Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3588: Dynamic Walking of a Legged Robot in Underwater Environments
Cely Yakrangi In this research, the dynamic walking of a legged robot in underwater environments is proposed. For this goal, the underwater zero moment point (Uzmp) is proposed in order to generate the trajectory of the centre of the mass of the robot. Also, the underwater zero moment point auxiliary (Uzmp aux.) is employed to stabilize the balance of the robot before it undergoes any external perturbations. The concept demonstration of a legged robot with hydraulic actuators is developed. Moreover, the control that was used is described and the hydrodynamic variables of the robot are determined. The results demons...
Source: Sensors - August 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Portilla Saltar én Espinosa Barroso Cely Yakrangi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3589: A Survey of Security Services, Attacks, and Applications for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)
Wang Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are an emerging type of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with robust applications in intelligent traffic management systems. VANET has drawn significant attention from the wireless communication research community and has become one of the most prominent research fields in intelligent transportation system (ITS) because of the potential to provide road safety and precautionary measures for the drivers and passengers. In this survey, we discussed the basic overview of the VANET from the architecture, communication methods, standards, characteristics, and VANET security services. ...
Source: Sensors - August 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sheikh Liang Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3590: Harris Hawks Optimization: A Novel Swarm Intelligence Technique for Spatial Assessment of Landslide Susceptibility
Nguyen Rashid In this research, the novel metaheuristic algorithm Harris hawks optimization (HHO) is applied to landslide susceptibility analysis in Western Iran. To this end, the HHO is synthesized with an artificial neural network (ANN) to optimize its performance. A spatial database comprising 208 historical landslides, as well as 14 landslide conditioning factors—elevation, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, soil type, lithology, distance to the river, distance to the road, distance to the fault, land cover, slope degree, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), a...
Source: Sensors - August 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bui Moayedi Kalantar Osouli G ör Pradhan Nguyen Rashid Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3591: Hybrid Clouds for Data-Intensive, 5G-Enabled IoT Applications: An Overview, Key Issues and Relevant Architecture
Panagiotis Gkonis Hybrid cloud multi-access edge computing (MEC) deployments have been proposed as efficient means to support Internet of Things (IoT) applications, relying on a plethora of nodes and data. In this paper, an overview on the area of hybrid clouds considering relevant research areas is given, providing technologies and mechanisms for the formation of such MEC deployments, as well as emphasizing several key issues that should be tackled by novel approaches, especially under the 5G paradigm. Furthermore, a decentralized hybrid cloud MEC architecture, resulting in a Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is proposed a...
Source: Sensors - August 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Panagiotis Trakadas Nikolaos Nomikos Emmanouel T. Michailidis Theodore Zahariadis Federico M. Facca David Breitgand Stamatia Rizou Xavi Masip Panagiotis Gkonis Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3579: An Efficient Three-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network for Inferring Physical Interaction Force from Video
jun Hwang Interaction forces are traditionally predicted by a contact type haptic sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel and practical method for inferring the interaction forces between two objects based only on video data—one of the non-contact type camera sensors—without the use of common haptic sensors. In detail, we could predict the interaction force by observing the texture changes of the target object by an external force. For this purpose, our hypothesis is that a three-dimensional (3D) convolutional neural network (CNN) can be made to predict the physical interaction forces from...
Source: Sensors - August 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dongyi Kim Hyeon Cho Hochul Shin Soo-Chul Lim Wonjun Hwang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3571: Design and Analysis of a Combined Strain –Vibration–Temperature Sensor with Two Fiber Bragg Gratings and a Trapezoidal Beam
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3571: Design and Analysis of a Combined Strain–Vibration–Temperature Sensor with Two Fiber Bragg Gratings and a Trapezoidal Beam Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19163571 Authors: Kun Yao Qijing Lin Zhuangde Jiang Na Zhao Gang-Ding Peng Bian Tian Wenyun Jia Ping Yang A combined sensor to simultaneously measure strain, vibration, and temperature has been developed. The sensor is composed of two Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a vibration gainer. One FBG is used to measure strain, while the other measures vibration and temperature. The gainer has a mass block which is used to in...
