Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6100: A Systematic Review of Machine Learning Techniques in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)
We examined the type of data streams included, specific ML techniques used, and type of clinical outcomes measured. A systematic review of English articles using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore databases was performed. Search terms included “hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT),” “autologous HCT,” “allogeneic HCT,” “machine learning,” and “artificial intelligence.” Only full-text studies reported between January 2015 and July 2020 were included. Data were extracted ...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vibhuti Gupta Thomas M. Braun Mosharaf Chowdhury Muneesh Tewari Sung Won Choi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6102: Biometric Signals Estimation Using Single Photon Camera and Deep Learning
no Tubaro The problem of performing remote biomedical measurements using just a video stream of a subject face is called remote photoplethysmography (rPPG). The aim of this work is to propose a novel method able to perform rPPG using single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) cameras. These are extremely accurate cameras able to detect even a single photon and are already used in many other applications. Moreover, a novel method that mixes deep learning and traditional signal analysis is proposed in order to extract and study the pulse signal. Experimental results show that this system achieves accurate results in the estima...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marco Paracchini Marco Marcon Federica Villa Franco Zappa Stefano Tubaro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6103: A Global Path Planner for Safe Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles in Uncertain Environments
imi Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are considered an emerging technology revolution. Planning paths that are safe to drive on contributes greatly to expediting AV adoption. However, the main barrier to this adoption is navigation under sensor uncertainty, with the understanding that there is no perfect sensing solution for all driving environments. In this paper, we propose a global safe path planner that analyzes sensor uncertainty and determines optimal paths. The path planner has two components: sensor analytics and path finder. The sensor analytics component combines the uncertainties of all sensors to evaluate the posi...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mohammed Alharbi Hassan A. Karimi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6101: Enterprise Security for the Internet of Things (IoT): Lightweight Bootstrapping with EAP-NOOB
hi Tuomas Aura The emergence of radio technologies, such as Zigbee, Z-Wave, and Bluetooth Mesh, has transformed simple physical devices into smart objects that can understand and react to their environment. Devices, such as light bulbs, door locks, and window blinds, can now be connected to, and remotely controlled from, the Internet. Given the resource-constrained nature of many of these devices, they have typically relied on the use of universal global shared secrets for the initial bootstrapping and commissioning phase. Such a scheme has obvious security weaknesses and it also creates undesirable walled-gardens wh...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Aleksi Peltonen Eduardo Ingl és Sampsa Latvala Dan Garcia-Carrillo Mohit Sethi Tuomas Aura Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6104: DynDSE: Automated Multi-Objective Design Space Exploration for Context-Adaptive Wearable IoT Edge Devices
We report a case study for the design of electromyographic-monitoring eyeglasses with applications in automatic dietary monitoring. The design space included two spotting algorithms, and two sampling algorithms, intended for real-time execution on three microcontrollers. DynDSE yielded configurations that balance retrieval performance and resource consumption with an F1 score above 80% at an energy consumption that was 70% below the default, non-optimised configuration. We expect that the DynDSE approach can be applied to find suitable wearable IoT system designs in a variety of sensor-based applications. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Giovanni Schiboni Juan Carlos Suarez Rui Zhang Oliver Amft Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6105: On the Design of Dual-Polarised Linear Antenna Arrays with Enhanced Port-to-Port Isolation
aw Magnuski The paper describes the process of designing a dual-polarised linear antenna array with enhanced port-to-port isolation, with the example of a four-element array with isolation better than 60 dB for the U-NII 5.15–5.925 GHz band. As a single antenna, dual-polarised electromagnetically coupled microstrip antennas were used with port-to-port isolation not exceeding 25 dB. A significant improvement in the isolation of the array was achieved thanks to the application of a dedicated feeding network. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a mathematical model describing port-to-port isolation was dev...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dariusz W ójcik Maciej Surma Artur Noga Miros ław Magnuski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6106: Two-Hop Monitoring Mechanism Based on Relaxed Flow Conservation Constraints against Selective Routing Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks
slam Khan In this paper, we investigate the problem of selective routing attack in wireless sensor networks by considering a novel threat, named the upstream-node effect, which limits the accuracy of the monitoring functions in deciding whether a monitored node is legitimate or malicious. To address this limitation, we propose a one-dimensional one-class classifier, named relaxed flow conservation constraint, as an intrusion detection scheme to counter the upstream node attack. Each node uses four types of relaxed flow conservation constraints to monitor all of its neighbors. Three constraints are applied by using one-...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdelouahid Derhab Abdelghani Bouras Mohamed Belaoued Leandros Maglaras Farrukh Aslam Khan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6108: Developing a CNT-SPE Sensing Platform Based on Green Synthesized AuNPs, Using Sargassum sp.
