Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5259: Multimodal Non-Contact Luminescence Thermometry with Cr-Doped Oxides
A. Suchocki Luminescence methods for non-contact temperature monitoring have evolved through improvements of hardware and sensor materials. Future advances in this field rely on the development of multimodal sensing capabilities of temperature probes and extend the temperature range across which they operate. The family of Cr-doped oxides appears particularly promising and we review their luminescence characteristics in light of their application in non-contact measurements of temperature over the 5–300 K range. Multimodal sensing utilizes the intensity ratio of emission lines, their wavelength shift, a...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: V. B. Mykhaylyk H. Kraus Y. Zhydachevskyy V. Tsiumra A. Luchechko A. Wagner A. Suchocki Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5264: Data Quality and Reliability Assessment of Wearable EMG and IMU Sensor for Construction Activity Recognition
This study evaluates the data quality and reliability of forearm electromyography (EMG) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) of armband sensors for construction activity classification. To achieve the proposed objective, the forearm EMG and IMU data collected from eight participants while performing construction activities such as screwing, wrenching, lifting, and carrying on two different days were used to analyze the data quality and reliability for activity recognition through seven different experiments. The results of these experiments show that the armband sensor data quality is comparable to the conventional EMG and ...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Srikanth Sagar Bangaru Chao Wang Fereydoun Aghazadeh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5265: Malware Detection of Hangul Word Processor Files Using Spatial Pyramid Average Pooling
In this study, we designed a convolutional neural network to detect malware within HWP files. Our proposed model takes a raw byte stream as input and predicts whether it contains malicious actions or not. To incorporate highly variable lengths of HWP byte streams, we propose a new padding method and a spatial pyramid average pooling layer. We experimentally demonstrate that our model is not only effective, but also efficient. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Young-Seob Jeong Jiyoung Woo SangMin Lee Ah Reum Kang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5267: Evaluation of Swallowing Related Muscle Activity by Means of Concentric Ring Electrodes
Orozco-Duque Surface electromyography (sEMG) can be helpful for evaluating swallowing related muscle activity. Conventional recordings with disc electrodes suffer from significant crosstalk from adjacent muscles and electrode-to-muscle fiber orientation problems, while concentric ring electrodes (CREs) offer enhanced spatial selectivity and axial isotropy. The aim of this work was to evaluate CRE performance in sEMG recordings of the swallowing muscles. Bipolar recordings were taken from 21 healthy young volunteers when swallowing saliva, water and yogurt, first with a conventional disc and then with a CRE. The signals...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Garcia-Casado Prats-Boluda Ye-Lin Restrepo-Agudelo Perez-Giraldo Orozco-Duque Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5268: Intercomparison of In Situ Sensors for Ground-Based Land Surface Temperature Measurements
enn Dumas Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in the determination of land surface energy exchange processes from local to global scales. Accurate ground measurements of LST are necessary for a number of applications including validation of satellite LST products or improvement of both climate and numerical weather prediction models. With the objective of assessing the quality of in situ measurements of LST and to evaluate the quantitative uncertainties in the ground-based LST measurements, intensive field experiments were conducted at NOAA’s Air Resources Laboratory (ARL)’s ...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Krishnan Meyers Hook Heuer Senn Dumas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5269: A Deep-Learning Model with Task-Specific Bounding Box Regressors and Conditional Back-Propagation for Moving Object Detection in ADAS Applications
n Guo This paper proposes a deep-learning model with task-specific bounding box regressors (TSBBRs) and conditional back-propagation mechanisms for detection of objects in motion for advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) applications. The proposed model separates the object detection networks for objects of different sizes and applies the proposed algorithm to achieve better detection results for both larger and tinier objects. For larger objects, a neural network with a larger visual receptive field is used to acquire information from larger areas. For the detection of tinier objects, the network of a smaller recep...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guan-Ting Lin Vinay Malligere Shivanna Jiun-In Guo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5270: Monitoring the Growth and Yield of Fruit Vegetables in a Greenhouse Using a Three-Dimensional Scanner
