Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4187: A Sensitive Carbon Dioxide Sensor Based on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with a Fixed Wavelength Quantum Cascade Laser
Frank K. Tittel A photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) based carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor with a fixed wavelength quantum cascade laser (FW-QCL) was demonstrated. The emission wavelength of the FW-QCL at 4.42 μm in the mid-infrared spectral region matched a fundamental CO2 absorption line. Amplitude modulation of the laser intensity was used to match the resonant photoacoustic (PA) cell. The noise from the background was reduced with the correlation demodulation technique. The experimental results showed that the sensor had excellent signal stability and a concentration linear response. When the integration tim...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shunda Qiao Yanchen Qu Yufei Ma Ying He Yao Wang Yinqiu Hu Xin Yu Zhonghua Zhang Frank K. Tittel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4188: Deep Learning on Point Clouds and Its Application: A Survey
Peng Wang Point cloud is a widely used 3D data form, which can be produced by depth sensors, such as Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and RGB-D cameras. Being unordered and irregular, many researchers focused on the feature engineering of the point cloud. Being able to learn complex hierarchical structures, deep learning has achieved great success with images from cameras. Recently, many researchers have adapted it into the applications of the point cloud. In this paper, the recent existing point cloud feature learning methods are classified as point-based and tree-based. The former directly takes the raw point clou...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Weiping Liu Jia Sun Wanyi Li Ting Hu Peng Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4181: Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor for Small Targets via Displacement of Groove Bound Curcumin Molecules
In this study, we report the use of curcumin as a fluorescent probe to signal aptamer/small target binding events. A substantial enhancement in curcumin’s fluorescent emission was observed when bound into the grooves of vitamin D3 (VTD3) binding aptamer, as an example. However, the introduction of the target molecule causes the aptamer to undergo a conformational change that favors complexing the target molecule over binding the curcumin dye. The sensor was able to detect VTD3 down to 1 fM concentration in buffer solutions and extracted blood samples, operate at a wide dynamic range, and discriminate against ...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Baraa J. Alyamani Omar A. Alsager Mohammed Zourob Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4185: Fast 3D Surface Measurement with Wrapped Phase and Pseudorandom Image
u Liu Balancing the accuracy and speed of three-dimensional (3D) surface measurement of objects is crucial in many important applications. In this paper, we present a wrapped phase and pseudorandom image method and develop an experimental system aiming to avoid the process of phase unwrapping. Our approach can reduce the length of image sequences and improve the speed of pattern projection and image acquisition and can be used as a good candidate for high-speed 3D measurement. The most critical step in our new methodology is using the wrapped phase and the epipolar constraint between one camera and a projector, whic...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Liu He Hu Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4184: Realtime Tracking of Passengers on the London Underground Transport by Matching Smartphone Accelerometer Footprints
s Watkins Passengers travelling on the London underground tubes currently have no means of knowing their whereabouts between stations. The challenge for providing such service is that the London underground tunnels have no GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or any kind of terrestrial signals to leverage. This paper presents a novel yet practical idea to track passengers in realtime using the smartphone accelerometer and a training database of the entire London underground network. Our rationales are that London tubes are self-driving transports with predictable accelerations, decelerations, and travelling time and that they always...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khuong An Nguyen You Wang Guang Li Zhiyuan Luo Chris Watkins Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4183: Technologies for Monitoring Lifestyle Habits Related to Brain Health: A Systematic Review
z Bartrés-Faz Pascual-Leone Gómez Brain health refers to the preservation of brain integrity and function optimized for an individual’s biological age. Several studies have demonstrated that our lifestyles habits impact our brain health and our cognitive and mental wellbeing. Monitoring such lifestyles is thus critical and mobile technologies are essential to enable such a goal. Three databases were selected to carry out the search. Then, a PRISMA and PICOTS based criteria for a more detailed review on the basis of monitoring lifestyle aspects were used to filter the publications. ...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Moreno-Blanco Solana-S ánchez S ánchez-González Oropesa C áceres Cattaneo Tormos-Mu ñoz Bartr és-Faz Pascual-Leone G ómez Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4182: The Influence of Temperature and Community Structure on Light Absorption by Phytoplankton in the North Atlantic