In this study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) prepared by green synthesis from Sargassum sp. were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential (ζ) obtaining organic capped face-centered cubic 80–100 nm AuNPs with an excellent stability in a wide range of pH. The AuNPs were used to modify a carbon nanotubes-screen printed electrode (CNT-SPE), through the drop-casting method, to assemble a novel portable electrochemical sensing platfor...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fanny J. Gonz ález-Fuentes Gustavo A. Molina Rodolfo Silva Jos é Luis López-Miranda Rodrigo Esparza Angel R. Hernandez-Martinez Miriam Estevez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6110: Thyroid Nodule Classification for Physician Decision Support Using Machine Learning-Evaluated Geometric and Morphological Features
hael Friebe The classification of thyroid nodules using ultrasound (US) imaging is done using the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) guidelines that classify nodules based on visual and textural characteristics. These are composition, shape, size, echogenicity, calcifications, margins, and vascularity. This work aims to reduce subjectivity in the current diagnostic process by using geometric and morphological (G-M) features that represent the visual characteristics of thyroid nodules to provide physicians with decision support. A total of 27 G-M features were extracted from images obtained from an open-...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elmer Jeto Gomes Ataide Nikhila Ponugoti Alfredo Illanes Simone Schenke Michael Kreissl Michael Friebe Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6109: Experimental Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for Robust Received Signal Strength-Based Visible Light Positioning
y Stevens In this work, the use of Machine Learning methods for robust Received Signal Strength (RSS)-based Visible Light Positioning (VLP) is experimentally evaluated. The performance of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) models and Gaussian processes (GP) is investigated when using relative RSS input features. The experimental set-up for the RSS-based VLP technology uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) transmitting intensity modulated light and a single photodiode (PD) as a receiver. The experiments focus on achieving robustness to cope with unknown received signal strength modifications over time. Therefore, several datasets ...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Willem Raes Nicolas Knudde Jorik De Bruycker Tom Dhaene Nobby Stevens Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6111: Low-Rank Matrix Recovery from Noise via an MDL Framework-Based Atomic Norm
Yan Tang The recovery of the underlying low-rank structure of clean data corrupted with sparse noise/outliers is attracting increasing interest. However, in many low-level vision problems, the exact target rank of the underlying structure and the particular locations and values of the sparse outliers are not known. Thus, the conventional methods cannot separate the low-rank and sparse components completely, especially in the case of gross outliers or deficient observations. Therefore, in this study, we employ the minimum description length (MDL) principle and atomic norm for low-rank matrix recovery to overcome these ...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anyong Qin Lina Xian Yongliang Yang Taiping Zhang Yuan Yan Tang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6112: Implementation and Evaluation of Open-Source Hardware to Monitor Water Quality in Precision Aquaculture
Ramon Casillas Hernandez Precision aquaculture is a new field that allows farmers to have better control over aquaculture processes, facilitating decision-making and improving efficiency. The implementation and evaluation of a low-cost water-quality monitoring system based on open-source hardware, which is easy to rebuild for scientific applications, is reported in this paper. The proposed system measures temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH, taking records and sending information through a wireless protocol (ZigBee) to a graphical user interface which can display information numerically and graphically, as well as...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rafael Apolinar B órquez López Luis Rafael Martinez Cordova Juan Carlos Gil Nu ñez Jose Reyes Gonzalez Galaviz Jose Cuauhtemoc Ibarra Gamez Ramon Casillas Hernandez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6113: Tool Wear Condition Monitoring by Combining Variational Mode Decomposition and Ensemble Learning
i Zhang Most online tool condition monitoring (TCM) methods easily cause machining interference. To solve this problem, we propose a method based on the analysis of the spindle motor current signal of a machine tool. Firstly, cutting experiments under multi-conditions were carried out at a Fanuc vertical machining center, using the Fanuc Servo Guide software to obtain the spindle motor current data of the built-in current sensor of the machine tool, which can not only apply to the actual processing conditions but, also, save costs. Secondly, we propose the variational mode decomposition (VMD) algorithm for feature extr...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jun Yuan Libing Liu Zeqing Yang Yanrui Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6114: Lightweight and Resource-Constrained Learning Network for Face Recognition with Performance Optimization
hiang Despite considerable progress in face recognition technology in recent years, deep learning (DL) and convolutional neural networks (CNN) have revealed commendable recognition effects with the advent of artificial intelligence and big data. FaceNet was presented in 2015 and is able to significantly improve the accuracy of face recognition, while also being powerfully built to counteract several common issues, such as occlusion, blur, illumination change, and different angles of head pose. However, not all hardware can sustain the heavy computing load in the execution of the FaceNet model. In applications in the se...
