Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5108: Assessment of Smoke Contamination in Grapevine Berries and Taint in Wines Due to Bushfires Using a Low-Cost E-Nose and an Artificial Intelligence Approach
h R. Unnithan Bushfires are increasing in number and intensity due to climate change. A newly developed low-cost electronic nose (e-nose) was tested on wines made from grapevines exposed to smoke in field trials. E-nose readings were obtained from wines from five experimental treatments: (i) low-density smoke exposure (LS), (ii) high-density smoke exposure (HS), (iii) high-density smoke exposure with in-canopy misting (HSM), and two controls: (iv) control (C; no smoke treatment) and (v) control with in-canopy misting (CM; no smoke treatment). These e-nose readings were used as inputs for machine learning algorithms to ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sigfredo Fuentes Vasiliki Summerson Claudia Gonzalez Viejo Eden Tongson Nir Lipovetzky Kerry L. Wilkinson Colleen Szeto Ranjith R. Unnithan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5110: A Multichannel Pattern-Recognition-Based Protein Sensor with a Fluorophore-Conjugated Single-Stranded DNA Set
Kurita Recently, pattern-recognition-based protein sensing has received considerable attention because it offers unique opportunities that complement more conventional antibody-based detection methods. Here, we report a multichannel pattern-recognition-based sensor using a set of fluorophore-conjugated single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs), which can detect various proteins. Three different fluorophore-conjugated ssDNAs were placed into a single microplate well together with a target protein, and the generated optical response pattern that corresponds to each environment-sensitive fluorophore was read via multiple detection c...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mari Okada Hiroka Sugai Shunsuke Tomita Ryoji Kurita Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5111: Current-Mode Self-Amplified CMOS Sensor Intended for 2D Temperature Microgradients Measurement and Imaging
alles This paper presents the design of a current-mode CMOS self-amplified imager operating in dark conditions, for thermal imaging, which provides an innovative solution for precision thermal contact mapping. Possible applications of this imager range from 3D CMOS integrated circuits to the study of in-vivo biological samples. It can provide a thermal map, static or dynamic, for the measurement of temperature microgradients. Some adaptations are required for the optimization of this self-amplified image sensor since it responds exclusively to the dark currents of the photodiodes throughout the array. The sensor is des...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Patrick M. Santos Davies W. L. Monteiro Luciana P. Salles Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5109: A New Roadway Eventual Obstacle Detection System Based on Computer Vision
Diego Gonzalez-Aguilera A new roadway eventual obstacle detection system based on computer vision is described and evaluated. This system uses low-cost hardware and open-source software to detect and classify moving elements in roads using infra-red and colour video images as input data. This solution represents an important advancement to prevent road accidents due to eventual obstacles which have considerably increased in the past decades, mainly with wildlife. The experimental evaluation of the system demonstrated that the proposed solution detects and classifies correctly different types of moving obstacles on roa...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mariano Gonzalez-de-Soto Rocio Mora Jos é Antonio Martín-Jiménez Diego Gonzalez-Aguilera Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5112: A Novel Deep Learning Model for the Detection and Identification of Rolling Element-Bearing Faults
rth Real-time acquisition of large amounts of machine operating data is now increasingly common due to recent advances in Industry 4.0 technologies. A key benefit to factory operators of this large scale data acquisition is in the ability to perform real-time condition monitoring and early-stage fault detection and diagnosis on industrial machinery—with the potential to reduce machine down-time and thus operating costs. The main contribution of this work is the development of an intelligent fault diagnosis method capable of operating on these real-time data streams to provide early detection of developing...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alex Shenfield Martin Howarth Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5114: Leveraging Wearable Sensors for Human Daily Activity Recognition with Stacked Denoising Autoencoders
ng Nan Zhou Activity recognition has received considerable attention in many research fields, such as industrial and healthcare fields. However, many researches about activity recognition have focused on static activities and dynamic activities in current literature, while, the transitional activities, such as stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand, are more difficult to recognize than both of them. Consider that it may be important in real applications. Thus, a novel framework is proposed in this paper to recognize static activities, dynamic activities, and transitional activities by utilizing stacked denoising autoencoders ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qin Ni Zhuo Fan Lei Zhang Chris D. Nugent Ian Cleland Yuping Zhang Nan Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5113: Study of the Influence of Winding and Sensor Design on Ultra-High Frequency Partial Discharge Signals in Power Transformers