The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the current sensor technology can monitor the growth and yield of fruit vegetables such as tomato, cucumber, and paprika. We estimated leaf area, leaf area index (LAI), and plant height using coordinates of polygon vertices from plant and canopy surface models constructed using a three-dimensional (3D) scanner. A significant correlation was observed between the measured and estimated leaf area, LAI, and plant height (R2 > 0.8, except for tomato LAI). The canopy structure of each fruit vegetable was predicted by integrating the estimated leaf area at each height ...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuta Ohashi Yasuhiro Ishigami Eiji Goto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5266: Drop Drying on the Sensor: One More Way for Comparative Analysis of Liquid Media
imir Yakhno It is known that the processes of self-organization of the components of drying a liquid drop on a solid substrate are well reproduced under the same external conditions and are determined only by the composition and dispersion of the liquid. If the drop dries on the surface of the sensor device, these processes can be recorded and used as a passport characteristic of the liquid. The first half of the article is devoted to the description of the principles of the method and the proof of the validity of our assumptions. The second half of the article is devoted to the development of a user-friendly version o...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tatiana Yakhno Alexander Pakhomov Anatoly Sanin Vyacheslav Kazakov Ruben Ginoian Vladimir Yakhno Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5272: An Evaluation of Three Kinematic Methods for Gait Event Detection Compared to the Kinetic-Based ‘Gold Standard’
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5272: An Evaluation of Three Kinematic Methods for Gait Event Detection Compared to the Kinetic-Based ‘Gold Standard’ Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20185272 Authors: Nicole Zahradka Khushboo Verma Ahad Behboodi Barry Bodt Henry Wright Samuel C. K. Lee Video- and sensor-based gait analysis systems are rapidly emerging for use in ‘real world’ scenarios outside of typical instrumented motion analysis laboratories. Unlike laboratory systems, such systems do not use kinetic data from force plates, rather, gait events such as initial contact (IC) and termi...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nicole Zahradka Khushboo Verma Ahad Behboodi Barry Bodt Henry Wright Samuel C. K. Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5271: Eye Gaze Based 3D Triangulation for Robotic Bionic Eyes
Liu Qiang Huang Three-dimensional (3D) triangulation based on active binocular vision has increasing amounts of applications in computer vision and robotics. An active binocular vision system with non-fixed cameras needs to calibrate the stereo extrinsic parameters online to perform 3D triangulation. However, the accuracy of stereo extrinsic parameters and disparity have a significant impact on 3D triangulation precision. We propose a novel eye gaze based 3D triangulation method that does not use stereo extrinsic parameters directly in order to reduce the impact. Instead, we drive both cameras to gaze at a 3D spatial...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Di Fan Yanyang Liu Xiaopeng Chen Fei Meng Xilong Liu Zakir Ullah Wei Cheng Yunhui Liu Qiang Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5261: Temperature Field Boundary Conditions and Lateral Temperature Gradient Effect on a PC Box-Girder Bridge Based on Real-Time Solar Radiation and Spatial Temperature Monitoring
In this study, a five-span continuous Prestressed-concrete box-girder bridge was instrumented with pyranometers, anemometers, strain gauges, displacement gauges, and temperature sensors on the top and bottom slabs and webs to measure the solar radiation, wind speeds, strain, displacement, and surface temperatures, respectively. The continuously monitoring data between May 2019 and May 2020 was used to study the temperature distributions caused by solar radiation. A maximum positive lateral temperature gradient prediction model has been developed based on the solar radiation data analysis. Then, the solar radiation boundary...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiao Lei Xutao Fan Hanwan Jiang Kunning Zhu Hanyu Zhan Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5273: Fault Detection and Isolation Methods in Subsea Observation Networks
This study mainly focuses on theoretical research and the experimental platform verification of high-impedance and open-circuit fault detection for an underwater observation network. With the aid of deep learning, we perform the fault detection and prediction of the network operation. For the high-impedance and open-circuit fault detection of submarine cables, the entire system is modeled and simulated, and the voltage and current values of the operating nodes under different fault types are collected. Numerous calibrated data samples are supervised by a deep learning algorithm, and a fault location system model is built i...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sa Xiao Jiajie Yao Yanhu Chen Dejun Li Feng Zhang Yong Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5274: The Effects of the Driver ’s Mental State and Passenger Compartment Conditions on Driving Performance and Driving Stress
