Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3653: Development of a Novel Piezoelectric Harvester Excited by Raindrops
co Moro The impact of raindrops on a dry surface leads to a splashing phenomenon that dissipates a lot of energy. To improve energy collection, a novel piezoelectric raindrop energy harvester equipped with a spoonful of water was developed. The advantages and the drawbacks of this solution were analyzed with the aid of numerical simulations. A series of experimental tests were carried out in a laboratory with simulated raindrops. Experimental results showed that the negative effect of the added water mass was exceeded by the positive effects related to the impact of the raindrop on a liquid surface. Tests carried out c...
Source: Sensors - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alberto Doria Giulio Fanti Gino Filipi Federico Moro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3654: Toward Cost-Effective Mobile Video Streaming through Environment-Aware Watching State Prediction
nghua Zheng Mobile video applications are becoming increasingly prevalent and enriching the way people learn and are entertained. However, on mobile terminals with inherently limited resources, mobile video streaming services consume too much energy and bandwidth, which is an urgent problem to solve. At present, research on cost-effective mobile video streaming typically focuses on the management of data transmission. Among such studies, some new approaches consider the user’s behavior to further optimize data transmission. However, these studies have not adequately discussed the specific impact of the ph...
Source: Sensors - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuanyu Wang Weizhan Zhang Xiang Gao Jingyi Wang Haipeng Du Qinghua Zheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3655: Quantum Dots —Assisted 2D Fluorescence for Pattern Based Sensing of Amino Acids, Oligopeptides and Neurotransmitters
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3655: Quantum Dots—Assisted 2D Fluorescence for Pattern Based Sensing of Amino Acids, Oligopeptides and Neurotransmitters Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19173655 Authors: Marcin Zabadaj Patrycja Ciosek-Skibińska Quantum dots (QDs) are very attractive nanomaterials for analytical chemistry, due to high photostability, large surface area featuring numerous ways of bioconjugation with biomolecules, usually high quantum yield and long decay times. Their broad absorption spectra and narrow, sharp emission spectra of size-tunable fluorescence make them ideal tools for pattern-based sensing. Howeve...
Source: Sensors - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marcin Zabadaj Patrycja Ciosek-Skibi ńska Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3656: An E-Nose for the Monitoring of Severe Liver Impairment: A Preliminary Study
In this study, we used a prototype of electronic nose, called Wize Sniffer (WS) and based it on an array of semiconductor gas sensor, to detect ammonia in the breath of patients suffering from severe liver impairment. In the setting of severely impaired liver, toxic substances, such as ammonia, accumulate in the systemic circulation and in the brain. This may result in Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE), a spectrum of neuro–psychiatric abnormalities which include changes in cognitive functions, consciousness, and behaviour. HE can be detected only by specific but time-consuming and burdensome examinations, such as b...
Source: Sensors - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Danila Germanese Sara Colantonio Mario D ’Acunto Veronica Romagnoli Antonio Salvati Maurizia Brunetto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3657: Leveraging Visual Place Recognition to Improve Indoor Positioning with Limited Availability of WiFi Scans
We present a way of transforming qualitative information of image similarity into quantitative constraints that are then fused into the graph-based optimization framework for positioning together with typical pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and WiFi fingerprinting constraints. Performance of the improved indoor positioning system is evaluated on different user trajectories logged inside an office building at our University campus. The results demonstrate that introducing additional sensing modality into the positioning system makes it possible to increase accuracy and simultaneously reduce the dependence on the quality of ...
Source: Sensors - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Micha ł R. Nowicki Piotr Skrzypczy ński Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3658: Wellness Assessment of Alzheimer ’s Patients in an Instrumented Health-Care Facility
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3658: Wellness Assessment of Alzheimer’s Patients in an Instrumented Health-Care Facility Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19173658 Authors: Andrea Masciadri Sara Comai Fabio Salice Wellness assessment refers to the evaluation of physical, mental, and social well-being. This work explores the possibility of applying technological tools to assist clinicians and professionals to improve the quality of life of people through continuous monitoring of their wellness. The contribution of this paper is manifold: a coarse-grained localization system is responsible for monitoring and collecting data r...