Source: Sensors - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kun Yao Qijing Lin Zhuangde Jiang Na Zhao Gang-Ding Peng Bian Tian Wenyun Jia Ping Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3572: OFBG-Based Smart Double-Skin Tubular Confined-Concrete Column with Basalt FRP-Steel Composite
ping Ou Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been widely employed to design advanced structural columns such as the hybrid FRP–concrete–steel double-skin tubular column (hybrid DSTC) with potential benefits. To date, the safety and self-monitoring of the hybrid DSTCs are still a challenge to overcome due to the complex damage scenarios. This paper investigates the self-sensing performance of a newly developed smart double-skin tubular confined concrete column (smart BFST-DSTC) made of basalt FRP–steel composite with built-in optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (OFBGs)...
Source: Sensors - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yung William Sasy Chan Zhi Zhou Wanqiu Liu Jinping Ou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3573: Vein Pattern Locating Technology for Cannulation: A Review of the Low-Cost Vein Finder Prototypes Utilizing near Infrared (NIR) Light to Improve Peripheral Subcutaneous Vein Selection for Phlebotomy
Conclusions: The development of a low-cost effective near infrared (NIR) vein finder remains in the phase of improvement. Since, it is being challenged by different human factors, increasing the number of parameters and participants/human for actual testing of the prototypes must also be taken into consideration for possible commercialization. Finally, it was noted that publications regarding the assessment of the performance of phlebotomists using vein finders were limited. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheng-Tang Pan Mark D. Francisco Chung-Kun Yen Shao-Yu Wang Yow-Ling Shiue Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3574: Capacitive Sensing of Icing under Vacuum and Cryogenic Temperatures
We present a capacitive sensor setup with a separation of sensor element and sensor electronics, such that the sensor electronics can reside outside the cold environment. It is demonstrated that the permittivity of such ice formations at vacuum and low temperatures is sufficient for measurement using the proposed sensor configuration. Results from a long-term study using a prototype further demonstrate the stability of the system and thus the feasibility of the proposed system for long term condition monitoring of surfaces in vacuum that are e.g., cooled by cryogenic liquids. The developed system uses wireless communicatio...
Source: Sensors - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Juliana Padilha Leitzke Tobias Mitterer Hubert Zangl Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3575: On the Capacity of 5G NR Grant-Free Scheduling with Shared Radio Resources to Support Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications
The objective is to reduce latency by eliminating the need for User Equipments (UEs—sensors, devices or machinery) to request resources and wait until the network grants them. Grant-free scheduling can reserve radio resources for dedicated UEs or for groups of UEs. The latter option is particularly relevant to support applications with aperiodic or sporadic traffic and deterministic low latency requirements. In this case, when a UE has information to transmit, it must contend for the usage of radio resources. This can lead to potential packet collisions between UEs. 5G introduces the possibility of transmitti...
Source: Sensors - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: M. Carmen Lucas-Esta ñ Javier Gozalvez Miguel Sepulcre Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3576: Automatic Extraction of Water and Shadow from SAR Images Based on a Multi-Resolution Dense Encoder and Decoder Network
Zhihui Yuan The water and shadow areas in SAR images contain rich information for various applications, which cannot be extracted automatically and precisely at present. To handle this problem, a new framework called Multi-Resolution Dense Encoder and Decoder (MRDED) network is proposed, which integrates Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Residual Network (ResNet), Dense Convolutional Network (DenseNet), Global Convolutional Network (GCN), and Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory (ConvLSTM). MRDED contains three parts: the Gray Level Gradient Co-occurrence Matrix (GLGCM), the Encoder network, and the Decoder network. ...
Source: Sensors - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Peng Zhang Lifu Chen Zhenhong Li Jin Xing Xuemin Xing Zhihui Yuan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3577: M-ary Cyclic Shift Keying Spread Spectrum Underwater Acoustic Communications Based on Virtual Time-Reversal Mirror
Zhang Ma Underwater acoustic communications are challenging because channels are complex, and acoustic waves when propagating in the ocean are subjected to a variety of interferences, such as noise, reflections, scattering and so on. Spread spectrum technique thus has been widely used in underwater acoustic communications for its strong anti-interference ability and good confidentiality. Underwater acoustic channels are typical coherent multipath channels, in which the inter-symbol interference seriously affects the performance of underwater acoustic communications. Time-reversal mirror technique utilizes this phys...
