Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6609: Switching from Multiplex to Multimodal Colorimetric Lateral Flow Immunosensor
In this study, we demonstrated three strategies to upgrade standard multiplex LFIA to multimodal capacity. As a proof-of-concept, we applied the strategies to the differential diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, a widespread pathogen, for which conventional multiplex LFIA testing is well-established. In the new two-parameter LFIA (x2LFIA), we exploited color encoding, in which the binding of multiple targets occurs in one reactive band and the color of the probe reveals which one is present in the sample. By combining the sequential alignment of several reactive zones along the membrane of the LFIA s...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cavalera Di Nardo Forte Marinoni Chiarello Baggiani Anfossi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6610: Stray Current Protection and Monitoring Systems: Characteristic Quantities, Assessment of Performance and Verification
ti Electrified transportation systems (ETSs) are affected by stray current problems impacting within and outside the right of way on reinforcement, buried metal structures and foundations. Stray current protection systems have recently been integrated in the track structure. Track electrical quantities are, thus, usually measured to assess track insulation and protection efficiency but should be backed up by additional measurements at the affected structures and installations, in order to assess their exposure and risk of corrosion. Ideally, a stray current monitoring system proceeds from the measurement of these quant...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mariscotti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6608: The Influence and Compensation Method of Eccentricity for Cylindrical Specimens in Eddy Current Displacement Measurement
ntao Yu The eddy current displacement sensor (ECDS) is used to realize the precise detection of the rotor radial position in the magnetic suspension motor. The eccentricity between the probe axis and the measured surface normal reduces the measurement accuracy. An ECDS mathematical model is established to analyze the influence of the measured surface curvature and eccentricity on detection results. The eddy current density distribution law of the measured surface is obtained by using the finite element method (FEM). The experimental platform is set up based on the practical engineering structure, which contains two kin...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hao Zhan Li Wang Tingting Wang Juntao Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6612: Convolutional Autoencoder-Based Flaw Detection for Steel Wire Ropes
hua Gui Visual perception-based methods are a promising means of capturing the surface damage state of wire ropes and hence provide a potential way to monitor the condition of wire ropes. Previous methods mainly concentrated on the handcrafted feature-based flaw representation, and a classifier was constructed to realize fault recognition. However, appearances of outdoor wire ropes are seriously affected by noises like lubricating oil, dust, and light. In addition, in real applications, it is difficult to prepare a sufficient amount of flaw data to train a fault classifier. In the context of these issues, this study pr...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guoyong Zhang Zhaohui Tang Jin Zhang Weihua Gui Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6573: Multipath TCP-Based IoT Communication Evaluation: From the Perspective of Multipath Management with Machine Learning
i Yong Ma With the development of wireless networking technology, current Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices are equipped with multiple network access interfaces. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) technology can improve the throughput of data transmission. However, traditional MPTCP path management may cause problems such as data confusion and even buffer blockage, which severely reduces transmission performance. This research introduces machine learning algorithms into MPTCP path management, and proposes an automatic learning selection path mechanism based on MPTCP (ALPS-MPTCP), which can adaptively select some high-quality paths...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruiwen Ji Yuanlong Cao Xiaotian Fan Yirui Jiang Gang Lei Yong Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6574: Remote Pain Monitoring Using Fog Computing for e-Healthcare: An Efficient Architecture
ad Shafiq The integration of medical signal processing capabilities and advanced sensors into Internet of Things (IoT) devices plays a key role in providing comfort and convenience to human lives. As the number of patients is increasing gradually, providing healthcare facilities to each patient, particularly to the patients located in remote regions, not only has become challenging but also results in several issues, such as: (i) increase in workload on paramedics, (ii) wastage of time, and (iii) accommodation of patients. Therefore, the design of smart healthcare systems has become an important area of research to ove...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Syed Rizwan Hassan Ishtiaq Ahmad Shafiq Ahmad Abdullah Alfaify Muhammad Shafiq Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6575: Cultivar Discrimination of Single Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seed via Multispectral Imaging Combined with Multivariate Analysis