We present a model that estimates the spectral phytoplankton absorption coefficient ( a p h ( λ ) ) of four phytoplankton groups (picophytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, dinoflagellates, and diatoms) as a function of the total chlorophyll-a concentration (C) and sea surface temperature (SST). Concurrent data on a p h ( λ ) (at 12 visible wavelengths), C and SST, from the surface layer (<20 m depth) of the North Atlantic Ocean, were partitioned into training and independent validation data, the validation data being matched with satellite ocean-colour observations. Model parameters...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Robert J.W. Brewin Stefano Ciavatta Shubha Sathyendranath Jozef Sk ákala Jorn Bruggeman David Ford Trevor Platt Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4180: The Role of Perceived Control in the Psychophysiological Responses to Disgust of Subclinical OCD Women
In conclusion, our results support a heart rate deceleration during exposure to a disgusting stimulus dissociated from the subjective experience. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Serrano Rosell-Clari Garc ía-Soriano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4186: Monitoring a Heatsink Temperature Field Using Raman-Based Distributed Temperature Sensor in a Vacuum and −173 °C Environment
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4186: Monitoring a Heatsink Temperature Field Using Raman-Based Distributed Temperature Sensor in a Vacuum and −173 °C Environment Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194186 Authors: Jingchuan Zhang Peng Wei Qingbo Liu A heatsink is a large experimental device which is used to simulate the outer space environment. In this paper, a Raman-based distributed temperature sensor was used for real-time and continuous heatsink temperature monitoring, and a special Raman-based distributed temperature sensing method and system have been proposed. This method takes advantage of three calibration para...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jingchuan Zhang Peng Wei Qingbo Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4187: A Sensitive Carbon Dioxide Sensor Based on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with a Fixed Wavelength Quantum Cascade Laser
Frank K. Tittel A photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) based carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor with a fixed wavelength quantum cascade laser (FW-QCL) was demonstrated. The emission wavelength of the FW-QCL at 4.42 μm in the mid-infrared spectral region matched a fundamental CO2 absorption line. Amplitude modulation of the laser intensity was used to match the resonant photoacoustic (PA) cell. The noise from the background was reduced with the correlation demodulation technique. The experimental results showed that the sensor had excellent signal stability and a concentration linear response. When the integration tim...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shunda Qiao Yanchen Qu Yufei Ma Ying He Yao Wang Yinqiu Hu Xin Yu Zhonghua Zhang Frank K. Tittel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4188: Deep Learning on Point Clouds and Its Application: A Survey
Peng Wang Point cloud is a widely used 3D data form, which can be produced by depth sensors, such as Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and RGB-D cameras. Being unordered and irregular, many researchers focused on the feature engineering of the point cloud. Being able to learn complex hierarchical structures, deep learning has achieved great success with images from cameras. Recently, many researchers have adapted it into the applications of the point cloud. In this paper, the recent existing point cloud feature learning methods are classified as point-based and tree-based. The former directly takes the raw point clou...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Weiping Liu Jia Sun Wanyi Li Ting Hu Peng Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4168: Coupling Waveguide-Based Micro-Sensors and Spectral Multivariate Analysis to Improve Spray Deposit Characterization in Agriculture
Vigreux Ryad Bendoula The leaf coverage surface is a key measurement of the spraying process to maximize spray efficiency. To determine leaf coverage surface, the development of optical micro-sensors that, coupled with a multivariate spectral analysis, will be able to measure the volume of the droplets deposited on their surface is proposed. Rib optical waveguides based on Ge-Se-Te chalcogenide films were manufactured and their light transmission was studied as a response to the deposition of demineralized water droplets on their surface. The measurements were performed using a dedicated spectrophotometric bench to ...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anis Taleb Bendiab Maxime Ryckewaert Daphn é Heran Rapha ël Escalier Rapha ël K. Kribich Caroline Vigreux Ryad Bendoula Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4169: High-Throughput Chemometric Quality Assessment of Extra Virgin Olive Oils Using a Microtiter Plate Reader