Source: Sensors - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhou Liu Nie Yang Zhang Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3578: HEMIGEN: Human Embryo Image Generator Based on Generative Adversarial Networks
ius Scherer We propose a method for generating the synthetic images of human embryo cells that could later be used for classification, analysis, and training, thus resulting in the creation of new synthetic image datasets for research areas lacking real-world data. Our focus was not only to generate the generic image of a cell such, but to make sure that it has all necessary attributes of a real cell image to provide a fully realistic synthetic version. We use human embryo images obtained during cell development processes for training a deep neural network (DNN). The proposed algorithm used generative adversarial ne...
Source: Sensors - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dirvanauskas Maskeli ūnas Raudonis Dama ševičius Scherer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3558: Exploiting Vehicular Social Networks and Dynamic Clustering to Enhance Urban Mobility Management
do Villas Transport authorities are employing advanced traffic management system (ATMS) to improve vehicular traffic management efficiency. ATMS currently uses intelligent traffic lights and sensors distributed along the roads to achieve its goals. Furthermore, there are other promising technologies that can be applied more efficiently in place of the abovementioned ones, such as vehicular networks and 5G. In ATMS, the centralized approach to detect congestion and calculate alternative routes is one of the most adopted because of the difficulty of selecting the most appropriate vehicles in highly dynamic networks. The ...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ademar Takeo Akabane Roger Immich Richard Wenner Pazzi Edmundo Roberto Mauro Madeira Leandro Aparecido Villas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3559: Catalyst State Diagnosis of Three-Way Catalytic Converters Using Different Resonance Parameters —A Microwave Cavity Perturbation Study
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3559: Catalyst State Diagnosis of Three-Way Catalytic Converters Using Different Resonance Parameters—A Microwave Cavity Perturbation Study Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19163559 Authors: Carsten Steiner Vladimir Malashchuk David Kubinski Gunter Hagen Ralf Moos Recently, radio frequency (RF) technology was introduced as a tool to determine the oxygen storage level of a three-way catalyst (TWC) for gasoline vehicles. Previous studies on the investigation of commercial catalysts mostly use only the resonant frequency to describe the correlation of oxygen storage level and RF signal. For ...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carsten Steiner Vladimir Malashchuk David Kubinski Gunter Hagen Ralf Moos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3560: Development of a High Stability Pd-Ni Alloy Thin-Film Coated SAW Device for Sensing Hydrogen
Minghui Lu A Pd-Ni alloy thin-film coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is proposed for sensing hydrogen. The Pd-Ni thin-film was sputtered onto the SAW propagation path of a SAW device with a delay line pattern to build the chip-sized hydrogen sensor. The prepared sensor chip was characterized by employing a differential oscillation loop. The effect of the Pd-Ni film thickness on sensing performance was also evaluated, and optimal parameters were determined, allowing for fast response and high sensitivity. Excellent working stability (detection error of 3.7% in half a year), high sensitivity (21.3 kHz/%), and fa...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wen Wang Xueli Liu Shengchao Mei Mengwei Liu Chao Lu Minghui Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3561: FEM-Analysis of 2D Micromachined Flow Transduers based on aGe-Thermistor Arrays and a Double Bridge Readout
z Keplinger This paper reports on a design and simulation study aiming at high-accuracy 2D micromachined thermal flow transducers. The scope is restricted to micromachined devices featuring a square-shaped membrane incorporating central symmetric thin-film devices. A microthermistor array probed spatial excess temperature variations while the main heat supply was alternatively established by optional heating resistors or by pronounced self-heating of the thermistor devices. Proper device designs enable leading edge transducer performance without sophisticated signal conditioning schemes. We found that a high azimuthal ...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Almir Talic Samir Cerimovic Roman Beigelbeck Franz Kohl Thilo Sauter Franz Keplinger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3562: Implementation of a Depth from Light Field Algorithm on FPGA
sa González A light field is a four-dimensional function that grabs the intensity of light rays traversing an empty space at each point. The light field can be captured using devices designed specifically for this purpose and it allows one to extract depth information about the scene. Most light-field algorithms require a huge amount of processing power. Fortunately, in recent years, parallel hardware has evolved and enables such volumes of data to be processed. Field programmable gate arrays are one such option. In this paper, we propose two hardware designs that share a common construction block to compute a d...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cristina Dom ínguez Conde Jonas Philipp L üke Fernando Rosa Gonz ález Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3563: Modeling and Solution of Signal Oscillation Mechanism of the Multi-Coil Sensor
Wei Fu The multi-coil sensor consisting of a series of sub-coils provides a reliable way to avoid signal distortion from excitation field. Compared with conventional coil sensors, the multi-coil sensor exhibits more complex signal conversion performance, and the conventional equivalent circuit cannot reveal the possible attenuated oscillation, which seriously degrades the detection reliability. Based on a novel equivalent circuit model, this research investigates the causes of signal oscillation and proposes and validates an effective solution, which contributes to the signal transmission characteristics of multi-coil...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiangbo Huang Haowen Wang Zhihong Fu Wei Fu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3564: GAM-Based Mooring Alignment for SINS Based on An Improved CEEMD Denoising Method
