Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4142: Anti-Wiretap Spectrum-Sharing for Cooperative Cognitive Radio Communication Systems
eng Yi Gong As wireless communication technology keeps progressing, people’s requirements for wireless communication quality are getting higher and higher. Wireless communication brings convenience, but also causes some problems. On the one hand, the traditional static and fixed spectrum allocation strategy leads to high wastefulness of spectrum resources. The direction of improving the utility of spectrum resources by combining the advantages of cooperative communication and cognitive radio has attracted the attention of many scholars. On the other hand, security of communication is becoming an importa...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Peiyuan Si Weidang Lu Kecai Gu Xin Liu Bo Li Hong Peng Yi Gong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4141: Visual Measurement of Water Level under Complex Illumination Conditions
ng Wang Image-based water level measurement is a visual-sensing technique which automatically inspects the reading of the water line via image processing instead of the human eye. It can be realized easily on an existing video surveillance system and has advantages like low cost, non-contact, as well as results that are verifiable. It has the potential to be widely used in flood and waterlogging monitoring, while facing the challenge that water-line detection under complex natural or artificial illumination conditions is quite difficult in field applications. To handle this problem, a method is proposed assuming tha...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Zhou Liu Zhang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4139: Ensembles of Deep Learning Models and Transfer Learning for Ear Recognition
rtinetz The recognition performance of visual recognition systems is highly dependent on extracting and representing the discriminative characteristics of image data. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown unprecedented success in a variety of visual recognition tasks due to their capability to provide in-depth representations exploiting visual image features of appearance, color, and texture. This paper presents a novel system for ear recognition based on ensembles of deep CNN-based models and more specifically the Visual Geometry Group (VGG)-like network architectures for extracting discriminative deep featu...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hammam Alshazly Christoph Linse Erhardt Barth Thomas Martinetz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4138: Nanoparticle Classification Using Frequency Domain Analysis on Resource-Limited Platforms
rt Jian-Jia Chen A mobile system that can detect viruses in real time is urgently needed, due to the combination of virus emergence and evolution with increasing global travel and transport. A biosensor called PAMONO (for Plasmon Assisted Microscopy of Nano-sized Objects) represents a viable technology for mobile real-time detection of viruses and virus-like particles. It could be used for fast and reliable diagnoses in hospitals, airports, the open air, or other settings. For analysis of the images provided by the sensor, state-of-the-art methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can achieve high accurac...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mikail Yayla Anas Toma Kuan-Hsun Chen Jan Eric Lenssen Victoria Shpacovitch Roland Hergenr öder Frank Weichert Jian-Jia Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4143: Optimization of a New High Rotary Missile-Borne Stabilization Platform
ng Li Lu The passive semi-strapdown roll stabilized platform is an inertial platform, which can isolate the rolling of a projectile body by a special mechanical device. In the passive semi-strapdown roll stabilized platform, the bearing device plays an important role in isolating the rolling of the projectile body. The smaller the friction moment of bearing, the smaller the swing angular velocity of the platform, the smaller the range of inertial sensors required, the higher the accuracy of the navigation solution. In order to further reduce the swing angular velocity of the platform and improve the navigation ac...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei Li Zhang Feng Zhang Li Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4144: Bridging Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly During GRACE/GRACE-FO Gap Using SSA Method: A Case Study in China
g Zhu Li The terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) gap between the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and its follow-on mission (GRACE-FO) is now a significant issue for scientific research in high-resolution time-variable gravity fields. This paper proposes the use of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to predict the TWSA derived from GRACE. We designed a case study in six regions in China (North China Plain (NCP), Southwest China (SWC), Three-River Headwaters Region (TRHR), Tianshan Mountains Region (TSMR), Heihe River Basin (HRB), and Lishui and Wenzhou area (LSWZ)) using GRACE RL06 data from Jan...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Wang Zhang Wen Zhong Zhu Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4145: An Efficient and Robust Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Method Using Ensemble Random Projection in Surveillance Videos
ianping Yin Video anomaly detection is widely applied in modern society, which is achieved by sensors such as surveillance cameras. This paper learns anomalies by exploiting videos under the fully unsupervised setting. To avoid massive computation caused by back-prorogation in existing methods, we propose a novel efficient three-stage unsupervised anomaly detection method. In the first stage, we adopt random projection instead of autoencoder or its variants in previous works. Then we formulate the optimization goal as a least-square regression problem which has a closed-form solution, leading to less computational cost...