ohlen Ultra-high frequency (UHF) partial discharge (PD) measurements in power transformers are becoming popular because of the advantages of the method. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the basic understanding of the propagation of signals inside the transformer tank and the factors that influence the sensitivity of the measurement. Since the winding represents a major obstacle to the propagation of the UHF signals, it is necessary to study the effect of winding design on signal propagation. Previous research activities have studied these effects using simplified models, and it is essential to consider the complex...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chandra Prakash Beura Michael Beltle Stefan Tenbohlen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5119: Bloch Surface Wave Resonance Based Sensors as an Alternative to Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors
We report on a highly sensitive measurement of the relative humidity (RH) of moist air using both the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and Bloch surface wave resonance (BSWR). Both resonances are resolved in the Kretschmann configuration when the wavelength interrogation method is utilized. The SPR is revealed for a multilayer plasmonic structure of SF10/Cr/Au, while the BSWR is resolved for a multilayer dielectric structure (MDS) comprising four bilayers of TiO2/SiO2 with a rough termination layer of TiO2. The SPR effect is manifested by a dip in the reflectance of a p-polarized wave, and a shift of the dip with the change...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michal Gryga Dalibor Ciprian Petr Hlubina Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5117: NCC Based Correspondence Problem for First- and Second-Order Graph Matching
cute;put Automatically finding correspondences between object features in images is of main interest for several applications, as object detection and tracking, identification, registration, and many derived tasks. In this paper, we address feature correspondence within the general framework of graph matching optimization and with the principal aim to contribute. We proposed two optimized algorithms: first-order and second-order for graph matching. On the one hand, a first-order normalized cross-correlation (NCC) based graph matching algorithm using entropy and response through Marr wavelets within the scale-interactio...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Beibei Cui Jean-Charles Cr éput Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5115: Sensors and Sensing for Intelligent Vehicles
a Ignacio Parra Alonso Over the past decades, both industry and academy have made enormous advancements in the field of intelligent vehicles, and a considerable number of prototypes are now driving our roads, railways, air and sea autonomously. However, there is still a long way to go before a widespread adoption. Among all the scientific and technical problems to be solved by intelligent vehicles, the ability to perceive, interpret, and fully understand the operational environment, as well as to infer future states and potential hazards, represent the most difficult and complex tasks, being probably the main bottlen...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: David Fern ández Llorca Iv án García Daza Noelia Hern ández Parra Ignacio Parra Alonso Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5120: Identification of Apple Varieties Using a Multichannel Hyperspectral Imaging System
njie Chen This paper reports the nondestructive detection of apple varieties using a multichannel hyperspectral imaging system consisting of an illumination fiber and 30 detection fibers arranged at source–detector distances of 1.5–36 mm over the spectral range of 550–1650 nm. Spatially resolved (SR) spectra were obtained for 1500 apples, 500 each of three varieties from the same orchard to avoid environmental and geographical influences. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) models were developed for single SR spectra and spectral combinations to compare their pe...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuping Huang Yutu Yang Ye Sun Haiyan Zhou Kunjie Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5118: ZnO Metal Oxide Semiconductor in Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: A Review
espe Surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors are of continuous development interest to researchers due to their sensitivity, short detection time, and reliability. Among the most used materials to achieve the sensitive film of SAW sensors are metal oxide semiconductors, which are highlighted by thermal and chemical stability, by the presence on their surface of free electrons and also by the possibility of being used in different morphologies. For different types of gases, certain metal oxide semiconductors are used, and ZnO is an important representative for this category of materials in the field of sensors. Having a...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Constantinoiu Viespe Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5122: Pattern Recognition of Cognitive Load Using EEG and ECG Signals