Source: Sensors - October 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hsiao-Chi Li Zong-Yue Deng Hsin-Han Chiang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6073: Electrochemical Detection and Point-of-Care Testing for Circulating Tumor Cells: Current Techniques and Future Potentials
en Yang Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that escaped from the primary tumor or the metastasis into the blood and they play a major role in the initiation of metastasis and tumor recurrence. Thus, it is widely accepted that CTC is the main target of liquid biopsy. In the past few decades, the separation of CTC based on the electrochemical method has attracted widespread attention due to its convenience, rapidness, low cost, high sensitivity, and no need for complex instruments and equipment. At present, CTC detection is not widely used in the clinic due to various reasons. Point-of-care CTC detection prov...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chunyang Lu Jintao Han Xiaoyi Sun Gen Yang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6075: A Novel Method with Stacking Learning of Data-Driven Soft Sensors for Mud Concentration in a Cutter Suction Dredger
In this study, a data-driven soft sensor method is proposed that can predict the mud concentration in real time and can mitigate current marine mud concentration meter malfunctions, which affects continuous construction. This sensor can also replace the mud concentration meter when the construction is stable, thereby extending its service life. The method is applied to two actual construction cases, and the results show that the stacking generalization (SG) model has a good prediction effect in the two cases, and its goodness of fit R2 values are as high as 0.9774 and 0.9919, indicating that this method can successfully de...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bin Wang Shi-dong Fan Pan Jiang Han-hua Zhu Ting Xiong Wei Wei Zhen-long Fang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6078: A Two-Class Data Transmission Method Using a Lightweight Blockchain Structure for Secure Smart Dust IoT Environments
ark In smart dust IoT environments, a large number of devices with low computing power/resources are deployed to collect surrounding information. There are many issues to consider for an efficient and secure smart dust IoT environment. Sometimes the urgent sensed data needs to be transmitted immediately. In addition, there are potential problems related to security issues since the smart dust IoT systems may be deployed in hard-to-access areas. In this paper, we propose an effective transmission method for two-class sensed data for secure smart IoT systems. We divide the sensed data into two classes which consist of th...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Joonsuu Park KeeHyun Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6076: An Overview of IoT Sensor Data Processing, Fusion, and Analysis Techniques
t Qureshi In the recent era of the Internet of Things, the dominant role of sensors and the Internet provides a solution to a wide variety of real-life problems. Such applications include smart city, smart healthcare systems, smart building, smart transport and smart environment. However, the real-time IoT sensor data include several challenges, such as a deluge of unclean sensor data and a high resource-consumption cost. As such, this paper addresses how to process IoT sensor data, fusion with other data sources, and analyses to produce knowledgeable insight into hidden data patterns for rapid decision-making. This pa...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rajalakshmi Krishnamurthi Adarsh Kumar Dhanalekshmi Gopinathan Anand Nayyar Basit Qureshi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6074: Human and Animal Motion Tracking Using Inertial Sensors
te;ric Marin Motion is key to health and wellbeing, something we are particularly aware of in times of lockdowns and restrictions on movement. Considering the motion of humans and animals as a biomarker of the performance of the neuro-musculoskeletal system, its analysis covers a large array of research fields, such as sports, equine science and clinical applications, but also innovative methods and workplace analysis. In this Special Issue of Sensors, we focused on human and animal motion-tracking using inertial sensors. Ten research and two review papers, mainly on human movement, but also on the locomotion of the ho...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fr édéric Marin Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6077: Guitar Chord Sensing and Recognition Using Multi-Task Learning and Physical Data Augmentation with Robotics
utaki In recent years, many researchers have shown increasing interest in music information retrieval (MIR) applications, with automatic chord recognition being one of the popular tasks. Many studies have achieved/demonstrated considerable improvement using deep learning based models in automatic chord recognition problems. However, most of the existing models have focused on simple chord recognition, which classifies the root note with the major, minor, and seventh chords. Furthermore, in learning-based recognition, it is critical to collect high-quality and large amounts of training data to achieve the desired perfor...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gerelmaa Byambatsogt Lodoiravsal Choimaa Gou Koutaki Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6079: Future Flood Risk Assessment Under the Effects of Land Use and Climate Change in the Tiaoxi Basin