The objective of this work is to analyze how these elements affect driving. We have conducted an experiment with 50 drivers who have driven for 25 min using a driving simulator. These drivers completed a survey at the start and end of the experiment to obtain information about their mental state. In addition, during the test, their stress level was monitored using biometric sensors and the state of the environment (temperature, humidity and CO2 level) was recorded. The results of the experiment show that the initial level of stress and tiredness of the driver can have a strong impact on stress, driving behavior and fatigue...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: V íctor Corcoba Magaña Wilhelm Daniel Scherz Ralf Seepold Natividad Mart ínez Madrid Xabiel Garc ía Pañeda Roberto Garcia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5275: Robust Magnetized Graphene Oxide Platform for In Situ Peptide Synthesis and FRET-Based Protease Detection
Dong-Sik Shin Graphene oxide (GO)/peptide complexes as a promising disease biomarker analysis platform have been used to detect proteolytic activity by observing the turn-on signal of the quenched fluorescence upon the release of peptide fragments. However, the purification steps are often cumbersome during surface modification of nano-/micro-sized GO. In addition, it is still challenging to incorporate the specific peptides into GO with proper orientation using conventional immobilization methods based on pre-synthesized peptides. Here, we demonstrate a robust magnetic GO (MGO) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seongsoo Kim Sang-Myung Lee Je Pil Yoon Namhun Lee Jinhyo Chung Woo-Jae Chung Dong-Sik Shin Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5278: Assisted Living System with Adaptive Sensor ’s Contribution
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5278: Assisted Living System with Adaptive Sensor’s Contribution Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20185278 Authors: Magdalena Smoleń Piotr Augustyniak Multimodal sensing and data processing have become a common approach in modern assisted living systems. This is widely justified by the complementary properties of sensors based on different sensing paradigms. However, all previous proposals assume data fusion to be made based on fixed criteria. We proved that particular sensors show different performance depending on the subject’s activity and consequently present the concept of a...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Magdalena Smole ń Piotr Augustyniak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5279: Hybrid Attention Network for Language-Based Person Search
Xiao Language-based person search retrieves images of a target person using natural language description and is a challenging fine-grained cross-modal retrieval task. A novel hybrid attention network is proposed for the task. The network includes the following three aspects: First, a cubic attention mechanism for person image, which combines cross-layer spatial attention and channel attention. It can fully excavate both important midlevel details and key high-level semantics to obtain better discriminative fine-grained feature representation of a person image. Second, a text attention network for language description...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Xu Xiao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5276: Cross Lingual Sentiment Analysis: A Clustering-Based Bee Colony Instance Selection and Target-Based Feature Weighting Approach
Alhusaini The lack of sentiment resources in poor resource languages poses challenges for the sentiment analysis in which machine learning is involved. Cross-lingual and semi-supervised learning approaches have been deployed to represent the most common ways that can overcome this issue. However, performance of the existing methods degrades due to the poor quality of translated resources, data sparseness and more specifically, language divergence. An integrated learning model that uses a semi-supervised and an ensembled model while utilizing the available sentiment resources to tackle language divergence related issue...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mohammed Almansor Zhang Khan Hussain Alhusaini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5277: Improving the Recovery of Patients with Subacromial Pain Syndrome with the DAid Smart Textile Shirt
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the Double Aid (DAid) smart shirt, a purely textile-based system, on the training process of patients with subacromial pain syndrome. A randomized controlled trial was performed where patients with subacromial pain syndrome had to perform the assigned training exercises while employing the DAid smart shirt system. The core point of each exercise was to perform a movement while holding the shoulders stationary. The smart shirt was designed to sense even slight shoulder motion thus providing the patient with feedback on the accuracy of the motion, and allowing the pati...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Semjonova Vetra Cauce Oks Katashev Eizentals Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5280: Remote Insects Trap Monitoring System Using Deep Learning Framework and IoT