Liu Wen The matching of cognitive load and working memory is the key for effective learning, and cognitive effort in the learning process has nervous responses which can be quantified in various physiological parameters. Therefore, it is meaningful to explore automatic cognitive load pattern recognition by using physiological measures. Firstly, this work extracted 33 commonly used physiological features to quantify autonomic and central nervous activities. Secondly, we selected a critical feature subset for cognitive load recognition by sequential backward selection and particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finall...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiong Kong Yang Liu Wen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5123: Design of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Nanosensor Array
Karsenty An advanced Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Nanosensor Array, dedicated to serve in the future as a pH imager for the real-time detection of chemical reaction, is presented. The full flow of elementary steps—architecture, design, simulations, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results of structural characterization (Focused Ion Beam (FIB), TEM and SEM)—show an advanced SERS pixel array that is capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of chemical pH in a fluid target that became more than desirable in this period. Ultimately, the goal will be to provide r...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yaakov Mandelbaum Raz Mottes Zeev Zalevsky David Zitoun Avi Karsenty Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5116: Monitoring and Reconstruction of the Shape of the Detection Units in KM3NeT Using Acoustic and Compass Sensors
rtosa The KM3NeT underwater neutrino telescope comprises thousands of optical modules forming 3D arrays to detect the Cherenkov light produced by particles generated after a neutrino interaction in the medium. The modules are arranged in detection units—vertical structures with 18 modules at different heights, anchored to the seabed and kept vertical by the buoyancy of the optical modules and a top buoy. The optical modules are, thus, subject to movements due to sea currents. For a correct reconstruction of events detected by the telescope, it is necessary to know the relative position and orientation of ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: D ídac D.Tortosa Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5121: Fundamental Concepts and Evolution of Wi-Fi User Localization: An Overview Based on Different Case Studies
er Indoor positioning poses a number of challenges, especially in large and complex buildings. Several effects, such as signal attenuation, signal fluctuations, interference, and multipath play a decisive role in signal propagation. The severity of each challenge depends on the method and technology adopted to perform user localization. Wi-Fi is a popular method because of its ubiquity with already available public and private infrastructure in many environments and the ability for mobile clients, such as smartphones, to receive these signals. In this contribution, the fundamental concepts and basics and the evolution ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Retscher Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5125: Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Based on Selected Nanostructures for Food and Environmental Monitoring
José M. Pingarrón The excellent capabilities demonstrated over the last few years by electrochemical affinity biosensors should be largely attributed to their coupling with particular nanostructures including dendrimers, DNA-based nanoskeletons, molecular imprinted polymers, metal-organic frameworks, nanozymes and magnetic and mesoporous silica nanoparticles. This review article aims to give, by highlighting representative methods reported in the last 5 years, an updated and general overview of the main improvements that the use of such well-ordered nanomaterials as electrode modifiers or advanced label...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Susana Campuzano Paloma Y áñez-Sedeño Jos é M. Pingarrón Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5124: A Wearable Stethoscope for Long-Term Ambulatory Respiratory Health Monitoring
aiva Olivier Chételat Lung sounds acquired by stethoscopes are extensively used in diagnosing and differentiating respiratory diseases. Although an extensive know-how has been built to interpret these sounds and identify diseases associated with certain patterns, its effective use is limited to individual experience of practitioners. This user-dependency manifests itself as a factor impeding the digital transformation of this valuable diagnostic tool, which can improve patient outcomes by continuous long-term respiratory monitoring under real-life conditions. Particularly patients suffering from respiratory di...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: G ürkan Yilmaz Micha ël Rapin Diogo Pessoa Bruno M. Rocha Antonio Moreira de Sousa Roberto Rusconi Paulo Carvalho Josias Wacker Rui Pedro Paiva Olivier Ch ételat Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5126: Case Study —Spiking Neural Network Hardware System for Structural Health Monitoring