Source: Sensors - September 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jingtao Hu En Zhu Siqi Wang Xinwang Liu Xifeng Guo Jianping Yin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4117: Ambulatory Assessment of the Dynamic Margin of Stability Using an Inertial Sensor Network
ia Sabatini Loss of stability is a precursor to falling and therefore represents a leading cause of injury, especially in fragile people. Thus, dynamic stability during activities of daily living (ADLs) needs to be considered to assess balance control and fall risk. The dynamic margin of stability (MOS) is often used as an indicator of how the body center of mass is located and moves relative to the base of support. In this work, we propose a magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU)-based method to assess the MOS of a gait. Six young healthy subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill at different velocities while weari...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michelangelo Guaitolini Federica Aprigliano Andrea Mannini Silvestro Micera Vito Monaco Angelo Maria Sabatini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4118: A Sensitive and Versatile Thickness Determination Method Based on Non-Inflection Terahertz Property Fitting
son The accuracy of thin-film characterization in terahertz spectroscopy is mainly set by the thickness uncertainty. Physical thickness measurement has limited accuracy for thin-film samples thinner than a few hundreds of micrometers and is sometimes even impossible. The temporal resolution of time-domain terahertz spectrometers is not sufficient to resolve such thin films. Previously reported numerical methods mainly only work for materials with low dispersion and absorption. Here, we propose a novel method for thickness determination by fitting a non-inflection offset exponential function to the material optical prop...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuequan Chen Emma Pickwell-MacPherson Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4119: Fusing Object Information and Inertial Data for Activity Recognition
We present our results of combining inertial and video features to recognize human activities on different types of scenarios where we achieve an F 1 -measure of up to 79.6%. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexander Diete Heiner Stuckenschmidt Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4120: Analysis of Efficient Spectrum Handoff in a Multi-Class Hybrid Spectrum Access Cognitive Radio Network Using Markov Modelling
d Ali Malik Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) rely on sensing of the licensed spectrum of a primary network to dynamically ascertain underutilized portion of the spectrum, thus affording additional communication opportunities. In a CRN, a single homogeneous spectrum access, such as interweave only deprives the secondary users (SUs) of channel access during handoff, particularly at high primary network traffic. Therefore, providing quality-of-service (QoS) to multi-class SUs with diverse delay requirements during handoff becomes a challenging task. In this paper, we have evolved a Markov-based analytical model to ascertai...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Atif Shakeel Riaz Hussain Adeel Iqbal Irfan Latif Khan Qadeer ul Hasan Shahzad Ali Malik Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4121: IoT Security Configurability with Security-by-Contract
sacci Cybersecurity is one of the biggest challenges in the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, as well as one of its most embarrassing failures. As a matter of fact, nowadays IoT devices still exhibit various shortcomings. For example, they lack secure default configurations and sufficient security configurability. They also lack rich behavioural descriptions, failing to list provided and required services. To answer this problem, we envision a future where IoT devices carry behavioural contracts and Fog nodes store network policies. One requirement is that contract consistency must be easy to prove. Moreover, contracts ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alberto Giaretta Nicola Dragoni Fabio Massacci Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4122: Super Sub-Nyquist Single-Pixel Imaging by Means of Cake-Cutting Hadamard Basis Sort
u Single-pixel imaging via compressed sensing can reconstruct high-quality images from a few linear random measurements of an object known a priori to be sparse or compressive, by using a point/bucket detector without spatial resolution. Nevertheless, random measurements still have blindness, limiting the sampling ratios and leading to a harsh trade-off between the acquisition time and the spatial resolution. Here, we present a new compressive imaging approach by using a strategy we call cake-cutting, which can optimally reorder the deterministic Hadamard basis. The proposed method is capable of recovering images of la...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wen-Kai Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4123: Canopy Nitrogen Concentration Monitoring Techniques of Summer Corn Based on Canopy Spectral Information