rishnasamy Tamilselvam Insect detection and control at an early stage are essential to the built environment (human-made physical spaces such as homes, hotels, camps, hospitals, parks, pavement, food industries, etc.) and agriculture fields. Currently, such insect control measures are manual, tedious, unsafe, and time-consuming labor dependent tasks. With the recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of things (IoT), several maintenance tasks can be automated, which significantly improves productivity and safety. This work proposes a real-time remote insect trap monitoring system and insect d...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Balakrishnan Ramalingam Rajesh Elara Mohan Sathian Pookkuttath Braulio F élix Gómez Charan Satya Chandra Sairam Borusu Tey Wee Teng Yokhesh Krishnasamy Tamilselvam Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5281: CoNTe: A Core Network Temporal Blockchain for 5G
liver Virtual Network Functions allow the effective separation between hardware and network functionality, a strong paradigm shift from previously tightly integrated monolithic, vendor, and technology dependent deployments. In this virtualized paradigm, all aspects of network operations can be made to deploy on demand, dynamically scale, as well as be shared and interworked in ways that mirror behaviors of general cloud computing. To date, although seeing rising demand, distributed ledger technology remains largely incompatible in such elastic deployments, by its nature as functioning as an immutable record store. This...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Steven Platt Luis Sanabria-Russo Miquel Oliver Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5238: Robust Lateral Stabilization Control of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Mobile Robots via Active Disturbance Suppression Approach
Zheng Wu Due to the praiseworthy maneuverability and actuation flexibility, the in-wheel-motor-driven mobile robots (IWMD-MR) are widely employed in various industrial fields. However, the active estimation and rejection of unknown disturbances/uncertainties remain a tough work for formulating a stable lateral motion controller. To address the challenge, this paper proposes a robust lateral stabilization control (RLSC) scheme for the developed IWMD-MR by designing an active disturbance suppression mechanism. The distinctive features of the proposed RLSC method are threefold: (i) With a fuzzy estimator, a modified s...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Meng Wang Jiang Xie Zheng Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5239: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Pile Jacking Monitoring in Clay Soil
This study investigated the working principle of the sensitized miniature FBG sensor and analyzed the strain transfer characteristics of the sensor by calibration test. The lateral resistance and the earth plug resistance of the model pile were measured accurately by the grooves embedded in the outer tube of the double-wall opening model pile and the sensors directly pasted on the surface of the inner tube. The results of this study show that the sensitized miniature FBG strain sensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, strong interference resistance, and high test accuracy. The FBG strain sensor was completely fixed o...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yonghong Wang Xueying Liu Mingyi Zhang Xiaoyu Bai Ben Mou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5240: DeepBrain: Experimental Evaluation of Cloud-Based Computation Offloadingand Edge Computing in the Internet-of-Drones for Deep Learning Applications
aher Azar Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been very effective in collecting aerial images data for various Internet-of-Things (IoT)/smart cities applications such as search and rescue, surveillance, vehicle detection, counting, intelligent transportation systems, to name a few. However, the real-time processing of collected data on edge in the context of the Internet-of-Drones remains an open challenge because UAVs have limited energy capabilities, while computer vision techniquesconsume excessive energy and require abundant resources. This fact is even more critical when deep learning algorithms, such as convolut...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anis Koubaa Adel Ammar Mahmoud Alahdab Anas Kanhouch Ahmad Taher Azar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5236: Identifying Facemask-Wearing Condition Using Image Super-Resolution with Classification Network to Prevent COVID-19
In this study, we develop a new facemask-wearing condition identification method by combining image super-resolution and classification networks (SRCNet), which quantifies a three-category classification problem based on unconstrained 2D facial images. The proposed algorithm contains four main steps: Image pre-processing, facial detection and cropping, image super-resolution, and facemask-wearing condition identification. Our method was trained and evaluated on the public dataset Medical Masks Dataset containing 3835 images with 671 images of no facemask-wearing, 134 images of incorrect facemask-wearing, and 3030 images of...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bosheng Qin Dongxiao Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5243: Determination of the pH Gradient in Hair Follicles of Human Volunteers Using pH-Sensitive Melamine Formaldehyde-Pyranine Nile Blue Microparticles
