Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6174: AgriTrust —A Trust Management Approach for Smart Agriculture in Cloud-based Internet of Agriculture Things
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6174: AgriTrust—A Trust Management Approach for Smart Agriculture in Cloud-based Internet of Agriculture Things Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216174 Authors: Kamran Ahmad Awan Ikram Ud Din Ahmad Almogren Hisham Almajed Internet of Things (IoT) provides a diverse platform to automate things where smart agriculture is one of the most promising concepts in the field of Internet of Agriculture Things (IoAT). Due to the requirements of more processing power for computations and predictions, the concept of Cloud-based smart agriculture is proposed for autonomic systems. This is where digital...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kamran Ahmad Awan Ikram Ud Din Ahmad Almogren Hisham Almajed Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6173: Portable and Affordable Light Source-Based Photoacoustic Tomography
Xia Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that offers the advantages of optical (spectroscopic contrast) and ultrasound imaging (scalable spatial resolution and imaging depth). This promising modality has shown excellent potential in a wide range of preclinical and clinical imaging and sensing applications. Even though photoacoustic imaging technology has matured in research settings, its clinical translation is not happening at the expected pace. One of the main reasons for this is the requirement of bulky and expensive pulsed lasers for excitation. To accelerate the clinical translation of photoacoustic ...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mithun Kuniyil Ajith Singh Wenfeng Xia Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6175: Ratiometric Sensor Based on PtOEP-C6/Poly (St-TFEMA) Film for Automatic Dissolved Oxygen Content Detection
ang A ratiometric oxygen sensor based on a platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)–coumarin 6 (C6)/poly (styrene-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (poly (St-TFEMA)) film was developed for automatic dissolved oxygen (DO) detection. The oxygen-sensing film according to the dynamic quenching mechanism was prepared by embedding platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) and coumarin 6 (C6) in poly (styrene-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (poly (St-TFEMA)). The optical parameter (OP) was defined as the ratio of the oxygen-insensitive fluorescence from C6 to the oxygen-sensitive phosphorescence from PtOEP. A calibration equation ...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Honglin Zhang Zhiguo Zhang Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6171: Research on Developing an Outdoor Location System Based on the Ultra-Wideband Technology
This article focuses on the use of UWB technology in constructing a guide localization system for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), which is one of the stages of implementing a “follow me” system. This article describes the complete process of UWB signal processing from its acquisition, methods of filtering, and obtained results, to determining the location of the guide. This article examines the possibility of using modified versions of localization algorithms for determining the guide’s location, including trilateration, methods of nonlinear programming, and a geometric algorithm...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Łukasz Rykała Andrzej Typiak Rafa ł Typiak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6176: Theoretical and Experimental Study of Heterodyne Phase-Sensitive Dispersion Spectroscopy with an Injection-Current-Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser
We report the theoretical and experimental study of calibration-free heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy (HPSDS) in the mid-infrared using a direct current modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). The modulation of QCL current at several hundred MHz or higher generates the synchronous frequency and intensity modulation of the QCL emission. An analytical model of the phase of the beat note signal in HPSDS is derived by considering the absorption and dispersion processes and incorporating the QCL modulation parameters. In the experiment, a 4.5 μm QCL modulated at 350 MHz was used to measu...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhen Wang Kin-Pang Cheong Mingsheng Li Qiang Wang Wei Ren Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6177: Hybrid Sensor Device for Simultaneous Surface Plasmon Resonance and Surface Acoustic Wave Measurements
We present the design and manufacturing of a novel experimental set-up employing, in addition to the SPR/LW-SAW device, a 3D-printed plastic holder combined with a PDMS microfluidic cell so that the platform can be used in a flow-through mode. The system was evaluated in a systematic study of the optical and acoustic responses for different surface perturbations, i.e., rigid mass loading (Au deposition), pure viscous loading (glycerol and sucrose solutions) and protein adsorption (BSA). Our results provide the theoretical and experimental basis for future application of the combined system to other biochemical and biophysi...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anastasios G. Samarentsis Alexandros K. Pantazis Achilleas Tsortos Jean-Michel Friedt Electra Gizeli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6154: Degradability of Biodegradable Soil Moisture Sensor Components and Their Effect on Maize (Zea mays L.) Growth
