Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3849: The Design and Experimental Development of Air Scanning Using a Sniffer Quadcopter
This study presents a detailed analysis of an air monitoring development system using quadcopters. The data collecting method is based on gas dispersion investigation to pinpoint the gas source location and determine the gas concentration level. Due to its flexibility and low cost, a quadcopter was integrated with air monitoring sensors to collect the required data. The analysis started with the sensor placement on the quadcopter and their correlation with the generated vortex. The reliability and response time of the sensor used determine the duration of the data collection process. The dynamic nature of the environment m...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Endrowednes Kuantama Radu Tarca Simona Dzitac Ioan Dzitac Tiberiu Vesselenyi Ioan Tarca Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3845: Bidirectional Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
ius This paper represents a numerical and experimental investigation of the bidirectional piezoelectric energy harvester. The harvester can harvest energy from the vibrating base in two perpendicular directions. The introduced harvester consists of two cantilevers that are connected by a particular angle and two seismic masses. The first mass is placed at a free end of the harvester while the second mass is fixed at the joining point of the cantilevers. The piezoelectric energy harvester employs the first and the second out of plane bending modes. The numerical investigation was carried out to obtain optimal geometrica...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrius Čeponis Dalius Ma žeika Art ūras Kilikevičius Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3850: Development of Graphene Quantum Dots-Based Optical Sensor for Toxic Metal Ion Detection
n Saleviter About 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Human beings, animals, and plants need water in order to survive. Therefore, it is one of the most important substances that exist on Earth. However, most of the water resources nowadays are insufficiently clean, since they are contaminated with toxic metal ions due to the improper disposal of pollutants into water through industrial and agricultural activities. These toxic metal ions need to be detected as fast as possible so that the situation will not become more critical and cause more harm in the future. Since then, numerous sensing ...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nur Ain Asyiqin Anas Yap Wing Fen Nur Alia Sheh Omar Wan Mohd Ebtisyam Mustaqim Mohd Daniyal Nur Syahira Md Ramdzan Silvan Saleviter Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3851: NurseNet: Monitoring Elderly Levels of Activity with a Piezoelectric Floor
ren Monitoring the activity of elderly individuals in nursing homes is key, as it has been shown that physical activity leads to significant health improvement. In this work, we introduce NurseNet, a system that combines an unobtrusive, affordable, and robust piezoelectric floor sensor with a convolutional neural network algorithm, which aims at measuring elderly physical activity. Our algorithm is trained using signal embedding based on atoms of a pre-learned dictionary and focuses the network’s attention on step-related signals. We show that NurseNet is able to avoid the main limitation of floor sensors...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ludovic Minvielle Julien Audiffren Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3852: Leveraging a Publish/Subscribe Fog System to Provide Collision Warnings in Vehicular Networks
rlos Cano Fog computing, an extension of the Cloud Computing paradigm where routers themselves may provide the virtualisation infrastructure, aims at achieving fluidity when distributing in-network functions, in addition to allowing fast and scalable processing, and exchange of information. In this paper we present a fog computing architecture based on a “content island” which interconnects sets of “things” to exchange and process data among themselves or with other content islands. We then present a use case that focuses on a smartphone-based forward collision wa...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Subhadeep Patra Pietro Manzoni Carlos T. Calafate Willian Zamora Juan-Carlos Cano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3853: Risk-Aware Resource Management in Public Safety Networks
iliou Modern Public Safety Networks (PSNs) are assisted by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to provide a resilient communication paradigm during catastrophic events. In this context, we propose a distributed user-centric risk-aware resource management framework in UAV-assisted PSNs supported by both a static UAV and a mobile UAV. The mobile UAV is entitled to a larger portion of the available spectrum due to its capability and flexibility to re-position itself, and therefore establish better communication channel conditions to the users, compared to the static UAV. However, the potential over-exploitation of the mobile ...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Panagiotis Vamvakas Eirini Eleni Tsiropoulou Symeon Papavassiliou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3854: Emerging Technologies for Future Sensor Networks —Selected Papers from ICGHIT 2019