In this study, the potential of a new method was evaluated that used multispectral imaging combined with object-wise multivariate image analysis to distinguish alfalfa cultivars with a single seed. Three multivariate analysis methods including principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and support vector machines (SVM) were applied to distinguish seeds of 12 alfalfa cultivars based on their morphological and spectral traits. The results showed that the combination of morphological features and spectral data could provide an exceedingly concise process to classify alfalfa seeds of different cu...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lingjie Yang Zuxin Zhang Xiaowen Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6576: An Integrated Deep Learning Method towards Fault Diagnosis of Hydraulic Axial Piston Pump
peng Li A hydraulic axial piston pump is the essential component of a hydraulic transmission system and plays a key role in modern industry. Considering varying working conditions and the implicity of frequent faults, it is difficult to accurately monitor the machinery faults in the actual operating process by using current fault diagnosis methods. Hence, it is urgent and significant to investigate effective and precise fault diagnosis approaches for pumps. Owing to the advantages of intelligent fault diagnosis methods in big data processing, methods based on deep learning have accomplished admirable performance for fa...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shengnan Tang Shouqi Yuan Yong Zhu Guangpeng Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6577: Novel Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunochromatography Paper-Based Sensor with Signal Amplification Strategy for Detection of Deoxynivalenol
Sun Yemin Guo Immunoassay has the advantages of high sensitivity, high specificity, and simple operation, and has been widely used in the detection of mycotoxins. For several years, time-resolved fluorescence immunochromatography (TRFIA) paper-based sensors have attracted much attention as a simple and low-cost field detection technology. However, a traditional TRFIA paper-based sensor is based on antibody labeling, which cannot easily meet the current detection requirements. A second antibody labeling method was used to amplify the fluorescence signal and improve the detection sensitivity. Polystyrene fluorescent mi...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haowei Dong Xingshuang An Yaodong Xiang Fukai Guan Qi Zhang Qingqing Yang Xia Sun Yemin Guo Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6578: MQTTset, a New Dataset for Machine Learning Techniques on MQTT
We present the creation of the dataset, also validating it through the definition of a hypothetical detection system, by combining the legitimate dataset with cyber-attacks against the MQTT network. Obtained results demonstrate how MQTTset can be used to train machine learning models to implement detection systems able to protect IoT contexts. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ivan Vaccari Giovanni Chiola Maurizio Aiello Maurizio Mongelli Enrico Cambiaso Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6579: Estimating Occupancy Levels in Enclosed Spaces Using Environmental Variables: A Fitness Gym and Living Room as Evaluation Scenarios
Ceballos The understanding of occupancy patterns has been identified as a key contributor to achieve improvements in energy efficiency in buildings since occupancy information can benefit different systems, such as HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioners), lighting, security, and emergency. This has meant that in the past decade, researchers have focused on improving the precision of occupancy estimation in enclosed spaces. Although several works have been done, one of the less addressed issues, regarding occupancy research, has been the availability of data for contrasting experimental results. Therefore, th...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andree Vela Joanna Alvarado-Uribe Manuel Davila Neil Hernandez-Gress Hector G. Ceballos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6580: Measurement of Water Leaving Reflectance Using a Digital Camera Based on Multiple Reflectance Reference Cards
Bing Zhang With the development of citizen science, digital cameras and smartphones are increasingly utilized in water quality monitoring. The smartphone application HydroColor quantitatively retrieves water quality parameters from digital images. HydroColor assumes a linear relationship between the digital pixel number (DN) and incident radiance and applies a grey reference card to derive water leaving reflectance. However, image DNs change with incident light brightness non-linearly, according to a power function. We developed an improved method for observing and calculating water leaving reflectance from digital ...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Min Gao Junsheng Li Fangfang Zhang Shenglei Wang Ya Xie Ziyao Yin Bing Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6581: Design Implementation and Evaluation of a Mobile Continuous Blood Oxygen Saturation Monitoring System