Source: Sensors - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrea Masciadri Sara Comai Fabio Salice Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3659: Impact Localisation in Composite Plates of Different Stiffness Impactors under Simulated Environmental and Operational Conditions
badi A parametric investigation of the effect of impactor stiffness as well as environmental and operational conditions on impact contact behaviour and the subsequently generated lamb waves in composite structures is presented. It is shown that differing impactor stiffness generates the most significant changes in contact area and lamb wave characteristics (waveform, frequency, and amplitude). A novel impact localisation method was developed based on the above observations that allows for variations due to differences in impactor stiffness based on modifications of the reference database method and the Akaike Informati...
Source: Sensors - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seno Aliabadi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3660: Nonlinearity Correction in OFDR System Using a Zero-Crossing Detection-Based Clock and Self-Reference
Tan Tuning nonlinearity of the laser is the main source of deterioration of the spatial resolution in optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) system. In this paper, we develop methods for tuning nonlinearity correction in an OFDR system from the aspect of data acquisition and post-processing. An external clock based on a zero-crossing detection is researched and implemented using a customized circuit. Equal-spacing frequency sampling is, therefore, achieved in real-time. The zero-crossing detection for the beating frequency of 20 MHz is achieved. The maximum sensing distance can reach the same length of the au...
Source: Sensors - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhao Cui Tan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3631: Experimental and Computational Methodology for the Determination of Hydrodynamic Coefficients Based on Free Decay Test: Application to Conception and Control of Underwater Robots
z-Barroso Hydrodynamic coefficients are essential for the development of underwater robots; in particular, for their design and navigation control. To obtain these coefficients, several techniques exist. These methods are usually experimental, but, more recently, some have been designed by a combination of experiments with computational methods based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). One method for obtaining the hydrodynamic coefficients of an ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) is by using an experimental PMM (Planar Motion Mechanism) or CWC (Circular Water Channel); however, the use of these experimental infrastructur...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Juan S. Cely Roque Saltaren Gerardo Portilla Oz Yakrangi Alejandro Rodriguez-Barroso Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3633: Practical Inter-Floor Noise Sensing System with Localization and Classification
e Cho Inter-floor noise is a severe social problem which causes illegal arson, violence, and even murder. In this paper, an inter-floor noise sensing system is proposed to detect and record information related to inter-floor noise in an apartment building. The proposed system measured the noise level and estimated the direction of the noise source along with the type of noise. The noise level measurement is based on the sound pressure level (SPL) measurement, which is a logarithmic measure of the effective pressure of a sound relative to a reference sound pressure. Noise source localization was performed using the esti...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Junho Son Chong-Min Kyung Hyuntae Cho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3634: High Energy Double Peak Pulse Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy for Metal Characterization Using a Passively Q-Switched Laser Source and CCD Detector
Siano Here, the development and testing of a portable double peak pulse laser induced plasma spectroscopy (DPP-LIPS) based on passively Q-switched Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) laser excitation is reported. The latter delivered structured laser pulses at a repetition rate of up to 20 Hz, including two energy peaks of about 100 mJ each with a relative temporal spacing of about 80 µs. Plasma spectra were collected using a low-cost Czerny–Turner spectrometer equipped with a non-intensified CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) array. Such a DPP-LIPS setup is technologically simpler and...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Juri Agresti Andrea Azelio Mencaglia Salvatore Siano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3632: Agreement Analysis between Vive and Vicon Systems to Monitor Lumbar Postural Changes
S. Thomas Immersive virtual reality has recently developed into a readily available system that allows for full-body tracking. Can this affordable system be used for component tracking to advance or replace expensive kinematic systems for motion analysis in the clinic? The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of position and orientation measures from Vive wireless body trackers when compared to Vicon optoelectronic tracked markers attached to (1) a robot simulating trunk flexion and rotation by repeatedly moving to know locations, and (2) healthy adults playing virtual reality games necessitating significant tr...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Susanne M. van der Veen Martine Bordeleau Peter E. Pidcoe Chris R. France James S. Thomas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3635: Fine-Tuning and Optimization of Superconducting Quantum Magnetic Sensors by Thermal Annealing
e Granata In the present article, we present the experimental results concerning the fine-tuning and optimization of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) parameters by thermal annealing. This treatment allows for the modification of the parameters in order to meet a specific application or to adjust the device parameters to prevent the increase of magnetic field noise and work instability conditions due to a different critical current with respect to the design value. In particular, we report the sensor critical current, the voltage–flux (V–Φ) characteristics and t...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Antonio Vettoliere Berardo Ruggiero Massimo Valentino Paolo Silvestrini Carmine Granata Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3636: Towards Model-Free Tool Dynamic Identification and Calibration Using Multi-Layer Neural Network