Lu A commercially available microtiter plate reader was applied as a high-throughput counterpart of ultraviolet-visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometer to identify the producing location of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). Multiplicative scatter correction and the first derivative was used to denoise the UV–Vis spectra and eliminate the effects of background drift. The spectra were analyzed using chemometrics methods including the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA model on full spectra using 5 latent variables showed a cla...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Huihui He Weiying Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4170: TCQG —Software-Defined Transmission Control Scheme in 5G Networks from Queuing Game Perspective
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4170: TCQG—Software-Defined Transmission Control Scheme in 5G Networks from Queuing Game Perspective Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194170 Authors: Chao Guo Cheng Gong Juan Guo Haitao Xu Long Zhang The efficient processing and forwarding of big data is one of the key problems and challenges facing the next generation wireless communication network. Using a software definition method to virtualize the network can improve the efficiency of network operation and reduce the cost of network operation and maintenance. A software-defined transmission control scheme was presented to solve the...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chao Guo Cheng Gong Juan Guo Haitao Xu Long Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4171: Vehicle Deceleration Prediction Model to Reflect Individual Driver Characteristics by Online Parameter Learning for Autonomous Regenerative Braking of Electric Vehicles
Kichun Jo The connected powertrain control, which uses intelligent transportation system information, has been widely researched to improve driver convenience and energy efficiency. The vehicle state prediction on decelerating driving conditions can be applied to automatic regenerative braking in electric vehicles. However, drivers can feel a sense of heterogeneity when regenerative control is performed based on prediction results from a general prediction model. As a result, a deceleration prediction model which represents individual driving characteristics is required to ensure a more comfortable experience with an a...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kyunghan Min Gyubin Sim Seongju Ahn Myoungho Sunwoo Kichun Jo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4172: The Potential of Utilizing Air Temperature Datasets from Non-Professional Meteorological Stations in Brno and Surrounding Area
ubalova An increasing number of individuals and institutions own or operate meteorological stations, but the resulting data are not yet commonly used in the Czech Republic. One of the main difficulties is the heterogeneity of measuring systems that puts in question the quality of outcoming data. Only after a thorough quality control of recorded data is it possible to proceed with for example a specific survey of variability of a chosen meteorological parameter in an urban or suburban region. The most commonly researched element in the given environment is air temperature. In the first phase, this paper focuses on the q...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Karel Dejmal Petr Kolar Josef Novotny Alena Roubalova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4173: Special Issue “Internet of Things for Smart Homes”
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4173: Special Issue “Internet of Things for Smart Homes” Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194173 Authors: Ilsun You Giovanni Pau Valerio Mario Salerno Vishal Sharma Smart homes represent one of the principal points in the new ecosystem of the Internet of Things (IoT), both for the centrality of the home in the life of individuals and the significant potential concerning the diffusion of smart objects and innovative services. While IoT-oriented smart homes can revise how inhabitants interact with the domestic environment, each well-defined piece of technology necessitates precise net...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ilsun You Giovanni Pau Valerio Mario Salerno Vishal Sharma Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4174: EKF-Based Parameter Identification of Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial VehiclesModels
ntoni Grau This work presents a method for estimating the model parameters of multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles by means of an extended Kalman filter. Different from test-bed based identification methods, the proposed approach estimates all the model parameters of a multi-rotor aerial vehicle, using a single online estimation process that integrates measurements that can be obtained directly from onboard sensors commonly available in this kind of UAV. In order to develop the proposed method, the observability property of the system is investigated by means of a nonlinear observability analysis. First, the dynamic mo...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rodrigo Mungu ía Sarquis Urzua Antoni Grau Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4175: Correlation Analysis and Verification of Railway Crossing Condition Monitoring
ine This paper presents a correlation analysis of the structural dynamic responses and weather conditions of a railway crossing. Prior to that, the condition monitoring of the crossing as well as the indicators for crossing condition assessment are briefly introduced. In the correlation analysis, strong correlations are found between acceleration responses with irregular contact ratios and the fatigue area. The correlation results between the dynamic responses and weather variables indicate the influence of weather on the performance of the crossing, which is verified using a numerical vehicle-crossing model developed ...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: X. Liu V. L. Markine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4176: Research on Small Square PCB Rogowski Coil Measuring Transient Current in the Power Electronics Devices