Ningbo Li To solve the self-alignment problem of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a novel adaptive filter based on Complementary Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (CEEMD) is proposed. The Gravitational Apparent Motion (GAM) is used in the coarse alignment, and the problem of obtaining the attitude matrix between the body frame and the navigation frame is attributed to obtaining the matrix between the initial body frame and the current navigation frame using two gravitational apparent motion vectors at different moments. However, the accuracy and time of this alignment method always suffer from the...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hanxiao Rong Yanbin Gao Lianwu Guan Qing Zhang Fan Zhang Ningbo Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3565: Selective Detection of Nitrogen-Containing Compound Gases
In this study, we investigated the sensing responses of five sensor materials—Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticles (NPs), Pt-loaded AZO NPs, a Pt-loaded WO3 (Pt-WO3) thin film, an Au-loaded WO3 (Au-WO3) thin film, and N-doped graphene—to the five aforementioned gases at a concentration of 10 parts per million (ppm). The ZnO- and WO3-based materials exhibited n-type semiconducting behavior, and their responses to tertiary amines were significantly higher than those of nitric oxides. The N-doped graphene exhibited p-type semiconducting behavior and responded only to nitric oxides. The Au- and Pt-WO3 t...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ran Yoo Hyun-Sook Lee Wonkyung Kim Yunji Park Aran Koo Sang-Hyun Jin Thang Viet Pham Myung Jong Kim Sunglyul Maeng Wooyoung Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3566: Sensor Configuration and Algorithms for Power-Line Interference Suppression in Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
enhäusser Xie Low field (LF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shows potential advantages to study pure heteronuclear J-coupling and observe the fine structure of matter. Power-line harmonics interferences and fixed-frequency noise peaks might introduce discrete noise peaks into the LF-NMR spectrum in an open environment or in a conductively shielded room, which might disturb J-coupling spectra of matter recorded at LF. In this paper, we describe a multi-channel sensor configuration of superconducting quantum interference devices, and measure the multiple peaks of the 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol J-coupling spectrum. ...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Huang Dong Tao Yu Li Rong Krause Offenh äusser Xie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3567: Guided Wave-Convolutional Neural Network Based Fatigue Crack Diagnosis of Aircraft Structures
n Ren Fatigue crack diagnosis (FCD) is of great significance for ensuring safe operation, prolonging service time and reducing maintenance cost in aircrafts and many other safety-critical systems. As a promising method, the guided wave (GW)-based structural health monitoring method has been widely investigated for FCD. However, reliable FCD still meets challenges, because uncertainties in real engineering applications usually cause serious change both to the crack propagation itself and GW monitoring signals. As one of deep learning methods, convolutional neural network (CNN) owns the ability of fusing a large amoun...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xu Yuan Chen Ren Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3568: Optimized Multi-Position Calibration Method with Nonlinear Scale Factor for Inertial Measurement Units
Fu Navigation grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) should be calibrated after Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs) are assembled and be re-calibrated after certain periods of time. The multi-position calibration methods with advantage of not requiring high-precision equipment are widely discussed. However, the existing multi-position calibration methods for IMU are based on the model of linear scale factors. To improve the precision of INS, the nonlinear scale factors should be calibrated accurately. This paper proposes an optimized multi-position calibration method with nonlinear scale factor for IMU, and the opt...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Cheng Fu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3570: Fabrics and Garments as Sensors: A Research Update
aing Properties critical to the structure of apparel and apparel fabrics (thermal and moisture transfer, elasticity, and flexural rigidity), those related to performance (durability to abrasion, cleaning, and storage), and environmental effects have not been consistently addressed in the research on fabric sensors designed to interact with the human body. These fabric properties need to be acceptable for functionalized fabrics to be effectively used in apparel. Measures of performance such as electrical conductivity, impedance, and/or capacitance have been quantified. That the apparel/human body system involves continu...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wilson Laing Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3569: Snow Albedo Seasonality and Trend from MODIS Sensor and Ground Data at Johnsons Glacier, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica
Peón de Pablo The aim of this work is to investigate whether snow albedo seasonality and trend under all sky conditions at Johnsons Glacier (Livingston Island, Antarctica) can be tracked using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow albedo daily product MOD10A1. The time span is from December 2006 to February 2015. As the MOD10A1 snow albedo product has never been used in Antarctica before, we also assess the performance for the MOD10A1 cloud mask. The motivation for this work is the need for a description of snow albedo under all sky conditions (including overcast days) using satel...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Calleja Corbea-P érez Fern ández Recondo Pe ón de Pablo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3551: In-Mold Sensors for Injection Molding: On the Way to Industry 4.0