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5126: Case Study—Spiking Neural Network Hardware System for Structural Health Monitoring Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20185126 Authors: Pang Liu Harkin Martin McElholm Javed McDaid This case study provides feasibility analysis of adapting Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to explore low-cost solution for inspection of structural health of damaged buildings which survived after natural disaster that is, earthquakes or similar activities. Various techniques are used to detect the structural health status of a building for performanc...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pang Liu Harkin Martin McElholm Javed McDaid Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5127: Evaluation of Bonding Quality with Advanced Nondestructive Testing (NDT) and Data Fusion
In conclusion, it is shown that data fusion can increase the detectability of artificial debonding in single-lap joints. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yilmaz Ba Jasiuniene Bui Berthiau Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5104: Evaluation of the Pose Tracking Performance of the Azure Kinect and Kinect v2 for Gait Analysis in Comparison with a Gold Standard: A Pilot Study
In this study, we evaluated the motion tracking performance of the latest generation of the Microsoft Kinect camera, Azure Kinect, compared to its predecessor Kinect v2 in terms of treadmill walking using a gold standard Vicon multi-camera motion capturing system and the 39 marker Plug-in Gait model. Five young and healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at three different velocities while data were recorded simultaneously with all three camera systems. An easy-to-administer camera calibration method developed here was used to spatially align the 3D skeleton data from both Kinect cameras and the Vicon system. With this cali...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Justin Amadeus Albert Victor Owolabi Arnd Gebel Clemens Markus Brahms Urs Granacher Bert Arnrich Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5105: A New Feature Descriptor for Multimodal Image Registration Using Phase Congruency
hao Images captured by different sensors with different spectral bands cause non-linear intensity changes between image pairs. Classic feature descriptors cannot handle this problem and are prone to yielding unsatisfactory results. Inspired by the illumination and contrast invariant properties of phase congruency, here, we propose a new descriptor to tackle this problem. The proposed descriptor generation mainly involves three steps. (1) Images are convolved with a bank of log-Gabor filters with different scales and orientations. (2) A window of fixed size is selected and divided into several blocks for each keypoint, ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guorong Yu Shuangming Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5106: A Single Far-Field Deep Learning Adaptive Optics System Based on Four-Quadrant Discrete Phase Modulation
Bing Xu In adaptive optics (AO), multiple different incident wavefronts correspond to a same far-field intensity distribution, which leads to a many-to-one mapping. To solve this problem, a single far-field deep learning adaptive optics system based on four-quadrant discrete phase modulation (FQDPM) is proposed. Our method performs FQDPM on an incident wavefront to overcome this many-to-one mapping, then convolutional neural network (CNN) is used to directly predict the wavefront. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed method can achieve precise high-speed wavefront correction with a single far-field intens...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuejing Qiu Tao Cheng Lingxi Kong Shuai Wang Bing Xu Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5107: Laplacian Scores-Based Feature Reduction in IoT Systems for Agricultural Monitoring and Decision-Making Support
hringer Internet of things (IoT) systems generate a large volume of data all the time. How to choose and transfer which data are essential for decision-making is a challenge. This is especially important for low-cost and low-power designs, for example Long-Range Wide-Area Network (LoRaWan)-based IoT systems, where data volume and frequency are constrained by the protocols. This paper presents an unsupervised learning approach using Laplacian scores to discover which types of sensors can be reduced, without compromising the decision-making. Here, a type of sensor is a feature. An IoT system is designed and implemented f...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Giorgos Tsapparellas Nanlin Jin Xuewu Dai Gerhard Fehringer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5067: Coherence Time Evaluation in Indoor Optical Wireless Communication Channels
y The coherence time is the time over which the channel-gain-values correlation coefficient drops below a predefined threshold. The coherence time is typically used to quantify the pace of appreciable channel changes and is important, for example, for determining handoff and resource allocation time constraints. The goal of this work is to experimentally measure the coherence time of indoor optical wireless communication (OWC) channels under various mobile scenarios. The amount of movement was quantified by mobile sensor measurements. The experiments show that it is reasonable to assume that the channel varies slowly f...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dima Bykhovsky Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5068: Advances in Optical Biosensors and Sensors Using Nanoporous Anodic Alumina