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3854: Emerging Technologies for Future Sensor Networks—Selected Papers from ICGHIT 2019 Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183854 Authors: Byung-Seo Kim Sung Won Kim Chi Zhang Yuanxiong Guo Tariq Umer The International Conference on Green and Human Information Technology (ICGHIT) is an international conference focusing on green and information technologies oriented toward humanity [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Byung-Seo Kim Sung Won Kim Chi Zhang Yuanxiong Guo Tariq Umer Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3855: Real-Time Efficient Relocation Algorithm Based on Depth Map for Small-Range Textureless 3D Scanning
gxiong Gong As an important part of industrial 3D scanning, a relocation algorithm is used to restore the position and the pose of a 3D scanner or to perform closed-loop detection. The real time and the relocation correct ratio are prominent and difficult points in 3D scanning relocation research. By utilizing the depth map information captured by a binocular vision 3D scanner, we developed an efficient and real-time relocation algorithm to estimate the current position and pose of the sensor real-time and high-correct-rate relocation algorithm for small-range 3D texture less scanning. This algorithm mainly involves fe...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fengbo Zhu Shunyi Zheng Xiaonan Wang Yuan He Li Gui Liangxiong Gong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3856: Peptide Nanotube Encapsulated Enzyme Biosensor for Vapor Phase Detection of Malathion, an Organophosphorus Compound
This study explores the use of a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-based, reversible reaction biosensor using screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) having a smaller working surface area than the single-use electrodes previously studied. Previous research demonstrated the prospective application of a single-use biosensor fabricated with an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme encapsulated in peptide nanotubes (PNTs) and enhanced with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to detect organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) in aqueous and gas phases. In the current study, potential improvements to the biosensor are investigated. BChE-based biosensors wer...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Christopher Edwards Surachet Duanghathaipornsuk Mark Goltz Sushil Kanel Dong-Shik Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3857: Portable Skin Analyzers with Simultaneous Measurements of Transepidermal Water Loss, Skin Conductance and Skin Hardness
Il Doh Simultaneous measurement of skin physiological and physical properties are important for the diagnosis of skin diseases and monitoring of human performance, since it provides more comprehensive understanding on the skin conditions. Current skin analysis devices, however, require each of probes and unique protocols for the measurement of individual skin properties, resulting in inconvenience and increase of measurement uncertainty. This paper presents a pen-type skin analyzing device capable tomeasure three key skin properties at the same time: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin conductance, and skin hardnes...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daniel (Jai Kyoung) Sim Sung Mok Kim Steve S. Kim Il Doh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3833: Error Analysis and Compensation of a Laser Measurement System for Simultaneously Measuring Five-Degree-of-Freedom Error Motions of Linear Stages
hao Fan A robust laser measurement system (LMS), consisting of a sensor head and a detecting part, for simultaneously measuring five-degree-of-freedom (five-DOF) error motions of linear stages, is proposed and characterized. For the purpose of long-travel measurement, all possible error sources that would affect the measurement accuracy are considered. This LMS not only integrates the merits of error compensations for the laser beam drift, beam spot variation, detector sensitivity variation, and non-parallelism of dual-beam that have been resolved by the author’s group before, but also eliminates the cros...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yindi Cai Qi Sang Zhi-Feng Lou Kuang-Chao Fan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3834: Environment Monitoring for Anomaly Detection System Using Smartphones
ben Milocco Currently, the popularity of smartphones with networking capabilities equipped with various sensors and the low cost of the Internet have opened up great opportunities for the use of smartphones for sensing systems. One of the most popular applications is the monitoring and the detection of anomalies in the environment. In this article, we propose to enhance classic road anomaly detection methods using the Grubbs test on a sliding window to make it adaptive to the local characteristics of the road. This allows more precision in the detection of potholes and also building algorithms that consume less resourc...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Van Khang Nguyen Éric Renault Ruben Milocco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3835: Game Theoretic Solution for Power Management in IoT-Based Wireless Sensor Networks