This study presents a comprehensive overview of in-mold process monitoring tools and methods for injection molding process control. It aims to survey the recent development of standard sensors used in the industry for the measurement of in-mold process parameters, as well as research attempts to develop unique solutions for solving certain research and industrial problems of injection molding process monitoring. This review covers the established process monitoring techniques—direct temperature and pressure measurement with standard sensors and with the newly developed sensors, as well as techniques for the m...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tatyana Ageyeva Szabolcs Horv áth J ózsef Gábor Kovács Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3552: Research on Filtering Algorithm of MEMS Gyroscope Based on Information Fusion
ong As an important inertial sensor, the gyroscope is mainly used to measure angular velocity in inertial space. However, due to the influence of semiconductor thermal noise and electromagnetic interference, the output of the gyroscope has a certain random noise and drift, which affects the accuracy of the detected angular velocity signal, thus interfering with the accuracy of the stability of the whole system. In order to reduce the noise and compensate for the drift of the MEMS (Micro Electromechanical System) gyroscope during usage, this paper proposes a Kalman filtering method based on information fusion, which use...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hui Guo Huajie Hong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3553: Automatic Fault Detection and Isolation Method for Roller Bearing Using Hybrid-GA and Sequential Fuzzy Inference
ng Chen Though accelerometers for condition diagnosis of a bearing is preferably placed at the nearest position of the bearing as possible, in some plant equipment, the accelerometer is difficult to set near the diagnosed bearing, and in many cases, sensors have to be placed at a location far from the diagnosed bearing to measure signals for diagnosing bearing faults. Since, in these cases, the measured signals contain stronger noise than the signal measured near the diagnosed bearing, bearing faults are more difficultly to be detected. In order to overcome the above difficulty, this paper proposes a new fault auto-det...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yusuke Kobayashi Liuyang Song Masaru Tomita Peng Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3554: A Photoluminescent Colorimetric Probe of Bovine Serum Albumin-Stabilized Gold Nanoclusters for New Psychoactive Substances: Cathinone Drugs in Seized Street Samples
Tsung Chang Screening of illicit drugs for new psychoactive substances—namely cathinone—at crime scenes is in high demand. A dual-emission bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanoclusters probe was synthesized and used for quantitation and screening of 4-chloromethcathinone and cathinone analogues in an aqueous solution. The photoluminescent (PL) color of the bovine serum albumin-stabilized Au nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) probe solution changed from red to dark blue during the identification of cathinone drugs when excited using a portable ultraviolet light-emitting diodes lamp (365 nm). This ...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yao-Te Yen Ting-Yueh Chen Chun-Yu Chen Chi-Lun Chang San-Chong Chyueh Huan-Tsung Chang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3555: HoloLens-Based AR System with a Robust Point Set Registration Algorithm
Der Lee By the standard of today’s image-guided surgery (IGS) technology, in order to check and verify the progress of the surgery, the surgeons still require divert their attention from the patients occasionally to check against the display. In this paper, a mixed-reality system for medical use is proposed that combines an Intel RealSense sensor with Microsoft’s Hololens head-mounted display system, for superimposing medical data onto the physical surface of a patient, so the surgeons do not need to divert their attention from their patients. The main idea of our proposed system is to displ...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jong-Chih Chien Yao-Ren Tsai Chieh-Tsai Wu Jiann-Der Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3557: Time-Frequency Characteristics of In-Home Radio Channels Influenced by Activities of the Home Occupant
Kun Yang While aging is a serious global concern, in-home healthcare monitoring solutions are limited to context-aware systems and wearable sensors, which may easily be forgotten or ignored for privacy and comfort reasons. An emerging non-wearable fall detection approach is based on processing radio waves reflected off the body, who has no active interaction with the system. This paper reports on an indoor radio channel measurement campaign at 5.9 GHz, which has been conducted to study the impact of fall incidents and some daily life activities on the temporal and spectral properties of the indoor channel under both li...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alireza Borhani Matthias P ätzold Kun Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3556: Deep Learning for Detecting Building Defects Using Convolutional Neural Networks
osavi Clients are increasingly looking for fast and effective means to quickly and frequently survey and communicate the condition of their buildings so that essential repairs and maintenance work can be done in a proactive and timely manner before it becomes too dangerous and expensive. Traditional methods for this type of work commonly comprise of engaging building surveyors to undertake a condition assessment which involves a lengthy site inspection to produce a systematic recording of the physical condition of the building elements, including cost estimates of immediate and projected long-term costs of renewal, rep...