rigno Elena De Momi In robot control with physical interaction, like robot-assisted surgery and bilateral teleoperation, the availability of reliable interaction force information has proved to be capable of increasing the control precision and of dealing with the surrounding complex environments. Usually, force sensors are mounted between the end effector of the robot manipulator and the tool for measuring the interaction forces on the tooltip. In this case, the force acquired from the force sensor includes not only the interaction force but also the gravity force of the tool. Hence the tool dynamic identification i...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hang Su Wen Qi Yingbai Hu Juan Sandoval Longbin Zhang Yunus Schmirander Guang Chen Andrea Aliverti Alois Knoll Giancarlo Ferrigno Elena De Momi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3638: A Fusion Localization Method based on a Robust Extended Kalman Filter and Track-Quality for Wireless Sensor Networks
Cheng As one of the most essential technologies, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) integrate sensor technology, embedded computing technology, and modern network and communication technology, which have become research hotspots in recent years. The localization technique, one of the key techniques for WSN research, determines the application prospects of WSNs to a great extent. The positioning errors of wireless sensor networks are mainly caused by the non-line of sight (NLOS) propagation, occurring in complicated channel environments such as the indoor conditions. Traditional techniques such as the extended Kalman filte...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yan Wang Huihui Jie Long Cheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3639: Correction: Liu, C., et al. A Novel System for Correction of Relative Angular Displacement between Airborne Platform and UAV in Target Localization. Sensors 2017, 17, 510
n Liang The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chenglong Liu Jinghong Liu Yueming Song Huaidan Liang Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3637: A Wide-Range, Wireless Wearable Inertial Motion Sensing System for Capturing Fast Athletic Biomechanics in Overhead Pitching
This article, after determining pressing problems in sports that such sensors could solve and surveying the state-of-the-art in wearable motion capture for sports, presents a wearable dual-range inertial and magnetic sensor platform that we developed to enable an end-to-end investigation of high-level, very wide dynamic-range biomechanical parameters. We tested our system on collegiate and elite baseball pitchers, and have derived and measured metrics to glean insight into performance-relevant motion. As this was, we believe, the first ultra-wide-range wireless multipoint and multimodal inertial and magnetic sensor array t...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michael Lapinski Carolina Brum Medeiros Donna Moxley Scarborough Eric Berkson Thomas J. Gill Thomas Kepple Joseph A. Paradiso Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3640: How Significant Are Differences Obtained by Neglecting Correlations When Testing for Deformation: A Real Case Study Using Bootstrapping with Terrestrial Laser Scanner Observations Approximated by B-Spline Surfaces
khatib B-spline surfaces possess attractive properties such as a high degree of continuity or the local support of their basis functions. One of the major applications of B-spline surfaces in engineering geodesy is the least-square (LS) fitting of surfaces from, e.g., 3D point clouds obtained from terrestrial laser scanners (TLS). Such mathematical approximations allow one to test rigorously with a given significance level the deformation magnitude between point clouds taken at different epochs. Indeed, statistical tests cannot be applied when point clouds are processed in commonly used software such as CloudCompare, w...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kermarrec Paffenholz Alkhatib Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3643: Design and Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost Autonomous Sensor Interface for a Smart IoT-Based Irrigation Monitoring and Control System
This study aims to design a low-cost autonomous sensor interface to automate the monitoring and control of irrigation systems in remote locations, and to optimize water use for irrigation farming. An internet of things-based irrigation monitoring and control system, employing sensors and actuators, is designed to facilitate the autonomous supply of adequate water from a reservoir to domestic crops in a smart irrigation systems. System development lifecycle and waterfall model design methodologies have been employed in the development paradigm. The Proteus 8.5 design suite, Arduino integrated design environment, and embedde...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abba Namkusong Lee Crespo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3642: Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Algorithm for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network
bawajy Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) are capable of collecting multimedia events, such as traffic accidents and wildlife tracking, as well as scalar data. As a result, WMSNs are receiving a great deal of attention both from industry and academic communities. However, multimedia applications tend to generate high volume network traffic, which results in very high energy consumption. As energy is a prime resource in WMSN, an efficient routing algorithm that effectively deals with the dynamic topology of WMSN but also prolongs the lifetime of WMSN is required. To this end, we propose a routing algorithm tha...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Genta K.Lobiyal Abawajy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3641: In-Ear Pulse Rate Measurement: A Valid Alternative to Heart Rate Derived from Electrocardiography?