We present the fabrication of self-ordered nanoporous anodic alumina, surface functionalization, and optical sensor applications. We show that self-ordered nanoporous anodic alumina has good potential for use in the fabrication of antibody-based (immunosensor), aptamer-based (aptasensor), gene-based (genosensor), peptide-based, and enzyme-based optical biosensors. The fabricated optical biosensors presented high sensitivity and selectivity. In addition, we also showed that the performance of the biosensors and the self-ordered nanoporous anodic alumina can be used for assessing biomolecules, heavy ions, and gas molecules. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mahmoud Amouzadeh Tabrizi Josep Ferre-Borrull Lluis F. Marsal Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5069: Molecular Imprinted Polymers Coupled to Photonic Structures in Biosensors: The State of Art
Bossi Optical sensing, taking advantage of the variety of available optical structures, is a rapidly expanding area. Over recent years, whispering gallery mode resonators, photonic crystals, optical waveguides, optical fibers and surface plasmon resonance have been exploited to devise different optical sensing configurations. In the present review, we report on the state of the art of optical sensing devices based on the aforementioned optical structures and on synthetic receptors prepared by means of the molecular imprinting technology. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are polymeric receptors, cheap and robust, w...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrea Chiappini Laura Pasquardini Alessandra Maria Bossi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5071: Sensors, Signal and Image Processing in Biomedicine and Assisted Living
s Sensor technologies are crucial in biomedicine, as the biomedical systems and devices used for screening and diagnosis rely on their efficiency and effectiveness [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dimitris K. Iakovidis Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5070: Remanufacturing System with Chatter Suppression for CNC Turning
sz Powałka The paper presents the concept of a support system for the manufacture of machine spare parts. The operation of the system is based on a reverse engineering module enabling feature recognition based on a 3D parts scan. Then, a CAD geometrical model is generated, on the basis of which a machining strategy using the CAM system is developed. In parallel, based on the geometric model, a finite element model is built, which facilitates defining technological parameters, allowing one to minimize the risk of vibrations during machining. These parameters constitute input information to the CAM module. The operation...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Karol Mi ądlicki Marcin Jasiewicz Marcin Go łaszewski Marcin Kr ólikowski Bartosz Powa łka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5072: Multi-View-Based Pose Estimation and Its Applications on Intelligent Manufacturing
Wang Pose estimation is a typical problem in the field of image processing, the purpose of which is to compare or fuse images acquired under different conditions. In recent years, many studies have focused on pose estimation algorithms, but so far there are still many challenges, such as efficiency, complexity and accuracy for various targets and conditions, in the field of algorithm research and practical applications. In this paper, a multi-view-based pose estimation method is proposed. This method can solve the pose estimation problem effectively for large-scale targets and achieve good performance accuracy and sta...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haiwei Yang Peilin Jiang Fei Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5073: Advances and Trends in Real Time Visual Crowd Analysis
rre Nayab Real time crowd analysis represents an active area of research within the computer vision community in general and scene analysis in particular. Over the last 10 years, various methods for crowd management in real time scenario have received immense attention due to large scale applications in people counting, public events management, disaster management, safety monitoring an so on. Although many sophisticated algorithms have been developed to address the task; crowd management in real time conditions is still a challenging problem being completely solved, particularly in wild and unconstrained conditions. I...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khalil Khan Waleed Albattah Rehan Ullah Khan Ali Mustafa Qamar Durre Nayab Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5074: Feasibility and Reliability of SmartWatch to Obtain 3-Lead Electrocardiogram Recordings
This study aimed to assess the feasibility and reliability of smartwatch to obtain 3-lead ECG recordings, the classical Einthoven ECG leads I-III compared to standard ECG. To record lead I, the watch was worn on the left wrist and the right index finger was placed on the digital crown for 30 s. For lead II, the watch was placed on the lower abdomen and the right index finger was placed on the digital crown for 30 s. For lead III, the same process was repeated with the left index finger. Spearman correlation and Bland-Altman tests were used for data analysis. A total of 300 smartwatch ECG tracings were successfully obtained...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Amirali Behzadi Alireza Sepehri Shamloo Konstantinos Mouratis Gerhard Hindricks Arash Arya Andreas Bollmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5075: Detection of Potentially Compromised Computer Nodes and Clusters Connected on a Smart Grid, Using Power Consumption Data
