Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4273: Cost-efficient and Custom Electrode-holder Assembly Infrastructure for EEG Recordings
This study empirically demonstrated its easy-to-fabricate nature by a low-end fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer and proved its practicability of capturing event-related potential (ERP) and steady-state visual-evoked potential (SSVEP) signatures over 15 subjects. This paper highlights the possibilities for a cost-efficient electrode-holder assembly infrastructure with replaceable montage, flexibly retrofitted in an unlimited fashion, for an individual for distinctive fundamental EEG studies and BCI applications. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuan-Pin Lin Ting-Yu Chen Wei-Jen Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4274: An Unconventional Multiple Low-Cost IMU and GPS-Integrated Kinematic Positioning and Navigation Method Based on Singer Model
Xiao To release the strong dependence of the conventional inertial navigation mechanization on the a priori low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) error model, this research applies an unconventional multi-sensor integration strategy to integrate multiple low-cost IMUs and a global positioning system (GPS) for mass-market automotive applications. The unconventional integration strategy utilizes a basic three-dimensional (3D) kinematic trajectory model as the system model to directly estimate navigational parameters, and it allows the measurements from all of the sensors independently participating in measurement up...
Source: Sensors - October 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhu Yu Xiao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4275: Measurements of the Vertical Displacements of a Railway Bridge Using TLS Technology in the Context of the Upgrade of the Polish Railway Transport
Gargula The railway system in Poland is undergoing technological transformation. The development of the Polish railway system concerns not only high-speed trains but also infrastructure. The steel bridge is the most popular type of railway bridge in Poland. Most of them were built in the 1950s and 1960s. According to the recommendations in place in Western Europe, such railway bridges should be reviewed in terms of their fitness for use with modern high-speed trains. The modern technological revolution affects not only the railway, but also developments in displacement and deformation measurement techniques. New techno...
Source: Sensors - October 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pelagia Gawronek Maria Makuch Bartosz Mitka Tadeusz Gargula Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4276: ppb-Level Selective Hydrogen Gas Detection of Pd-Functionalized In2O3-Loaded ZnO Nanofiber Gas Sensors
ang Sub Kim Pd nanoparticle-functionalized, xIn2O3 (x = 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15)-loaded ZnO nanofibers were synthesized by an electrospinning and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation method and assessed for their hydrogen gas sensing properties. Morphological and chemical analyses revealed the desired morphology and chemical composition of the synthesized nanofibers. The optimal gas sensor namely Pd-functionalized, 0.1In2O3-loaded ZnO nanofibers showed a very strong response to 172–50 ppb hydrogen gas at 350 °C, which is regarded as the optimal sensing temperature. Furthermore, the gas sensors showed exce...
Source: Sensors - October 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jae-Hyoung Lee Jae-Hun Kim Jin-Young Kim Ali Mirzaei Hyoun Woo Kim Sang Sub Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4278: Rapid Acquisition and Identification of Structural Defects of Metro Tunnel
This study proposes an integrated solution for rapidly acquiring and identifying two kinds of structural defects (surface defects and cross-sectional deformation) in a metro tunnel, using a cart equipped with non-metric cameras. The integrity and rapidity are considered in formulating a systematic design for the development of the acquisition device. Methodologies based on image processing and photogrammetry are proposed to identify the structural defects of the metro tunnel. A series of on-site tests validate that the proposed method has enough speed and has acceptable accuracy in detecting critical structural defects of ...