This study was conducted in a greenhouse at Colorado State University, Colorado, USA, by planting maize seeds in pots filled with three growing media (field soil, silica sand, and Promix commercial potting media). The degradation rate of five candidate sensor materials (three blends of beeswax and soy wax, balsa wood, and PHBV (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate))) was assessed by harvesting sensor materials at four maize growth stages (30, 60, 90, and 120 days after transplanting). All materials under consideration showed stability in terms of mass and dimension except PHBV. PHBV was degraded entirely within 30 d...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Subash Dahal Wubengeda Yilma Yongkun Sui Madhur Atreya Samantha Bryan Valerie Davis Gregory Whiting Raj Khosla Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6178: IoT-Based Electricity Bill for Domestic Applications
Sandoval Pérez Luis Contreras Aguilar This work proposes a real-time electricity bill for quantifying the energy used in domestic facilities in Mexico. This bill is a low-cost tool that takes advantage of the IoT technology for generating an easy reading real-time bill allowing the customers to constantly review and administrate their energy consumption. Using low-cost sensors and the electronic board Particle® Photon, an energy meter is proposed. The presented prototype is extremely compact and satisfies safety measures to be used by anyone in a domestic installation. The measurement data is displ...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ram ón Octavio Jiménez Betancourt Juan Miguel Gonz ález López Emilio Barocio Espejo Antonio Concha S ánchez Efra ín Villalvazo Laureano Sergio Sandoval P érez Luis Contreras Aguilar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6143: Advanced Modulation Format of Probabilistic Shaping Bit Loading for 450-nm GaN Laser Diode based Visible Light Communication
n Nan Chi Visible light communication is an emerging high-speed optical wireless communication technology that can be a candidate to alleviate pressure on conventional radio frequency-based technology. In this paper, for the first time, the advanced modulation format of probabilistic shaping (PS) bit loading is investigated in a high data rate visible light communication system based on a 450-nm Gallium Nitride laser diode. The characteristic of the system is discussed and PS bit loading discrete multi-tone modulation helps to raise the spectral efficiency and improve the system performance. Higher entropy can be ach...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guoqiang Li Fangchen Hu Peng Zou Chaofan Wang Gong-Ru Lin Nan Chi Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6144: An Adaptive Median Filter Based on Sampling Rate for R-Peak Detection and Major-Arrhythmia Analysis
Kwon With the advancement of the Internet of Medical Things technology, many vital sign-sensing devices are being developed. Among the diverse healthcare devices, portable electrocardiogram (ECG) measuring devices are being developed most actively with the recent development of sensor technology. These ECG measuring devices use different sampling rates according to the hardware conditions, which is the first variable to consider in the development of ECG analysis technology. Herein, we propose an R-point detection method using an adaptive median filter based on the sampling rate and analyze major arrhythmias using the...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tae Wuk Bae Sang Hag Lee Kee Koo Kwon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6145: Study of Effectiveness of Prior Knowledge for Smart Home Kit Installation
This article presents an experiment examining how smart home sensor installation was affected by knowledge gained from two methods, SHiB CBLE, and a written document. Results show that participants who were trained by the CBLE took significantly (p<0.05) less time in the installation session than those in the control group. The accuracy rate of SHiB kit installation is 78% for the group trained by the CBLE and 77% for the control group. Participants trained by the CBLE showed significantly (p<0.01) higher confidence in the actual installation than those in the control group. These results suggest that...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Hu Diane J. Cook Matthew E. Taylor Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6147: A Non-Invasive Soil Moisture Sensing System Electronic Architecture: A Real Environment Assessment
Luigi Ragni This paper will show the electronic architecture of a portable and non-invasive soil moisture system based on an open rectangular waveguide. The spectral information, measured in the range of 1.5–2.7 GHz, is elaborated on by an embedded predictive model, based on a partial least squares (PLS) regression tool, for the estimation of the soil moisture (%) in a real environment. The proposed system is composed of a waveguide, containing Tx and Rx antennas, and an electronic circuit driven by a microcontroller (MCU). It will be shown how the system provides a useful and fast estimation of moisture ...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Leonardo Franceschelli Annachiara Berardinelli Marco Crescentini Eleonora Iaccheri Marco Tartagni Luigi Ragni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6146: A Multi-Sensor Wearable System for the Quantitative Assessment of Parkinson ’s Disease