liang Fan With the development of China’s electric power, power electronics devices such as insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) have been widely used in the field of high voltages and large currents. However, the currents in these power electronic devices are transient. For example, the uneven currents and internal chip currents overshoot, which may occur when turning on and off, and could have a great impact on the device. In order to study the reliability of these power electronics devices, this paper proposes a miniature printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil that measures the current of thes...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chaoqun Jiao Juan Zhang Zhibin Zhao Zuoming Zhang Yuanliang Fan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4177: Design and Implementation of a Self-Powered Smart Water Meter
ong Smart cities require interactive management of water supply networks and water meters play an important role in such a task. As compared to fully mechanical water meters, electromechanical water meters or fully electronic water meters can collect real-time information through automatic meter reading (AMR), which makes them more suitable for smart cities applications. In this paper, we first study the design principles of existing water meters, and then present our design and implementation of a self-powered smart water meter. The proposed water meter is based on a water turbine generator, which serves for two purpo...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xue Jun Li Peter Han Joo Chong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4178: Robust Visual Tracking Using Structural Patch Response Map Fusion Based on Complementary Correlation Filter and Color Histogram
g Zhang A part-based strategy has been applied to visual tracking with demonstrated success in recent years. Different from most existing part-based methods that only employ one type of tracking representation model, in this paper, we propose an effective complementary tracker based on structural patch response fusion under correlation filter and color histogram models. The proposed method includes two component trackers with complementary merits to adaptively handle illumination variation and deformation. To identify and take full advantage of reliable patches, we present an adaptive hedge algorithm to hedge the respo...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhaohui Hao Guixi Liu Jiayu Gao Haoyang Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4179: Considerations about the Signal Level Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks for Node Position Estimation
n Silea Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are widely used in different monitoring systems. Given the distributed nature of WSN, a constantly increasing number of research studies are concentrated on some important aspects: maximizing network autonomy, node localization, and data access security. The node localization and distance estimation algorithms have, as their starting points, different information provided by the nodes. The level of signal strength is often such a starting point. A system for Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) acquisition has been designed, implemented, and tested. In this paper, experiments...
Source: Sensors - September 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stelian Dolha Paul Negirla Florin Alexa Ioan Silea Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4162: MCSM-Wri: A Small-Scale Motion Recognition Method Using WiFi Based on Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Network
ianhang Liu Small-scale motion recognition has received wide attention recently with the development of environmental perception technology based on WiFi, and some state-of-the-art techniques have emerged. The wide application of small-scale motion recognition has aroused people’s concern. Handwritten letter is a kind of small scale motion, and the recognition for small-scale motion based on WiFi has two characteristics. Small-scale action has little impact on WiFi signals changes in the environment. The writing trajectories of certain uppercase letters are the same as the writing trajectories of their co...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shiyuan Ma Tingpei Huang Shibao Li Junwei Huang Tiantian Ma Jianhang Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4152: Highly Sensitive Micropatterned Interdigitated Electrodes for Enhancing the Concentration Effect Based on Dielectrophoresis
In this study, microstructures were patterned between the interdigitated microelectrodes (IMEs) to increase the concentration effect of DEP. The microstructures increased the electric field gradient ( ∇ | E 2 | ) between the IMEs to approximately 6.61-fold higher than in the bare IMEs with a gap of 10 μm, resulting in a decreased optimal voltage to concentrate amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42, from 0.8 Vpp to 0.5 Vpp) and tau-441 (from 0.9 Vpp to 0.6 Vpp) between the IMEs. Due to the concentration effect of DEP, the impedance change in the optimal condition was higher than the values in the refe...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hye Jin Kim Heeju Ahn David S. Lee Dongsung Park Jae Hyun Kim Jinsik Kim Dae Sung Yoon Kyo Seon Hwang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4153: Anti-Interference Deep Visual Identification Method for Fault Localization of Transformer Using a Winding Model