Source: Sensors - August 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Husein Perez Joseph H. M. Tah Amir Mosavi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3543: Rapid Detection of HLA-B*57:01-Expressing Cells Using a Label-Free Interdigitated Electrode Biosensor Platform for Prevention of Abacavir Hypersensitivity in HIV Treatment
afidas Patrick Kwan Pre-treatment screening of individuals for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) HLA-B*57:01 is recommended for the prevention of life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir, a drug widely prescribed for HIV treatment. However, the implementation of screening in clinical practice is hindered by the slow turnaround time and high cost of conventional HLA genotyping methods. We have developed a biosensor platform using interdigitated electrode (IDE) functionalized with a monoclonal antibody to detect cells expressing HLA-B*57:01. This platform was evaluated using cell lines and peripheral blood ...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jianxiong Chan Gita V. Soraya Lauren Craig Shah M. Uddin Marian Todaro Duc H. Huynh Chathurika D. Abeyrathne Lyudmila Kostenko James McCluskey Efstratios Skafidas Patrick Kwan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3544: Robust Evolutionary-Game-Based Routing for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
In this study, we propose a novel evolutionary-game-based routing (EGR) protocol for WMSNs with multiple sinks, in which the evolutionary game theory is exploited for selecting CHs. In EGR, an algorithm to mitigate data redundancy, based on the overlapping field of views of the multimedia sensor nodes, is also presented. This algorithm decreases the number of redundant transmissions, thereby increasing energy efficiency and network performance. According to the performance evaluation results of this study, the proposed EGR significantly outperforms the state-of-art protocols in terms of energy efficiency, end-to-end delay,...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Md Arafat Habib Sangman Moh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3545: A VCII-Based Stray Insensitive Analog Interface for Differential Capacitance Sensors
ornelli In this paper, a novel approach to implement a stray insensitive CMOS interface for differential capacitive sensors is presented. The proposed circuit employs, for the first time, second-generation voltage conveyors (VCIIs) and produces an output voltage proportional to differential capacitor changes. Using VCIIs as active devices inherently allows the circuit to process the signal in the current domain, and hence, to benefit from its intrinsic advantages, such as high speed and simple implementation, while still being able to natively interface with voltage mode signal processing stages at necessity. The insen...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gianluca Barile Leila Safari Giuseppe Ferri Vincenzo Stornelli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3546: Sensorless Control of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
ski This paper describes the study and experimental verification of sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with a high precision drive using two novel estimation methods. All the studies of the modified Luenberger observer, reference model, and unscented Kalman filter are presented with algorithm details. The main part determines trials with a full range of reference speeds with a special near-zero speed area taken into account. In order to compare the estimation performances of the observers, both are designed for the same motor and control system and run in the same environment. The experimental re...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Konrad Urbanski Dariusz Janiszewski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3547: Bandwidth-Aware Traffic Sensing in Vehicular Networks with Mobile Edge Computing
Zhaofei Yu Traffic sensing is one of the promising applications to guarantee safe and efficient traffic systems in vehicular networks. However, due to the unique characteristics of vehicular networks, such as limited wireless bandwidth and dynamic mobility of vehicles, traffic sensing always faces high estimation error based on collected traffic data with missing elements and over-high communication cost between terminal users and central server. Hence, this paper investigates the traffic sensing system in vehicular networks with mobile edge computing (MEC), where each MEC server enables traffic data collection and re...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kong Ye Penglin Dai Xiao Wu Yan Ding Huanlai Xing Zhaofei Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3548: putEMG —A Surface Electromyography Hand Gesture Recognition Dataset