elt Darvin Jung Nanoparticles can be applied to the hair follicles, which can serve as reservoirs for triggered drug release. A valid measurement method for the determination of the pH within the hair follicle in vivo has not been shown yet. Here, melamine formaldehyde particles up to 9 µm in size were applied on 40 freshly plucked scalp hairs of eight individuals to determine the pH along the hair shaft down to the root area of the hair. For fluorescent pH indicators, pyranine and Nile blue were incorporated into the particles. Measurements were conducted using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kaden D ähne Knorr Richter Lademann Meinke Patzelt Darvin Jung Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5244: Does Curved Walking Sharpen the Assessment of Gait Disorders? An Instrumented Approach Based on Wearable Inertial Sensors
pe Vannozzi Gait and balance assessment in the clinical context mainly focuses on straight walking. Despite that curved trajectories and turning are commonly faced in our everyday life and represent a challenge for people with gait disorders. The adoption of curvilinear trajectories in the rehabilitation practice could have important implications for the definition of protocols tailored on individual’s needs. The aim of this study was to contribute toward the quantitative characterization of straight versus curved walking using an ecological approach and focusing on healthy and neurological populations. T...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Valeria Belluscio Elena Bergamini Marco Tramontano Rita Formisano Maria Gabriella Buzzi Giuseppe Vannozzi Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5246: Braided Fabrication of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor
Lee Our objective was to construct textile braiding manufacturing methods to facilitate high precision and accurate measurements using optical fiber Bragg grating sensors for various structures. We aimed to combine three-dimensional (3D) braiding processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor’s accurate metrology. Outside the limits of the sensor’s epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can diversify the scope of application. The braiding process can be used to design a 3D fabric module process for multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangements and material characteristics...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Songbi Lee Joohyeon Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5248: Highly Sensitive Localized Surface Plasmon Polariton Based D-Type Twin-Hole Photonic Crystal Fiber Microbiosensor: Enhanced Scheme for SERS Reinforcement
Qian Li The emerging development of sensing technology initiates innovative sensors achieving low-cost to facilitate practical realization. An interesting crush of the work is to propose a simple structural sensor and to analyze the different schemes of the metal coating by stimulated emission of Raman scattering (SERS) intensification. For the first time, we propose a simple geometrical photonic crystal fiber refractive index based sensor (PCF-RIBS) with three different Schemes A, B, and C, i.e., gold (A) layer-coated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based D-type PCF-RIBS; Au with titanium-di-oxide (TiO2) layer-coated ...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: M. S. Aruna Gandhi K. Senthilnathan P. Ramesh Babu Qian Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5249: Autonomous Crop Row Guidance Using Adaptive Multi-ROI in Strawberry Fields
;l Johan From Automated robotic platforms are an important part of precision agriculture solutions for sustainable food production. Agri-robots require robust and accurate guidance systems in order to navigate between crops and to and from their base station. Onboard sensors such as machine vision cameras offer a flexible guidance alternative to more expensive solutions for structured environments such as scanning lidar or RTK-GNSS. The main challenges for visual crop row guidance are the dramatic differences in appearance of crops between farms and throughout the season and the variations in crop spacing and contours ...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vignesh Raja Ponnambalam Marianne Bakken Richard J. D. Moore Jon Glenn Omholt Gjevestad P ål Johan From Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5255: Voltage-Frequency Domain Optimization for Energy-Neutral Wearable Health Devices
Umit Ogras Wearable health and activity monitoring devices must minimize the battery charging and replacement requirements to be practical. Numerous design techniques, such as power gating and multiple voltage-frequency (VF) domains, can be used to optimize power consumption. However, circuit-level techniques alone cannot minimize energy consumption unless they exploit domain-specific knowledge. To this end, we propose a system-level framework that minimizes the energy consumption of wearable health and activity monitoring applications by combining domain-specific knowledge with low-power design techniques. The propos...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yigit Tuncel Sizhe An Ganapati Bhat Naga Raja Hyung Gyu Lee Umit Ogras Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5254: Coaxial Thermocouples for Heat Transfer Measurements in Long-Duration High Enthalpy Flows