Senner Heart rate measurement has become one of the most widely used methods of monitoring the intensity of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether in-ear photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulse rate (PR) measurement devices represent a valid alternative to heart rate derived from electrocardiography (ECG), which is considered a gold standard. Twenty subjects (6 women, 14 men) completed one trial of graded cycling under laboratory conditions. In the trial, PR was recorded by two commercially available in-ear devices, the Dash Pro and the Cosinuss°One. They were compared to HR measure...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Passler M üller Senner Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3644: Toward the Required Detection Limits for Volatile Organic Constituents in Marine Environments with Infrared Evanescent Field Chemical Sensors
izaikoff A portable sensor system for the simultaneous detection of multiple environmentally relevant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in real seawater based on Fourier transform infrared fiber-optic evanescent wave spectroscopy (FT-IR-FEWS) was developed. A cylindrical silver halide (AgX) fiber with an ethylene/propylene copolymer (E/P-co) coated flattened segment was used as an active optical transducer. The polymer membrane enriches the hydrophobic analytes, while water is effectively excluded from the penetration depth of the evanescent field. Determination of multicomponent mixtures (i.e., 10 VOCs in real-world s...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dettenrieder Raichlin Katzir Mizaikoff Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3645: Comparative Performance of Four Electrodes for Measuring the Electromechanical Response of Self-Damage Detecting Concrete under Tensile Load
Kim Self-damage or/and stress-sensing concrete is a promising area of research for measuring the electromechanical response of structural materials using more robust sensors. However, the copper and silver paste sensors widely used in such applications can be expensive and have detrimental effects on the load carrying capacity and durability of the structural systems upon which they are installed. Accordingly, this study compared the performance of four electrode types—conventional copper tape with silver paste (CS), copper film with type 1 carbon tape (CC1), copper film with type 2 carbon tape (CC2), ...