Wu Global warming and land-use change affects runoff in the regional basin. Affected by different factors, such as abundant rainfall and increased impervious surface, the Taihu basin becomes more vulnerable to floods. As a result, a future flood risk analysis is of great significance. This paper simulated the land-use expansion and analyzed the surface change from 2020 to 2050 using the neural network Cellular Automata Markov (CA-Markov) model. Moreover, the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset was corrected for deviation and used to analyze the climate trend. Second, t...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Yang Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6081: MeLa: A Programming Language for a New Multidisciplinary Oceanographic Float
n Hello Guust Nolet At 2000 m depth in the oceans, one can hear biological, seismological, meteorological, and anthropogenic activity. Acoustic monitoring of the oceans at a global scale and over long periods of time could bring important information for various sciences. The Argo project monitors the physical properties of the oceans with autonomous floats, some of which are also equipped with a hydrophone. These have a limited transmission bandwidth requiring acoustic data to be processed on board. However, developing signal processing algorithms for these instruments requires one to be an expert in embedded softwa...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: S ébastien Bonnieux Dorian Cazau S ébastien Mosser Mireille Blay-Fornarino Yann Hello Guust Nolet Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6082: An IoT Hardware Platform Architecture for Monitoring Power Grid Systems based on Heterogeneous Multi-Sensors
okWon Kim Partial discharge (PD) is a major indicator of various failures in power grid systems. PD exhibits a physical occurrence where a localized electrical discharge happens in insulation materials. This phenomenon causes damage to the insulating parts and, in various circumstances, leads to complete insulation breakdown. As a consequence, it can produce more costly outcomes such as abrupt outages or lost production. Therefore, PD detection plays a vital role in preventing insulation failure. In this work, we propose a system that utilizes heterogeneous sensors for the PD detection along with multi-sensor interface...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Phuoc Duc Nguyen Hieu Quang Vo Linh Ngoc Le SeokJin Eo LokWon Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6083: Cost-Effective Electrochemical Activation of Graphitic Carbon Nitride on the Glassy Carbon Electrode Surface for Selective Determination of Serotonin
g-Cheol Chang A simple one-step electrochemical deposition/activation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is highly desired for sensor configurations and remains a great challenge. Herein, we attempt an electrochemical route to exfoliate the g-C3N4 nanosheets in an aqueous solution of pH 7.0 for constructing a sensor, which is highly sensitive for the detection of serotonin (5-HT). The significance of our design is to exfoliate the g-C3N4 nanosheets, a strong electrocatalyst for 5-HT detection. Investigations regarding the effect of neutral pH (pH 7.0) on the bulk g-C3N4 and g-C3N4 nanosheets, physical characterizatio...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vijayaraj Kathiresan Thenmozhi Rajarathinam Seulah Lee Suhkmann Kim Jaewon Lee Dinakaran Thirumalai Seung-Cheol Chang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6084: Oxygen Gas Sensing with Photothermal Spectroscopy in a Hollow-Core Negative Curvature Fiber
Yingying Wang We demonstrate a compact all-fiber oxygen sensor using photothermal interferometry with a short length (4.3 cm) of hollow-core negative curvature fibers. The hollow-core fiber has double transmission windows covering both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Absorption of a pump laser beam at 760 nm produces photothermal phase modulation and a probe Fabry-Perot interferometer operating at 1550 nm is used to detect the phase modulation. With wavelength modulation and first harmonic detection, a limit of detection down to 54 parts per million (ppm) with a 600-s averaging time is achieved, correspon...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yingzhen Hong Haihong Bao Wei Jin Shoulin Jiang Hoi Lut Ho Shoufei Gao Yingying Wang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6085: Bismuth Subcarbonate Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite for the Sensitive Stripping Voltammetry Analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in Water
avid Jassby In this paper, bismuth subcarbonate (BiO)2CO3-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite incorporated in Nafion matrix ((BiO)2CO3-rGO-Nafion) was synthesized and further applied, for the first time, in the sensitive detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II) by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). (BiO)2CO3 composite pl...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo Zhao Mohammed Sedki Shengcun Ma Claudia Villarreal Ashok Mulchandani David Jassby Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6080: Wide-Band High Concentration-Ratio Volume-Holographic Grating for Solar Concentration