In this study, a lysimeter experiment was carried out to examine the characteristics of canopy spectral reflectance variation of summer corn under different fertilization levels. The relationship between canopy spectral reflectance and nitrogen concentration was investigated, based on which sensitive bands for the corn canopy nitrogen monitoring were selected and a suitable spectral index model was determined. The results suggest that under different fertilization levels, the canopy spectral reflectance of summer corn decreases with the increase of the canopy nitrogen concentration in the visible light band, but varies in ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lu Liu Zhigong Peng Baozhong Zhang Zheng Wei Nana Han Shaozhe Lin He Chen Jiabing Cai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4124: Boosting Depth-Based Face Recognition from a Quality Perspective
Zhengxi Liu Face recognition using depth data has attracted increasing attention from both academia and industry in the past five years. Previous works show a huge performance gap between high-quality and low-quality depth data. Due to the lack of databases and reasonable evaluations on data quality, very few researchers have focused on boosting depth-based face recognition by enhancing data quality or feature representation. In the paper, we carefully collect a new database including high-quality 3D shapes, low-quality depth images and the corresponding color images of the faces of 902 subjects, which have long been...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhenguo Hu Penghui Gui Ziqing Feng Qijun Zhao Keren Fu Feng Liu Zhengxi Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4101: Multipurpose Polymer Bragg Grating-Based Optomechanical Sensor Pad
Hellmann Flexible epoxy waveguide Bragg gratings are fabricated on a low-modulus TPX™ polymethylpentene polyolefin substrate for an easy to manufacture and low-cost optomechanical sensor pad providing exceedingly multipurpose application potentials. Rectangular EpoCore negative resist strip waveguides are formed employing standard UV mask lithography. Highly persistent Bragg gratings are inscribed directly into the channel waveguides by permanently modifying the local refractive indices through a well-defined KrF excimer laser irradiated +1/-1 order phase mask. The reproducible and vastly versatile sensing capab...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Steffen Hessler Patrick Bott Stefan Kefer Bernhard Schmauss Ralf Hellmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4102: Characteristics Regarding Lift-Off Intersection of Pulse-Modulation Eddy Current Signals for Evaluation of Hidden Thickness Loss in Cladded Conductors
nmao Chen The cladded conductor is broadly utilized in engineering fields, such as aerospace, energy, and petrochemical; however, it is vulnerable to thickness loss occurring in the clad layer and nonconductive protection coating due to abrasive and corrosive environments. Such a flaw severely undermines the integrity and safety of the mechanical structures. Therefore, evaluating the thickness loss hidden inside cladded conductors via reliable nondestructive evaluation techniques is imperative. This paper intensively investigates the pulse-modulation eddy current technique (PMEC) for the assessment of thickness loss in...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yong Li Yi Wang Zhengshuai Liu Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin Zhenmao Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4103: Ultrathin Submicrometer Scale Multicolor Detector of Visible Light Based on Metamaterial
In this study, we propose a multi-color detector using a simple plasmonic metamaterial structure consisting of a silver and a indium phosphide. The color detector is composed of a metal strip with a periodicity in the x-axis direction on a layer of the dielectric material located on a metal substrate. This color detector can control the spectrum absorbed in the dielectric material layer by changing the thickness of the dielectric material layer or the width of the metal strip. The triangle formed by the three primary colors, namely, red, green, and blue, which are representatively detected by optimizing the color detector ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Young Jin Lee Youngsoo Kim Seokhyeon Hong Soon-Hong Kwon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4104: Novel Operation Strategy to Obtain a Fast Gas Sensor for Continuous ppb-Level NO2 Detection at Room Temperature Using ZnO —A Concept Study with Experimental Proof
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4104: Novel Operation Strategy to Obtain a Fast Gas Sensor for Continuous ppb-Level NO2 Detection at Room Temperature Using ZnO—A Concept Study with Experimental Proof Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194104 Authors: Ricarda Wagner Daniela Schönauer-Kamin Ralf Moos A novel sensor operation concept for detecting ppb-level NO2 concentrations at room temperature is introduced. Today’s research efforts are directed to make the sensors as fast as possible (low response and recovery times). Nevertheless, hourly mean values can hardly be precisely calculated, as the sensors are ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ricarda Wagner Daniela Sch önauer-Kamin Ralf Moos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4105: A Flexible Temperature Sensor Array with Polyaniline/Graphene –Polyvinyl Butyral Thin Film