Source: Sensors - October 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qing Ai Yong Yuan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4264: Smartphone and Tablet-Based Sensing of Environmental Radioactivity: Mobile Low-Cost Measurements for Monitoring, Citizen Science, and Educational Purposes
Schmeling Sensors for environmental radioactivity based on two novel setups using photodiodes, on the one hand, and an advanced tablet-based hybrid pixel detector, on the other hand, are presented. Measurements of four kinds of terrestrial and every-day radiation sources are carried out: Airborne radon, a mineral containing traces of uranium, edible potassium salt, and an old radium watch. These measurements permit comparisons between different types of ambient radioactive sources and enable environmental monitoring. Available data comprise discrimination between α - and β − -...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Oliver Keller Mathieu Benoit Andreas M üller Sascha Schmeling Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4265: The Multisensor Array Based on Grown-On-Chip Zinc Oxide Nanorod Network for Selective Discrimination of Alcohol Vapors at Sub-ppm Range
kov Victor Sysoev We discuss the fabrication of gas-analytical multisensor arrays based on ZnO nanorods grown via a hydrothermal route directly on a multielectrode chip. The protocol to deposit the nanorods over the chip includes the primary formation of ZnO nano-clusters over the surface and secondly the oxide hydrothermal growth in a solution that facilitates the appearance of ZnO nanorods in the high aspect ratio which comprise a network. We have tested the proof-of-concept prototype of the ZnO nanorod network-based chip heated up to 400 °C versus three alcohol vapors, ethanol, isopropanol and butanol,...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anton Bobkov Alexey Varezhnikov Ilya Plugin Fedor S. Fedorov Vanessa Trouillet Udo Geckle Martin Sommer Vladimir Goffman Vyacheslav Moshnikov Victor Sysoev Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4266: Target-Specific Action Classification for Automated Assessment of Human Motor Behavior from Video
Shyamal Patel Objective monitoring and assessment of human motor behavior can improve the diagnosis and management of several medical conditions. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the use of wearable technology for continuously monitoring human motor behavior in free-living conditions. However, wearable technology remains ill-suited for applications which require monitoring and interpretation of complex motor behaviors (e.g., involving interactions with the environment). Recent advances in computer vision and deep learning have opened up new possibilities for extracting information from video...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Behnaz Rezaei Yiorgos Christakis Bryan Ho Kevin Thomas Kelley Erb Sarah Ostadabbas Shyamal Patel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4267: Spatial Distortion Assessments of a Low-Cost Laboratory and Field Hyperspectral Imaging System
This article describes the adaptation of an existing aerial hyperspectral imaging system in a low-cost setup for collecting hyperspectral data in laboratory and field environment and spatial distortion assessments. The imaging spectrometer system consists of an ImSpector V9 hyperspectral pushbroom scanner, PixelFly high performance digital CCD camera, and a subsystem for navigation, position determination and orientation of the system in space, a sensor bracket and control system. The main objective of the paper is to present the system, with all its limitations, and a spatial calibration method. The results of spatial cal...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrija Krtali ć Vanja Miljkovi ć Dubravko Gajski Ivan Racetin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4268: FES-Induced Cycling in Complete SCI: A Simpler Control Method Based on Inertial Sensors
This study aims at simplifying the design of electrical stimulation timing patterns while providing a method that can be adapted to different users and devices. In most of studies and commercial devices, the crank angle is used as an input to trigger stimulation onset. We propose instead to use thigh inclination as the reference information to build stimulation timing patterns. The tilting angles of both thighs are estimated from one inertial sensor located above each knee. An IF–THEN rule algorithm detects, online and automatically, the thigh peak angles in order to start and stop the stimulation of quadrice...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Beno ît Sijobert Ronan Le Guillou Charles Fattal Christine Azevedo Coste Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4269: Integrated Laser Sensor (ILS) for Remote Surface Analysis: Application for Detecting Explosives in Fingerprints
olao Almaviva Here, we describe an innovative Integrated Laser Sensor (ILS) that combines four spectroscopic techniques and two vision systems into a unique, transportable device. The instrument performs Raman and Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy excited at 355 nm and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) excited at 1064 nm, and it also detects Laser Scattering (LS) from the target under illumination at 650 nm. The combination of these techniques supplies information about: material change from one scanning point to another, the presence of surface contaminants, and the molecular and elemental com...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lazic Palucci De Dominicis Nuvoli Pistilli Menicucci Colao Almaviva Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4270: Toward Dynamically Adaptive Simulation: Multimodal Classification of User Expertise Using Wearable Devices