Wenjie Wu The idea of Ubiquitous Power Internet of Things (UPIoTs) accelerates the development of intelligent monitoring and diagnostic technologies. In this paper, a diagnostic method suitable for power equipment in an interference environment was proposed based on the deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN): MobileNet-V2 and Digital Image Processing (DIP) methods to conduct fault identification process: including fault type classification and fault localization. A data visualization theory was put forward in this paper, which was applied in frequency response (FR) curves of transformer to obtain dataset. After the im...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiajun Duan Yigang He Xiaoxin Wu Hui Zhang Wenjie Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4154: Radial Basis Functions Intended to Determine the Upper Bound of Absolute Dynamic Error at the Output of Voltage-Mode Accelerometers
Sokal In this paper, we propose using the radial basis functions (RBF) to determine the upper bound of absolute dynamic error (UAE) at the output of a voltage-mode accelerometer. Such functions can be obtained as a result of approximating the error values determined for the assumed-in-advance parameter variability associated with the mathematical model of an accelerometer. This approximation was carried out using the radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) procedure for a given number of the radial neurons. The Monte Carlo (MC) method was also applied to determine the related error when considering the uncertaint...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Krzysztof Tomczyk Marcin Piekarczyk Grzegorz Sokal Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4156: Ultrasonic Transducer for Non-Destructive Testing of Structures Immersed in Liquid Sodium at 200 °C
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4156: Ultrasonic Transducer for Non-Destructive Testing of Structures Immersed in Liquid Sodium at 200 °C Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194156 Authors: Saillant Marlier Navacchia Baqué TUCSS transducer (French acronym standing for Transducteur Ultrasonore pour CND Sous Sodium) is designed for performing NDT (Non-Destructive Testing) under liquid sodium. Under sodium, the tests results obtained show that these transducers have sufficiently good acoustic properties to perform basic NDT of a structure immersed under liquid sodium at about 200 °C using conventional imm...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Saillant Marlier Navacchia Baqu é Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4155: Advanced Sensors Technology in Education
Burgos The topic presented will show how different kinds of sensors can help to improve our skills in learning environments. When we open the mind and let it take the control to be creative, we can think how a martial art would be improved with registered sensors, or how a person may dance with machines to improve their technique, or how you may improve your soccer kick for a penalties round. The use of sensors seems easy to imagine in these examples, but their use is not limited to these types of learning environments. Using depth cameras to detect patterns in oral presentations, or improving the assessment of agil...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gonz ález Crespo Burgos Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4157: Indoor Air-Quality Data-Monitoring System: Long-Term Monitoring Benefits
;n Ordieres-Meré Indoor air pollution has been ranked among the top five environmental risks to public health. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is proven to have significant impacts on people’s comfort, health, and performance. Through a systematic literature review in the area of IAQ, two gaps have been identified by this study: short-term monitoring bias and IAQ data-monitoring solution challenges. The study addresses those gaps by proposing an Internet of Things (IoT) and Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT)-based IAQ data-monitoring system. The developed data-monitoring solution allows for the possibi...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shengjing Sun Xiaochen Zheng Javier Villalba-D íez Joaqu ín Ordieres-Meré Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4159: Design and Analysis of Handshake-Based MAC with Delay Variations in Underwater Acoustic Networks
gjiong Chen The long propagation delay in underwater acoustic channels has attracted tremendous attentions in designing Medium Access Control (MAC). The low acoustic propagation speed and wide area of the acoustic communication range led to a wide range of variations in the propagation delay. This paper identifies an important characteristic of two-scale delay variations by field test results. We carry out simulations to study the impact of delay variations on MAC, and the results suggest a slot length adaptation scheme for the handshake and slotting based MAC. We further model an absorbing Markov chain to derive the c...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chao Dong Yankun Chen Quansheng Guan Fei Ji Hua Yu Fangjiong Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4158: Space State Representation Corrections as an Aid in Pseudolite Positioning