Ping Su Efficient and low-cost solar-energy collection has become the focus of many research works. This paper proposes a recording method and an experimental verification of a wide-band, large-angle, and high concentration-ratio volume-holographic grating for solar concentration. We applied the Kogelnik coupled-wave theory and photopolymer diffusion model to analyse the formation mechanism and influencing factors on the diffraction efficiency of monochromatic volume-holographic gratings. We design and construct a three-color laser-interference system to record three monochromatic volume-holographic gratings. The bes...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chengchen Wang Jianshe Ma Hongxu Kao Taihui Wu Ping Su Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6086: Monitoring of PM2.5 Concentrations by Learning from Multi-Weather Sensors
Xu This paper aims to monitor the ambient level of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) by learning from multi-weather sensors. Over the past decade, China has established a high-density network of automatic weather stations. In contrast, the number of PM monitors is much smaller than the number of weather stations. Since the haze process is closely related to the variation of meteorological parameters, it is possible and promising to calculate the concentration of PM2.5 by studying the data from weather sensors. Here, we use three machine learning methods, namely multivariate linear regression, mult...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuexia Wang Zhihuo Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6087: Characterization and Miniaturization of Silver-Nanoparticle Microcoil via Aerosol Jet Printing Techniques for Micromagnetic Cochlear Stimulation
tti According to the National Institute of Deafness and other Communication Disorders 2012 report, the number of cochlear implant (CI) users is steadily increasing from 324,000 CI users worldwide. The cochlea, located in the inner ear, is a snail-like structure that exhibits a tonotopic geometry where acoustic waves are filtered spatially according to frequency. Throughout the cochlea, there exist hair cells that transduce sensed acoustic waves into an electrical signal that is carried by the auditory nerve to ultimately reach the auditory cortex of the brain. A cochlear implant bridges the gap if non-functional hair c...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ressa Reneth Sarreal Pamela Bhatti Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6088: Application of Wireless Accelerometer Mounted on Wheel Rim for Parked Car Monitoring
-Pawlowski Damages of different kinds that can be inflicted to a parked car. Among them, loosening of the car wheel bolts is difficult to detect during normal use of the car and is at the same time very dangerous to the health and life of the driver. Moreover, in patents and publications, only little information is presented about electronic sensors available for activation from inside of the car to inform the driver about the mentioned dangerous situation. Thus, the main aim of this work is the proposition and examination of a sensing device using of a wireless accelerometer head to detect loosening of wheel fixing bo...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michal Borecki Arkadiusz Rychlik Arkadiusz Olejnik Przemys ław Prus Jan Szmidt Michael L. Korwin-Pawlowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6070: Mapping Utility Poles in Aerial Orthoimages Using ATSS Deep Learning Method
rcato Junior Wesley Gonçalves Mapping utility poles using side-view images acquired with car-mounted cameras is a time-consuming task, mainly in larger areas due to the need for street-by-street surveying. Aerial images cover larger areas and can be feasible alternatives although the detection and mapping of the utility poles in urban environments using top-view images is challenging. Thus, we propose the use of Adaptive Training Sample Selection (ATSS) for detecting utility poles in urban areas since it is a novel method and has not yet investigated in remote sensing applications. Here, we compared ATSS with ...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Matheus Gomes Jonathan Silva Diogo Gon çalves Pedro Zamboni Jader Perez Edson Batista Ana Ramos Lucas Osco Edson Matsubara Jonathan Li Jos é Marcato Junior Wesley Gon çalves Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6071: Random Fiber Grating Characterization Based on OFDR and Transfer Matrix Method
Xiaoyi Bao Random fiber gratings (RFGs) have shown great potential applications in fiber sensing and random fiber lasers. However, a quantitative relationship between the degree of randomness of the RFG and its spectral response has never been analyzed. In this paper, two RFGs with different degrees of randomness are first characterized experimentally by optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). Experimental results show that the high degree of randomness leads to low backscattering strength of the grating and strong strength fluctuations in the spatial domain. The local spectral response of the grating exhibits ...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zichao Zhou Chen Chen Ping Lu Stephen Mihailov Liang Chen Xiaoyi Bao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6072: Full-Duplex Relay for Millimeter Wave Vehicular Platoon Communciations