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6146: A Multi-Sensor Wearable System for the Quantitative Assessment of Parkinson’s Disease Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216146 Authors: Han Zhang Chuantao Li Wei Liu Jingying Wang Junhong Zhou Shouyan Wang The quantitative characterization of movement disorders and their related neurophysiological signals is important for the management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of this study is to develop a novel wearable system enabling the simultaneous measurement of both motion and other neurophysiological signals in PD patients. We designed a wearable system that con...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Han Zhang Chuantao Li Wei Liu Jingying Wang Junhong Zhou Shouyan Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6151: Dual Arm Co-Manipulation Architecture with Enhanced Human –Robot Communication for Large Part Manipulation
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6151: Dual Arm Co-Manipulation Architecture with Enhanced Human–Robot Communication for Large Part Manipulation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216151 Authors: Aitor Ibarguren Iveta Eimontaite José Luis Outón Sarah Fletcher The emergence of collaborative robotics has had a great impact on the development of robotic solutions for cooperative tasks nowadays carried out by humans, especially in industrial environments where robots can act as assistants to operators. Even so, the coordinated manipulation of large parts between robots and humans gives rise to many technical chal...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Aitor Ibarguren Iveta Eimontaite Jos é Luis Outón Sarah Fletcher Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6148: Directional Ultrasound Source for Solid Materials Inspection: Diffraction Management in a Metallic Phononic Crystal
eto Crina Cojocaru In this work, we numerically investigate the diffraction management of longitudinal elastic waves propagating in a two-dimensional metallic phononic crystal. We demonstrate that this structure acts as an “ultrasonic lens”, providing self-collimation or focusing effect at a certain distance from the crystal output. We implement this directional propagation in the design of a coupling device capable to control the directivity or focusing of ultrasonic waves propagation inside a target object. These effects are robust over a broad frequency band and are preserved in the pro...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hossam Selim Rub én Picó Jose Trull Miguel Delgado Prieto Crina Cojocaru Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6152: On Vulnerability of Selected IoT Systems to Radio Jamming —A Proposal of Deployment Practices
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6152: On Vulnerability of Selected IoT Systems to Radio Jamming—A Proposal of Deployment Practices Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216152 Authors: Kamil Staniec Michał Kowal Weightless and SigFox are both narrowband communication systems designed for the Internet of Things, along with some other counterparts such as LoRa (Long Range) and narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT). As systems dedicated specifically for long-range operations, they possess considerable processing gain for energetic link budget improvement and a remarkable immunity to interference. The paper describes outcomes of a...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kamil Staniec Micha ł Kowal Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6156: treNch: Ultra-Low Power Wireless Communication Protocol for IoT and Energy Harvesting
na Rivadeneyra Diego P. Morales Although the number of Internet of Things devices increases every year, efforts to decrease hardware energy demands and to improve efficiencies of the energy-harvesting stages have reached an ultra-low power level. However, no current standard of wireless communication protocol (WCP) can fully address those scenarios. Our focus in this paper is to introduce treNch, a novel WCP implementing the cross-layer principle to use the power input for adapting its operation in a dynamic manner that goes from pure best-effort to nearly real time. Together with the energy-management algorithm, it ...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fernando Moreno-Cruz V íctor Toral-López Antonio Escobar-Molero V íctor U. Ruíz Almudena Rivadeneyra Diego P. Morales Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6157: Spoofing Attack on Ultrasonic Distance Sensors Using a Continuous Signal
f Shabtai Ultrasonic distance sensors use an ultrasonic pulse’s time of flight to calculate the distance to the reflecting object. Widely used in industry, these sensors are an important component in autonomous vehicles, where they are used for such tasks as object avoidance and altitude measurement. The proper operation of such autonomous vehicles relies on sensor measurements; therefore, an adversary that has the ability to undermine the sensor’s reliability can pose a major risk to the vehicle. Previous attempts to alter the measurements of this sensor using an external signal succeeded i...
