low-cost linear frequency modulation (LFM) radar technology is used along with a simple but efficient method for system calibration. Experimental characterization of the spatial resolution and the sensitivity of the system prototype has been carried out. It is established that the achieved spatial resolution is 6 mm or better if the item is not obscured by clothing and it may deteriora...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Meng Lin Zang Qing Nikolova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6530: AF-SSD: An Accurate and Fast Single Shot Detector for High Spatial Remote Sensing Imagery
eng Yin There are a large number of studies on geospatial object detection. However, many existing methods only focus on either accuracy or speed. Methods with both fast speed and high accuracy are of great importance in some scenes, like search and rescue, and military information acquisition. In remote sensing images, there are some targets that are small and have few textures and low contrast compared with the background, which impose challenges on object detection. In this paper, we propose an accurate and fast single shot detector (AF-SSD) for high spatial remote sensing imagery to solve these problems. Firstly, w...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruihong Yin Wei Zhao Xudong Fan Yongfeng Yin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6528: A High-Voltage and Low-Noise Power Amplifier for Driving Piezoelectric Stack Actuators
Li Ge In this paper, based on the principles of general operational amplifiers, a high-voltage operational amplifier is developed. Considering the influences of piezoelectric stack actuators on the circuit, a novel structure using the high-voltage operational amplifier as a noninverting amplifier is proposed. Because of the simple circuit principles and the voltage feedback control structure, the proposed power amplifier has the advantages of low noise and small size, and it can be realized by discrete electric elements easily. In the application of precision positioning, a power amplifier using the proposed circuit...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xu Li Li Ge Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6529: State-Transition Modeling of Human –Robot Interaction for Easy Crowdsourced Robot Control
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6529: State-Transition Modeling of Human–Robot Interaction for Easy Crowdsourced Robot Control Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20226529 Authors: Iwasaki Ikeda Kawamura Nakanishi Robotic salespeople are often ignored by people due to their weak social presence, and thus have difficulty facilitating sales autonomously. However, for robots that are remotely controlled by humans, there is a need for experienced and trained operators. In this paper, we suggest crowdsourcing to allow general users on the internet to operate a robot remotely and facilitate customers’ purchasing ...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Iwasaki Ikeda Kawamura Nakanishi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6531: In Situ Shear Test for Revealing the Mechanical Properties of the Gravelly Slip Zone Soil
In this study, the shear mechanical property of the gravelly slip zone soil of Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China was investigated by the in situ shear test. The test results show that the shear deformation process of the gravelly slip zone soil includes an elastic deformation stage, elastic–plastic deformation stage, and plastic deformation stage. Four functions were introduced to express the shear constitutive model of the gravelly slip zone soil, and the asymmetric sigmoid function was demonstrated to be the optimum one to describe the relationship of the shear stress and shear...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zongxing Zou Qi Zhang Chengren Xiong Huiming Tang Lei Fan Fang Xie Junbiao Yan Yinfeng Luo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6532: The Perception System of Intelligent Ground Vehicles in All Weather Conditions: A Systematic Literature Review
adjet Zioui Perception is a vital part of driving. Every year, the loss in visibility due to snow, fog, and rain causes serious accidents worldwide. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the impact of weather conditions on perception performance while driving on highways and urban traffic in all weather conditions. The goal of this paper is to provide a survey of sensing technologies used to detect the surrounding environment and obstacles during driving maneuvers in different weather conditions. Firstly, some important historical milestones are presented. Secondly, the state-of-the-art automated driving applicatio...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdul Sajeed Mohammed Ali Amamou Follivi Kloutse Ayevide Sousso Kelouwani Kodjo Agbossou Nadjet Zioui Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6533: Bicycling Phase Recognition for Lower Limb Amputees Using Support Vector Machine Optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization
Zhang A novel method for recognizing the phases in bicycling of lower limb amputees using support vector machine (SVM) optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed in this paper. The method is essential for enhanced prosthetic knee joint control for lower limb amputees in carrying out bicycling activity. Some wireless wearable accelerometers and a knee joint angle sensor are installed in the prosthesis to obtain data on the knee joint and ankle joint horizontal, vertical acceleration signal and knee joint angle. In order to overcome the problem of high noise content in the collected data, a soft-hard t...