me Lloret Internet of things (IoT) is a very important research area, having many applications such as smart cities, intelligent transportation system, tracing, and smart homes. The underlying technology for IoT are wireless sensor networks (WSN). The selection of cluster head (CH) is significant as a part of the WSN’s optimization in the context of energy consumption. In WSNs, the nodes operate on a very limited energy source, therefore, the routing protocols designed must meet the optimal utilization of energy consumption in such networks. Evolutionary games can be designed to meet this aspect by provid...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Sohail Shafiullah Khan Rashid Ahmad Dhananjay Singh Jaime Lloret Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3836: Traffic Speed Prediction: An Attention-Based Method
iao Han Short-term traffic speed prediction has become one of the most important parts of intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). In recent years, deep learning methods have demonstrated their superiority both in accuracy and efficiency. However, most of them only consider the temporal information, overlooking the spatial or some environmental factors, especially the different correlations between the target road and the surrounding roads. This paper proposes a traffic speed prediction approach based on temporal clustering and hierarchical attention (TCHA) to address the above issues. We apply temporal clustering to...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Duanyang Liu Longfeng Tang Guojiang Shen Xiao Han Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3837: Navigation in Unknown Dynamic Environments Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning
n Cong Hu In this paper, we propose a novel Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) algorithm which can navigate non-holonomic robots with continuous control in an unknown dynamic environment with moving obstacles. We call the approach MK-A3C (Memory and Knowledge-based Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic) for short. As its first component, MK-A3C builds a GRU-based memory neural network to enhance the robot’s capability for temporal reasoning. Robots without it tend to suffer from a lack of rationality in face of incomplete and noisy estimations for complex environments. Additionally, robots with certain mem...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Junjie Zeng Rusheng Ju Long Qin Yue Hu Quanjun Yin Cong Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3838: Plume Noise Suppression Algorithm for Missile-Borne Star Sensor Based on Star Point Shape and Angular Distance between Stars
Wang When a missile is launched, the plume generated by the propulsion system will produce a lot of fake stars in the star image, which will affect the normal work of the missile-borne star sensor. A plume noise suppression algorithm based on star point shape and angular distance between stars is proposed in this paper, which is a preprocessing algorithm for star identification. Firstly, principal component analysis is used to extract the shape features of star points. Secondly, the authenticity of star points is evaluated based on length-width ratios. Thirdly, in two consecutive frames of star images, according to th...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qiaoyun Fan Zhixu Cai Gangyi Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3839: Cuvette-Type LSPR Sensor for Highly Sensitive Detection of Melamine in Infant Formulas
g Sook Chun Yun Suk Huh The globalization of food distribution has made necessary to secure safe products to the general consumers through the rapid detection of harmful additives on the field. For this purpose, we developed a cuvette-type localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor that can be easily used by consumers with conventional ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer for in-situ measurements. Gold nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on a transparent substrate via a self-assembly method to obtain a plasmonically active chip, and the chemical receptor p-nitroaniline (p-NA) was functionalized to st...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seo Yeong Oh Min Ji Lee Nam Su Heo Suji Kim Jeong Su Oh Yuseon Lee Eun Jeong Jeon Hyungsil Moon Hyung Soo Kim Tae Jung Park Guiim Moon Hyang Sook Chun Yun Suk Huh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3840: A Novel Graphene Oxide-Based Aptasensor for Amplified Fluorescent Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Powder
Jiaqi Wang In this paper, a rapid and sensitive fluorescent aptasensor for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk powder was developed. Graphene oxide (GO) was employed to quench the fluorescence of a carboxyfluorescein-labelled aptamer and protect the aptamer from nuclease cleavage. Upon the addition of AFM1, the formation of an AFM1/aptamer complex resulted in the aptamer detaching from the surface of GO, followed by the aptamer cleavage by DNase I and the release of the target AFM1 for a new cycle, which led to great signal amplification and high sensitivity. Under optimized conditions, the GO-based detecti...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaodong Guo Fang Wen Qinqin Qiao Nan Zheng Matthew Saive Marie-Laure Fauconnier Jiaqi Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3841: Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Incorporated with Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Sensors for the Evaluation of Water Contents in Sandy Soils