Source: Sensors - October 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tomer Gluck Moshe Kravchik Samuel Chocron Yuval Elovici Asaf Shabtai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6122: Advances in Random Fiber Lasers and Their Sensing Application
an Li Yicheng Zhu Compared with conventional laser, random laser (RL) has no resonant cavity, reducing the requirement of cavity design. In recent years, the random fiber laser (RFL), a novel kind of RL, has made great progress in theories and experiments. The RFL has a simpler structure, a more flexible design, and higher reliability. It has valuable applications for earth sciences, biological life sciences, and national defense security, due to these unique properties. This paper reviews the development of RFLs in the last decade, including their configurations based on various optical fibers and their output prope...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hong Chen Shaohua Gao Mingjiang Zhang Jianzhong Zhang Lijun Qiao Tao Wang Fei Gao Xinxin Hu Shichuan Li Yicheng Zhu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6123: Security Evaluation under Different Exchange Strategies Based on Heterogeneous CPS Model in Interdependent Sensor Networks
anmin Han In the real Internet of Everything scenario, many large-scale information systems can be converted into interdependent sensor networks, such as smart grids, smart medical systems, and industrial Internet systems. These complex systems usually have multiple interdependent sensor networks. Small faults or failure behaviors between networks may cause serious cascading failure effects of the entire system. Therefore, in this paper, we will focus on the security of interdependent sensor networks. Firstly, by calculating the size of the largest functional component in the entire network, the impact of random attack...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hao Peng Can Liu Dandan Zhao Zhaolong Hu Jianmin Han Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6124: Active Disturbance Rejection Position Synchronous Control of Dual-Hydraulic Actuators with Unknown Dead-Zones
xin Zhang In this paper, an integrated control strategy of position synchronization control for dual-electro-hydraulic actuators with unknown dead-zones is proposed. The unified control scheme consists of two parts: One is adaptive dead-zone inverse controllers of each hydraulic actuator to offset the unknown dead-zones. The other is the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) for position synchronization error. First, the model of the electro-hydraulic proportional position control system (EPPS) was identified by the forgetting factor recursive least square (FFRLS) algorithm. Next, the model reference d...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lixin Wang Dingxuan Zhao Fucai Liu Qian Liu Zhuxin Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6125: An Efficient Resource Allocation Strategy for Edge-Computing Based Environmental Monitoring System
Bo Wang The cloud computing and microsensor technology has greatly changed environmental monitoring, but it is difficult for cloud-computing based monitoring system to meet the computation demand of smaller monitoring granularity and increasing monitoring applications. As a novel computing paradigm, edge computing deals with this problem by deploying resource on edge network. However, the particularity of environmental monitoring applications is ignored by most previous studies. In this paper, we proposed a resource allocation algorithm and a task scheduling strategy to reduce the average completion latency of enviro...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Juan Fang Juntao Hu Jianhua Wei Tong Liu Bo Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6126: Acceleration Magnitude at Impact Following Loss of Balance Can Be Estimated Using Deep Learning Model
Hwan Mun Pre-impact fall detection can detect a fall before a body segment hits the ground. When it is integrated with a protective system, it can directly prevent an injury due to hitting the ground. An impact acceleration peak magnitude is one of key measurement factors that can affect the severity of an injury. It can be used as a design parameter for wearable protective devices to prevent injuries. In our study, a novel method is proposed to predict an impact acceleration magnitude after loss of balance using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor and a sequential-based deep learning model. Twenty-four he...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tae Hyong Kim Ahnryul Choi Hyun Mu Heo Hyunggun Kim Joung Hwan Mun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6127: Energy-Efficient Connected-Coverage Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks
Tian In the wireless sensor network, the lifetime of the network can be prolonged by improving the efficiency of limited energy. Existing works achieve better energy utilization, either through node scheduling or routing optimization. In this paper, an efficient solution combining node scheduling with routing protocol optimization is proposed in order to improve the network lifetime. Firstly, to avoid the redundant coverage, a node scheduling scheme that is based on a genetic algorithm is proposed to find the minimum number of sensor nodes to monitor all target points. Subsequently, the algorithm prolongs the lifetime...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yun Xu Wanguo Jiao Mengqiu Tian Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6129: A Multispectral Camera Development: From the Prototype Assembly until Its Use in a UAV System