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4105: A Flexible Temperature Sensor Array with Polyaniline/Graphene–Polyvinyl Butyral Thin Film Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194105 Authors: Jin Pan Shiyu Liu Hongzhou Zhang Jiangang Lu Thermal-resistance temperature sensors generally employ temperature-sensitive materials as active layers, which are always deposited on a flexible substrate to improve flexibility. Such a temperature sensor is usually integrated in wearable devices with other sensors, such as pressure sensors and stretchable sensors. In prior works, the temperature and pressure sensors are usually located in different ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jin Pan Shiyu Liu Hongzhou Zhang Jiangang Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4106: Critical Location Spatial-Temporal Coverage Optimization in Visual Sensor Network
ie Lu Coverage and network lifetime are two fundamental research issues in visual sensor networks. In some surveillance scenarios, there are some critical locations that demand to be monitored within a designated period. However, with limited sensor nodes resources, it may not be possible to meet both coverage and network lifetime requirements. Therefore, in order to satisfy the network lifetime constraint, sometimes the coverage needs to be traded for network lifetime. In this paper, we study how to schedule sensor nodes to maximize the spatial-temporal coverage of the critical locations under the constraint of networ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yonghua Xiong Jing Li Manjie Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4107: Detecting IoT Devices and How They Put Large Heterogeneous Networks at Security Risk
eders The introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT), i.e., the interconnection of embedded devices over the Internet, has changed the world we live in from the way we measure, make calls, print information and even the way we get energy in our offices or homes. The convenience of IoT products, like closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras, internet protocol (IP) phones, and oscilloscopes, is overwhelming for end users. In parallel, however, security issues have emerged and it is essential for infrastructure providers to assess the associated security risks. In this paper, we propose a novel method to detect IoT devi...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sharad Agarwal Pascal Oser Stefan Lueders Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4108: Real-Time Vehicle Motion Detection and Motion Altering for Connected Vehicle: Algorithm Design and Practical Applications
This study develops a novel vehicle motion detection system (VMDS) that detects lane-change, turning, acceleration, and deceleration using mobile sensors, that is, global positioning system (GPS) and inertial ones in real-time. To capture a large amount of real-time vehicle state data from multiple sensors, we develop a dynamic time warping based algorithm combined with principal component analysis (PCA). Further, the designed algorithm is trained and evaluated on both urban roads and highway using an Android platform. The aim of the algorithm is to alert adjacent drivers, especially distracted drivers, of potential crash ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei Zhao Jiateng Yin Xiaohan Wang Jia Hu Bozhao Qi Troy Runge Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4109: Acoustic Coupling between Resonator Tubes in Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectrophones Employing a Large Prong Spacing Tuning Fork
Vincenzo Spagnolo A theoretical model describing the acoustic coupling between two resonator tubes in spectrophones exploiting custom-made quartz tuning forks (QTFs) is proposed. The model is based on an open-end correction to predict the optimal tube length. A calculation of the sound field distribution from one tube exit allowed for the estimation of the optimal radius as a function of the QTF prong spacing and the sound wavelength. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed using experimental studies employing a custom QTF with a fundamental flexural mode resonance frequency of 15.8 kHz and a quality factor of ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stefano Dello Russo Marilena Giglio Angelo Sampaolo Pietro Patimisco Giansergio Menduni Hongpeng Wu Lei Dong Vittorio M. N. Passaro Vincenzo Spagnolo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4111: A Qualitative Analysis of a USB Camera for AGV Control
unior The increasing use of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) in the industry points to a search for better techniques and technologies to adapt to market requirements. Proper position control and movement give an AGV greater movement accuracy and greater lateral oscillations stability and vibration. It leads to smaller corridors and leaner plants, to more relaxed shipment devices, and to greater safety in the transport of fragile loads, for instance. AGV control techniques are not new, but new sensors’ applications are possible, such as USB cameras. In this sense, it is necessary to ensure the sensor is ad...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Diogo Puppim de Oliveira Wallace Pereira Neves dos Reis Orides Morandin Junior Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4110: A New Configurable Wireless Sensor System for Biomedical Applications with ISO 18000-3 Interface in 0.35 µm CMOS