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3548: putEMG—A Surface Electromyography Hand Gesture Recognition Dataset Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19163548 Authors: Piotr Kaczmarek Tomasz Mańkowski Jakub Tomczyński In this paper, we present a putEMG dataset intended for the evaluation of hand gesture recognition methods based on sEMG signal. The dataset was acquired for 44 able-bodied subjects and include 8 gestures (3 full hand gestures, 4 pinches and idle). It consists of uninterrupted recordings of 24 sEMG channels from the subject’s forearm, RGB video stream and depth camera images used for hand motion tracking. ...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Piotr Kaczmarek Tomasz Ma ńkowski Jakub Tomczy ński Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3549: AI-Based Early Change Detection in Smart Living Environments
liano In the smart environments we live today, a great variety of heterogeneous sensors are being increasingly deployed with the aim of providing more and more value-added services. This huge availability of sensor data, together with emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods for Big Data analytics, can yield a wide array of actionable insights to help older adults continue to live independently with minimal support of caregivers. In this regard, there is a growing demand for technological solutions able to monitor human activities and vital signs in order to early detect abnormal conditions, avoiding the caregiver...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Giovanni Diraco Alessandro Leone Pietro Siciliano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3550: Collaborative Resource Management for Negotiable Multi-Operator Small Cell Networks
suo Tan The ubiquitous coverage/connectivity requirement of wireless cellular networks has shifted mobile network operators’ (MNOs) interest toward dense deployment of small cells with coverage areas that are much smaller as compared to macrocell base stations (MBSs). Multi-operator small cells could provide virtualization of network resources (infrastructure and spectrum) and enable its efficient utilization, i.e., uninterrupted coverage and connectivity to subscribers, and an opportunity to avoid under-utilization of the network resources. However, a MNO with exclusive ownership to network resources wou...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shashi Shah Somsak Kittipiyakul Yuto Lim Yasuo Tan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3542: Unsupervised Human Detection with an Embedded Vision System on a Fully Autonomous UAV for Search and Rescue Operations
Gasteratos Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) play a primary role in a plethora of technical and scientific fields owing to their wide range of applications. In particular, the provision of emergency services during the occurrence of a crisis event is a vital application domain where such aerial robots can contribute, sending out valuable assistance to both distressed humans and rescue teams. Bearing in mind that time constraints constitute a crucial parameter in search and rescue (SAR) missions, the punctual and precise detection of humans in peril is of paramount importance. The paper in hand deals with real-time human...
Source: Sensors - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Eleftherios Lygouras Nicholas Santavas Anastasios Taitzoglou Konstantinos Tarchanidis Athanasios Mitropoulos Antonios Gasteratos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3530: Model Free Localization with Deep Neural Architectures by Means of an Underwater WSN
sé Luis Sanz González In recent years, there has been a significant effort towards developing localization systems in the underwater medium, with current methods relying on anchor nodes, explicitly modeling the underwater channel or cooperation from the target. Lately, there has also been some work on using the approximation capabilities of Deep Neural Networks in order to address this problem. In this work, we study how the localization precision of using Deep Neural Networks is affected by the variability of the channel, the noise level at the receiver, the number of neurons of the neural network and th...
Source: Sensors - August 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Juan Parras Santiago Zazo Iv án A. Pérez-Álvarez Jos é Luis Sanz González Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3531: A Comparative Study of Computational Methods for Compressed Sensing Reconstruction of EMG Signal
Crippa Wearable devices offer a convenient means to monitor biosignals in real time at relatively low cost, and provide continuous monitoring without causing any discomfort. Among signals that contain critical information about human body status, electromyography (EMG) signal is particular useful in monitoring muscle functionality and activity during sport, fitness, or daily life. In particular surface electromyography (sEMG) has proven to be a suitable technique in several health monitoring applications, thanks to its non-invasiveness and ease to use. However, recording EMG signals from multiple channels yields a lar...