Jose F. Lopez Multispectral imaging (MI) techniques are being used very often to identify different properties of nature in several domains, going from precision agriculture to environmental studies, not to mention quality inspection of pharmaceutical production, art restoration, biochemistry, forensic sciences or geology, just to name some. Different implementations are commercially available from the industry and yet there is quite an interest from the scientific community to spread its use to the majority of society by means of cost effectiveness and ease of use for solutions. These devices make the most sense whe...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alejandro Morales Raul Guerra Pablo Horstrand Maria Diaz Adan Jimenez Jose Melian Sebastian Lopez Jose F. Lopez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6130: Contribution to Speeding-Up the Solving of Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations on Parallel/Multi-Core Platforms for Sensing Systems
yamakya Solving ordinary differential equations (ODE) on heterogenous or multi-core/parallel embedded systems does significantly increase the operational capacity of many sensing systems in view of processing tasks such as self-calibration, model-based measurement and self-diagnostics. The main challenge is usually related to the complexity of the processing task at hand which costs/requires too much processing power, which may not be available, to ensure a real-time processing. Therefore, a distributed solving involving multiple cores or nodes is a good/precious option. Also, speeding-up the processing does also resul...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vahid Tavakkoli Kabeh Mohsenzadegan Jean Chamberlain Chedjou Kyandoghere Kyamakya Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6128: An Integrated Front-end Circuit Board for Air-Coupled CMUT Burst-Echo Imaging
chen Wang To conduct burst-echo imaging with air-coupled capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) using the same elements in transmission and reception, this work proposes a dedicated and integrated front-end circuit board design to build an imaging system. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first air-coupled CMUT burst-echo imaging using the same elements in transmission and reception. The reported front-end circuit board, controlled by field programmable gate array (FPGA), consisted of four parts: an on-board pulser, a bias-tee, a T/R switch and an amplifier. Working with ...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lei Ye Jian Li Hui Zhang Dongmei Liang Zhuochen Wang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6132: Improved Performance of SRAM-Based True Random Number Generator by Leveraging Irradiation Exposure
n Liu Sanyong Zou Encryption is an important step for secure data transmission, and a true random number generator (TRNG) is a key building block in many encryption algorithms. Static random-access memory (SRAM) chips can be easily available sources of true random numbers, benefiting from noisy SRAM cells whose start-up values flip between different power-on cycles. Embarking from this phenomenon, a novel performance (i.e., randomness and throughput) improvement method of SRAM-based TRNG is proposed, and its implementation can be divided into two phases: irradiation exposure and hardware postprocessing. As the random...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xu Zhang Chunsheng Jiang Gang Dai Le Zhong Wen Fang Ke Gu Guoping Xiao Shangqing Ren Xin Liu Sanyong Zou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6131: Towards Secure and Privacy-Preserving IoT Enabled Smart Home: Architecture and Experimental Study
Ali Sajjad Internet of Things (IoT) technology is increasingly pervasive in all aspects of our life and its usage is anticipated to significantly increase in future Smart Cities to support their myriad of revolutionary applications. This paper introduces a new architecture that can support several IoT-enabled smart home use cases, with a specified level of security and privacy preservation. The security threats that may target such an architecture are highlighted along with the cryptographic algorithms that can prevent them. An experimental study is performed to provide more insights about the suitability of several...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mamun Abu-Tair Soufiene Djahel Philip Perry Bryan Scotney Unsub Zia Jorge Martinez Carracedo Ali Sajjad Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6134: Deep Learning-Based Spread-Spectrum FGSM for Underwater Communication
feng Wang The limitation of the available channel bandwidth and availability of a sustainable energy source for battery feed sensor nodes are the main challenges in the underwater acoustic communication. Unlike terrestrial’s communication, using multi-input multi-output (MIMO) technologies to overcome the bandwidth limitation problem is highly restricted in underwater acoustic communication by high inter-channel interference (ICI) and the channel multipath effect. Recently, the spatial modulation techniques (SMTs) have been presented as an alternative solution to overcome these issues by transmitting more...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zeyad A. H. Qasem Hamada Esmaiel Haixin Sun Jie Qi Junfeng Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6135: New Procedure for the Kinematic and Power Analysis of Cyclists in Indoor Training
Ramón Gutiérrez-Moizant In this research, the performance and movements of amateur and professional cyclists were analyzed. For this, reflective markers have been used on different parts of the body of the participants in conjunction with sports cameras and a mobile power meter. The trajectories of the markers have been obtained with the software Kinovea and subsequently analyzed using error ellipses. It is demonstrated that the error ellipses help determine movement patterns in the knees, back, and hip. The covariance of the error ellipses can be indicative of the alignment and symmetry of the frontal...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jos é Antonio Calvo Carolina Álvarez-Caldas Jos é Luis San Román Ram ón Gutiérrez-Moizant Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6136: Centre of Pressure Estimation during Walking Using Only Inertial-Measurement Units and End-To-End Statistical Modelling