Conclusion: These results indicate the effectiveness of the customized mobile SpO2 monitor and the selected design principles. Significance: This research is expected to facilitate the continuous SpO2 monitoring of patients with clinical indications. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qingxue Zhang David Arney Julian M. Goldman Eric M. Isselbacher Antonis A. Armoundas Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6582: Target Localization with Unknown Transmit Power and Path-Loss Exponent Using a Kalman Filter in WSNs
We present a novel hybrid localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks in the absence of knowledge regarding the transmit power and path-loss exponent. Transmit power and the path-loss exponent are critical parameters for target localization algorithms in wireless sensor networks, which help extract target position information from the received signal strength. In the absence of information on transmit power and path-loss exponent, it is critical to estimate them for reliable deployment of conventional target localization algorithms. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous estimation of transmit power and path-loss...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: SeYoung Kang TaeHyun Kim WonZoo Chung Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6583: Frontiers and Challenges in Electrochemical Corrosion Monitoring; Surface and Downhole Applications
bdul Aziz Corrosion sensing is essential to monitor and safeguard the materials’ health and control the maintenance cost of corrosion-prone materials used in various industries. The petroleum industry is a major sufferer of corrosion costs among various industries due to pipelines and downhole applications. This review article encompasses an overview of various technologies used in early detection stages for more reliable corrosion sensing and warnings. This review provides a summary of corrosion types, corrosion causing chemical species, different destructive and non-destructive technologies used in moni...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abuzar Khan Ahsanulhaq Qurashi Wael Badeghaish Mohamed N. Noui-Mehidi Md. Abdul Aziz Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6584: Sensor Architectures and Technologies for Upper Limb 3D Surface Reconstruction: A Review
ro Barone 3D digital models of the upper limb anatomy represent the starting point for the design process of bespoke devices, such as orthoses and prostheses, which can be modeled on the actual patient’s anatomy by using CAD (Computer Aided Design) tools. The ongoing research on optical scanning methodologies has allowed the development of technologies that allow the surface reconstruction of the upper limb anatomy through procedures characterized by minimum discomfort for the patient. However, the 3D optical scanning of upper limbs is a complex task that requires solving problematic aspects, such as the ...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alessandro Paoli Paolo Neri Armando V. Razionale Francesco Tamburrino Sandro Barone Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6585: Whole-Field Reinforcement Learning: A Fully Autonomous Aerial Scouting Method for Precision Agriculture
In this study, we developed a novel, fully autonomous aerial scouting approach that preserves battery life by sampling sections of a field for sensing and predicting crop health for the whole field. Our approach uses reinforcement learning (RL) and convolutional neural networks (CNN) to accurately and autonomously sample the field. To develop and test the approach, we ran flight simulations on an aerial image dataset collected from an 80-acre corn field. The excess green vegetation Index was used as a proxy for crop health condition. Compared to the conventional UAS scouting approach, the proposed scouting approach sampled...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zichen Zhang Jayson Boubin Christopher Stewart Sami Khanal Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6586: Analysis of Vibration Monitoring Data of Flexible Suspension Lifting Structure Based on Time-Varying Theory
Shanqing Li An elevator is a typical flexible lifting machine. In order to monitor the vibration of elevator structure, the vibration characteristics of an elevator with a traction ratio of 1:1 has been tested experimentally. Sensors were arranged on the platform frame, car roof, and hoist rope to test the vibrations of the elevator in both ascending and descending conditions. The transverse, longitudinal, and coupled transverse-longitudinal vibrations were compared and analyzed. Further, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) method was used to examine the power spectral density (PSD) of the test results, and the m...