es Ali Etemad Simulation-based training has been proven to be a highly effective pedagogical strategy. However, misalignment between the participant’s level of expertise and the difficulty of the simulation has been shown to have significant negative impact on learning outcomes. To ensure that learning outcomes are achieved, we propose a novel framework for adaptive simulation with the goal of identifying the level of expertise of the learner, and dynamically modulating the simulation complexity to match the learner’s capability. To facilitate the development of this framework, we investig...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kyle Ross Pritam Sarkar Dirk Rodenburg Aaron Ruberto Paul Hungler Adam Szulewski Daniel Howes Ali Etemad Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4271: Gunshot Airborne Surveillance with Rotary Wing UAV-Embedded Microphone Array
Rigel Procópio Fernandes Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are growing in popularity, and recent technological advances are fostering the development of new applications for these devices. This paper discusses the use of aerial drones as a platform for deploying a gunshot surveillance system based on an array of microphones. Notwithstanding the difficulties associated with the inherent additive noise from the rotating propellers, this application brings an important advantage: the possibility of estimating the shooter position solely based on the muzzle blast sound, with the support of a digital map of the terrai...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Felipe Gon çalves Serrenho Jos é Antonio Apolinário Ant ónio Luiz Lopes Ramos Rigel Proc ópio Fernandes Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4264: Smartphone and Tablet-Based Sensing of Environmental Radioactivity: Mobile Low-Cost Measurements for Monitoring, Citizen Science, and Educational Purposes
Schmeling Sensors for environmental radioactivity based on two novel setups using photodiodes, on the one hand, and an advanced tablet-based hybrid pixel detector, on the other hand, are presented. Measurements of four kinds of terrestrial and every-day radiation sources are carried out: Airborne radon, a mineral containing traces of uranium, edible potassium salt, and an old radium watch. These measurements permit comparisons between different types of ambient radioactive sources and enable environmental monitoring. Available data comprise discrimination between α - and β − -...
Source: Sensors - October 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Oliver Keller Mathieu Benoit Andreas M üller Sascha Schmeling Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4241: An Energy-Efficient Redundant Transmission Control Clustering Approach for Underwater Acoustic Networks
Fareed Underwater Acoustic Network (UAN) is an emerging technology with attractive applications. In such type of networks, the control-overhead, redundant inner-network transmissions management, and data-similarity are still very challenging. The cluster-based frameworks manage the control-overhead and redundant inner-network transmissions persuasively. However, the current clustering protocols consume a big part of their energy resources in data-similarity as these protocols periodically sense and forward the same information. In this paper, we introduce a novel two-level Redundant Transmission Control (RTC) approach...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gulnaz Ahmed Xi Zhao Mian Muhammad Sadiq Fareed Muhammad Zeeshan Fareed Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4245: Method for Determining the Plasmon Resonance Wavelength in Fiber Sensors Based on Tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings
Butov Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic sensors are of increasing interest in modern sensory research, especially for chemical and biomedical applications. Special attention deserves to be given to sensors based on tilted fiber Bragg gratings, due to their unique spectral properties and potentially high sensitivity and resolution. However, the principal task is to determine the plasmon resonance wavelength based on the spectral characteristics of the sensor and, most importantly, to measure changes in environmental parameters with high resolution, while the existing indirect methods are only useable in a narr...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Egor Manuylovich Kirill Tomyshev Oleg V. Butov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4246: Quantitative Assessment of Head Tremor in Patients with Essential Tremor and Cervical Dystonia by Using Inertial Sensors
dulović Tremor is most common among the movement disabilities that affect older people, having a prevalence rate of 4.6% in the population older than 65 years. Despite this, distinguishing different types of tremors is clinically challenging, often leading to misdiagnosis. However, due to advances in microelectronics and wireless communication, it is now possible to easily monitor tremor in hospitals and even in home environments. In this paper, we propose an architecture of a system for remote health-care and one possible implementation of such system focused on head tremor monitoring. In particular, the aim of the s...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lazar Berbakov Čarna Jovanović Marina Svetel Jelena Vasiljevi ć Goran Dimi ć Nenad Radulovi ć Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4247: An Effective Low-Cost Remote Sensing Approach to Reconstruct the Long-Term and Dense Time Series of Area and Storage Variations for Large Lakes