We present a methodology for estimating the COP solely from raw gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer data from IMUs using statistical modelling. We demonstrate the viability of the method using an example of two models: a linear model and a non-linear Long-Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network model. Models were trained on the COP ground truth data measured using an instrumented treadmill and achieved the average intra-subject root mean square (RMS) error between estimated and ground truth COP of 12.3 mm and the average inter-subject RMS error of 23.7 mm which is comparable or better than similar studies so far. We...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Janez Podobnik David Kralji ć Matja ž Zadravec Marko Munih Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6138: Spectral Reflectance Can Differentiate Tracheal and Esophageal Tissue in the Presence of Bodily Fluids and Soot
In this study, we examine the effectiveness of spectral characterization in the presence of saline, blood, “vomit”, and soot in the trachea. Our results show that spectral properties of the trachea that differentiate it from the esophagus persist in the presence of these substances. This work further confirms the potential usefulness of this novel detection technology in field applications. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: David Berard Chirantan Sen Corinne D. Nawn August N. Blackburn Kathy L. Ryan Megan B. Blackburn Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6137: A Scalable and Secure Group Key Management Method for Secure V2V Communication
Choi Safety applications based on vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications can significantly enhance road safety and reduce traffic fatalities. Ensuring the security and privacy of the vehicular network is essential for the widespread adoption of V2X communications for commercial use. V2X safety and service applications require periodic broadcast communications among all the vehicles. However, compared to unicast communication, it is extremely challenging to provide broadcast communication with network security requirements such as confidentiality, in infotainment contents distribution, sensor data sharing, and sec...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Aliev Kim Choi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6140: Intelligent UAV Deployment for a Disaster-Resilient Wireless Network
This article studies the problem of optimal placement of the UAVs as ABSs to enable network connectivity for the users in such a scenario. The main contributions of this work include a less complex approach to optimally position the UAVs and to assign user equipment (UE) to each ABS, such that the total spectral efficiency (TSE) of the network is maximized, while maintaining a minimum QoS requirement for the UEs. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that it only requires the knowledge of UE and ABS locations and statistical channel state information. The optimal 2-dimensional (2D) positions of the ABSs and the UE...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hassaan Hydher Dushantha Nalin K. Jayakody Kasun T. Hemachandra Tharaka Samarasinghe Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6139: A Novel Ensemble Adaptive Sparse Bayesian Transfer Learning Machine for Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Monitoring
Jing Wu Process monitoring plays an important role in ensuring the safety and stable operation of equipment in a large-scale process. This paper proposes a novel data-driven process monitoring framework, termed the ensemble adaptive sparse Bayesian transfer learning machine (EAdspB-TLM), for nonlinear fault diagnosis. The proposed framework has the following advantages: Firstly, the probabilistic relevance vector machine (PrRVM) under Bayesian framework is re-derived so that it can be used to forecast the plant operating conditions. Secondly, we extend the PrRVM method and assimilate transfer learning into the sparse...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongchao Cheng Yiqi Liu Daoping Huang Chong Xu Jing Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6141: Erratum: Toro, C. et al. On the Detection of Spectral Emissions of Iron Oxides in Combustion Experiments of Pyrite Concentrates. Sensors 2020, 20, 1284
Balladares Parra The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Toro Torres Parra Fuentes Castillo D íaz Reyes Balladares Parra Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6133: SoC FPGA Accelerated Sub-Optimized Binary Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Robotic Floor Region Segmentation
e Liu In this article, a new Binary Fully Convolutional Neural Network (B-FCN) based on Taguchi method sub-optimization for the segmentation of robotic floor regions, which can precisely distinguish floor regions in complex indoor environments is proposed. This methodology is quite suitable for robot vision in an embedded platform and the segmentation accuracy is up to 84.80% on average. A total of 6000 training datasets were used to improve the accuracy and reach convergence. On the other hand, to reach real-time computation, a PYNQ FPGA platform with heterogeneous computing acceleration was used to accelerate the pro...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chi-Chia Sun Afaroj Ahamad Pin-He Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6142: Compact Double-Layer FR4-based Focusing Lens Using High-Efficiency Huygens ’ Metasurface Unit Cells
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6142: Compact Double-Layer FR4-based Focusing Lens Using High-Efficiency Huygens’ Metasurface Unit Cells Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216142 Authors: Kd M Raziul Islam Sangjo Choi High transmission efficiency metasurface unit cells have been designed based on surface electric and magnetic impedances derived from Huygens’ principle. However, unit cells for low transmission loss (< 1 dB) over a wide transmission phase range require at least three metallic layers, which complicates the unit cell design process. In this paper, we introduce high-efficiency Huygens&...