This article presents a new configurable wireless sensor system. The system is used to perform amperometric measurements and send the measurement data to a handheld reader using a wireless transponder interface. The two-chip sensor system was implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The system consists of an integrated nano-potentiostat that performs the actual measurements and an ISO 18000-3 compliant frontend that enables wireless telemetric data transmission and powering of the entire sensor system. The system was manufactured in combination with a chronoamperometric glucose sensor which allows the measureme...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tatjana Fedtschenko Alexander Utz Alexander Stanitzki Andreas Hennig Andre L üdecke Norbert Haas Rainer Kokozinski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4112: An Adaptation Multi-Group Quasi-Affine Transformation Evolutionary Algorithm for Global Optimization and Its Application in Node Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Nguyen Developing metaheuristic algorithms has been paid more recent attention from researchers and scholars to address the optimization problems in many fields of studies. This paper proposes a novel adaptation of the multi-group quasi-affine transformation evolutionary algorithm for global optimization. Enhanced population diversity for adaptation multi-group quasi-affine transformation evolutionary algorithm is implemented by randomly dividing its population into three groups. Each group adopts a mutation strategy differently for improving the efficiency of the algorithm. The scale factor F of mutations is updated ...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nengxian Liu Jeng-Shyang Pan Jin Wang Trong-The Nguyen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4113: Validation of a Video-Based Performance Analysis System (Mediacoach ®) to Analyze the Physical Demands during Matches in LaLiga
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4113: Validation of a Video-Based Performance Analysis System (Mediacoach®) to Analyze the Physical Demands during Matches in LaLiga Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194113 Authors: Jose Luis Felipe Jorge Garcia-Unanue David Viejo-Romero Archit Navandar Javier Sánchez-Sánchez The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of a multi-camera tracking system (Mediacoach®) to track elite football players’ movements in real time. A total of 207 observations of 38 official matches from Liga 1, 2, 3™ (2nd Spanish Division, season 201...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jose Luis Felipe Jorge Garcia-Unanue David Viejo-Romero Archit Navandar Javier S ánchez-Sánchez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4114: Enhanced Distributed Fiber Optic Vibration Sensing and Simultaneous Temperature Gradient Sensing Using Traditional C-OTDR and Structured Fiber with Scattering Dots
We present results demonstrating several beneficial effects on distributed fiber optic vibration sensing (DVS) functionality and performance resulting from utilizing standard single mode optical fiber (SMF) with femtosecond laser-inscribed equally-spaced simple scattering dots. This modification is particularly useful when using traditional single-wavelength amplitude-based coherent optical time domain reflectometry (C-OTDR) as sensing method. Local sensitivity is increased in quasi-distributed interferometric sensing zones which are formed by the fiber segments between subsequent pairs of the scattering dots. The otherwis...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Konstantin Hicke Ren é Eisermann Sebastian Chruscicki Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4115: Road Extraction from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing Images Based on Improved Neural Networks
This article proposes the improvement of neural networks to extract roads from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing images. D-Linknet was first considered for its high performance; however, the huge scale of the net reduced computational efficiency. With a focus on the low computational efficiency problem of the popular D-LinkNet, this article made some improvements: (1) Replace the initial block with a stem block. (2) Rebuild the entire network based on ResNet units with a new structure, allowing for the construction of an improved neural network D-Linknetplus. (3) Add a 1 × 1 convolution layer befor...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuxia Li Bo Peng Lei He Kunlong Fan Zhenxu Li Ling Tong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4116: Rapid Motion Segmentation of LiDAR Point Cloud Based on a Combination of Probabilistic and Evidential Approaches for Intelligent Vehicles
Sunwoo Point clouds from light detecting and ranging (LiDAR) sensors represent increasingly important information for environmental object detection and classification of automated and intelligent vehicles. Objects in the driving environment can be classified as either d y n a m i c or s t a t i c depending on their movement characteristics. A LiDAR point cloud is also segmented into d y n a m i c and s t a t i c points based on the motion properties of the measured objects. The segmented motion information of a point cloud can be useful for various functions in automated and intelligent vehicles. This paper p...