In this study, a novel approach of reconstructing long-term and high-frequency time series of inundation areas of large lakes is proposed. The general idea of this method is to obtain the lake inundation area at any specific observation date by referring to the mapping relationship of the water occurrence frequency (WOF) of the selected shoreline segment at relatively slight terrains and lake areas based on the pre-established lookup table. The lookup table to map the links of the WOF and lake areas is derived from the Joint Research Centre (JRC)Global Surface Water (GSW) dataset accessed in Google Earth Engine (GEE). We s...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shuangxiao Luo Chunqiao Song Kai Liu Linghong Ke Ronghua Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4248: Magnetic Sensing Properties of PVD Carbon Films Containing Vertically Aligned Crystallites
In this study, carbon films with vertically aligned nano-crystallites were obtained by a plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Basic test circuits were built on the films, and the sensing properties were investigated in external magnetic fields with different intensities and relative angles to the films surface. The results showed that the carbon-based sensing devices were capable to work in the temperature region of 250–400 K. The minimum field intensity and angle change to which the device can respond were 1 mT and 2°. By substrate-introduced enhancement, the maximum changing-r...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xingze Dai Jing Guo Tongbin Huang Dong Ding Chao Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4249: Strategies for Surface Modification with Ag-Shaped Nanoparticles: Electrocatalytic Enhancement of Screen-Printed Electrodes for the Detection of Heavy Metals
nio Florido Screen-printed carbon nanofiber electrodes (SPCNFEs) represent an alternative with great acceptance due to their results, as well as their low impact on the environment. In order to improve their performance, in the present work they were modified with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and electrochemically characterized by using anodic stripping voltammetry. From the Ag-NP synthesis, silver seeds (Ag-NS) and silver nanoprisms (Ag-NPr) were obtained. The Ag-NP formation was confirmed by micrographs, where Ag-NPs with diameters of 12.20 ± 0.04 nm for Ag-NS and 20.40 ± 0.09 nm for Ag...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Karina Torres-Rivero Lourdes Torralba-Cadena Alexandra Espriu-Gascon Ignasi Casas Julio Bastos-Arrieta Antonio Florido Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4250: Soft and Deformable Sensors Based on Liquid Metals
hul Lee Liquid metals are one of the most interesting and promising materials due to their electrical, fluidic, and thermophysical properties. With the aid of their exceptional deformable natures, liquid metals are now considered to be electrically conductive materials for sensors and actuators, major constituent transducers in soft robotics, that can experience and withstand significant levels of mechanical deformation. For the upcoming era of wearable electronics and soft robotics, we would like to offer an up-to-date overview of liquid metal-based soft (thus significantly deformable) sensors mainly but not limited t...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Taeyeong Kim Dong-min Kim Bong Jae Lee Jungchul Lee Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4251: Vision-Based Autonomous Crack Detection of Concrete Structures Using a Fully Convolutional Encoder –Decoder Network
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4251: Vision-Based Autonomous Crack Detection of Concrete Structures Using a Fully Convolutional Encoder–Decoder Network Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194251 Authors: M. M. Manjurul Islam Jong-Myon Kim The visual inspection of massive civil infrastructure is a common trend for maintaining its reliability and structural health. However, this procedure, which uses human inspectors, requires long inspection times and relies on the subjective and empirical knowledge of the inspectors. To address these limitations, a machine vision-based autonomous crack detection method is proposed using a dee...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: M. M. Manjurul Islam Jong-Myon Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4252: ClusterMap Building and Relocalization in Urban Environments for Unmanned Vehicles
This study proposes a novel map format called the ClusterMap, on the basis of which an approach to achieving relocalization is developed. The ClusterMap is generated by segmenting the perceived point clouds into different point clusters and filtering out clusters belonging to dynamic objects. A location descriptor associated with each cluster is designed for differentiation. The relocalization in the global map is achieved by matching cluster descriptors between local and global maps. The solution does not require high-density point clouds and high-precision segmentation algorithms. In addition, it prevents the effects of ...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhichen Pan Haoyao Chen Silin Li Yunhui Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4253: Aerial Grasping with a Lightweight Manipulator Based on Multi-Objective Optimization and Visual Compensation