Source: Sensors - November 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Liu Gao Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6505: Vital Sign Monitoring Using FMCW Radar in Various Sleeping Scenarios
This study evaluates the performance of a cost-effective frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar in remote monitoring of heart rate and respiration in scenarios resembling a set of normal and abnormal physiological conditions during sleep. We evaluate the vital signs of ten subjects in different lying positions during various tasks. Specifically, we aim for a broad range of both heart and respiration rates to replicate various real-life scenarios and to test the robustness of the selected vital sign extraction methods consisting of fast Fourier transform based cepstral and autocorrelation analyses. As compared to ...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Emmi Turppa Juha M. Kortelainen Oleg Antropov Tero Kiuru Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6506: Vehicular Localization Enhancement via Consensus
n Lee This paper presents a strategy to cooperatively enhance the vehicular localization in vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networks by exchanges and updates of local data in a consensus-based manner. Where each vehicle in the network can obtain its location estimate despite its possible inaccuracy, the proposed strategy takes advantage of the abundance of the local estimates to improve the overall accuracy. During the execution of the strategy, vehicles exchange each other’s inter-vehicular relationship pertaining to measured distances and angles in order to update their own estimates. The iteration of the u...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hong Ki Kim Minji Kim Sang Hyun Lee Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6507: Optimal Frontier-Based Autonomous Exploration in Unconstructed Environment Using RGB-D Sensor
ampoy Aerial robots are widely used in search and rescue applications because of their small size and high maneuvering. However, designing an autonomous exploration algorithm is still a challenging and open task, because of the limited payload and computing resources on board UAVs. This paper presents an autonomous exploration algorithm for the aerial robots that shows several improvements for being used in the search and rescue tasks. First of all, an RGB-D sensor is used to receive information from the environment and the OctoMap divides the environment into obstacles, free and unknown spaces. Then, a clustering algo...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Liang Lu Carlos Redondo Pascual Campoy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6508: Tracking Quantitative Characteristics of Cutting Maneuvers with Wearable Movement Sensors during Competitive Women ’s Ultimate Frisbee Games
This study investigated the in-game cutting maneuvers performed by female ultimate frisbee athletes to understand the movements that could put them at risk of ACL injury. (2) Lower-body kinematics and movement around the field were reconstructed from wearable lower-body inertial sensors worn by 12 female players during 16 league-sanctioned ultimate frisbee games. (3) 422 cuts were identified from speed and direction change criteria. The mean cut had approach speed of 3.4 m/s, approach acceleration of 3.1 m/s2, cut angle of 94 degrees, and ground-contact knee flexion of 34 degrees. Shallow cuts from 30 to 90 degrees were mo...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Paul R. Slaughter Peter G. Adamczyk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6510: An Investigation of the Accuracy of EC5 and 5TE Capacitance Sensors for Soil Moisture Monitoring in Urban Soils-Laboratory and Field Calibration
In this study, two capacitance sensors EC5 and 5TE (METER Group) were utilized. These sensors provide many benefits relative to other sensors in that they are cost-effective and very economical regarding energy use, operate at a high measurement frequency of 70 MHz, and are dedicated to measuring at a small volume because of their small size. This makes them suitable for the context of use in this research, which consists of multiple sustainable drainage systems SuDS. Several studies have evaluated these two types of sensor but not for urban soils with specific characteristics. In addition, results from the literature are ...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tala Kanso Marie-Christine Gromaire David Ramier Philippe Dubois Ghassan Chebbo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6511: Sensitivity Analysis of Acoustic Emission Detection Using Fiber Bragg Gratings with Different Optical Fiber Diameters
Wasmer Acoustic Emission (AE) detection and, in particular, ultrasound detection are excellent tools for structural health monitoring or medical diagnosis. Despite the technological maturity of the well-received piezoelectric transducer, optical fiber AE detection sensors are attracting increasing attention due to their small size, and electromagnetic and chemical immunity as well as the broad frequency response of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in these fibers. Due to the merits of their small size, FBGs were inscribed in optical fibers with diameters of 50 and 80 μm in this work. The manufactured FBGs ...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Georgios Violakis Tri Le-Quang Sergey A. Shevchik Kilian Wasmer Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6509: An Objective Methodology for the Selection of a Device for Continuous Mobility Assessment