Source: Sensors - September 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kichun Jo Sumyeong Lee Chansoo Kim Myoungho Sunwoo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4095: Design of Transmission-Type Refractive Index Sensor, Based on Silica Planar Lightwave Circuit Using Combination of Refractive Angle and Phase Measurements
u A transmission-type refractive index sensor, based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology is proposed. In the proposed structure, we introduce a combination of coarse measurements, using the dependence of the angle of refraction and fine measurement, and the dependence of the phase on the refractive index to measure the absolute refractive index precisely, without expensive optical measurement equipment. The theoretical model of the proposed refractive index sensor is derived based on Fourier optics and transfer function to simulate its performance. The simulation results for the use of the 2.5%-Δ...
Source: Sensors - September 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Koichi Maru Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4096: Non-Invasive Forehead Segmentation in Thermographic Imaging
omares J. Olivares The temperature of the forehead is known to be highly correlated with the internal body temperature. This area is widely used in thermal comfort systems, lie-detection systems, etc. However, there is a lack of tools to achieve the segmentation of the forehead using thermographic images and non-intrusive methods. In fact, this is usually segmented manually. This work proposes a simple and novel method to segment the forehead region and to extract the average temperature from this area solving this lack of non-user interaction tools. Our method is invariant to the position of the face, and other diff...
Source: Sensors - September 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Francisco J. Rodriguez-Lozano Fernando Le ón-García M. Ruiz de Adana Jose M. Palomares J. Olivares Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4097: Sensitivity-Enhanced Extrinsic Fabry –Perot Interferometric Fiber-Optic Microcavity Strain Sensor
This study presents an extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber-optic strain sensor with a very short cavity. The sensor consists of two vertically cut standard single-mode fibers (SMFs) and a glass capillary with a length of several centimeters. The two SMFs penetrate into the glass capillary and are fixed at its two ends with the use of ultraviolet (UV) curable adhesives. Based on the use of the lengthy glass capillary sensitive element, the strain sensitivity can be greatly enhanced. Experiments showed that the microcavity EPFI strain sensor with initial cavity lengths of 20 μm, 30 &am...
Source: Sensors - September 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhibo Ma Shaolei Cheng Wanying Kou Haibin Chen Wei Wang Xiongxing Zhang Tongxin Guo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4098: Testing Mechanical Properties of Rock Bolt under Different Supports Using Fiber Bragg Grating Technology
Wang : Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, which can accurately measure strain, can be integrated with rock bolts with small fingerprints. In this paper, according to the force mechanism of prestressed anchor and non-prestressed anchor, different loading modes were designed, named active loading mode and passive loading mode. Then, FBG technology was used to monitor the axial force variation of prestressed anchor and non-prestressed anchor in different loading modes. Based on the test results, it is found that when the anchoring force is relatively small (<35 kN), prestressed anchors need to be tested by ...
Source: Sensors - September 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo Wang Ma Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4099: An Improved Locally Weighted PLS Based on Particle Swarm Optimization for Industrial Soft Sensor Modeling
In this study, locally weighted partial least squares (LWPLS) is adopted as a just-in-time learning method for industrial soft sensor modeling. In LWPLS, the bandwidth parameter h has an important impact on the performance of the algorithm, since it decides the range of the neighborhood and affects how the weight changes. Therefore, we propose a two-phase bandwidth optimization strategy that combines particle swarm optimization (PSO) and LWPLS. A numerical simulation example and an industrial application case were studied to estimate the performance of the proposed PSO–LWPLS method. The results show that, com...
Source: Sensors - September 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ren Song Chu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4100: Calibration of Displacement Laser Interferometer Systems for Industrial Metrology
ma Displacement laser interferometer systems are widely used for the calibration of machine tools and CMMs (Coordinate Measuring Machines). Additionally, they are often the workhorse in dimensional calibration laboratories, where they act as the basic metrological traceability link for many calibrations. This paper gives a review of the calibration of such systems, where several approaches, such as the calibrations of separate components or the system as a whole, are reviewed. The calibrations discussed are: the laser frequency, the counting system, software evaluation of the environmental conditions, environmental and...
Source: Sensors - September 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haitjema Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4093: 3D-GIoU: 3D Generalized Intersection over Union for Object Detection in Point Cloud
hua Zhu Three-dimensional (3D) object detection is an important research in 3D computer vision with significant applications in many fields, such as automatic driving, robotics, and human–computer interaction. However, the low precision is an urgent problem in the field of 3D object detection. To solve it, we present a framework for 3D object detection in point cloud. To be specific, a designed Backbone Network is used to make fusion of low-level features and high-level features, which makes full use of various information advantages. Moreover, the two-dimensional (2D) Generalized Intersection over Union ...