Source: Sensors - November 18, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qifeng Peng Peng Xu Hong Yuan Haixia Ma Jianghong Xue Zhenya He Shanqing Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6559: Recognition of Typical Locomotion Activities Based on the Sensor Data of a Smartphone in Pocket or Hand
rzegorzek With the ubiquity of smartphones, the interest in indoor localization as a research area grew. Methods based on radio data are predominant, but due to the susceptibility of these radio signals to a number of dynamic influences, good localization solutions usually rely on additional sources of information, which provide relative information about the current location. Part of this role is often taken by the field of activity recognition, e.g., by estimating whether a pedestrian is currently taking the stairs. This work presents different approaches for activity recognition, considering the four most basic loco...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Markus Ebner Toni Fetzer Markus Bullmann Frank Deinzer Marcin Grzegorzek Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6555: Maturity Prediction in Yellow Peach (Prunus persica L.) Cultivars Using a Fluorescence Spectrometer
This study investigated the ability to predict fruit maturity of yellow peach cultivars using a prototype non-destructive fluorescence spectrometer. Collected spectra were analysed to predict flesh firmness (FF), soluble solids concentration (SSC), index of absorbance difference (IAD), skin and flesh colour attributes (i.e., a* and H°) and maturity classes (immature, harvest-ready and mature) in four yellow peach cultivars—’August Flame’’August Flame’, ‘O’Henry’, ‘Redhaven’...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alessio Scalisi Daniele Pelliccia Mark Glenn O ’Connell Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6556: Development of a Portable All-Wavelength PPG Sensing Device for Robust Adaptive-Depth Measurement: A Spectrometer Approach with a Hydrostatic Measurement Example
Chang Photoplethysmography (PPG), a noninvasive optical sensing technology, has been widely used to measure various physiological indices. Over-the-counter PPG devices are typically composed of a single-wavelength light source, namely, single-wavelength PPG (SW-PPG). It is known that signals of SW-PPG are easily contaminated or distorted by measurement conditions such as motion artifacts, wearing pressure, and skin type. Since lights of different wavelengths can penetrate skin tissues at different depths, how to effectively construct a multiwavelength PPG (MW-PPG) device or even an all-wavelength PPG (AW-PPG) device ha...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shao-Hao Chen Yung-Chi Chuang Cheng-Chun Chang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6557: Enhanced Digital Gradient Sensing Using Backlight Digital Speckle Target
Pan Ou Digital gradient sensing (DGS) is a non-contact and full-field optical measurement technique, which assesses mechanical behaviors of transparent materials or specular structures by measuring angular deflections of light rays. However, owing to the poor light-gathering capability of its imaging system, the dynamic performance of DGS is heavily restricted. Here, a method of enhancing the dynamic performance of DGS by improving its speckle target is proposed. The method employs the technique of backlight illumination, which significantly increases the utilization efficiency of light, shortens the exposure time, an...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Baofei Fu Chenzhuo Li Bo Dong Pan Ou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6558: Estimating Surgical Blood Loss Volume Using Continuously Monitored Vital Signs
Conclusion: This is the first attempt at predicting quantitative BLV from noninvasive measurements. Normalized PPG features are superior to ABP in accurately estimating early-stage BLV, and normalized invasive ABP features could enhance model performance in the event of a massive BLV. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Chen Chengcheng Hong Michael R. Pinsky Ting Ma Gilles Clermont Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6560: Seven-Layer Model in Complex Networks Link Prediction: A Survey
This study analyzes the observed topological, time, attributive, label, weight, directional, and symbolic features and auxiliary information to find the lack of connection and predict the future possible connection. For discussion and analysis of the evolution of the network, the network model is of great significance. In the past two decades, link prediction has attracted extensive attention from experts in various fields, who have published numerous high-level papers, but few combine interdisciplinary characteristics. This survey analyzes and discusses the existing link prediction methods. The idea of stratification is i...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Le Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6562: A Study on an Organic Semiconductor-Based Indirect X-ray Detector with Cd-Free QDs for Sensitivity Improvement
Kang In this paper, we studied the optimized conditions for adding inorganic quantum dots (QD) to the P3HT:PC70BM organic active layer to increase the sensitivity of the indirect X-ray detector. Commonly used QDs are composed of hazardous substances with environmental problems, so indium phosphide (InP) QDs were selected as the electron acceptor in this experiment. Among the three different sizes of InP QDs (4, 8, and 12 nm in diameter), the detector with 4 nm InP QDs showed the highest sensitivity, of 2.01 mA/Gy·cm2. To further improve the sensitivity, the QDs were fixed to 4 nm in diameter and then th...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jehoon Lee Hailiang Liu Jungwon Kang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6561: Resolving and Analyzing Landfast Ice Deformation by InSAR Technology Combined with Sentinel-1A Ascending and Descending Orbits Data