ng Chen Coaxial thermocouples have the advantages of fast response and good durability. They are widely used for heat transfer measurements in transient facilities, and researchers have also considered their use for long-duration heat transfer measurements. However, the model thickness, transverse heat transfer, and changes in the physical parameters of the materials with increasing temperature influence the accuracy of heat transfer measurements. A numerical analysis of coaxial thermocouples is conducted to determine the above influences on the measurement deviation. The minimum deviation is obtained if the thermal...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Wang Li Zhang Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5253: Refractive Index Sensor Based on Double Side-Polished U-Shaped Plastic Optical Fiber
qiang Sun A U-shaped double-side polished plastic optical fiber (POF) is demonstrated as a liquid refractive index (RI) sensor. The refractive index of glycerinum solutions is identified by the intensity detection on the bending and evanescent wave loss change. Heat treatment and mechanical polishing are adopted to form the symmetrical side-polished POF probe. The processing parameters are experimentally optimized on the power transmittance. The sensitivity of 1541%/RIU (Refractive Index Unit) can be obtained with a resolution of 5.35 × 10−4 in the scope of 1.33–1.39. The favor...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shumin Wang Daming Zhang Yan Xu Siwen Sun Xiaoqiang Sun Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5251: Robot-Aided Systems for Improving the Assessment of Upper Limb Spasticity: A Systematic Review
Alberto Jardón Spasticity is a motor disorder that causes stiffness or tightness of the muscles and can interfere with normal movement, speech, and gait. Traditionally, the spasticity assessment is carried out by clinicians using standardized procedures for objective evaluation. However, these procedures are manually performed and, thereby, they could be influenced by the clinician’s subjectivity or expertise. The automation of such traditional methods for spasticity evaluation is an interesting and emerging field in neurorehabilitation. One of the most promising approaches is the use of robot-aid...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rub én de-la-Torre Edwin Daniel O ña Carlos Balaguer Alberto Jard ón Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5252: A Holistic Systems Security Approach Featuring Thin Secure Elements for Resilient IoT Deployments
istretta IoT systems differ from traditional Internet systems in that they are different in scale, footprint, power requirements, cost and security concerns that are often overlooked. IoT systems inherently present different fail-safe capabilities than traditional computing environments while their threat landscapes constantly evolve. Further, IoT devices have limited collective security measures in place. Therefore, there is a need for different approaches in threat assessments to incorporate the interdependencies between different IoT devices. In this paper, we run through the design cycle to provide a security-focus...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ramalingam Gan Epiphaniou Mistretta Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5250: Virtual to Real Adaptation of Pedestrian Detectors
ppe Amato Pedestrian detection through Computer Vision is a building block for a multitude of applications. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in convolutional neural network-based architectures to execute such a task. One of these supervised networks’ critical goals is to generalize the knowledge learned during the training phase to new scenarios with different characteristics. A suitably labeled dataset is essential to achieve this purpose. The main problem is that manually annotating a dataset usually requires a lot of human effort, and it is costly. To this end, we introduce ViPeD (Virtua...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Luca Ciampi Nicola Messina Fabrizio Falchi Claudio Gennaro Giuseppe Amato Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5256: A Highly Accurate, Polynomial-Based Digital Temperature Compensation for Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor in 180 nm CMOS Technology
o Kang-Yoon Lee Recently, piezoresistive-type (PRT) pressure sensors have been gaining attention in variety of applications due to their simplicity, low cost, miniature size and ruggedness. The electrical behavior of a pressure sensor is highly dependent on the temperature gradient which seriously degrades its reliability and reduces measurement accuracy. In this paper, polynomial-based adaptive digital temperature compensation is presented for automotive piezoresistive pressure sensor applications. The non-linear temperature dependency of a pressure sensor is accurately compensated for by incorporating opposite char...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Imran Ali Muhammad Asif Khuram Shehzad Muhammad Riaz Ur Rehman Dong Gyu Kim Behnam Samadpoor Rikan YoungGun Pu Sang Sun Yoo Kang-Yoon Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5237: Interdigitated and Wave-Shaped Electrode-Based Capacitance Sensor for Monitoring Antibiotic Effects
This study demonstrated the feasibility of the IWE-based capacitance sensor for the label-free and real-time monitoring of the antibiotic effects on S.aureus and MRSA. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jinsoo Park Yonghyun Lee Youjin Hwang Sungbo Cho Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5247: A Paper-Based Near-Infrared Optical Biosensor for Quantitative Detection of Protease Activity Using Peptide-Encapsulated SWCNTs