ki In the presented study, the authors deal with the problem of transmission of pseudolite coordinates to the receiver. Nowadays, there is no uniquely specified method that would provide data about the position of the pseudolite to the GNSS receiver. There is also no technical standard that defines the explicit way of performing such transmission. Solutions presented in the literature are usually tailored to the described system, which is then suited to the specific situation. The article shows that the universal methods, involving the modification of transmitted broadcast ephemeris data, cannot be universally used. Th...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jacek Rapi ński Dariusz Tomaszewski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4160: About the Accuracy and Problems of Consumer Devices in the Assessment of Sleep
Schabus Commercial sleep devices and mobile-phone applications for scoring sleep are gaining ground. In order to provide reliable information about the quantity and/or quality of sleep, their performance needs to be assessed against the current gold standard, i.e., polysomnography (PSG; measuring brain, eye, and muscle activity). Here, we assessed some commercially available sleep trackers, namely an activity tracker; Mi band (Xiaomi, Beijing, China), a scientific actigraph: Motionwatch 8 (CamNTech, Cambridge, UK), and a much-used mobile phone application: Sleep Cycle (Northcube, Gothenburg, Sweden). We recorded 27 ...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ameen Cheung Hauser Hahn Schabus Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4164: High Precision Timing with Parabolic Equation Fitting in Narrowband Systems
Xu Timing forms the basis of wireless communication systems. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology has strict requirements for synchronization performance, and timing errors lead to interference between subcarriers and symbols. Although cyclic prefix (CP) can relax the timing requirement, high precision timing is still necessary and can release the pressure on CP. Due to the uncertainty of signal arrival, there is a sampling offset between the sampling sample’s timing and the real timing, which can be large in the narrowband system with a low sampling rate. In this paper, we propo...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zou Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4161: Classification of Plant Leaf Diseases Based on Improved Convolutional Neural Network
ng Wang Plant leaf diseases are closely related to people's daily life. Due to the wide variety of diseases, it is not only time-consuming and labor-intensive to identify and classify diseases by artificial eyes, but also easy to be misidentified with having a high error rate. Therefore, we proposed a deep learning-based method to identify and classify plant leaf diseases. The proposed method can take the advantages of the neural network to extract the characteristics of diseased parts, and thus to classify target disease areas. To address the issues of long training convergence time and too-large model paramet...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hang Zhang Chen Zhang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4163: Emergency Response Using Volunteered Passenger Aircraft Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study on Flood Damage Mapping
ngquan Li Current satellite remote sensing data still have some inevitable defects, such as a low observing frequency, high cost and dense cloud cover, which limit the rapid response to ground changes and many potential applications. However, passenger aircraft may be an alternative remote sensing platform in emergency response due to the high revisit rate, dense coverage and low cost. This paper introduces a volunteered passenger aircraft remote sensing method (VPARS) for emergency response. It uses the images captured by the passenger volunteers during flight. Based on computer vision algorithms and geocoding procedu...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chisheng Wang Junzhuo Ke Wenqun Xiu Kai Ye Qingquan Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4165: Convex Decomposition for a Coverage Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles: Interior Extension of Edges
elsen To cover an area of interest by an autonomous vehicle, such as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), planning a coverage path which guides the unit to cover the area is an essential process. However, coverage path planning is often problematic, especially when the boundary of the area is complicated and the area contains several obstacles. A common solution for this situation is to decompose the area into disjoint convex sub-polygons and to obtain coverage paths for each sub-polygon using a simple back-and-forth pattern. Aligned with the solution approach, we propose a new convex decomposition method which is simple ...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lasse Damtoft Nielsen Inkyung Sung Peter Nielsen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4162: MCSM-Wri: A Small-Scale Motion Recognition Method Using WiFi Based on Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Network