This study proposes a bespoke methodology focused on defining a decision matrix to allow for effective decision making. A weighting system based on responses (n = 69) from a purpose-built questionnaire circulated within the IMI Mobilise-D consortium and its external collaborators was established, accounting for respondents’ background and level of expertise in using wearables in clinical practice. Four domains (concurrent validity, CV; human factors, HF; wearability and usability, WU; and data capture process, CP), associated evaluation criteria, and scores were established through literature research and group discu...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tecla Bonci Alison Keogh Silvia Del Din Kirsty Scott Claudia Mazz à on behalf of the Mobilise-D consortium Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6512: An Automated System for Classification of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Pneumonia Patients Using Lung Sound Analysis
hry Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia are two of the few fatal lung diseases which share common adventitious lung sounds. Diagnosing the disease from lung sound analysis to design a noninvasive technique for telemedicine is a challenging task. A novel framework is presented to perform a diagnosis of COPD and Pneumonia via application of the signal processing and machine learning approach. This model will help the pulmonologist to accurately detect disease A and B. COPD, normal and pneumonia lung sound (LS) data from the ICBHI respiratory database is used in this research. The performance analys...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Syed Zohaib Hassan Naqvi Mohammad Ahmad Choudhry Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6513: Optimization of Time Synchronization and Algorithms with TDOA Based Indoor Positioning Technique for Internet of Things
abie Kharel To provide high-precision positioning for Internet of Things (IoT) scenarios, we optimize the indoor positioning technique based on Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) equipment. This paper analyzes sources of positioning error and improves the time synchronization algorithm based on the synchronization packet. Then we use the labels of the known position to further optimize the time synchronization performance, and hence improve TDOA measurements. After time synchronization optimization, a Weighted Least Square (WLS) and Taylor coordination algorithm is derived. Experiments show that ...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhao Zhao Zheng Yu Ma Rabie Kharel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6514: A Global Interconnected Observer for Attitude and Gyro Bias Estimation with Vector Measurements
Zhou This paper proposes a novel interconnected observer to get good estimates of attitude and gyro bias from high-noise vector measurements. The observer is derived based on the theory of nonlinear and linear cascade systems, and its error dynamics have the properties of global exponential stability and robustness to bounded noise. These properties ensure the convergence and boundedness of the attitude and gyro bias estimation errors. To obtain higher estimation accuracy, an approach to calculate time-varying gains for the proposed auxiliary observer is designed under the premise of considering noise terms in the ...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo Liu Hu Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6515: Traffic Intersection Re-Identification Using Monocular Camera Sensors
Lu Wei Tian Perception of road structures especially the traffic intersections by visual sensors is an essential task for automated driving. However, compared with intersection detection or visual place recognition, intersection re-identification (intersection re-ID) strongly affects driving behavior decisions with given routes, yet has long been neglected by researchers. This paper strives to explore intersection re-ID by a monocular camera sensor. We propose a Hybrid Double-Level re-identification approach which exploits two branches of Deep Convolutional Neural Network to accomplish multi-task including classifica...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lu Xiong Zhenwen Deng Yuyao Huang Weixin Du Xiaolong Zhao Chengyu Lu Wei Tian Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6517: Vehicle Spatial Distribution and 3D Trajectory Extraction Algorithm in a Cross-Camera Traffic Scene
Yang The three-dimensional trajectory data of vehicles have important practical meaning for traffic behavior analysis. To solve the problems of narrow visual angle in single-camera scenes and lack of continuous trajectories in 3D space by current cross-camera trajectory extraction methods, we propose an algorithm of vehicle spatial distribution and 3D trajectory extraction in this paper. First, a panoramic image of a road with spatial information is generated based on camera calibration, which is used to convert cross-camera perspectives into 3D physical space. Then, we choose YOLOv4 to obtain 2D bounding boxes of ...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tang Song Wang Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6516: Study of the Vertical Structure of the Coastal Boundary Layer Integrating Surface Measurements and Ground-Based Remote Sensing