This study developed a dynamic cone penetrometer incorporated with time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors (TDCP). The TDCP is composed of an anvil, a driving rod, and a TDCP probe. Three wave guides and a K-type thermocouple are installed on the TDCP probe. For utilization of TDCP, relationships between relative permittivities measured by TDCP and those measured by standard TDR probe, temperature, and volumetric water content of the soils were investigated. In addition, the relationship between penetration indices by TDCP (TPI) and by standard dynamic cone penetrometer was established. In the field application test, relat...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Won-Taek Hong Jung-Doung Yu Sang Yeob Kim Jong-Sub Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3842: Cooperative Localization Approach for Multi-Robot Systems Based on State Estimation Error Compensation
Cao In order to improve the localization accuracy of multi-robot systems, a cooperative localization approach with communication delays was proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, the reason for the time delay of the robots’ cooperative localization approach was analyzed first, and then the state equation and measure equation were reconstructed by introducing the communication delays into the states and measurements. Furthermore, the cooperative localization algorithm using the extended Kalman filtering technique based on state estimation error compensation was proposed to reduce the state estima...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Cao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3843: Detection of Sleep Biosignals Using an Intelligent Mattress Based on Piezoelectric Ceramic Sensors
g Cheng Physiological information such as respiratory rate and heart rate in the sleep state can be used to evaluate the health condition of the sleeper. Traditional sleep monitoring systems need body contact and are intrusive, which limits their applicability. Thus, a comfortable sleep biosignals detection system with both high accuracy and low cost is important for health care. In this paper, we design a sleep biosignals detection system based on low-cost piezoelectric ceramic sensors. 18 piezoelectric ceramic sensors are deployed under the mattress to capture the pressure data. The appropriate sensor that captures r...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Min Peng Zhizhong Ding Lusheng Wang Xusheng Cheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3844: Sensor Drift Compensation Based on the Improved LSTM and SVM Multi-Class Ensemble Learning Models
Han Yu Drift is an important issue that impairs the reliability of sensors, especially in gas sensors. The conventional method usually adopts the reference gas to compensate for the drift. However, its classification accuracy is not high. We propose a supervised learning algorithm that is based on multi-classifier integration for drift compensation in this paper, which incorporates drift compensation into the classification process, motivated by the fact that the goal of drift compensation is to improve the classification performance. In our method, with the obtained characteristics of sensors and the advantage ...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhao Li Xiao Meng Han Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3832: py2DIC: A New Free and Open Source Software for Displacement and Strain Measurements in the Field of Experimental Mechanics
ttia Crespi Thanks to the advances in computer power, memory storage and the availability of low-cost and high resolution digital cameras, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is currently one of the most used optical and non-contact techniques for measuring material deformations. A free and open source 2D DIC software, named py2DIC, was developed at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division of the Sapienza University of Rome. Implemented in Python, the software is based on the template matching method and computes the 2D displacements and strains of samples subjected to mechanical loading. In this work, the potentialities of py2D...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Valeria Belloni Roberta Ravanelli Andrea Nascetti Martina Di Rita Domitilla Mattei Mattia Crespi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3815: Gold and ZnO-Based Metal-Semiconductor Network for Highly Sensitive Room-Temperature Gas Sensing
This study provides a method for producing a new type of metal-semiconductor network structure and demonstrates its application in gas sensing. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Renyun Zhang Magnus Hummelg ård Joel Ljunggren H åkan Olin Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3817: Automatic Identification of Tool Wear Based on Convolutional Neural Network in Face Milling Process
lei Mou Monitoring of tool wear in machining process has found its importance to predict tool life, reduce equipment downtime, and tool costs. Traditional visual methods require expert experience and human resources to obtain accurate tool wear information. With the development of charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor and the deep learning algorithms, it has become possible to use the convolutional neural network (CNN) model to automatically identify the wear types of high-temperature alloy tools in the face milling process. In this paper, the CNN model is developed based on our image dataset. The convolutional auto...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuefeng Wu Yahui Liu Xianliang Zhou Aolei Mou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3818: A Fast Image Deformity Correction Algorithm for Underwater Turbulent Image Distortion