Source: Sensors - October 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kd M Raziul Islam Sangjo Choi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6115: Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Fluorescence Quenching in Optical Fibre-Based pH Sensors
Michael G. Tanner Numerous optodes, with fluorophores as the chemical sensing element and optical fibres for light delivery and collection, have been fabricated for minimally invasive endoscopic measurements of key physiological parameters such as pH. These flexible miniaturised optodes have typically attempted to maximize signal-to-noise through the application of high concentrations of fluorophores. We show that high-density attachment of carboxyfluorescein onto silica microspheres, the sensing elements, results in fluorescence energy transfer, manifesting as reduced fluorescence intensity and lifetime in addition...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Katjana Ehrlich Tushar R. Choudhary Muhammed Ucuncu Alicia Megia-Fernandez Kerrianne Harrington Harry A. C. Wood Fei Yu Debaditya Choudhury Kev Dhaliwal Mark Bradley Michael G. Tanner Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6107: Measurements of Rotational Events Generated by Artificial Explosions and External Excitations Using the Optical Fiber Sensors Network
Heiner Igel Measurements of artificial events can substantially confirm the data validity of constructed rotational sensors, as well as provide methods for simplifying the measurement process. The above task, especially with international cooperation, can provide full-field measurement results of the target object, which can deliver more significant data and sensor properties. The paper presents vertical rotational velocity recordings gathered during an international experiment that took place at the Geophysical Observatory of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany. Data w...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anna T. Kurzych Leszek R. Jaroszewicz Micha ł Dudek Jerzy K. Kowalski Felix Bernauer Joachim Wassermann Heiner Igel Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6116: A Kinematic Model of a Humanoid Lower Limb Exoskeleton with Hydraulic Actuators
This study aimed to examine lower limb joint angles during walking and running by using Inertial Measurement Units. The geometry and kinematic parameters were calculated. Twenty-six healthy adults participated in walking and running experiments. The geometric model of a human leg hydraulic exoskeleton was presented. Joint angle data acquired during experiments were used in the mathematical model. The position and velocity of exoskeleton actuators in each phase of movement were calculated using the MATLAB package (Matlab_R2017b, The MathWorks Company, Novi, MI, USA). The highest velocity of the knee actuator during walking ...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sebastian Glowinski Tomasz Krzyzynski Aleksandra Bryndal Igor Maciejewski Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6117: Developing an Automated Gas Sampling Chamber for Measuring Variations in CO2 Exchange in a Maize Ecosystem at Night
i Zhang The measurement of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of field maize at a plot-sized scale is of great significance for assessing carbon emissions. Chamber methods remain the sole approach for measuring NEE at a plot-sized scale. However, traditional chamber methods are disadvantaged by their high labor intensity, significant resultant changes in microclimate, and significant impact on the physiology of crops. Therefore, an automated portable chamber with an air humidity control system to determinate the nighttime variation of NEE in field maize was developed. The chamber system can automatically open and close the c...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chaoqun Li Wenting Han Manman Peng Mengfei Zhang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6118: A Portable System for Remote Rehabilitation Following a Total Knee Replacement: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Study
Michael P. McClincy Rehabilitation has been shown to improve functional outcomes following total knee replacement (TKR). However, its delivery and associated costs are highly variable. The authors have developed and previously validated the accuracy of a remote (wearable) rehabilitation monitoring platform (interACTION). The present study’s objective was to assess the feasibility of utilizing interACTION for the remote management of rehabilitation after TKR and to determine a preliminary estimate of the effects of the interACTION system on the value of rehabilitation. Specifically, we tested post-operativ...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kevin M. Bell Chukwudi Onyeukwu Clair N. Smith Adrianna Oh Annette Devito Dabbs Sara R. Piva Adam J. Popchak Andrew D. Lynch James J. Irrgang Michael P. McClincy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6119: Optical Axons for Electro-Optical Neural Networks