mpreviva The understanding of the atmospheric processes in coastal areas requires the availability of quality datasets describing the vertical and horizontal spatial structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) on either side of the coastline. High-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models can provide this information and the main ingredients for good simulations are: an accurate description of the coastline and a correct subgrid process parametrization permitting coastline discontinuities to be caught. To provide an as comprehensive as possible dataset on Mediterranean coastal area, an intensive exper...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lo Feudo Calidonna Avolio Sempreviva Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6518: Research on the eLoran Differential Timing Method
In this study, an application of eLoran differential timing technology in a terrestrial medium is carried out. Based on the eLoran timing service error, the correlation of the timing service error is analyzed in theory quantitatively to obtain the range of the difference station in the ground. The results show that to satisfy the timing accuracy of 100 ns, the action range of eLoran difference station on the land needs to be less than 55 km. Therefore, the eLoran differential method is proposed, and in the difference station, the theoretical calculation is combined with the measurement of the signal delay to obtain the dif...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Hua Yan Guo Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6519: Deep Q-Network-Based Cooperative Transmission Joint Strategy Optimization Algorithm for Energy Harvesting-Powered Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
in Li Cooperative transmission is a promising technology for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) to ensure the effective collection of underwater information. In this paper, we study the joint relay selection and power allocation problem to maximize the cumulative quality of information transmission in energy harvesting-powered UASNs (EH-UASNs). First, we formulate the process of cooperative transmission with joint strategy optimization as a Markov decision process model. In the proposed model, an effective state expression is presented to better reveal interactive relationship between learning and environment,...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Song Han Luo Li Xinbin Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6520: An Automated Planning Model for HRI: Use Cases on Social Assistive Robotics
;Fernando González Fernández Using Automated Planning for the high level control of robotic architectures is becoming very popular thanks mainly to its capability to define the tasks to perform in a declarative way. However, classical planning tasks, even in its basic standard Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) format, are still very hard to formalize for non expert engineers when the use case to model is complex. Human Robot Interaction (HRI) is one of those complex environments. This manuscript describes the rationale followed to design a planning model able to control social autonomous robot...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Raquel Fuentetaja Angel Garc ía-Olaya Javier Garc ía Jos é Carlos González and Fernando González Fern ández Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6521: Soil Salinity Inversion of Winter Wheat Areas Based on Satellite-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Ground Collaborative System in Coastal of the Yellow River Delta
This study integrates the advantages of multi-scale data and proposes an effective “Satellite-UAV-Ground” collaborative inversion method for soil salinity, so as to obtain more accurate soil information, and provide more effective technical support for agricultural production. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guanghui Qi Gengxing Zhao Xue Xi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6500: A Novel Ultra-Low Loss Rectangle-Based Porous-Core PCF for Efficient THz Waveguidance: Design and Numerical Analysis
Mahmud A novel, rectangle-based, porous-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been modeled for the efficient propagation of a THz wave. The performance of the anticipated model has been assessed using the finite element method (FEM) in the range of 0.5–1.5 THz. Both the fiber core and cladding are modeled with rectangular air holes. Numerical analysis for this model reveals that the model has a lower amount of dispersion of about 0.3251 ps/THz/cm at 1.3 THz. Compared to the other THz waveguides, the model offers an ultra-lower effective material loss of 0.0039 cm−1 at the same frequency. Th...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdullah Al-Mamun Bulbul Farjana Imam Md. Abdul Awal M. A. Parvez Mahmud Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6501: Growth Analysis of Wheat Using Machine Vision: Opportunities and Challenges
sen Mohammadi Crop growth analysis is used for the assessment of crop yield potential and stress tolerance. Capturing continuous plant growth has been a goal since the early 20th century; however, this requires a large number of replicates and multiple destructive measurements. The use of machine vision techniques holds promise as a fast, reliable, and non-destructive method to analyze crop growth based on surrogates for plant traits and growth parameters. We used machine vision to infer plant size along with destructive measurements at multiple time points to analyze growth parameters of spring wheat genotypes. We mea...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mohammad Ajlouni Audrey Kruse Jorge A. Condori-Apfata Maria Valderrama Valencia Chris Hoagland Yang Yang Mohsen Mohammadi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6502: Optimization and Analytical Behavior of Electrochemical Sensors Based on the Modification of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Using PANI/MWCNTs/AuNPs for Mercury Detection