u Zhang Autonomous grasping with an aerial manipulator in the applications of aerial transportation and manipulation is still a challenging problem because of the complex kinematics/dynamics and motion constraints of the coupled rotors-manipulator system. The paper develops a novel aerial manipulation system with a lightweight manipulator, an X8 coaxial octocopter and onboard visual tracking system. To implement autonomous grasping control, we develop a novel and efficient approach that includes trajectory planning, visual trajectory tracking and kinematic compensation. Trajectory planning for aerial grasping control i...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haoyao Chen Fengyu Quan Linxu Fang Shiwu Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4254: A Model to Support Fluid Transitions between Environments for Mobile Augmented Reality Applications
que Meiguins The adaptability between different environments remains a challenge for Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR). If not done seamlessly, such transitions may cause discontinuities in navigation, consequently disorienting users and undermining the acceptance of this technology. The transition between environments is hard because there are currently no localization techniques that work well in any place: sensor-based applications can be harmed by obstacles that hamper sensor communication (e.g., GPS) and by infrastructure limitations (e.g., Wi-Fi), and image-based applications can be affected by lighting conditions t...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tiago Davi Oliveira de Ara újo Carlos Gustavo Resque dos Santos Rodrigo Santos do Amor Divino Lima Bianchi Serique Meiguins Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4255: Design and Application of a Metamaterial Superstrate on a Bio-Inspired Antenna for Partial Discharge Detection through Dielectric Windows
esarino de Souza The adaptation of dielectric windows as metamaterial superstrate over a bio-inspired Printed Monopole Antenna (PMA) was evaluated in order to improve the detection sensitivity of Ultra High Frequency (UHF) sensors designed for Partial Discharge (PD) measurement. For this purpose, rectangular and circular Split Ring Resonators (SRR) structures were designed and evaluated aiming to achieve a metamaterial superstrate that improves the characteristics of the bio-inspired PMA as the gain, bandwidth, and radiation pattern. Measurements of the PMA with metamaterial superstrate were carried out in an anechoic ...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: George Victor Rocha Xavier Alexandre Jean Ren é Serres Edson Guedes da Costa Adriano Costa de Oliveira Luiz Augusto Medeiros Martins Nobrega Vladimir Cesarino de Souza Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4256: A Comprehensive Survey of Recent Routing Protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Lee Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSN) have attracted huge attention due to their significance in oceanic observation and exploration. They offer a vast number of applications, many of which require routing the sensed data to a centralized location. This makes routing an important part of the design of such applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of recently proposed routing protocols for UWSNs. We evaluate the proposed schemes through an extensive set of parameters that define the core characteristics of a routing protocol. Moreover, we present a summary of the methods used by each scheme to fam...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Islam Lee Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4257: Developments in the HCV Screening Technologies Based on the Detection of Antigens and Antibodies
This article focuses on the technologies used for the detection of HCV in clinical specimens. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Warkad Song Pal Nimse Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4258: A Deep-Learning-Driven Light-Weight Phishing Detection Sensor
Wai Lok Woo This paper designs an accurate and low-cost phishing detection sensor by exploring deep learning techniques. Phishing is a very common social engineering technique. The attackers try to deceive online users by mimicking a uniform resource locator (URL) and a webpage. Traditionally, phishing detection is largely based on manual reports from users. Machine learning techniques have recently been introduced for phishing detection. With the recent rapid development of deep learning techniques, many deep-learning-based recognition methods have also been explored to improve classification performance. This paper...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bo Wei Rebeen Ali Hamad Longzhi Yang Xuan He Hao Wang Bin Gao Wai Lok Woo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4259: Hysteresis Compensation in Force/Torque Sensors Using Time Series Information
Tsuji The purpose of this study is to compensate for the hysteresis in a six-axis force sensor using signal processing, thereby achieving high-precision force sensing. Although mathematical models of hysteresis exist, many of these are one-axis models and the modeling is difficult if they are expanded to multiple axes. Therefore, this study attempts to resolve this problem through machine learning. Since hysteresis is dependent on the previous history, this study investigates the effect of using time series information in machine learning. Experimental results indicate that the performance is improved by including time...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ryuichiro Koike Sho Sakaino Toshiaki Tsuji Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4260: On-Chip Non-Dispersive Infrared CO2 Sensor Based On an Integrating Cylinder