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Noh Kim Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3646: Erratum: Yoshimi, Y., et al. Size of Heparin-Imprinted Nanoparticles Reflects the Matched Interactions with the Target Molecule. Sensors 2019, 19, 2415
A. Piletsky The authors wish to make the following erratum to this paper [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yasuo Yoshimi Daichi Oino Hirofumi Ohira Hitoshi Muguruma Ewa Moczko Sergey A. Piletsky Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3616: Micrometer Backstepping Control System for Linear Motion Single Axis Robot Machine Drive
ang In order to cut down influence on the uncertainty disturbances of a linear motion single axis robot machine, such as the external load force, the cogging force, the column friction force, the Stribeck force, and the parameters variations, the micrometer backstepping control system, using an amended recurrent Gottlieb polynomials neural network and altered ant colony optimization (AACO) with the compensated controller, is put forward for a linear motion single axis robot machine drive system mounted on the linear-optical ruler with 1 um resolution. To achieve high-precision control performance, an adaptive law of th...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chih-Hong Lin Kuo-Tsai Chang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3617: Photoacoustic Imaging with Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers: Principles and Developments
n T.W. Yeow Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging imaging technique that bridges the gap between pure optical and acoustic techniques to provide images with optical contrast at the acoustic penetration depth. The two key components that have allowed PAI to attain high-resolution images at deeper penetration depths are the photoacoustic signal generator, which is typically implemented as a pulsed laser and the detector to receive the generated acoustic signals. Many types of acoustic sensors have been explored as a detector for the PAI including Fabry–Perot interferometers (FPIs), micro ring resonator...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jasmine Chan Zhou Zheng Kevan Bell Martin Le Parsin Haji Reza John T.W. Yeow Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3614: Railway Wheel Flat Detection System Based on a Parallelogram Mechanism
Feng Wheel flats are a key fault in railway systems, which can bring great harm to vehicle operation safety. At present, most wheel flat detection methods use qualitative detection and do not meet practical demands. In this paper, we used a railway wheel flat measurement method based on a parallelogram mechanism to detect wheel flats dynamically and quantitatively. Based on our experiments, we found that system performance was influenced by the train speed. When the train speed was higher than a certain threshold, the wheel impact force would cause vibration of the measuring mechanism and affect the detection accuracy...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Run Gao Qixin He Qibo Feng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3615: A Real-Time, Non-Contact Method for In-Line Inspection of Oil and Gas Pipelines Using Optical Sensor Array
on Sohn Corrosion is considered as one of the most predominant causes of pipeline failures in the oil and gas industry and normally cannot be easily detected at the inner surface of pipelines without service disruption. The real-time inspection of oil and gas pipelines is extremely vital to mitigate accidents and maintenance cost as well as to improve the oil and gas transport efficiency. In this paper, a new, non-contact optical sensor array method for real-time inspection and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of pipelines is presented. The proposed optical method consists of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and light depe...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Santhakumar Sampath Bishakh Bhattacharya Pouria Aryan Hoon Sohn Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3618: Analysis of Sensitivity, Linearity, Hysteresis, Responsiveness, and Fatigue of Textile Knit Stretch Sensors
Kinns Wearable technology is widely used for collecting information about the human body and its movement by placing sensors on the body. This paper presents research into electronic textile strain sensors designed specifically for wearable applications which need to be lightweight, robust, and comfortable. In this paper, sixteen stretch sensors, each with different conductive stretch fabrics, are evaluated: EeonTex (Eeonyx Corporation), knitted silver-plated yarn, and knitted spun stainless steel yarn. The sensors’ performance is tested using a tensile tester while monitoring their resistance with a micr...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: An Liang Rebecca Stewart Nick Bryan-Kinns Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3619: Prototyping a System for Truck Differential Lock Control
This article describes the control algorithm of this mechatronic system, which is designed for firefighting, military, or civilian vehicles with a drivetrain configuration of up to 10 × 10, and also explains the input signal processing and the control of actuators. The main part of this article concerns prototype testing on a vehicle. The results are an evaluation of one of the many experiments and monitor the proper function of the developed mechatronic system. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pavel Ku čera V áclav Píštěk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3621: Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring: An Overview, Laboratory Test Results and Research Directions