ong The safety and consistency of platoon-based driving are guaranteed via reliable communication between vehicles in a platoon. In this paper, we propose to exploit a full-duplex (FD) relay vehicle for millimeter-wave vehicular communications in platoon-based driving. Considering that a lead vehicle broadcasts information to all vehicles in a platoon, we consider two power allocation problems—maximizing broadcast information rates with a power constraint and minimizing power consumption with a quality-of-service constraint. In particular, for a four-vehicle platoon communication, we derive closed-form so...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jong-Ho Lee Jiho Song Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6062: Mapping and Discriminating Rural Settlements Using Gaofen-2 Images and a Fully Convolutional Network
In this study, we proposed a novel framework to map rural settlements by leveraging the merits of Gaofen-2 HSR images and representation learning of deep learning. We combined a dilated residual convolutional network (Dilated-ResNet) and a multi-scale context subnetwork into an end-to-end architecture in order to learn high resolution feature representations from HSR images and to aggregate and refine the multi-scale features extracted by the aforementioned network. Our experiment in Tongxiang city showed that the proposed framework effectively mapped and discriminated rural settlements with an overall accuracy of 98% and ...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ziran Ye Bo Si Yue Lin Qiming Zheng Ran Zhou Lu Huang Ke Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6063: Research on Absolute Calibration of GNSS Receiver Delay through Clock-Steering Characterization
This article comprehensively analyzes the difficulty, composition, principle, and calculation of GNSS receiver delay. A universal method, based on clock-steering characterization, is proposed to absolutely calibrate all types of receivers. We use a hardware simulator to design several experiments to test the performance of GNSS receiver delay for different receiver types, radio frequency (RF) signals, operation status and time-to-phase (TtP). At first, through the receivers of Novatel and Septentrio, the channel delay of Septentrio is 2 ns far lower than 65 ns for Novatel, and for the inter-frequency bias of GLONASS L1, Se...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Feng Zhu Huijun Zhang Luxi Huang Xiaohui Li Ping Feng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6064: Autonomous Deployment of Underwater Acoustic Monitoring Devices Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: The Flying Hydrophone
This article presents results from the development of a UAV system equipped with an underwater acoustic recorder aimed at assisting with the monitoring of harbour porpoises in Special Areas of Conservation in the United Kingdom. The UAV is capable of autonomous navigation, persistent landing, take-off and automatic data acquisition at specified waypoints. The system architecture that enables autonomous UAV flight including waypoint planning and control is described. A bespoke lightweight underwater acoustic recorder (named the PorpDAQ) capable of transmitting the results of fast Fourier transforms (FFT) applied to incoming...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daniel Babatunde Simon Pomeroy Paul Lepper Ben Clark Rebecca Walker Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6065: An Analysis of the Eurasian Tectonic Plate Motion Parameters Based on GNSS Stations Positions in ITRF2014
ka The article is the fourth part of our research program concerning an analysis of tectonic plates’ motion parameters that is based on an observation campaign of an array of satellite techniques: SLR, DORIS, VLBI, and now GNSS. In this paper, based on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014 (ITRF2014) for observations and using the GNSS technique, the Eurasian tectonic plate motion was analyzed and the plate motion parameters Φ, Λ (the position of the rotation pole), and ω (the angular rotation speed) were adjusted. Approximately 1000 station positions ...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marcin Jagoda Mi łosława Rutkowska Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6066: Analysis of Various Pickup Coil Designs in Nonmodule-Type GaN Power Semiconductors
Kim Gallium nitride (GaN) devices are advantageous over conventional Silicon (Si) devices in terms of their small size, low on-resistance, and high dv/dt characteristics; these ensure a high integrated density circuit configuration, high efficiency, and fast switching speed. Therefore, in the diagnosis and protection of a system containing a GaN power semiconductor, the transient state for accurate switch current measurement must be analyzed. The pick-up coil, as a current sensor for switch current measurement in a system comprising a surface-mount-device-type nonmodular GaN power semiconductor, has the advantages of a...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ui-Jin Kim Rae-Young Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6067: Portable Sleep Apnea Syndrome Screening and Event Detection Using Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network