Wang Ni Li Detailed mapping of landfast ice deformation can be used to characterize the rheological behavior of landfast ice effectively and to improve sea ice modeling subsequently. In order to analyze the characteristics, trends and causes of deformation comprehensively and accurately, the Sentinel-1A ascending and descending orbits data were used to detect the horizontal and vertical deformation of the fast ice in the Baltic Sea. Firstly, the fast ice edge lines were acquired through feature extraction with interferometric coherence images and SAR amplitude images. Then, the deformation transformed model was c...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Liu Wang Wang Luo Wang Ni Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6559: Recognition of Typical Locomotion Activities Based on the Sensor Data of a Smartphone in Pocket or Hand
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6559: Recognition of Typical Locomotion Activities Based on the Sensor Data of a Smartphone in Pocket or Hand Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20226559 Authors: Ebner Fetzer Bullmann Deinzer Grzegorzek With the ubiquity of smartphones, the interest in indoor localization as a research areagrew. Methods based on radio data are predominant, but due to the susceptibility of these radiosignals to a number of dynamic influences, good localization solutions usually rely on additionalsources of information, which provide relative information about the current location. Part of this roleis often...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ebner Fetzer Bullmann Deinzer Grzegorzek Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6563: Non-Invasive Challenge Response Authentication for Voice Transactions with Smart Home Behavior
ero Smart speakers, such as Alexa and Google Home, support daily activities in smart home environments. Even though voice commands enable friction-less interactions, existing financial transaction authorization mechanisms hinder usability. A non-invasive authorization by leveraging presence and light sensors’ data is proposed in order to replace invasive procedure through smartphone notification. The Coloured Petri Net model was created for synthetic data generation, and one month data were collected in test bed with real users. Random Forest machine learning models were used for smart home behavior infor...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Victor Hayashi Wilson Ruggiero Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6565: EEG Fingerprints under Naturalistic Viewing Using a Portable Device
Barberini The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been proven to be a promising technique for personal identification and verification. Recently, the aperiodic component of the power spectrum was shown to outperform other commonly used EEG features. Beyond that, EEG characteristics may capture relevant features related to emotional states. In this work, we aim to understand if the aperiodic component of the power spectrum, as shown for resting-state experimental paradigms, is able to capture EEG-based subject-specific features in a naturalistic stimuli scenario. In order to answer this question, we performed an analysis usi...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Matteo Fraschini Miro Meli Matteo Demuru Luca Didaci Luigi Barberini Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6566: An Optimal Flow Admission and Routing Control Policy for Resource Constrained Networks
a Overloaded network devices are becoming an increasing problem especially in resource limited networks with the continuous and rapid increase of wireless devices and the huge volume of data generated. Admission and routing control policy at a network device can be used to balance the goals of maximizing throughput and ensuring sufficient resources for high priority flows. In this paper we formulate the admission and routing control problem of two types of flows where one has a higher priority than the other as a Markov decision problem. We characterize the optimal admission and routing policy, and show that it is a st...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Essia Hamouda Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6564: Eliminating the Effect of Reflectance Properties on Reconstruction in Stripe Structured Light System
ng Ye The acquisition of the geometry of general scenes is related to the interplay of surface geometry, material properties and illumination characteristics. Surface texture and non-Lambertian reflectance properties degrade the reconstruction results by structured light technique. Existing structured light techniques focus on different coding strategy and light sources to improve reconstruction accuracy. The hybrid system consisting of a structured light technique and photometric stereo combines the depth value with normal information to refine the reconstruction results. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid syste...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhao Song Zhan Song Yuping Ye Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6567: Optical and Mass Flow Sensors for Aiding Vehicle Navigation in GNSS Denied Environment