This article depicts the architecture of a unique NIALM laboratory, presented in detail. Results of developed NIALM methods exploiting different measurement data are discussed and compared to known methods. New directions of NIALM research are proposed. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Augustyn W ójcik Robert Łukaszewski Ryszard Kowalik Wies ław Winiecki Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3620: Improving the Performance of Pseudo-Random Single-Photon Counting Ranging Lidar
Chen A new encoding method is proposed to improve the performance of pseudo-random single-photon counting ranging (PSPCR) Lidar. The encoding principle and methodology are presented. In addition, the influence of detector’s dead time on the detection probability is analyzed with theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo simulation. Meanwhile, we propose using macro code as the analysis unit to quantitatively analyze the detection probability and single-photon detection efficiency of the traditional PSPCR Lidar and the modulated PSPCR Lidar. The Monte Carlo simulation and experiment prove that the proposed m...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Yu Bo Liu Zhen Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3622: Pressure-Pair-Based Floor Localization System Using Barometric Sensors on Smartphones
ing Liu As smartphone technology advances and its market penetration increases, indoor positioning for smartphone users is becoming an increasingly important issue. Floor localization is especially critical to indoor positioning techniques. Numerous research efforts have been proposed for improving the floor localization accuracy using information from barometers, accelerometers, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Wi-Fi signals. Despite these existing efforts, no approach has been able to determine what floor smartphone users are on with near 100% accuracy. To address this problem, we present a novel pressure-pair based m...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chungheon Yi Wonik Choi Youngjun Jeon Ling Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3623: Simultaneous Calibration of Odometry and Head-Eye Parameters for Mobile Robots with a Pan-Tilt Camera
o Jeong In the field of robot navigation, the odometric parameters, such as wheel radii and wheelbase length, and the relative pose of the optical sensing camera with respect to the robot are very important criteria for accurate operation. Hence, these parameters are necessary to be estimated for more precise operation. However, the odometric and head-eye parameters are typically estimated separately, which is an inconvenience and requires longer calibration time. Even though several researchers have proposed simultaneous calibration methods that obtain both odometric and head-eye parameters simultaneously to reduce th...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nachaya Chindakham Young-Yong Kim Alongkorn Pirayawaraporn Mun-Ho Jeong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3624: Application and Optimization of Wavelet Transform Filter for North-Seeking Gyroscope Sensor Exposed to Vibration
nchen Liu Conventional wavelet transform (WT) filters have less effect on de-noising and correction of a north-seeking gyroscope sensor exposed to vibration, since the optimal wavelet decomposed level for de-noising is difficult to determine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an optimized WT filter which is suited to the magnetic levitation gyroscope (GAT). The proposed method was tested on an equivalent mock-up network of the tunnels associated with the Hong Kong‒Zhuhai‒Macau Bridge. The gyro-observed signals exposed to vibration were collected in our experiment, and the empirical values of the optimal wa...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ji Ma Zhiqiang Yang Zhen Shi Xuewei Zhang Chenchen Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3625: Analyzing Spinal Shape Changes During Posture Training Using a Wearable Device
Björn Krüger Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent diseases in Western societies. A large percentage of European and American populations suffer from back pain at some point in their lives. One successful approach to address lower back pain is postural training, which can be supported by wearable devices, providing real-time feedback about the user’s posture. In this work, we analyze the changes in posture induced by postural training. To this end, we compare snapshots before and after training, as measured by the Gokhale SpineTracker™. Considering pairs of before and after ...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Katharina Stollenwerk Jonas M üller Andr é Hinkenjann Bj örn Krüger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3626: Implementation of Radiating Elements for Radiofrequency Front-Ends by Screen-Printing Techniques for Internet of Things Applications
ez-Giménez Falcone The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to embedding wireless transceivers into a wide range of devices, in order to implement context-aware scenarios, in which a massive amount of transceivers is foreseen. In this framework, cost-effective electronic and Radio Frequency (RF) front-end integration is desirable, in order to enable straightforward inclusion of communication capabilities within objects and devices in general. In this work, flexible antenna prototypes, based on screen-printing techniques, with conductive inks on flexible low-cost plastic substrates is proposed. Diffe...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Picallo Klaina Lopez-Iturri S ánchez M éndez-Giménez Falcone Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3627: Target Doppler Rate Estimation Based on the Complex Phase of STFT in Passive Forward Scattering Radar