an Zeng An algorithm correcting distortion based on estimating the pixel shift is proposed for the degradation caused by underwater turbulence. The distorted image is restored and reconstructed by reference frame selection and two–dimensional pixel registration. A support vector machine-based kernel correlation filtering algorithm is proposed and applied to improve the speed and efficiency of the correction algorithm. In order to validate the algorithm, laboratory experiments on a controlled simulation system of turbulent water and field experiments in rivers and oceans are carried out, and the experiment...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Min Zhang Yuzhang Chen Yongcai Pan Zhangfan Zeng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3821: A Hash-Based RFID Authentication Mechanism for Context-Aware Management in IoT-Based Multimedia Systems
tarda With the technological advances in the areas of Machine-To-Machine (M2M) and Device-To-Device (D2D) communication, various smart computing devices now integrate a set of multimedia sensors such as accelerometers, barometers, cameras, fingerprint sensors, gestures, iris scanners, etc., to infer the environmental status. These devices are generally identified using radio-frequency identification (RFID) to transfer the collected data to other local or remote objects over a geographical location. To enable automatic data collection and transition, a valid RFID embedded object is highly recommended. It is used to auth...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Deebak B D Fadi Al-Turjman Leonardo Mostarda Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3820: Ultra-Sensitive Fiber Refractive Index Sensor with Intensity Modulation and Self-Temperature Compensation
iuru Yang In this paper, a novel in-line modal interferometer for refractive index (RI) sensing is proposed and experimentally fabricated by cascading single-taper and multimode-double- cladding-multimode (MDM) fiber structure. Owing to evanescent field in taper area, the ultra-sensitive and linear intensity-responses to the varied surrounding RI are gained in both single- and double-pass structures. Moreover, the crosstalk from temperature can be effectively discriminated and compensated by means of the RI-free nature of MDM. The experimental results show that the RI sensitivities in single- and double-pass structures...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhaojun Li Liangtao Hou Lingling Ran Jing Kang Jiuru Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3819: An Out-of-Plane Operated Soft Engine Driving Stretchable Zone Plate for Adjusting Focal Point of an Ultrasonic Beam
Liu This paper presents a soft engine which performs up-and-down motion with four planar film-structured ionic polymer—metal composites (IPMC) actuators. This soft engine assembled with a stretchable Fresnel zone plate is capable of tuning the focus of ultrasonic beam. Instead of conventional clamps, we employ 3D printed frame pairs with magnets and a conductive gold cloth to provide an alternative solution for securing the IPMC actuators during assembly. The design and analysis of the zone plate are carefully performed. The zone plate allows the plane ultrasonic wave to be effectively focused. The motion...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo-Hua Feng Hong-Yu Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3822: A New Switched State Jump Observer for Traffic Density Estimation in Expressways Based on Hybrid-Dynamic-Traffic-Network-Model
In this study, the expressway network is firstly modeled as the special discrete switched system, which is called the piecewise affine system model, a partition of state subspace is introduced, and the convex polytopes are utilized to describe the combination modes of cells. Secondly, based on the hybrid dynamic traffic network model, the corresponding switched observer (including state jumps) is designed. Furthermore, by applying multiple Lyapunov functions and S-procedure theory, the observer design problem can be converted into the existence issue of the solutions to the linear matrix inequality. As a result, a set of g...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenbin Zha Yuqi Guo Huawei Wu Miguel Angel Sotelo Yulin Ma Qian Yi Zhixiong Li Xin Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3823: A Novel Helmet Fitness Evaluation Device Based on the Flexible Pressure Sensor Matrix
This study is expected to allow this intuitive and efficient technology to fit other wearable products, such as goggles, glasses, earphones and neck braces. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jianwei Niu Cong Zhang Xiao Chen Chuang Ma Liyang Chen Chao Tong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3816: Multi-sensor Fusion Road Friction Coefficient Estimation During Steering with Lyapunov Method
Zhuoping Yu The road friction coefficient is a key parameter for autonomous vehicles and vehicle dynamic control. With the development of autonomous vehicles, increasingly, more environmental perception sensors are being installed on vehicles, which means that more information can be used to estimate the road friction coefficient. In this paper, a nonlinear observer aided by vehicle lateral displacement information for estimating the road friction coefficient is proposed. First, the tire brush model is modified to describe the tire characteristics more precisely in high friction conditions using tire test data. Then,...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Letian Gao Lu Xiong Xuefeng Lin Xin Xia Wei Liu Yishi Lu Zhuoping Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3825: Influence of Tuning Fork Resonance Properties on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Performance