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4162: MCSM-Wri: A Small-Scale Motion Recognition Method Using WiFi Based on Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Network Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194162 Authors: Ma Huang Li Huang Ma Liu environmental perception technology based onWiFi, and some state-of-the-art techniques haveemerged. The wide application of small-scale motion recognition has aroused people’s concern.Handwritten letter is a kind of small scale motion, and the recognition for small-scale motion basedon WiFi has two characteristics. Small-scale action has little impact on WiFi signals changes inthe ...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ma Huang Li Huang Ma Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4166: A Lamb Wave Wavenumber-Searching Method for a Linear PZT Sensor Array
Zhao In this paper, a wavenumber–searching method based on time-domain compensation is proposed to obtain the wavenumber of the Lamb wave array received signal. In the proposed method, the time-domain sampling signal of the linear piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sensor array is converted into a spatial sampling signal using the searching wavenumber. The two–dimensional time-spatial-domain Lamb wave received signal of the linear PZT sensor array is then converted into a one-dimensional synthesized spatial sampling signal. Further, the sum of squared errors between the synthesized spatial samp...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bin Liu Tingzhang Liu Jianfei Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4167: Research on Dynamic Inertial Estimation Technology for Deck Deformation of Large Ships
ng Li Many kinds of weapon systems and launching equipment on the deck of large ships are easily affected by deck deformation. In order to ensure the accuracy of weapon systems and the safety of taking off and landing of carrier aircraft, a dynamic estimation method combining the main inertial navigation systems (INS) and the sub-inertial navigation systems (SINS) is designed to estimate the curvature and torsion of any trajectory on the deck. Our contributions start from the fact that the area of concern extends from the fixed points to any trajectory on the deck. The dynamic filter algorithm of wavelet combined with ...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bo Ren Tianjiao Li Xiang Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4146: Multi-Attribute Fusion Algorithm Based on Improved Evidence Theory and Clustering
hunjie Yang In most of the application scenarios of industrial control systems, the switching threshold of a device, such as a street light system, is typically set to a fixed value. To meet the requirements for a smart city, it is necessary to set a threshold that is adaptive to different conditions by fusing the multi-attribute observations of the sensors. This paper proposes a multi-attribute fusion algorithm based on fuzzy clustering and improved evidence theory. All of the observations are clustered by fuzzy clustering, where a proper clustering method is chosen, and the improved evidence theory is used to fuse th...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenqing Wang Yuan Yan Rundong Zhang Zhen Wang Yongqing Fan Chunjie Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4147: Detection of Magnetomechanical Effect in Structural Steel Using GMR 2nd Order Gradiometer Based Sensors
Antonio Vettoliere The magneto-mechanical behaviour of structural steel specimens stressed up to the plastic deformation stage was investigated using a 2nd order gradiometer based on Giant Magneto Resistive (GMR) sensors. The correlation between the gradient of the magnetization and the dislocation density before the crack initiation inside the test material was reported. The capability of the GMR scanning sensor to detect the residual magnetization due to the tensile stress with a non-invasive technique was demonstrated. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carmela Bonavolont à Massimo Valentino Francesco Penta Carmine Granata Berardo Ruggiero Paolo Silvestrini Antonio Vettoliere Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4148: A High-Precision Method for Dynamically Measuring Train Wheel Diameter Using Three Laser Displacement Transducers
bo Feng Wheel diameter is a significant geometric parameter related to the safe operation of trains, and needs to be measured dynamically. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, most existing dynamic measurement methods and systems do not meet the requirement that the wheel diameter measurement error for the high-speed vehicle is less than 0.3 mm. In this paper, a simple method for dynamically and precisely measuring train wheel diameter using three one-dimensional laser displacement transducers (1D-LDTs) is proposed for the first time, and a corresponding measurement system which was developed is describ...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fajia Zheng Bin Zhang Run Gao Qibo Feng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4149: A Regulated Temperature-Insensitive High-Voltage Charge Pump in Standard CMOS Process for Micromachined Gyroscopes