Barleanu Recently, neuromorphic sensors, which convert analogue signals to spiking frequencies, have ‎been reported for neurorobotics. In bio-inspired systems these sensors are connected to the main neural unit to perform ‎post-processing of the sensor data. The performance of spiking neural networks has been ‎improved using optical synapses, which offer parallel communications between the distanced ‎neural areas but are sensitive to the intensity variations of the optical signal. For systems with ‎several neuromorphic sensors, which are connected optically t...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mircea Hulea Zabih Ghassemlooy Sujan Rajbhandari Othman Isam Younus Alexandru Barleanu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6120: Developing IoT Sensing System for Construction-Induced Vibration Monitoring and Impact Assessment
Zhu Construction activities often generate intensive ground-borne vibrations that may adversely affect structure safety, human comfort, and equipment functionality. Vibration monitoring systems are commonly deployed to assess the vibration impact on the surrounding environment during the construction period. However, traditional vibration monitoring systems are associated with limitations such as expensive devices, difficult installation, complex operation, etc. Few of these monitoring systems have integrated functions such as in situ data processing and remote data transmission and access. By leveraging the recent adv...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qiuhan Meng Songye Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6121: Drive-By-Wire Development Process Based on ROS for an Autonomous Electric Vehicle
Javier Araluce Rodrigo Gutiérrez This paper presents the development process of a robust and ROS-based Drive-By-Wire system designed for an autonomous electric vehicle from scratch over an open source chassis. A revision of the vehicle characteristics and the different modules of our navigation architecture is carried out to put in context our Drive-by-Wire system. The system is composed of a Steer-By-Wire module and a Throttle-By-Wire module that allow driving the vehicle by using some commands of lineal speed and curvature, which are sent through a local network from the control unit of the vehicle. Additio...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: J. Felipe Arango Luis M. Bergasa Pedro A. Revenga Rafael Barea Elena L ópez-Guillén Carlos G ómez-Huélamo Javier Araluce Rodrigo Guti érrez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6089: Design of a Multipurpose Photonic Chip Architecture for THz Dual-Comb Spectrometers
a de Dios Pablo Acedo In this work, we present a multipurpose photonic integrated circuit capable of generating multiheterodyne complex Dual-Combs (DC) THz signals. Our work focuses on translating the functionality of an electro-optic tunable DC system into a photonic chip employing standard building blocks to ensure the scalability and cost efficiency of the integrated device. The architecture we analyze for integration is based on three stages: a seed comb, a mode selection stage and a DC stage. This final DC stage includes a frequency shifter, a key element to improve the final detection of the THz signals and obt...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andr és Betancur-Pérez Pedro Mart ín-Mateos Cristina de Dios Pablo Acedo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6090: Deep Neural Network for Visual Stimulus-Based Reaction Time Estimation Using the Periodogram of Single-Trial EEG
esley Bliss Multiplexed deep neural networks (DNN) have engendered high-performance predictive models gaining popularity for decoding brain waves, extensively collected in the form of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we introduce a first-ever DNN-based generalized approach to estimate reaction time (RT) using the periodogram representation of single-trial EEG in a visual stimulus-response experiment with 48 participants. We have designed a Fully Connected Neural Network (FCNN) and a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to predict and classify RTs for each trial. Though deep...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mohammad Samin Nur Chowdhury Arindam Dutta Matthew Kyle Robison Chris Blais Gene Arnold Brewer Daniel Wesley Bliss Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6091: Correction: Huang, E.J., and Onnela, J.P. Augmented Movelet Method for Activity Classification Using Smartphone Gyroscope and Accelerometer Data. Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3706
ela The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Emily J. Huang Jukka-Pekka Onnela Tags: Correction Source Type: research