oelkens In this paper, we propose a novel, miniaturized non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 sensor implemented on a silicon chip. The sensor has a simple structure, consisting of a hollow metallic cylindrical cavity along with access waveguides. A detailed analysis of the proposed sensor is presented. Simulation with 3D ray tracing shows that an integrating cylinder with 4 mm diameter gives an equivalent optical path length of 3 . 5 cm. The sensor is fabricated using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) and wafer bonding. The fabricated sensor was evaluated by performing a CO2 concentration measurement, showing a limit of...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaoning Jia Joris Roels Roel Baets Gunther Roelkens Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4261: Voltammetric Electronic Tongues in Food Analysis
Esteban Díaz-Cruz A critical revision is made on recent applications of voltammetric electronic tongues in the field of food analysis. Relevant works are discussed dealing with the discrimination of food samples of different type, origin, age and quality and with the prediction of the concentration of key substances and significant indexes related to food quality. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: P érez-Ràfols Serrano Ari ño Esteban D íaz-Cruz Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4262: Optimal Waveform Design Using Frequency-Modulated Pulse Trains for Active Sonar
Zeng Frequency-modulated pulse trains can be applied in active sonar systems to improve the performance of conventional transmitted waveforms. Recently, two pulse trains have been widely researched as the transmitted waveforms for active sonars. The LFM-Costas pulse train was formed by modulating the linear frequency-modulated (LFM) waveform via the Costas sequence to remove the Doppler ambiguity of LFM pulses. The generalized sinusoidal frequency-modulated (GSFM) waveform, another frequency-modulated pulse train, achieved an ideal ambiguity function shape with thumbtack mainlobe. In this paper, we focus on construct...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guan Zhou Zeng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4263: Determination of Vehicle Trajectory through Optimization of Vehicle Bounding Boxes Using a Convolutional Neural Network
im Choi In this manuscript, a new method for the determination of vehicle trajectories using an optimal bounding box for the vehicle is developed. The vehicle trajectory is extracted using images acquired from a camera installed at an intersection based on a convolutional neural network (CNN). First, real-time vehicle object detection is performed using the YOLOv2 model, which is one of the most representative object detection algorithms based on CNN. To overcome the inaccuracy of the vehicle location extracted by YOLOv2, the trajectory was calibrated using a vehicle tracking algorithm such as a Kalman filter and in...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seong Song Yoon Kim Choi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4241: An Energy-Efficient Redundant Transmission Control Clustering Approach for Underwater Acoustic Networks
Fareed Underwater Acoustic Network (UAN) is an emerging technology with attractive applications. In such type of networks, the control-overhead, redundant inner-network transmissions management, and data-similarity are still very challenging. The cluster-based frameworks manage the control-overhead and redundant inner-network transmissions persuasively. However, the current clustering protocols consume a big part of their energy resources in data-similarity as these protocols periodically sense and forward the same information. In this paper, we introduce a novel two-level Redundant Transmission Control (RTC) approach...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gulnaz Ahmed Xi Zhao Mian Muhammad Sadiq Fareed Muhammad Zeeshan Fareed Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4245: Method for Determining the Plasmon Resonance Wavelength in Fiber Sensors Based on Tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings
Butov Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic sensors are of increasing interest in modern sensory research, especially for chemical and biomedical applications. Special attention deserves to be given to sensors based on tilted fiber Bragg gratings, due to their unique spectral properties and potentially high sensitivity and resolution. However, the principal task is to determine the plasmon resonance wavelength based on the spectral characteristics of the sensor and, most importantly, to measure changes in environmental parameters with high resolution, while the existing indirect methods are only useable in a narr...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Egor Manuylovich Kirill Tomyshev Oleg V. Butov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4246: Quantitative Assessment of Head Tremor in Patients with Essential Tremor and Cervical Dystonia by Using Inertial Sensors