Elhabiby Nowadays, autonomous vehicles have achieved a lot of research interest regarding the navigation, the surrounding environmental perception, and control. Global Navigation Satellite System/Inertial Navigation System (GNSS/INS) is one of the significant components of any vehicle navigation system. However, GNSS has limitations in some operating scenarios such as urban regions and indoor environments where the GNSS signal suffers from multipath or outage. On the other hand, INS standalone navigation solution degrades over time due to the INS errors. Therefore, a modern vehicle navigation system depends on inte...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Moussa Zahran Mostafa Moussa El-Sheimy Elhabiby Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6568: A Textile Sleeve for Monitoring Oxygen Saturation Using Multichannel Optical Fibre Photoplethysmography
bury Morgan Textile-based systems are an attractive prospect for wearable technology as they can provide monitoring of key physiological parameters in a comfortable and unobtrusive form. A novel system based on multichannel optical fibre sensor probes integrated into a textile sleeve is described. The system measures the photoplethysmogram (PPG) at two wavelengths (660 and 830 nm), which is then used to calculate oxygen saturation (SpO2). In order to achieve reliable measurement without adjusting the position of the garment, four plastic optical fibre (POF) probes are utilised to increase the likelihood that a high-...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ballaji Correia Korposh Hayes-Gill Hernandez Salisbury Morgan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6569: Potential of Hyperspectral and Thermal Proximal Sensing for Estimating Growth Performance and Yield of Soybean Exposed to Different Drip Irrigation Regimes Under Arid Conditions
In this study, we assessed the potential of thermal imaging (TI) criteria and spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) to monitor different vegetative growth traits (biomass fresh weight, biomass dry weight, and canopy water mass) and seed yield (SY) of soybean exposed to 100%, 75%, and 50% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc). These different plant traits were evaluated and related to TI criteria and SRIs at the beginning bloom (R1) and full seed (R6) growth stages. Results showed that all plant traits, TI criteria, and SRIs presented significant variations (p < 0.05) among irrigation regimes at both growth st...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elmetwalli El-Hendawy Al-Suhaibani Alotaibi Tahir Mubushar Hassan Elsayed Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6570: Dense-RefineDet for Traffic Sign Detection and Classification
g Zhang Detecting and classifying real-life small traffic signs from large input images is difficult due to their occupying fewer pixels relative to larger targets. To address this challenge, we proposed a deep-learning-based model (Dense-RefineDet) that applies a single-shot, object-detection framework (RefineDet) to maintain a suitable accuracy–speed trade-off. We constructed a dense connection-related transfer-connection block to combine high-level feature layers with low-level feature layers to optimize the use of the higher layers to obtain additional contextual information. Additionally, we presente...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chang Sun Yibo Ai Sheng Wang Weidong Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6571: Spectral Verification of the Mechanisms behind FBG-Based Ultrasonic Guided Wave Detection
rnaert Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) detection with fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors has received increasing attention in the last decades due to the ability to perform non-destructive inspection (NDI) of large plate-like surfaces with a network of lightweight and multiplexed sensors. For accurate UGW measurements, several studies concluded that the ratio between the wavelength of the UGW and the length of the FBG should be above 7. However, shorter FBGs suffer from a lower FBG reflectivity and less steep slopes in the reflection spectrum. In this work we experimentally verified the effect of a passing UGW on the...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Goossens Berghmans Geernaert Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6572: Recognition of Impulse of Love at First Sight Based On Photoplethysmography Signal
g Liu Love at first sight is a well-known and interesting phenomenon, and denotes the strong attraction to a person of the opposite sex when first meeting. As far as we know, there are no studies on the changes in physiological signals between the opposite sexes when this phenomenon occurs. Although privacy is involved, knowing how attractive a partner is may be beneficial to building a future relationship in an open society where both men and women accept each other. Therefore, this study adopts the photoplethysmography (PPG) signal acquisition method (already applied in wearable devices) to collect signals that ar...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lu Yuan Zhang Liu Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6552: Head-Mounted Display-Based Application for Cognitive Training