Yu Zhe Chen Frank K. Tittel A detailed investigation of the influence of quartz tuning forks (QTFs) resonance properties on the performance of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) exploiting QTFs as acousto-electric transducers is reported. The performance of two commercial QTFs with the same resonance frequency (32.7 KHz) but different geometries and two custom QTFs with lower resonance frequencies (2.9 KHz and 7.2 KHz) were compared and discussed. The results demonstrated that the fundamental resonance frequency as well as the quality factor and the electrical resistance were strongly inter-dependen...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Huadan Zheng Haoyang Lin Lei Dong Yihua Liu Pietro Patimisco John Zweck Ali Mozumder Angelo Sampaolo Vincenzo Spagnolo Bincheng Huang Jieyuan Tang Linpeng Dong Wenguo Zhu Jianhui Yu Zhe Chen Frank K. Tittel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3824: Critical Issues of Double-Metal Layer Coating on FBG for Applications at High Temperatures
Cristian Vendittozzi Use of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to monitor high temperature (HT) applications is of great interest to the research community. Standard commercial FBGs can operate up to 600 ∘ C. For applications beyond that value, specific processing of the FBGs must be adopted to allow the grating not to deteriorate. The most common technique used to process FBGs for HT applications is the regeneration procedure (RP), which typically extends their use up to 1000 ∘ C. RP involves a long-term annealing of the FBGs, to be done at a temperature ranging from 550 to 950 ∘ C. As at that temperature, the orig...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carla Lupi Ferdinando Felli Alessandro dell ’Era Erwin Ciro Michele Arturo Caponero Hypolito Jos é Kalinowski Cristian Vendittozzi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3826: ThermalWrist: Smartphone Thermal Camera Correction Using a Wristband Sensor †
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3826: ThermalWrist: Smartphone Thermal Camera Correction Using a Wristband Sensor † Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183826 Authors: Hiroki Yoshikawa Akira Uchiyama Teruo Higashino Thermal images are widely used for various healthcare applications and advanced research. However, thermal images captured by smartphone thermal cameras are not accurate for monitoring human body temperature due to the small body that is vulnerable to temperature change. In this paper, we propose ThermalWrist, a dynamic offset correction method for thermal images captured by smartphone thermal cameras. We fully ...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hiroki Yoshikawa Akira Uchiyama Teruo Higashino Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3827: IMU Sensor-Based Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Machine Interfaces
ho Jung We propose an efficient hand gesture recognition (HGR) algorithm, which can cope with time-dependent data from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor and support real-time learning for various human-machine interface (HMI) applications. Although the data extracted from IMU sensors are time-dependent, most existing HGR algorithms do not consider this characteristic, which results in the degradation of recognition performance. Because the dynamic time warping (DTW) technique considers the time-dependent characteristic of IMU sensor data, the recognition performance of DTW-based algorithms is better than that o...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Minwoo Kim Jaechan Cho Seongjoo Lee Yunho Jung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3828: Evaluation of Scintillator Detection Materials for Application within Airborne Environmental Radiation Monitoring
Thomas B. Scott In response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, there has occurred the unabated growth in the number of airborne platforms developed to perform radiation mapping—each utilising various designs of a low-altitude uncrewed aerial vehicle. Alongside the associated advancements in the airborne system transporting the radiation detection payload, from the earliest radiological analyses performed using gas-filled Geiger-Muller tube detectors, modern radiation detection and mapping platforms are now based near-exclusively on solid-state scintillator detectors. With numerous vari...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Matthew Lowdon Peter G. Martin M.W.J. Hubbard M.P. Taggart Dean T. Connor Yannick Verbelen P.J. Sellin Thomas B. Scott Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3829: Distributed Joint Cooperative Self-Localization and Target Tracking Algorithm for Mobile Networks