n-Hao Huang Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by repeated airflow partial reduction or complete cessation due to upper airway collapse during sleep. OSAHS can induce frequent awake and intermittent hypoxia that is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular events. Full-channel Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for diagnosing OSAHS; however, this PSG evaluation process is unsuitable for home screening. To solve this problem, a measuring module integrating abdominal and thoracic triaxial accelerometers, a pulsed oximeter (SpO2) and an electrocardiogram sensor was devised in ...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hung-Chi Chang Hau-Tieng Wu Po-Chiun Huang Hsi-Pin Ma Yu-Lun Lo Yuan-Hao Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6068: A Low-Cost 3D Phenotype Measurement Method of Leafy Vegetables Using Video Recordings from Smartphones
Han Leafy vegetables are an essential source of the various nutrients that people need in their daily lives. The quantification of vegetable phenotypes and yield estimation are prerequisites for the selection of genetic varieties and for the improvement of planting methods. The traditional method is manual measurement, which is time-consuming and cumbersome. Therefore, there is a need for efficient and convenient in situ vegetable phenotype identification methods to provide data support for breeding research and for crop yield monitoring, thereby increasing vegetable yield. In this paper, a novel approach was develope...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Han Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6069: Electrical Resistance Tomography for Control Applications: Quantitative Study of the Gas-Liquid Distribution inside A Cyclone
nt Babout Phase separation based centrifugal forces is effective, and thus widely explored by the process industry. In an inline swirl separator, a core of the light phase is formed in the center of the device and captured further downstream. Given the inlet conditions, this gas core created varies in shape and size. To predict the separation behavior and control the process in an optimal way, the gas core diameter should be measured with the minimum possible intrusiveness. Process tomography techniques such as electrical resistance tomography (ERT) allows us to measure the gas core diameter in a fast and non-intrusive...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Awais Sattar Matheus Martinez Garcia Robert Banasiak Luis M. Portela Laurent Babout Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6046: Tensor Decomposition for Spatial —Temporal Traffic Flow Prediction with Sparse Data
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6046: Tensor Decomposition for Spatial—Temporal Traffic Flow Prediction with Sparse Data Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216046 Authors: Funing Yang Guoliang Liu Liping Huang Cheng Siong Chin Urban transport traffic surveillance is of great importance for public traffic control and personal travel path planning. Effective and efficient traffic flow prediction is helpful to optimize these real applications. The main challenge of traffic flow prediction is the data sparsity problem, meaning that traffic flow on some roads or of certain periods cannot be monitored. This paper presents a tra...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Funing Yang Guoliang Liu Liping Huang Cheng Siong Chin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6047: Towards Improving TSCH Energy Efficiency: An Analytical Approach to a Practical Implementation
L. Rebelatto The IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard defines a number of Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocols for low power wireless communications, which are desirable for energy-constrained Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Originally defined in the IEEE 802.15.4e amendment, the Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) has recently been attracting attention from the research community due to its reduced contention (time scheduling) and robustness against fading (channel hopping). However, it requires a certain level of synchronization between the nodes, which can increase the energy consumption. In this work, we implement ...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marcos A. Sordi Ohara K. Rayel Guilherme L. Moritz Jo ão L. Rebelatto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6048: Upconversion Nanocrystal Doped Polymer Fiber Thermometer
ehl Detlev Ristau In recent years, lanthanide-doped nanothermometers have been mainly used in thin films or dispersed in organic solvents. However, both approaches have disadvantages such as the short interaction lengths of the active material with the pump beam or complicated handling, which can directly affect the achievable temperature resolution. We investigated the usability of a polymer fiber doped with upconversion nanocrystals as a thermometer. The fiber was excited with a wavelength stabilized diode laser at a wavelength of 976 nm. Emission spectra were recorded in a temperature range from 10 to 35 ∘C and ...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jonas Thiem Simon Spelthann Laurie Neumann Florian Jakobs Hans-Hermann Johannes Wolfgang Kowalsky Dietmar Kracht Joerg Neumann Axel Ruehl Detlev Ristau Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6049: Sensitivity Enhancement of Modified D-Shaped Microchannel PCF-Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor
Feroz Ahmed In this work, a highly sensitive dual-core configured microchannel-based plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor was investigated, which can be used for low RI detection. Both the sensing layer and the plasmonic material layer were built outside of the fiber design to detect the surrounding medium’s RI changes. Additionally, the effects of different plasmonic materials gold (Au), silver (Ag), and copper (Cu) toward sensitivity were investigated for the same structure. An adhesive agent was used in this work, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and was coated on top of the plasmonic material to prevent the...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdullah Al Noman Emranul Haque Md. Anwar Hossain Nguyen Hoang Hai Yoshinori Namihira Feroz Ahmed Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6050: Comparison of Enhanced Noise Model Performance Based on Analysis of Civilian GPS Data
l Schumayer We recorded the time series of location data from stationary, single-frequency (L1) GPS positioning systems at a variety of geographic locations. The empirical autocorrelation function of these data shows significant temporal correlations. The Gaussian white noise model, widely used in sensor-fusion algorithms, does not account for the observed autocorrelations and has an artificially large variance. Noise-model analysis—using Akaike’s Information Criterion—favours alternative models, such as an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck or an autoregressive process. We sugge...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andy W. R. Soundy Bradley J. Panckhurst Phillip Brown Andrew Martin Timothy C. A. Molteno Daniel Schumayer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6051: Measuring Transverse Displacements Using Unmanned Aerial Systems Laser Doppler Vibrometer (UAS-LDV): Development and Field Validation
This study also identified barriers for industrial adoption of this technology and proposed operational development practices for both technical and cost-effective implementation. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Piyush Garg Roya Nasimi Ali Ozdagli Su Zhang David Dennis Lee Mascarenas Mahmoud Reda Taha Fernando Moreu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6052: Design, Validation and Comparison of Path Following Controllers for Autonomous Vehicles
ng Zhuo As one of the core issues of autonomous vehicles, vehicle motion control directly affects vehicle safety and user experience. Therefore, it is expected to design a simple, reliable, and robust path following the controller that can handle complex situations. To deal with the longitudinal motion control problem, a speed tracking controller based on sliding mode control with nonlinear conditional integrator is proposed, and its stability is proved by the Lyapunov theory. Then, a linear parameter varying model predictive control (LPV-MPC) based lateral controller is formulated that the optimization problem is s...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Xiong Leng Zeng Zhuo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6053: Irradiance Restoration Based Shadow Compensation Approach for High Resolution Multispectral Satellite Remote Sensing Images
In this study, to further settle these problems, we analyzed the surface irradiance of both shadow and non-shadow areas based on a satellite sensor imaging mechanism and radiative transfer theory, and finally develop an irradiance restoration based (IRB) shadow compensation approach under the assumption that the shadow area owns the same irradiance to the nearby non-shadow area containing the same type features. To validate the performance of the proposed IRB approach for shadow compensation, we tested numerous images of WorldView-2 and WorldView-3 acquired at different sites and times. We particularly evaluated the shadow...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongyin Han Chengshan Han Liang Huang Taiji Lan Xucheng Xue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6054: Expansion-Induced Crack Propagation in Rocks Monitored by Using Piezoelectric Transducers
The objective of this study is to develop a new vibration-free excavation method based on vermiculite expansion for rock cracking and to evaluate the performance of the heating system via elastic wave monitoring. Natural vermiculites expand rapidly in volume when heated above 800 °C. MgO powder is used to evenly transmit the surface temperature of a heater rod, which can attain high temperatures rapidly, to the vermiculites. The insertion direction of the heater rod greatly affects the expansion pressure. Three cuboid rock specimens are prepared and equipped with the heating system at different hole-to-face dis...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ahn Kim Byun Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research