di Arshad In the present study, indium tin oxide (ITO) was used as a transparent working electrode for the development of an electrochemical sensor for the detection of mercury (II) ions (Hg2+). The electrode was modified by direct electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANI), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) followed by optimization of the analyte and operating conditions, aiming to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and reliability of the electrode for mercury detection. Successful immobilization of the PANI and nanomaterials (MWCNTs and AuNPs) on the ITO electrode was confirmed by Sc...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Noor Aini Bohari Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee Suryani Saallah Mailin Misson Sazmal Effendi Arshad Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6503: IoT Adaptive Dynamic Blockchain Networking Method Based on Discrete Heartbeat Signals
Rui Guo The combination of blockchain technology and Internet of Things (IoT) technology has brought many significant advantages and new development directions. With the development of embedded technology and 5G communication technology, the performance limitations and network limitations that are traditionally believed to restrict the application of blockchain technology to IoT devices have been broken. The development of “blockchain + 5G + IoT” provides reliable data from the source for the blockchain, linking the credible mapping of physical assets and digital assets. However, at the begi...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xueyang Hu Yili Zheng Yu Su Rui Guo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6504: Experimental Study of a Signal Modulation Method to Improve eLORAN Data Channel Communications
nhe Yan There are mainly two types of data modulation methods used for enhanced LOng-RAnge Navigation (eLORAN) systems: pulse position modulation (PPM) and supernumerary interpulse modulation (SIM). The typical application for PPM is tri-state PPM (3S-PPM), also known as Eurofix. The typical application for SIM is ninth pulse modulation. Both of these methods are phase modulation methods. Phase modulation coding, a very mature technology, is used at present. To achieve a better demodulation success rate of eLORAN digital modulation signals at longer distances, a method of using the transmitting station duplex mode to t...
Source: Sensors - November 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chaozhong Yang Yulin Wang Shifeng Li Wenhe Yan Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6479: Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Using Machine Learning: Training and Testing on Real-World Falls
Chiari Falling is a significant health problem. Fall detection, to alert for medical attention, has been gaining increasing attention. Still, most of the existing studies use falls simulated in a laboratory environment to test the obtained performance. We analyzed the acceleration signals recorded by an inertial sensor on the lower back during 143 real-world falls (the most extensive collection to date) from the FARSEEING repository. Such data were obtained from continuous real-world monitoring of subjects with a moderate-to-high risk of falling. We designed and tested fall detection algorithms using features inspired...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Luca Palmerini Jochen Klenk Clemens Becker Lorenzo Chiari Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6480: Estimating Position from Millisecond Samples of GPS Signals (the “FastFix” Algorithm)
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6480: Estimating Position from Millisecond Samples of GPS Signals (the “FastFix” Algorithm) Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20226480 Authors: Timothy C. A. Molteno A new approach to GPS positioning is described in which the post-processing of ultra-short sequences of captured GPS signal data can produce an estimate of receiver location. The algorithm, called ‘FastFix’, needs only 2–4 ms of stored L1-band data sampled at ∼16 MHz. The algorithm uses a least-squares optimization to estimate receiver position and GPS time from measurements ...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Timothy C. A. Molteno Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6482: Mechanical Power in Endurance Running: A Scoping Review on Sensors for Power Output Estimation during Running
Felipe García-Pinillos Mechanical power may act as a key indicator for physiological and mechanical changes during running. In this scoping review, we examine the current evidences about the use of power output (PW) during endurance running and the different commercially available wearable sensors to assess PW. The Boolean phrases endurance OR submaximal NOT sprint AND running OR runner AND power OR power meter, were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS. Nineteen studies were finally selected for analysis. The current evidence about critical power and both power-time and power-duration relationships in runnin...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Diego Ja én-Carrillo Luis E. Roche-Seruendo Antonio Cart ón-Llorente Rodrigo Ram írez-Campillo Felipe Garc ía-Pinillos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6483: Integration of a Social Robot in a Pedagogical and Logopedic Intervention with Children: A Case Study