ute;n García-Magariño Virtual Reality (VR) has had significant advances in rehabilitation, due to the gamification of cognitive activities that facilitate treatment. On the other hand, Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) produces outstanding results due to the interactive features with the user. This work introduces a VR application for memory rehabilitation by walking through a maze and using the Oculus Go head-mounted display (HMD) technology. The mechanics of the game require memorizing geometric shapes while the player progresses in two modes, autonomous or manual, with two levels of difficulty depending ...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jos é Varela-Aldás Guillermo Palacios-Navarro Rebecca Amariglio Iv án García-Magariño Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6553: Distributed Algorithm for Base Station Assignment in 4G/5G Machine-Type Communication Scenarios with Backhaul Limited Conditions
na-Bobadilla A progressive paradigm shift from centralized to distributed network architectures has been consolidated since the 4G communication standard, calling for novel decision-making mechanisms with distributed control to operate at the network edge. This situation implies that each base station (BS) must manage resources independently to meet the quality of service (QoS) of existing human-type communication devices (HTC), as well as the emerging machine type communication (MTC) devices from the internet of things (IoT). In this paper, we address the BS assignment problem, whose aim is to determine the most appro...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Edgar A. Esquivel-Mendiola Hiram Galeana-Zapi én David H. Covarrubias Edwin Aldana-Bobadilla Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6554: Probabilistic Evaluation of 3D Surfaces Using Statistical Shape Models (SSM)
Perez-Cortes Inspecting a 3D object which shape has elastic manufacturing tolerances in order to find defects is a challenging and time-consuming task. This task usually involves humans, either in the specification stage followed by some automatic measurements, or in other points along the process. Even when a detailed inspection is performed, the measurements are limited to a few dimensions instead of a complete examination of the object. In this work, a probabilistic method to evaluate 3D surfaces is presented. This algorithm relies on a training stage to learn the shape of the object building a statistical shape mod...
Source: Sensors - November 17, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Javier P érez Jose-Luis Guardiola Alberto J. Perez Juan-Carlos Perez-Cortes Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6548: A Novel GAN-Based Synthesis Method for In-Air Handwritten Words
Xue In recent years, with the miniaturization and high energy efficiency of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems), in-air handwriting technology based on inertial sensors has come to the fore. Most of the previous works have focused on character-level in-air handwriting recognition. In contrast, few works focus on word-level in-air handwriting tasks. In the field of word-level recognition, researchers have to face the problems of insufficient data and poor generalization performance of recognition methods. On one hand, the training of deep neural learning networks usually requires a particularly large dataset, but co...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xin Zhang Yang Xue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6546: IMSC-EIoTD: Identity Management and Secure Communication for Edge IoT Devices
esson The Internet of things (IoT) will accommodate several billions of devices to the Internet to enhance human society as well as to improve the quality of living. A huge number of sensors, actuators, gateways, servers, and related end-user applications will be connected to the Internet. All these entities require identities to communicate with each other. The communicating devices may have mobility and currently, the only main identity solution is IP based identity management which is not suitable for the authentication and authorization of the heterogeneous IoT devices. Sometimes devices and applications need to co...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kazi Masum Sadique Rahim Rahmani Paul Johannesson Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6547: Time Difference of Arrival Passive Localization Sensor Selection Method Based on Tabu Search
Yang This paper proposes a time difference of arrival (TDOA) passive positioning sensor selection method based on tabu search to balance the relationship between the positioning accuracy of the sensor network and system consumption. First, the passive time difference positioning model, taking into account the sensor position errors, is considered. Then, an approximate closed-form constrained total least-squares (CTLS) solution and a covariance matrix of the positioning error are provided. By introducing a Boolean selection vector, the sensor selection problem is transformed into an optimization problem that minimizes ...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qian Li Baixiao Chen Minglei Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6549: Effective Fundus Image Decomposition for the Detection of Red Lesions and Hard Exudates to Aid in the Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy
ute;a I. López-Gálvez Roberto Hornero Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is characterized by the presence of red lesions (RLs), such as microaneurysms and hemorrhages, and bright lesions, such as exudates (EXs). Early DR diagnosis is paramount to prevent serious sight damage. Computer-assisted diagnostic systems are based on the detection of those lesions through the analysis of fundus images. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the automatic detection of RLs and EXs. As the main contribution, the fundus image was decomposed into various layers, including the lesion candidates, the reflective features ...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Roberto Romero-Ora á Mar ía García Javier Ora á-Pérez Mar ía I. López-Gálvez Roberto Hornero Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6548: A Novel GAN-Based Synthesis Method for In-Air HandwrittenWords