Source: Sensors - September 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jun Xu Yanxin Ma Songhua He Jiahua Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4094: Monitoring of Adult Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Using High-Frequency Ultrasound Spectral Doppler and Nakagami Imaging
irk Shung This paper reports the feasibility of Nakagami imaging in monitoring the regeneration process of zebrafish hearts in a noninvasive manner. In addition, spectral Doppler waveforms that are typically used to access the diastolic function were measured to validate the performance of Nakagami imaging. A 30-MHz high-frequency ultrasound array transducer was used to acquire backscattered echo signal for spectral Doppler and Nakagami imaging. The performances of both methods were validated with flow and tissue-mimicking phantom experiments. For in vivo experiments, both spectral Doppler and Nakagami imaging were sim...
Source: Sensors - September 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sunmi Yeo Changhan Yoon Ching-Ling Lien Tai-Kyong Song K. Kirk Shung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4080: Design and Implementation of a Novel Measuring Scheme for Fiber Interferometer Based Sensors
n You This paper presents a novel measuring scheme for fiber interferometer (FI) based sensors. With the advantages of being small sizes, having high sensitivity, a simple structure, good durability, being easy to integrate fiber optic communication and having immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), FI based sensing devices are suitable for monitoring remote system states or variations in physical parameters. However, the sensing mechanism for the interference spectrum shift of FI based sensors requires expensive equipment, such as a broadband light source (BLS) and an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). This has ...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chao-Tsung Ma Cheng-Ling Lee Yan-Wun You Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4081: SERS-Based Immunoassays for the Detection of Botulinum Toxins A and B Using Magnetic Beads
ebum Choo Rapid and sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is important for immediate treatment with proper antitoxins. However, it is difficult to detect BoNTs at the acute phase of infection, owing to its rarity and ambiguous symptoms. To resolve this problem, we developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay technique for the rapid and sensitive detection of BoNTs. Magnetic beads and SERS nanotags as capture substrates and detection probes, respectively, and Nile Blue A (NBA) and malachite green isothiocyanate (MGITC) as Raman reporter molecules were used for the detection of tw...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kihyun Kim Namhyun Choi Jun Ho Jeon Gi-eun Rhie Jaebum Choo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4082: New Single-Layered Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices for the Analysis of Nitrite and Glucose Built via Deposition of Adhesive Tape
Yang A simple, low-cost technique has been developed for the rapid fabrication of single-layered paper-based microfluidic devices (μPADs). This technique, for the first time, made use of the deposition of patterned adhesive tape into the filter paper to construct hydrophobic barriers, with the help of toluene. Unlike other reported multi-layered μPADs that merely made use of adhesive tape as a separate layer for sealing or fluid flow controlling, the patterned adhesive tape was simultaneously dissolved and penetrated into the filter paper, which resulted in the successful transfer of the pattern ...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Peng Yu Muhan Deng Yi Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4083: Measurement of Three-Dimensional Structural Displacement Using a Hybrid Inertial Vision-Based System
h Rajan Accurate three-dimensional displacement measurements of bridges and other structures have received significant attention in recent years. The main challenges of such measurements include the cost and the need for a scalable array of instrumentation. This paper presents a novel Hybrid Inertial Vision-Based Displacement Measurement (HIVBDM) system that can measure three-dimensional structural displacements by using a monocular charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, a stationary calibration target, and an attached tilt sensor. The HIVBDM system does not require the camera to be stationary during the measurements, whi...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xinxiang Zhang Yasha Zeinali Brett A. Story Dinesh Rajan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4084: Alternative Approaches to Vibration Measurement Due to the Blasting Operation: A Pilot Study
oslav Pinka As the infrastructure grows, space on the surface in the urban area is diminishing, and the view of the builders is increasingly moving underground. Implementation of underground structures, however, presents a number of problems during construction. One of the primary side effects of tunnel excavation is vibration. These vibrations need to be monitored for potential damage to structures on the surface, and this monitoring is an integral part of any such structure. This paper brings an original pilot comparative study of standard seismic instrumentation with experimentally developed fiber-optic interferomet...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stanislav Kepak Martin Stolarik Jan Nedoma Radek Martinek Jakub Kolarik Miroslav Pinka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4086: Noninvasive Suspicious Liquid Detection Using Wireless Signals