e;n-López Paloma-Julia Velasco-Quintana The effectiveness of social robots such as NAO in pedagogical therapies presents a challenge. There is abundant literature focused on therapies using robots with children with autism, but there is a gap to be filled in other educational different needs. This paper describes an experience of using a NAO as an assistant in a logopedic and pedagogical therapy with children with different needs. Even if the initial robot architecture is based on genericbehaviors, the loading and execution time for each specific requirement and the needs of each child in therapy, made it nece...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ver ónica Egido-García David Est évez Ana Corrales-Paredes Mar ía-José Terrón-López Paloma-Julia Velasco-Quintana Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6484: Personalization of the MES System to the Needs of Highly Variable Production
ewski The new generation Manufacturing Executions System (MES) is considered as one of the most important solutions supporting the idea of Industry 4.0. This is confirmed by research conducted among companies interested in the implementation of the Industry 4.0 concept, as well as the publications of researchers who study this issue. However, if MES software is a link that connects the world of machines and business systems, it must take into account the specifics of the supported production systems. This is especially true in case of production systems with a high level of automation, which are characterised by flexib...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bo żena Zwolińska Agnieszka Anna Tubis Norbert Chamier-Gliszczy ński Mariusz Kostrzewski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6481: Classification and Detection of Breathing Patterns with Wearable Sensors and Deep Learning
afwan Wshah Rapid assessment of breathing patterns is important for several emergency medical situations. In this research, we developed a non-invasive breathing analysis system that automatically detects different types of breathing patterns of clinical significance. Accelerometer and gyroscopic data were collected from light-weight wireless sensors placed on the chest and abdomen of 100 normal volunteers who simulated various breathing events (central sleep apnea, coughing, obstructive sleep apnea, sighing, and yawning). We then constructed synthetic datasets by injecting annotated examples of the various patterns in...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kristin McClure Brett Erdreich Jason H. T. Bates Ryan S. McGinnis Axel Masquelin Safwan Wshah Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6485: Vehicle Detection in Overhead Satellite Images Using a One-Stage Object Detection Model
Dobre In order to improve the traffic in large cities and to avoid congestion, advanced methods of detecting and predicting vehicle behaviour are needed. Such methods require complex information regarding the number of vehicles on the roads, their positions, directions, etc. One way to obtain this information is by analyzing overhead images collected by satellites or drones, and extracting information from them through intelligent machine learning models. Thus, in this paper we propose and present a one-stage object detection model for finding vehicles in satellite images using the RetinaNet architecture and the Cars O...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Delia-Georgiana Stuparu Radu-Ioan Ciobanu Ciprian Dobre Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6486: A Benchmark of Data Stream Classification for Human Activity Recognition on Connected Objects
ard This paper evaluates data stream classifiers from the perspective of connected devices, focusing on the use case of Human Activity Recognition. We measure both the classification performance and resource consumption (runtime, memory, and power) of five usual stream classification algorithms, implemented in a consistent library, and applied to two real human activity datasets and three synthetic datasets. Regarding classification performance, the results show the overall superiority of the Hoeffding Tree, the Mondrian forest, and the Naïve Bayes classifiers over the Feedforward Neural Network and the Mi...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martin Khannouz Tristan Glatard Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6488: Analysis of Postural Control in Sitting by Pressure Mapping in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, Spinal Cord Injury and Friedreich ’s Ataxia: A Case Series Study
This study was carried out to determine the evaluations in pressure mapping and verifying whether they are different between the three sample groups (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and Friedreich’s ataxia), and to determine whether the variables extracted from the pressure mapping analysis are more sensitive than functional tests to evaluate the postural trunk control. A case series study was carried out in a sample of 10 adult patients with multiple sclerosis (n = 2), spinal cord injury (n = 4) and Friedreich’s ataxia (n = 4). The tests applied were: pressure mapping, seated Lateral Rea...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mar ía Mercedes Reguera-García Raquel Leir ós-Rodríguez Lorena Álvarez-Barrio Beatriz Alonso-Cort és Fradejas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6487: Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Target Tracking with Time-Varying Localization Uncertainty via Recursive Variational Bayesian Inference