ar Khadidos Monitoring what application or type of applications running on a computer or a cluster without violating the privacy of the users can be challenging, especially when we may not have operator access to these devices, or specialized software. Smart grids and Internet of things (IoT) devices can provide power consumption data of connected individual devices or groups. This research will attempt to provide insides on what applications are running based on the power consumption of the machines and clusters. It is therefore assumed that there is a correlation between electric power and what software application i...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mohammed Almshari Georgios Tsaramirsis Adil Omar Khadidos Seyed Mohammed Buhari Fazal Qudus Khan Alaa Omar Khadidos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5076: A Novel Change Detection Method for Natural Disaster Detection and Segmentation from Video Sequence
eng Zhang Change detection (CD) is critical for natural disaster detection, monitoring and evaluation. Video satellites, new types of satellites being launched recently, are able to record the motion change during natural disasters. This raises a new problem for traditional CD methods, as they can only detect areas with highly changed radiometric and geometric information. Optical flow-based methods are able to detect the pixel-based motion tracking at fast speed; however, they are difficult to determine an optimal threshold for separating the changed from the unchanged part for CD problems. To overcome the above probl...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Huijiao Qiao Xue Wan Youchuan Wan Shengyang Li Wanfeng Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5078: Detection of Indoor High-Density Crowds via Wi-Fi Tracking Data
This study proposes a novel detection framework for high-density indoor crowd locations termed IndoorSRC (Simplification–Reconstruction–Cluster). In this paper, a novel indoor spatiotemporal clustering algorithm called Indoor-STAGNES is proposed to detect the indoor trajectory stay points to simplify indoor movement trajectory. Then, we propose use of a Kalman filter algorithm to reconstruct the indoor trajectory and properly align and resample the data. Finally, an indoor spatiotemporal density clustering algorithm called Indoor-STOPTICS is proposed to detect the locations of high-density crowd...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Peixiao Wang Fei Gao Yuhui Zhao Ming Li Xinyan Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5079: Blockchain for Vehicular Internet of Things: Recent Advances and Open Issues
Yusheng Ji The vehicular Internet of Things (IoT) comprises enabling technologies for a large number of important applications including collaborative autonomous driving and advanced transportation systems. Due to the mobility of vehicles, strict application requirements, and limited communication resources, the conventional centralized control fails to provide sufficient quality of service for connected vehicles, so a decentralized approach is required in the vicinity to satisfy the requirements of delay-sensitive and mission-critical applications. A decentralized system is also more resistant to the single point of f...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chunrong Peng Celimuge Wu Liming Gao Jiefang Zhang Kok-Lim Alvin Alvin Yau Yusheng Ji Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5081: Development of the User Requirements for the Canadian WildFireSat Satellite Mission
In this study we emphasize the first objective by documenting the results of wildfire management end-user engagement activities which were used to identify the key Fire Management Functionalities (FMFs) required for an Earth Observation wildfire monitoring system. These FMFs are then used to define the User Requirements for the Canadian Wildland Fire Monitoring System (CWFMS) which are refined here for the WildFireSat mission. The User Requirements are divided into Observational, Measurement, and Precision requirements and form the foundation for the design of the WildFireSat mission (currently in Phase-A, summer 2020). (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Joshua M. Johnston Natasha Jackson Colin McFayden Linh Ngo Phong Brian Lawrence Didier Davignon Martin J. Wooster Helena van Mierlo Dan K. Thompson Alan S. Cantin Daniel Johnston Lynn M. Johnston Meghan Sloane Rebecca Ramos Tim J. Lynham Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5083: EEG-Based BCI Emotion Recognition: A Survey
This article performs a survey of the pertinent scientific literature from 2015 to 2020. It presents trends and a comparative analysis of algorithm applications in new implementations from a computer science perspective. Our survey gives an overview of datasets, emotion elicitation methods, feature extraction and selection, classification algorithms, and performance evaluation. Lastly, we provide insights for future developments. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Edgar P. Torres P. Edgar A. Torres Myriam Hern ández-Álvarez Sang Guun Yoo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5082: Sensor Location Optimization of Wireless Wearable fNIRS System for Cognitive Workload Monitoring Using a Data-Driven Approach for Improved Wearability