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6548: A Novel GAN-Based Synthesis Method for In-Air HandwrittenWords Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20226548 Authors: Zhang Xue In recent years, with the miniaturization and high energy efficiency of MEMS(micro-electro-mechanical systems), in-air handwriting technology based on inertial sensors hascome to the fore. Most of the previous works have focused on character-level in-air handwritingrecognition. In contrast, few works focus on word-level in-air handwriting tasks. In the fieldof word-level recognition, researchers have to face the problems of insufficient data and poorgeneralization perfo...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Xue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6551: Reduction in Irradiation Dose in Aperture Coded Enhanced Computed Tomography Imager Using Super-Resolution Techniques
evsky One of the main concerns regarding medical imaging is the danger tissue’s ionizing due to the applied radiation. Many medical procedures are based on this ionizing radiation (such as X-rays and Gamma radiation). This radiation allows the physician to perform diagnosis inside the human body. Still, the main concern is stochastic effects to the DNA, particularly the cause of cancer. The radiation dose endangers not only the patient but also the medical staff, who might be close to the patient and be exposed to this dangerous radiation in a daily manner. This paper presents a novel concept of radiation...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yossef Danan Doron Avraham Zeev Zalevsky Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6550: Frequency-Temporal Disagreement Adaptation for Robotic Terrain Classification via Vibration in a Dynamic Environment
uan Saifei Ma The accurate terrain classification in real time is of great importance to an autonomous robot working in field, because the robot could avoid non-geometric hazards, adjust control scheme, or improve localization accuracy, with the aid of terrain classification. In this paper, we investigate the vibration-based terrain classification (VTC) in a dynamic environment, and propose a novel learning framework, named DyVTC, which tackles online-collected unlabeled data with concept drift. In the DyVTC framework, the exterior disagreement (ex-disagreement) and interior disagreement (in-disagreement) are propose...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chen Cheng Ji Chang Wenjun Lv Yuping Wu Kun Li Zerui Li Chenhui Yuan Saifei Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6534: Motion Capture Data Analysis in the Instantaneous Frequency-Domain Using Hilbert-Huang Transform
Ikuno Motion capture data are widely used in different research fields such as medical, entertainment, and industry. However, most motion researches using motion capture data are carried out in the time-domain. To understand human motion complexities, it is necessary to analyze motion data in the frequency-domain. In this paper, to analyze human motions, we present a framework to transform motions into the instantaneous frequency-domain using the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) that is a part of HHT decomposes nonstationary and nonlinear signals captured from the real-world experim...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ran Dong Dongsheng Cai Soichiro Ikuno Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6535: Can We Ditch Feature Engineering? End-to-End Deep Learning for Affect Recognition from Physiological Sensor Data
This study analyzes the possibility of using end-to-end multimodal deep learning (DL) methods for affect recognition. Ten end-to-end DL architectures are compared on four different datasets with diverse raw physiological signals used for affect recognition, including emotional and stress states. The DL architectures specialized for time-series classification were enhanced to simultaneously facilitate learning from multiple sensors, each having their own sampling frequency. To enable fair comparison among the different DL architectures, Bayesian optimization was used for hyperparameter tuning. The experimental results showe...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Maciej Dzie życ Martin Gjoreski Przemys ław Kazienko Stanis ław Saganowski Matja ž Gams Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6537: Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Fuzzy-Based Driving-Support System for Real-Time Risk Management in VANETs
ard Barolli The highly competitive and rapidly advancing autonomous vehicle race has been on for several years now, and it has made the driver-assistance systems a shadow of their former self. Nevertheless, automated vehicles have many obstacles on the way, and until we have them on the roads, promising solutions that can be achievable in the near future should be sought-after. Driving-support technologies have proven themselves to be effective in the battle against car crashes, and with Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) supporting them, their efficiency is expected to rise steeply. In this work, we propose and implem...
Source: Sensors - November 16, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kevin Bylykbashi Ermioni Qafzezi Phudit Ampririt Makoto Ikeda Keita Matsuo Leonard Barolli Tags: Article Source Type: research