dulović Tremor is most common among the movement disabilities that affect older people, having a prevalence rate of 4.6% in the population older than 65 years. Despite this, distinguishing different types of tremors is clinically challenging, often leading to misdiagnosis. However, due to advances in microelectronics and wireless communication, it is now possible to easily monitor tremor in hospitals and even in home environments. In this paper, we propose an architecture of a system for remote health-care and one possible implementation of such system focused on head tremor monitoring. In particular, the aim of the s...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lazar Berbakov Čarna Jovanović Marina Svetel Jelena Vasiljevi ć Goran Dimi ć Nenad Radulovi ć Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4247: An Effective Low-Cost Remote Sensing Approach to Reconstruct the Long-Term and Dense Time Series of Area and Storage Variations for Large Lakes
In this study, a novel approach of reconstructing long-term and high-frequency time series of inundation areas of large lakes is proposed. The general idea of this method is to obtain the lake inundation area at any specific observation date by referring to the mapping relationship of the water occurrence frequency (WOF) of the selected shoreline segment at relatively slight terrains and lake areas based on the pre-established lookup table. The lookup table to map the links of the WOF and lake areas is derived from the Joint Research Centre (JRC)Global Surface Water (GSW) dataset accessed in Google Earth Engine (GEE). We s...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shuangxiao Luo Chunqiao Song Kai Liu Linghong Ke Ronghua Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4248: Magnetic Sensing Properties of PVD Carbon Films Containing Vertically Aligned Crystallites
In this study, carbon films with vertically aligned nano-crystallites were obtained by a plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Basic test circuits were built on the films, and the sensing properties were investigated in external magnetic fields with different intensities and relative angles to the films surface. The results showed that the carbon-based sensing devices were capable to work in the temperature region of 250–400 K. The minimum field intensity and angle change to which the device can respond were 1 mT and 2°. By substrate-introduced enhancement, the maximum changing-r...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xingze Dai Jing Guo Tongbin Huang Dong Ding Chao Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4249: Strategies for Surface Modification with Ag-Shaped Nanoparticles: Electrocatalytic Enhancement of Screen-Printed Electrodes for the Detection of Heavy Metals
nio Florido Screen-printed carbon nanofiber electrodes (SPCNFEs) represent an alternative with great acceptance due to their results, as well as their low impact on the environment. In order to improve their performance, in the present work they were modified with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and electrochemically characterized by using anodic stripping voltammetry. From the Ag-NP synthesis, silver seeds (Ag-NS) and silver nanoprisms (Ag-NPr) were obtained. The Ag-NP formation was confirmed by micrographs, where Ag-NPs with diameters of 12.20 ± 0.04 nm for Ag-NS and 20.40 ± 0.09 nm for Ag...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Karina Torres-Rivero Lourdes Torralba-Cadena Alexandra Espriu-Gascon Ignasi Casas Julio Bastos-Arrieta Antonio Florido Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4250: Soft and Deformable Sensors Based on Liquid Metals
hul Lee Liquid metals are one of the most interesting and promising materials due to their electrical, fluidic, and thermophysical properties. With the aid of their exceptional deformable natures, liquid metals are now considered to be electrically conductive materials for sensors and actuators, major constituent transducers in soft robotics, that can experience and withstand significant levels of mechanical deformation. For the upcoming era of wearable electronics and soft robotics, we would like to offer an up-to-date overview of liquid metal-based soft (thus significantly deformable) sensors mainly but not limited t...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Taeyeong Kim Dong-min Kim Bong Jae Lee Jungchul Lee Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4251: Vision-Based Autonomous Crack Detection of Concrete Structures Using a Fully Convolutional Encoder –Decoder Network
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4251: Vision-Based Autonomous Crack Detection of Concrete Structures Using a Fully Convolutional Encoder–Decoder Network Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194251 Authors: M. M. Manjurul Islam Jong-Myon Kim The visual inspection of massive civil infrastructure is a common trend for maintaining its reliability and structural health. However, this procedure, which uses human inspectors, requires long inspection times and relies on the subjective and empirical knowledge of the inspectors. To address these limitations, a machine vision-based autonomous crack detection method is proposed using a dee...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: M. M. Manjurul Islam Jong-Myon Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4252: ClusterMap Building and Relocalization in Urban Environments for Unmanned Vehicles