Source: Sensors - August 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lorenzo Manoni Claudio Turchetti Laura Falaschetti Paolo Crippa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3532: Methodical Approach for Determining the Length of Drill Channels in Osteosynthesis
scher In order to fix a fracture in osteosynthesis, it is necessary to attach screws bicortically to the bone. The length of the screws must be selected correctly in 1-mm increments: otherwise, injury to the surrounding tissue structure or insufficient fixation will result. The drill channel length can only be determined preoperatively to a limited extent and with insufficient accuracy and is therefore determined intraoperatively with a mechanical caliper gauge. This length determination is error-prone, which often leads to a false screw selection and at the same time to considerable complications in the healing proces...
Source: Sensors - August 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michael Sorg Jan Osmers Andreas Fischer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3533: Improved Machine Learning Approach for Wavefront Sensing
Yongmei Huang In the adaptive optics (AO) system, to improve the effectiveness and accuracy of wavefront sensing-less technology, a phase-based sensing approach using machine learning is proposed. In contrast to the traditional gradient-based optimization methods, the model we designed is based on an improved convolutional neural network. Specifically, the deconvolution layer, which reconstructs unknown input by measuring output, is introduced to represent the phase maps of the point spread functions at the in focus and defocus planes. The improved convolutional neural network is utilized to establish the nonlinear map...
Source: Sensors - August 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongyang Guo Yangjie Xu Qing Li Shengping Du Dong He Qiang Wang Yongmei Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3534: Ground Control Point-Free Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Photogrammetry for Volume Estimation of Stockpiles Carried on Barges
In this study, an approach using ground control point-free unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based photogrammetry is proposed to estimate the volume of stockpiles carried on barges in a dynamic environment. Compared with similar studies regarding UAVs, an indirect absolute orientation based on the geometry of the vessel is used to establish a custom-built framework that can provide a unified reference instead of prerequisite ground control points (GCPs). To ensure sufficient overlap and reduce manual intervention, the stereo images are extracted from a UAV video for aerial triangulation. The region of interest is defined to ex...
Source: Sensors - August 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haiqing He Ting Chen Huaien Zeng Shengxiang Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3535: Integrated On-Chip Transformers: Recent Progress in the Design, Layout, Modeling and Fabrication
ici On-chip transformers are considered to be the primary components in many RF wireless applications. This paper provides an in-depth review of on-chip transformers, starting with a presentation on the various equivalent circuit models to represent transformer behavior and characterize their performance. Next, a comparative study on the different design and layout strategies is provided, and the fabrication techniques for on-chip implementation of transformers are discussed. The critical performance parameters to characterize on-chip transformers, such as the Q-factor, coupling factor (k), resonance frequency (fSR), a...
Source: Sensors - August 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rayan Bajwa Murat Kaya Yapici Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3536: Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Plasmonic Sensors: A Review
emwal The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is a remarkable tool, with applications in almost every area of science and technology. Sensing is the foremost and majorly explored application of SPR technique. The last few decades have seen a surge in SPR sensor research related to sensitivity enhancement and innovative target materials for specificity. Nanotechnological advances have augmented the SPR sensor research tremendously by employing nanomaterials in the design of SPR-based sensors, owing to their manifold properties. Carbon-based nanomaterials, like graphene and its derivatives (graphene oxide (GO)), (r...
Source: Sensors - August 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Banshi D. Gupta Anisha Pathak Vivek Semwal Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3537: Low-Frequency Noise of Magnetic Sensors Based on the Anomalous Hall Effect in Fe –Pt Alloys
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3537: Low-Frequency Noise of Magnetic Sensors Based on the Anomalous Hall Effect in Fe–Pt Alloys Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19163537 Authors: Yiou Zhang Qiang Hao Gang Xiao We took advantage of the large anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Fe–Pt ferromagnetic alloys and fabricated magnetic sensors for low-frequency applications. We characterized the low-frequency electronic noise and the field detectability of the FexPt100-x system with various thin film thicknesses and Fe concentrations. The noise source consisted of 1/f and Johnson noise. A large current density increased the...
Source: Sensors - August 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yiou Zhang Qiang Hao Gang Xiao Tags: Article Source Type: research