anyu Ji Cooperative target tracking by multiple vehicles connected through inter-vehicle communication is a promising way to improve the estimation of target state. The effectiveness of cooperative tracking closely depends on the accuracy of relative localization between host and cooperative vehicles. However, the localization signal usually provided by the satellite-based navigation system is rather susceptible to dynamic driving environment, thus influencing the effectiveness of cooperative tracking. In order to implement reliable cooperative tracking, especially when the statistical characteristic of the relative lo...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaobo Chen Yanjun Wang Ling Chen Jianyu Ji Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6489: A Spatial-Frequency Domain Associated Image-Optimization Method for Illumination-Robust Image Matching
uhang Zhang Image matching forms an essential means of data association for computer vision, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The quality of image matching is heavily dependent on image details and naturalness. However, complex illuminations, denoting extreme and changing illuminations, are inevitable in real scenarios, and seriously deteriorate image matching performance due to their significant influence on the image naturalness and details. In this paper, a spatial-frequency domain associated image-optimization method, comprising two main models, is specially designed for improving image matching with complex illu...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chun Liu Shoujun Jia Hangbin Wu Doudou Zeng Fanjin Cheng Shuhang Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6490: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Millimetric-Scale Temperature Monitoring of Cardiac Tissue Undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation: A Feasibility Assessment
This study lays the foundations for the implementation of 3D thermal maps to investigate how the supplied power, treatment time, force of contact and irrigation flow of the catheter influence the thermal effects within the tissue. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martina Zaltieri Greta Allegretti Carlo Massaroni Emiliano Schena Filippo Maria Cauti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6492: HDDM Hardware Evaluation for Robust Interference Mitigation
ijo Felber Interference can significantly degrade the performance of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Therefore, mitigation methods are required to ensure reliable operations. However, as there are different types of interference, robust, multi-purpose mitigation algorithms are needed. This paper describes the most popular state-of-the-art interference mitigation techniques. The high-rate DFT-based data manipulator (HDDM) is proposed as a possible solution to overcome their limitations. This paper presents a hardware implementation of the HDDM algorithm. The hardware HDDM module is integrated in ...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Garzia van der Merwe R ügamer Urquijo Felber Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6491: A Novel Method for Sea-Land Clutter Separation Using Regularized Randomized and Kernel Ridge Neural Networks
uwen Xu Classification of clutter, especially in the context of shore based radars, plays a crucial role in several applications. However, the task of distinguishing and classifying the sea clutter from land clutter has been historically performed using clutter models and/or coastal maps. In this paper, we propose two machine learning, particularly neural network, based approaches for sea-land clutter separation, namely the regularized randomized neural network (RRNN) and the kernel ridge regression neural network (KRR). We use a number of features, such as energy variation, discrete signal amplitude change frequency, ...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Le Zhang Jeyan Thiyagalingam Anke Xue Shuwen Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6494: Study on the Moving Target Tracking Based on Vision DSP
ukun Wu The embedded visual tracking system has higher requirements for real-time performance and system resources, and this is a challenge for visual tracking systems with available hardware resources. The major focus of this study is evaluating the results of hardware optimization methods. These optimization techniques provide efficient utilization based on limited hardware resources. This paper also uses a pragmatic approach to investigate the real-time performance effect by implementing and optimizing a kernel correlation filter (KCF) tracking algorithm based on a vision digital signal processor (vision DSP). We ex...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuan Gong Zichun Le Hui Wang Yukun Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6495: A Survey for the Ranking of Trajectory Prediction Algorithms on Ubiquitous Wireless Sensors
This study can be beneficial for multicriteria decision-making for various disciplines, including health care. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Daud Kamal Ali Tahir Muhammad Babar Kamal Faisal Moeen M. Asif Naeem Tags: Article Source Type: research