In this study, cognitive workload-related hemodynamic changes were acquired using an fNIRS system covering the whole forehead, which is the region of interest in most cognitive workload-monitoring studies. A machine learning approach was applied to explore how the mean accuracy of the cognitive workload classification accuracy varied across various sensing locations on the forehead such as the Left, Mid, Right, Left-Mid, Right-Mid and Whole forehead. The statistical significance analysis result showed that the Mid location could result in significant cognitive workload classification accuracy compared to Whole forehead sen...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Masudur R. Siddiquee Roozbeh Atri J. Sebastian Marquez S. M. Shafiul Hasan Rodrigo Ramon Ou Bai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5084: Improved Diver Communication System by Combining Optical and Electromagnetic Trackers
uh-Chung Hu The increasing need for observation in seawater or ocean monitoring systems has ignited a considerable amount of interest and the necessity for enabling advancements in technology for underwater wireless tracking and underwater sensor networks for wireless communication. This type of communication can also play an important role in investigating ecological changes in the sea or ocean-like climate change, monitoring of biogeochemical, biological, and evolutionary changes. This can help in controlling and maintaining the production facilities of outer underwater grid blasting by deploying unmanned underwater ...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Aman Kataria Smarajit Ghosh Vinod Karar Takshi Gupta Kathiravan Srinivasan Yuh-Chung Hu Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5085: Software Tool for Soil Surface Parameters Retrieval from Fully Polarimetric Remotely Sensed SAR Data
Riccio The retrieval of soil surface parameters, in particular soil moisture and roughness, based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, has been the subject of a large number of studies, of which results are available in the scientific literature. However, although refined methods based on theoretical/analytical scattering models have been proposed and successfully applied in experimental studies, at the operative level very simple, empirical models with a number of adjustable parameters are usually employed. One of the reasons for this situation is that retrieval methods based on analytical scattering models are no...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Davod Poreh Antonio Iodice Antonio Natale Daniele Riccio Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5077: An Approach to Size Sub-Wavelength Surface Crack Measurements Using Rayleigh Waves Based on Laser Ultrasounds
hiwu An In this paper, the interaction of a broadband Rayleigh wave generated by a laser and an artificial rectangular notch is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, a Gaussian function is adopted to analyze the modulation of notch depth on the frequency spectrum via reflection and transmission coefficients. By the finite element method, the Rayleigh wave generated by pulsed laser beam irradiation and its scattering waves at cracks are calculated. A curve with a slope close to 4 fitted by crack depth and critical wavelength of the threshold phenomenon is obtained by the wavelet transf...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haiyang Li Qianghua Pan Xiaotong Zhang Zhiwu An Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5080: Convolutional Neural Networks-Based Object Detection Algorithm by Jointing Semantic Segmentation for Images
inghao Yang In recent years, increasing image data comes from various sensors, and object detection plays a vital role in image understanding. For object detection in complex scenes, more detailed information in the image should be obtained to improve the accuracy of detection task. In this paper, we propose an object detection algorithm by jointing semantic segmentation (SSOD) for images. First, we construct a feature extraction network that integrates the hourglass structure network with the attention mechanism layer to extract and fuse multi-scale features to generate high-level features with rich semantic informati...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Baohua Qiang Ruidong Chen Mingliang Zhou Yuanchao Pang Yijie Zhai Minghao Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5086: LRF-Net: Learning Local Reference Frames for 3D Local Shape Description and Matching
guo Cao The local reference frame (LRF) acts as a critical role in 3D local shape description and matching. However, most existing LRFs are hand-crafted and suffer from limited repeatability and robustness. This paper presents the first attempt to learn an LRF via a Siamese network that needs weak supervision only. In particular, we argue that each neighboring point in the local surface gives a unique contribution to LRF construction and measure such contributions via learned weights. Extensive analysis and comparative experiments on three public datasets addressing different application scenarios have demonstrated tha...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Angfan Zhu Jiaqi Yang Weiyue Zhao Zhiguo Cao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5087: Trust in AI Agent: A Systematic Review of Facial Anthropomorphic Trustworthiness for Social Robot Design