ing Xia : Location information is a key issue for applications of the Internet of Things. In this paper, we focus on mobile wireless networks with moving agents and targets. The positioning process is divided into two phases based on the factor graph, i.e., a prediction phase and a joint self-location and tracking phase. In the prediction phase, we develop an adaptive prediction model by exploiting the correlation of trajectories within a short period to formulate the prediction message. In the joint positioning phase, agents calculate the cooperative messages according to variational message passing and locate them...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Cui Wang Ding Xia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3830: Online Workload Allocation via Fog-Fog-Cloud Cooperation to Reduce IoT Task Service Delay
ao Guan Fog computing has recently emerged as an extension of cloud computing in providing high-performance computing services for delay-sensitive Internet of Things (IoT) applications. By offloading tasks to a geographically proximal fog computing server instead of a remote cloud, the delay performance can be greatly improved. However, some IoT applications may still experience considerable delays, including queuing and computation delays, when huge amounts of tasks instantaneously feed into a resource-limited fog node. Accordingly, the cooperation among geographically close fog nodes and the cloud center is desir...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Guo Ma Mao Guan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3831: Multi-Mission Earth Observation Data Processing System
risa The surge in the number of earth observation satellites being launched worldwide is placing significant pressure on the satellite-direct ground receiving stations that are responsible for systematic data acquisition, processing, archiving, and dissemination of earth observation data. Growth in the number of satellite sensors has a bearing on the ground segment payload data processing systems due to the complexity, volume, and variety of the data emanating from the different sensors. In this paper, we have aimed to present a generic, multi-mission, modularized payload data processing system that we are implementing...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mhangara Mapurisa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3809: Dynamic Residual Dense Network for Image Denoising
in Du Deep convolutional neural networks have achieved great performance on various image restoration tasks. Specifically, the residual dense network (RDN) has achieved great results on image noise reduction by cascading multiple residual dense blocks (RDBs) to make full use of the hierarchical feature. However, the RDN only performs well in denoising on a single noise level, and the computational cost of the RDN increases significantly with the increase in the number of RDBs, and this only slightly improves the effect of denoising. To overcome this, we propose the dynamic residual dense network (DRDN), a dynamic netwo...
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuda Song Yunfang Zhu Xin Du Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3811: On the Application of Laser Vibrometry to Perform Structural Health Monitoring in Non-Stationary Conditions of a Hydropower Dam
owski This paper presents the first application of the Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) in non-stationary conditions within a hydropower plant powerhouse. The aim of this research is to develop a methodology to include non-contact vibration monitoring as part of structural health monitoring of concrete dams. We have performed in-situ structural vibration measurements on the run-of-the-river Brežice dam in Slovenia during the start-up tests and regular operation. In recent decades, the rapid development of laser measurement technology has provided powerful methods for a variety of measuring tasks. Despite these recent de...
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mateja Klun Dejan Zupan Jo že Lopatič Andrej Kry žanowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3810: Localization of Two Sound Sources Based on Compressed Matched Field Processing with a Short Hydrophone Array in the Deep Ocean
In this study, one greedy algorithm in CS theory combined with a spatial filter was developed and applied to a two-source localization scenario in the deep ocean. This method facilitates localization by utilizing the greedy algorithm with a spatial filter at several iterative loops. The simulated and experimental data suggest that the proposed method provides a certain localization performance improvement over the use of the Bartlett processor and the greedy algorithm without a spatial filter. Additionally, the effects on the source localization caused by factors such as the array aperture, number of hydrophones or snapsho...
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ran Cao Kunde Yang Qiulong Yang Peng Chen Quan Sun Runze Xue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3812: SINS/CNS/GNSS Integrated Navigation Based on an Improved Federated Sage –Husa Adaptive Filter
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3812: SINS/CNS/GNSS Integrated Navigation Based on an Improved Federated Sage–Husa Adaptive Filter Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19173812 Authors: Shuqing Xu Haiyin Zhou Jiongqi Wang Zhangming He Dayi Wang Among the methods of the multi-source navigation filter, as a distributed method, the federated filter has a small calculation amount with Gaussian state noise, and it is easy to achieve global optimization. However, when the state noise is time-varying or its initial estimation is not accurate, there will be a big difference with the true value in the result of the federated filter....