en Rong Zhang Micromachined gyroscopes require high voltage (HV) for actuation and detection to improve its precision, but the deviation of the HV caused by temperature fluctuations will degrade the sensor’s performance. In this paper, a high-voltage temperature-insensitive charge pump is proposed. Without adopting BCD (bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) technology, the output voltage can be boosted over the breakdown voltage of n-well/substrate diode using triple-well NMOS (n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor) transistors. By controlling the pumping clock’s amplitude continuously, closed-loop regulation is ...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiang Li Rui Li Chunge Ju Bo Hou Qi Wei Bin Zhou Zhiyong Chen Rong Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4150: An Onsite Calibration Method for MEMS-IMU in Building Mapping Fields
Hengjie Qin Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is one of the popular technologies to acquire critical information for building information modelling. To allow an automatic acquirement of building information, the first and most important step of LiDAR technology is to accurately determine the important gesture information that micro electromechanical (MEMS) based inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors can provide from the moving robot. However, during the practical building mapping, serious errors may happen due to the inappropriate installation of a MEMS-IMU. Through this study, we analyzed the different systematic ...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sen Li Yunchen Niu Chunyong Feng Haiqiang Liu Dan Zhang Hengjie Qin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4151: Mass Flow Monitoring by Distributed Fiber Optical Temperature Sensing
egler We developed a novel method to monitor mass flow based on distributed fiber optical temperature sensing. Examination of the temporal and spatial temperature distribution along the entire length of a locally heated fluidic conduit reveals heat flow under forced convection. Our experimental results are in good agreement with two-dimensional finite element analysis that couples fluid dynamic and heat transfer equations. Through analysis of the temperature distribution bidirectional flow rates can be measured over three orders of magnitude. The technique is not flow intrusive, works in harsh conditions, including hig...
Source: Sensors - September 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alin Jderu Marius Enachescu Dominik Ziegler Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4125: General Identifiability Condition for Network Topology Monitoring with Network Tomography
Zhihong Rao Accurate knowledge of network topology is vital for network monitoring and management. Network tomography can probe the underlying topologies of the intervening networks solely by sending and receiving packets between end hosts: the performance correlations of the end-to-end paths between each pair of end hosts can be mapped to the lengths of their shared paths, which could be further used to identify the interior nodes and links. However, such performance correlations are usually heavily affected by the time-varying cross-traffic, making it hard to keep the estimated lengths consistent during different mea...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shengli Pan Zongwang Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Deze Zeng Rui Xu Zhihong Rao Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4126: A VCO-Based CMOS Readout Circuit for Capacitive MEMS Microphones
s Hernandez Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphone sensors have significantly improved in the past years, while the readout electronic is mainly implemented using switched-capacitor technology. The development of new battery powered “always-on” applications increasingly requires a low power consumption. In this paper, we show a new readout circuit approach which is based on a mostly digital Sigma Delta ( Σ Δ ) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The operating principle of the readout circuit consists of coupling the MEMS sensor to an impedance converter t...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andres Quintero Fernando Cardes Carlos Perez Cesare Buffa Andreas Wiesbauer Luis Hernandez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4127: Restoration Method of a Blurred Star Image for a Star Sensor Under Dynamic Conditions
v Dinglong He Under the dynamic working conditions of a star sensor, motion blur of the star will appear due to its energy dispersion during imaging, leading to the degradation of the star centroid accuracy and attitude accuracy of the star sensor. To address this, a restoration method of a blurred star image for a star sensor under dynamic conditions is presented in this paper. First, a kinematic model of the star centroid and the degradation function of blurred star image under different conditions are analyzed. Then, an improved curvature filtering method based on energy function is proposed to remove the noise an...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhiya Mu Jun Wang Xin He Zhonghui Wei Jiawei He Lei Zhang You Lv Dinglong He Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4128: Bell-X, An Opportunistic Time Synchronization Mechanism for Scheduled Wireless Sensor Networks
This article proposes a new beacon advertising approach for a fast synchronization for networks under the TSCH-Medium Access Control (MAC) layer and Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). This new method makes it possible to speed up the connection times of new nodes in an opportunistic way, while reducing the consumption and advertising traffic generated by the network. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jose Vera-P érez David Todol í-Ferrandis Javier Silvestre-Blanes V íctor Sempere-Payá Tags: Article Source Type: research