mon As an emerging artificial intelligence system, social robot could socially communicate and interact with human beings. Although this area is attracting more and more attention, limited research has tried to systematically summarize potential features that could improve facial anthropomorphic trustworthiness for social robot. Based on the literature from human facial perception, product, and robot face evaluation, this paper systematically reviews, evaluates, and summarizes static facial features, dynamic features, their combinations, and related emotional expressions, shedding light on further exploration of facial...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yao Song Yan Luximon Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5088: A Miniature Intermittent-Flow Respirometry System with a 3D-Printed, Palm-Sized Zebrafish Treadmill for Measuring Rest and Activity Metabolic Rates
Fang Zebrafish are a preferred vertebrate model for evaluating metabolism during development, and for toxicity studies. However, commercially available intermittent-flow respirometry systems (IFRS) do not provide a suitable zebrafish-scaled swimming tunnel with a low water volume and proper flow velocities. We developed a miniature IFRS (mIFRS) with a 3D-printed, palm-sized zebrafish treadmill for measuring the swimming ability and metabolic rate of a single one- or three-month-old zebrafish with and without toxicity treatment. The 3D-printed zebrafish treadmill consists of discrete components assembled together which...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shih-Hao Huang Chia-Wei Tsao Yan-Hung Fang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5099: Classification of Smoke Contaminated Cabernet Sauvignon Berries and Leaves Based on Chemical Fingerprinting and Machine Learning Algorithms
This study evaluated the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a chemical fingerprinting tool, coupled with machine learning, to create a rapid, non-destructive in-field detection system for assessing grapevine smoke contamination. Two artificial neural network models were developed using grapevine leaf spectra (Model 1) and grape spectra (Model 2) as inputs, and smoke treatments as targets. Both models displayed high overall accuracies in classifying the spectral readings according to the smoking treatments (Model 1: 98.00%; Model 2: 97.40%). Ultraviolet to visible spectroscopy was also used to assess the physiologic...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Summerson Gonzalez Viejo Szeto Wilkinson Torrico Pang Bei Fuentes Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5098: Marker-Less 3d Object Recognition and 6d Pose Estimation for Homogeneous Textureless Objects: An RGB-D Approach
e Cheng The task of recognising an object and estimating its 6d pose in a scene has received considerable attention in recent years. The accessibility and low-cost of consumer RGB-D cameras, make object recognition and pose estimation feasible even for small industrial businesses. An example is the industrial assembly line, where a robotic arm should pick a small, textureless and mostly homogeneous object and place it in a designated location. Despite all the recent advancements of object recognition and pose estimation techniques in natural scenes, the problem remains challenging for industrial parts. In this paper, w...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nasim Hajari Gabriel Lugo Lugo Bustillo Harsh Sharma Irene Cheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5095: Insulator Based Dielectrophoresis: Micro, Nano, and Molecular Scale Biological Applications
m Ali Insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is becoming increasingly important in emerging biomolecular applications, including particle purification, fractionation, and separation. Compared to conventional electrode-based dielectrophoresis (eDEP) techniques, iDEP has been demonstrated to have a higher degree of selectivity of biological samples while also being less biologically intrusive. Over the past two decades, substantial technological advances have been made, enabling iDEP to be applied from micro, to nano and molecular scales. Soft particles, including cell organelles, viruses, proteins, and nucleic acid...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Benhal Quashie Kim Ali Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5094: Modelling of Chest Wall Motion for Cardiorespiratory Activity for Radar-Based NCVS Systems
Chong Chest wall motion can provide information on critical vital signs, including respiration and heartbeat. Mathematical modelling of chest wall motion can reduce an extensive requirement of human testing in the development of many biomedical applications. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model that simulates a chest wall motion due to cardiorespiratory activity. Chest wall motion due to respiration is simulated based on the optimal chemical–mechanical respiratory control-based mechanics. The theory of relaxation oscillation system is applied to model the motion due to cardiac activity. The p...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Singh Rehman Yongchareon Chong Tags: Letter Source Type: research