Shoseyov A protease is an enzyme that catalyzes proteolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides or single amino acids. As crucial elements in many biological processes, proteases have been shown to be informative biomarkers for several pathological conditions in humans, animals, and plants. Therefore, fast, reliable, and cost-effective protease biosensors suitable for point-of-care (POC) sensing may aid in diagnostics, treatment, and drug discovery for various diseases. This work presents an affordable and simple paper-based dipstick biosensor that utilizes peptide-encapsulated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) ...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vlad Shumeiko Yossi Paltiel Gili Bisker Zvi Hayouka Oded Shoseyov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5257: Improving Radar Rainfall Estimations with Scaled Raindrop Size Spectra in Mei-Yu Frontal Rainstorms
Xie Lei Hydrological calibration of raw weather radar rainfall estimation relies on in situ rainfall measurements. Raindrop size distribution (DSD) was collected during three typical Mei-Yu rainstorms in July 2014 using three particle size velocity (Parsivel) DSD sensors along the Mei-Yu front in Nanjing, Chuzhou, and the western Pacific, respectively. To improve the radar precipitation estimation in different parts of the Mei-Yu front, a scaling method was adopted to formulate the DSD model and further derive the Z–R relations. The results suggest a distinct variation of DSDs in different parts of the...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zheng Wu Zhang Xie Lei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5245: Process-Driven and Flow-Based Processing of Industrial Sensor Data
red Reichert For machine manufacturing companies, besides the production of high quality and reliable machines, requirements have emerged to maintain machine-related aspects through digital services. The development of such services in the field of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is dealing with solutions such as effective condition monitoring and predictive maintenance. However, appropriate data sources are needed on which digital services can be technically based. As many powerful and cheap sensors have been introduced over the last years, their integration into complex machines is promising for developing d...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Klaus Kammerer R üdiger Pryss Burkhard Hoppenstedt Kevin Sommer Manfred Reichert Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5241: Structural Monitoring of Underground Structures in Multi-Layer Media by Dynamic Methods
eskhi The actual problem of structural monitoring and modeling of dynamic response from buried building is considered in the framework of arbitrary dynamic load. The results can be used for designing underground transport constructions, crossings, buried reservoirs and foundations. In existing methods, the system of sensors that register the response to a dynamic action does not allow for effective interpretation of the signal without understanding the dynamic features and resonance phenomena. The analytical and numerical solution of the problem of the dynamics of a buried object in a layered medium is considered. A mu...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexandr Lyapin Alexey Beskopylny Besarion Meskhi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5242: A Secure Video Steganography Based on the Intra-Prediction Mode (IPM) for H264
en Li Recently, many video steganography algorithms based on the intra-prediction mode (IPM) have been adaptive steganography algorithms. These algorithms usually focus on the research about mapping rules and distortion functions while ignoring the fact that adaptive steganography may not be suitable for video steganography based on the intra-prediction mode; this is because the adaptive steganography algorithm must first calculate the loss of all cover before the first secret message is embedded. However, the modification of an IPM may change the pixel values of the current block and adjacent blocks, which will lead t...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mingyuan Cao Lihua Tian Chen Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5228: Simple Wireless Impedance Pneumography System for Unobtrusive Sensing of Respiration
Dubo Esteban J. Pino This extended paper presents the development and implementation at a prototype level of a wireless, low-cost system for the measurement of the electrical bioimpedance of the chest with two channels using the AD5933 in a bipolar electrode configuration to measure impedance pneumography. The measurement device works for impedance measurements ranging from 1 Ω to 1800 Ω. Fifteen volunteers were measured with the prototype. We found that the left hemithorax has higher impedance compared to the right hemithorax, and the acquired signal presents the phases of the respirator...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pablo Aqueveque Britam G ómez Emyrna Monsalve Enrique Germany Paulina Ortega-Bastidas Sebasti án Dubo Esteban J. Pino Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5229: Face and Body-Based Human Recognition by GAN-Based Blur Restoration