This article presents a novel approach to the estimation of motion parameters of objects in passive forward scattering radars (PFSR). In such systems, most frequency modulated signals which are used have parameters that depend on the geometry of a radar scene and an object’s motion. Worth noting is that in bistatic (or multistatic) radars forward scattering geometry is present thus in this case only Doppler measurements are available while the range measurement is unambiguous. In this article the modulation factor, also called the Doppler rate, was determined based on the chirp rate (equivalent Doppler rate) ...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Karol Abratkiewicz Piotr Krysik Zbigniew Gajo Piotr Samczy ński Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3628: Smoke Obscuration Measurements in Reduced-Scale Fire Modelling Based on Froude Number Similarity
Krasuski A common method for investigating various fire- and smoke-related phenoma is a reduced-scale fire modelling that uses the conservation concept of Froude number as its primary similarity criterion. Smoke obscuration measurements were not commonly used in this approach. In this paper, we propose a new type of optical densitometer that allows for smoke obscuration density measurements on a reduced-scale. This device uses a set of mirrors to increase the optical path length, so that the device may follow the geometrical scale of the model, but that still measures smoke obscuration as if it were in full scale. The...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: W ęgrzyński Antosiewicz Burdzy Zimny Krasuski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3629: Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Fusion of Multi-Sensor Data for Monitoring a Pilot ’s Workload Condition
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3629: Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Fusion of Multi-Sensor Data for Monitoring a Pilot’s Workload Condition Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19163629 Authors: Zhang Sun Qiu Bao Zhang To realize an early warning of unbalanced workload in the aircraft cockpit, it is required to monitor the pilot’s real-time workload condition. For the purpose of building the mapping relationship from physiological and flight data to workload, a multi-source data fusion model is proposed based on a fuzzy neural network, mainly structured using a principal components extraction layer, fuzzification ...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Sun Qiu Bao Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3630: Development of an Eye Tracking-Based Human-Computer Interface for Real-Time Applications
tariu In this paper, the development of an eye-tracking-based human–computer interface for real-time applications is presented. To identify the most appropriate pupil detection algorithm for the proposed interface, we analyzed the performance of eight algorithms, six of which we developed based on the most representative pupil center detection techniques. The accuracy of each algorithm was evaluated for different eye images from four representative databases and for video eye images using a new testing protocol for a scene image. For all video recordings, we determined the detection rate within a circular...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Radu Gabriel Bozomitu Alexandru P ăsărică Daniela T ărniceriu Cristian Rotariu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3613: Fiber Ring Laser Directional Torsion Sensor with Ultra-Wide Linear Response
iliang Du In this paper, a comprehensive passive torsion measurement is performed firstly in a 40-cm-long polarization maintaining fiber-based Sagnac interferometer (PMF-SI), and the non-linear torsion response is found and investigated. Then, a fiber laser torsion sensor (FLTS) with a dual-ring-cavity structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, in which the PMF-SI is utilized as the optical filter as well as the sensing unit. In particular, the highly sensitive linear range is adjusted through fine phase modulation, and owing to the flat-top feature of fringes, an ~83.6% sensitivity difference is effectivel...
Source: Sensors - August 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xianjin Liu Fengjuan Wang Jiuru Yang Xudong Zhang Xiliang Du Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3606: The Heading Weight Function: A Novel LiDAR-Based Local Planner for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots
aeth In this paper, we present a novel method for obstacle avoidance designed for a nonholonomic mobile robot. The method relies on light detection and ranging (LiDAR) readings, which are mapped into a polar coordinate system. Obstacles are taken into consideration when they are within a predefined radius from the robot. A central part of the approach is a new Heading Weight Function (HWF), in which the beams within the aperture angle of the LiDAR are virtually weighted in order to generate the best trajectory candidate for the robot. The HWF is designed to find a solution also in the case of a local-minima situation. ...
Source: Sensors - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Harik Korsaeth Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3607: Joint Banknote Recognition and Counterfeit Detection Using Explainable Artificial Intelligence
Kim We investigated machine learning-based joint banknote recognition and counterfeit detection method. Unlike existing methods, since the proposed method simultaneously recognize banknote type and detect counterfeit detection, it is significantly faster than existing serial banknote recognition and counterfeit detection methods. Furthermore, we propose an explainable artificial intelligence method for visualizing regions that contributed to the recognition and detection. Using the visualization, it is possible to understand the behavior of the trained machine learning system. In experiments using the United State Doll...