This study proposes a novel map format called the ClusterMap, on the basis of which an approach to achieving relocalization is developed. The ClusterMap is generated by segmenting the perceived point clouds into different point clusters and filtering out clusters belonging to dynamic objects. A location descriptor associated with each cluster is designed for differentiation. The relocalization in the global map is achieved by matching cluster descriptors between local and global maps. The solution does not require high-density point clouds and high-precision segmentation algorithms. In addition, it prevents the effects of ...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhichen Pan Haoyao Chen Silin Li Yunhui Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4253: Aerial Grasping with a Lightweight Manipulator Based on Multi-Objective Optimization and Visual Compensation
u Zhang Autonomous grasping with an aerial manipulator in the applications of aerial transportation and manipulation is still a challenging problem because of the complex kinematics/dynamics and motion constraints of the coupled rotors-manipulator system. The paper develops a novel aerial manipulation system with a lightweight manipulator, an X8 coaxial octocopter and onboard visual tracking system. To implement autonomous grasping control, we develop a novel and efficient approach that includes trajectory planning, visual trajectory tracking and kinematic compensation. Trajectory planning for aerial grasping control i...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haoyao Chen Fengyu Quan Linxu Fang Shiwu Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4254: A Model to Support Fluid Transitions between Environments for Mobile Augmented Reality Applications
que Meiguins The adaptability between different environments remains a challenge for Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR). If not done seamlessly, such transitions may cause discontinuities in navigation, consequently disorienting users and undermining the acceptance of this technology. The transition between environments is hard because there are currently no localization techniques that work well in any place: sensor-based applications can be harmed by obstacles that hamper sensor communication (e.g., GPS) and by infrastructure limitations (e.g., Wi-Fi), and image-based applications can be affected by lighting conditions t...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tiago Davi Oliveira de Ara újo Carlos Gustavo Resque dos Santos Rodrigo Santos do Amor Divino Lima Bianchi Serique Meiguins Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4255: Design and Application of a Metamaterial Superstrate on a Bio-Inspired Antenna for Partial Discharge Detection through Dielectric Windows
esarino de Souza The adaptation of dielectric windows as metamaterial superstrate over a bio-inspired Printed Monopole Antenna (PMA) was evaluated in order to improve the detection sensitivity of Ultra High Frequency (UHF) sensors designed for Partial Discharge (PD) measurement. For this purpose, rectangular and circular Split Ring Resonators (SRR) structures were designed and evaluated aiming to achieve a metamaterial superstrate that improves the characteristics of the bio-inspired PMA as the gain, bandwidth, and radiation pattern. Measurements of the PMA with metamaterial superstrate were carried out in an anechoic ...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: George Victor Rocha Xavier Alexandre Jean Ren é Serres Edson Guedes da Costa Adriano Costa de Oliveira Luiz Augusto Medeiros Martins Nobrega Vladimir Cesarino de Souza Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4256: A Comprehensive Survey of Recent Routing Protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Lee Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSN) have attracted huge attention due to their significance in oceanic observation and exploration. They offer a vast number of applications, many of which require routing the sensed data to a centralized location. This makes routing an important part of the design of such applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of recently proposed routing protocols for UWSNs. We evaluate the proposed schemes through an extensive set of parameters that define the core characteristics of a routing protocol. Moreover, we present a summary of the methods used by each scheme to fam...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Islam Lee Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4257: Developments in the HCV Screening Technologies Based on the Detection of Antigens and Antibodies
This article focuses on the technologies used for the detection of HCV in clinical specimens. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Warkad Song Pal Nimse Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4258: A Deep-Learning-Driven Light-Weight Phishing Detection Sensor
Wai Lok Woo This paper designs an accurate and low-cost phishing detection sensor by exploring deep learning techniques. Phishing is a very common social engineering technique. The attackers try to deceive online users by mimicking a uniform resource locator (URL) and a webpage. Traditionally, phishing detection is largely based on manual reports from users. Machine learning techniques have recently been introduced for phishing detection. With the recent rapid development of deep learning techniques, many deep-learning-based recognition methods have also been explored to improve classification performance. This paper...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bo Wei Rebeen Ali Hamad Longzhi Yang Xuan He Hao Wang Bin Gao Wai Lok Woo Tags: Article Source Type: research