Qammer H. Abbasi Conventional liquid detection instruments are very expensive and not conducive to large-scale deployment. In this work, we propose a method for detecting and identifying suspicious liquids based on the dielectric constant by utilizing the radio signals at a 5G frequency band. There are three major experiments: first, we use wireless channel information (WCI) to distinguish between suspicious and nonsuspicious liquids; then we identify the type of suspicious liquids; and finally, we distinguish the different concentrations of alcohol. The K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is used to classify the ampli...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiewen Deng Wanrong Sun Lei Guan Nan Zhao Muhammad Bilal Khan Aifeng Ren Jianxun Zhao Xiaodong Yang Qammer H. Abbasi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4085: On-Board Real-Time Trajectory Planning for Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Extreme Environments
tt Watson A team from the University of Bristol have developed a method of operating fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) at long-range and high-altitude over Volcán de Fuego in Guatemala for the purposes of volcanic monitoring and ash-sampling. Conventionally, the mission plans must be carefully designed prior to flight, to cope with altitude gains in excess of 3000 m, reaching 9 km from the ground control station and 4500 m above mean sea level. This means the climb route cannot be modified mid-flight. At these scales, atmospheric conditions change over the course of a flight and so a real-time t...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ben Schellenberg Tom Richardson Arthur Richards Robert Clarke Matt Watson Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4087: Geophonino-W: A Wireless Multichannel Seismic Noise Recorder System for Array Measurements
nabdeloued The characterization of soil is essential for the evaluation of seismic hazard, because soil properties strongly influence the damage caused by earthquakes. Methods based on seismic noise are the most commonly used in soil characterization. Concretely, methods based on seismic noise array measurements allow for the estimation of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves and, subsequently, shear-wave velocity profiles. The equipment required for the application of this technique is usually very expensive, which could be a significant economic challenge for small research groups. In this work, we have developed a wirele...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Soler-Llorens Galiana-Merino Giner-Caturla Rosa-Cintas Nassim-Benabdeloued Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4089: A Pheromone-Inspired Monitoring Strategy Using a Swarm of Underwater Robots
Yang Lin The advent of the swarm makes it feasible to dynamically monitor a wide area for maritime applications. The crucial problems of underwater swarm monitoring are communication and behavior coordination. To tackle these problems, we propose a wide area monitoring strategy that searches for static targets of interest simultaneously. Traditionally, an underwater robot adopts either acoustic communication or optical communication. However, the former is low in bandwidth and the latter is short in communication range. Our strategy coordinates underwater robots through indirect communication, which is inspired by s...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guannan Li Chao Chen Chao Geng Meng Li Hongli Xu Yang Lin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4088: Thumbnail Tensor —A Method for Multidimensional Data Streams Clustering with an Efficient Tensor Subspace Model in the Scale-Space
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4088: Thumbnail Tensor—A Method for Multidimensional Data Streams Clustering with an Efficient Tensor Subspace Model in the Scale-Space Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194088 Authors: Bogusław Cyganek In this paper an efficient method for signal change detection in multidimensional data streams is proposed. A novel tensor model is suggested for input signal representation and analysis. The model is built from a part of the multidimensional stream by construction of the representing orthogonal tensor subspaces, computed with the higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Parts of the i...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bogus ław Cyganek Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4090: A Policy for Optimizing Sub-Band Selection Sequences in Wideband Spectrum Sensing
u Wei With the development of wireless communication technology, cognitive radio needs to solve the spectrum sensing problem of wideband wireless signals. Due to performance limitation of electronic components, it is difficult to complete spectrum sensing of wideband wireless signals at once. Therefore, it is required that the wideband wireless signal has to be split into a set of sub-bands before the further signal processing. However, the sequence of sub-band perception has become one of the important factors, which deeply-impact wideband spectrum sensing performance. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for su...
Source: Sensors - September 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yangyi Chen Shaojing Su Junyu Wei Tags: Article Source Type: research