Source: Sensors - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Miseon Han Jeongtae Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3608: Modeling and Control of a Six Degrees of Freedom Maglev Vibration Isolation System
ilong Liu The environment in space provides favorable conditions for space missions. However, low frequency vibration poses a great challenge to high sensitivity equipment, resulting in performance degradation of sensitive systems. Due to the ever-increasing requirements to protect sensitive payloads, there is a pressing need for micro-vibration suppression. This paper deals with the modeling and control of a maglev vibration isolation system. A high-precision nonlinear dynamic model with six degrees of freedom was derived, which contains the mathematical model of Lorentz actuators and umbilical cables. Regarding the s...
Source: Sensors - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qianqian Wu Ning Cui Sifang Zhao Hongbo Zhang Bilong Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3610: Radio Frequency Fingerprint-Based Intelligent Mobile Edge Computing for Internet of Things Authentication
Song Chen In this paper, a light-weight radio frequency fingerprinting identification (RFFID) scheme that combines with a two-layer model is proposed to realize authentications for a large number of resource-constrained terminals under the mobile edge computing (MEC) scenario without relying on encryption-based methods. In the first layer, signal collection, extraction of RF fingerprint features, dynamic feature database storage, and access authentication decision are carried out by the MEC devices. In the second layer, learning features, generating decision models, and implementing machine learning algorithms fo...
Source: Sensors - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chen Wen Wu Xu Jiang Song Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3609: Evaluation of Sentinel-3A OLCI Products Derived Using the Case-2 Regional CoastColour Processor over the Baltic Sea
In this study, the Level-2 products of the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) data on Sentinel-3A are derived using the Case-2 Regional CoastColour (C2RCC) processor for the SentiNel Application Platform (SNAP) whilst adjusting the specific scatter of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) for the Baltic Sea in order to improve TSM retrieval. The remote sensing product “kd_z90max” (i.e., the depth of the water column from which 90% of the water-leaving irradiance are derived) from C2RCC-SNAP showed a good correlation with in situ Secchi depth (SD). Additionally, a regional in-water algorithm was appl...
Source: Sensors - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dmytro Kyryliuk Susanne Kratzer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3611: Seasonal Time Series Forecasting by F1-Fuzzy Transform
We present a new seasonal forecasting method based on F1-transform (fuzzy transform of order 1) applied on weather datasets. The objective of this research is to improve the performances of the fuzzy transform-based prediction method applied to seasonal time series. The time series’ trend is obtained via polynomial fitting: then, the dataset is partitioned in S seasonal subsets and the direct F1-transform components for each seasonal subset are calculated as well. The inverse F1-transforms are used to predict the value of the weather parameter in the future. We test our method on heat index datasets obtained ...
Source: Sensors - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Di Martino Sessa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3612: An Edge-Fog Secure Self-Authenticable Data Transfer Protocol
We present a new lightweight secure self-authenticable transfer protocol (SSATP) for communications between Edge nodes and Fog nodes. The primary target of the proposed protocol is to use it as a secure transport for CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol) in place of UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and DTLS (Datagram Transport Layer Security), which are traditional choices in this scenario. SSATP uses modified header fields of standard UDP packets to transfer additional protocol handling and data flow management information as well as user data authentication information. The optional redundant data may be used to provide in...
Source: Sensors - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Algimantas Ven čkauskas Nerijus Morkevicius Vaidas Jukavi čius Robertas Dama ševičius Jevgenijus Toldinas Šarūnas Grigaliūnas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3597: Use of Cyanobacterial Luminescent Bioreporters to Report on the Environmental Impact of Metallic Nanoparticles
In this study, a battery of cyanobacterial bioreporters has been used to assess the ecotoxicity of four highly used metallic nanoparticles (NPs). The toxicity of these NPs was tested using the bioreporter Nostoc CPB4337 (Anabaena CPB4337). As oxidative stress is a primary toxic mechanism of metallic NPs, cyanobacterial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-detecting bioreporters were used. Metallic NPs release metal ions, which contribute to their toxic effect and the formation of ROS, so a metal-detecting bioreporter was also used to detect the bioavailable metals. The results confirm that ROS production by NPs was due to the NPs...
Source: Sensors - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jara Hurtado-Gallego Francisco Legan és Roberto Rosal Francisca Fern ández-Piñas Tags: Article Source Type: research