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shuqing Xu Haiyin Zhou Jiongqi Wang Zhangming He Dayi Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3813: Characterization of Simple and Double Yeast Cells Using Dielectrophoretic Force Measurement
This article focuses on the quantitative measurement of cells’ dielectric force, specifically yeast cells. The measures are obtained as the results of a theoretical model and an instrumental method, both of which are developed and described in the present article, based on a dielectrophoretic chamber made of two V-shaped placed electrodes. In this study, 845 cells were measured. For each one, six speeds were taken at different points in its trajectory. Furthermore, the chamber design is repeatable, and this was the first time that measurements of dielectrophoretic force and cell velocity for double yeast cell...
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fernando-Juan Garc ía-Diego Mario Rubio-Chavarr ía Pedro Beltr án Francisco J. Espin ós Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3814: Soft Sensing of Silicon Content via Bagging Local Semi-Supervised Models
Gao Liu The silicon content in industrial blast furnaces is difficult to measure directly online. Traditional soft sensors do not efficiently utilize useful information hidden in process variables. In this work, bagging local semi-supervised models (BLSM) for online silicon content prediction are proposed. They integrate the bagging strategy, the just-in-time-learning manner, and the semi-supervised extreme learning machine into a unified soft sensing framework. With the online semi-supervised learning method, the valuable information hidden in unlabeled data can be explored and absorbed into the prediction model. ...
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: He Ji Liu Gao Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3801: Highly Fluorescent Green Carbon Dots as a Fluorescent Probe for Detecting Mineral Water pH
In this report, high-brightness green carbon dots were successfully prepared using 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid as the sole precursor and synthesized in one step using a solvothermal strategy. Under the excitation of 365 nm ultraviolet light, the quantum yield of carbon dots is as high as 53.8%. Experiments revealed that the carbon dots are highly carbonized and the surface is rich in amino and carboxyl groups. The synthesized carbon dots have good water solubility, and are resistant to ions and temperature. The fluorescence intensity of CDs is sensitive to pH changes and is linearly correlated with the pH in the near-neutral r...
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tingyu Wang Guoqing Chen Lei Li Yamin Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3802: Fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision System Images for Runway and Horizon Detection
dyanathan Networked operation of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) demands fusion of information from disparate sources for accurate flight control. In this investigation, a novel sensor fusion architecture for detecting aircraft runway and horizons as well as enhancing the awareness of surrounding terrain is introduced based on fusion of enhanced vision system (EVS) and synthetic vision system (SVS) images. EVS and SVS image fusion has yet to be implemented in real-world situations due to signal misalignment. We address this through a registration step to align EVS and SVS images. Four fusion rules combining discrete wavel...
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ahmed F. Fadhil Raghuveer Kanneganti Lalit Gupta Henry Eberle Ravi Vaidyanathan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3803: Fabrication and Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Validation of a MEMS Skin Friction Sensor Based on Visual Alignment Technology
Yang Gao MEMS-based skin friction sensors are used to measure and validate skin friction and its distribution, and their advantages of small volume, high reliability, and low cost make them very important for vehicle design. Aiming at addressing the accuracy problem of skin friction measurements induced by existing errors of sensor fabrication and assembly, a novel fabrication technology based on visual alignment is presented. Sensor optimization, precise fabrication of key parts, micro-assembly based on visual alignment, prototype fabrication, static calibration and validation in a hypersonic wind tunnel are implemen...
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiong Wang Nantian Wang Xiaobin Xu Tao Zhu Yang Gao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3804: Selected Papers from the 9th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography
o Tan Industrial process tomography (IPT) is a set of multi-dimensional sensor technologies and methods that aim to provide unparalleled internal information on industrial processes used in many sectors [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Manuchehr Soleimani Thomas Wondrak Chao Tan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research