ng Park The long-distance recognition methods in indoor environments are commonly divided into two categories, namely face recognition and face and body recognition. Cameras are typically installed on ceilings for face recognition. Hence, it is difficult to obtain a front image of an individual. Therefore, in many studies, the face and body information of an individual are combined. However, the distance between the camera and an individual is closer in indoor environments than that in outdoor environments. Therefore, face information is distorted due to motion blur. Several studies have examined deblurring of face ima...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ja Hyung Koo Se Woon Cho Na Rae Baek Kang Ryoung Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5230: A New Bit Repair Fast Reroute Mechanism for Smart Sensors IOT Network Infrastructure
hal Hodon Today’s IP networks are experiencing a high increase in used and connected Internet of Things (IoT) devices and related deployed critical services. This puts increased demands on the reliability of underlayer transport networks. Therefore, modern networks must meet specific qualitative and quantitative parameters to satisfy customer service demands in line with the most common requirements of network fault tolerance and minimal packet loss. After a router or link failure within the transport network, the network convergence process begins. This process can take an unpredictable amount of time, u...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jozef Papan Pavel Segec Oleksandra Yeremenko Ivana Bridova Michal Hodon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5232: Robust Nonparametric Distribution Transfer with Exposure Correction for Image Neural Style Transfer
ng Tian Image neural style transfer is a process of utilizing convolutional neural networks to render a content image based on a style image. The algorithm can compute a stylized image with original content from the given content image but a new style from the given style image. Style transfer has become a hot topic both in academic literature and industrial applications. The stylized results of current existing models are not ideal because of the color difference between two input images and the inconspicuous details of content image. To solve the problems, we propose two style transfer models based on robust nonparam...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shuai Liu Caixia Hong Jing He Zhiqiang Tian Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5231: Flash Flood Early Warning System in Colima, Mexico
ez Raúl Rentería Arthur Edwards Omar Álvarez This paper presents a system of sensors used in flash flood prediction that offers critical real-time information used to provide early warnings that can provide the minutes needed for persons to evacuate before imminent events. Flooding is one of the most serious natural disasters humans confront in terms of loss of life and results in long-term effects, which often have severely adverse social consequences. However, flash floods are potentially more dangerous to life because there is often little or no forewarning of the impending disaster. The E...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jos é Ibarreche Ra úl Aquino R. M. Edwards V íctor Rangel Ismael P érez Miguel Mart ínez Esli Castellanos Elisa Álvarez Saul Jimenez Ra úl Rentería Arthur Edwards Omar Álvarez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5233: Dual-Polarized Multi-Channel 24 GHz Radar Sensor Antenna for High Channel-to-Channel Isolation
This article presents a dual-polarized, high gain multi-beam and high T/Rx channel-to-channel isolation antenna module for 24 GHz sensor applications. The proposed antenna is configured to support 2-Tx and 2-Rx channels with a pair of vertically polarized (VP) radiation pattern and a pair of horizontally polarized (HP) radiation pattern. Further, each linearly polarized T/Rx antenna is configured by 2 × 4 array with a multi-layer integrated feed network, resulting in four sets of 2 × 4 array antennas fabricated within a single printed circuit board (PCB). Since multiple RF channels must be ensur...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Young-Jun Kim Gunhark Noh Han Lim Lee Sungwook Yu Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5234: Classification of Non-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury from Resting-State EEG Signal Using LSTM Network with ECOC-SVM
This study presents a novel classification architecture that can classify non-severe TBI patients and healthy subjects employing resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) as the input, solving the immobility issue of the computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proposed architecture makes use of long short term memory (LSTM) and error-correcting output coding support vector machine (ECOC-SVM) to perform multiclass classification. The pre-processed EEG time series are supplied to the network by each time step, where important information from the previous time step will be remembered by the LST...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chi Qin Lai Haidi Ibrahim Aini Ismafairus Abd Hamid Jafri Malin Abdullah Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5235: Sensor Fusion in Assistive and Rehabilitation Robotics
ner As the world’s population gradually grows older, more and more adults are experiencing sensory–motor disabilities due to stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury and other diseases [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Domen Novak Robert Riener Tags: Editorial Source Type: research