Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3722: Automated Lung Nodule Detection and Classification Using Deep Learning Combined with Multiple Strategies
Haibo Hu Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths due to its aggressive nature and delayed detections at advanced stages. Early detection of lung cancer is very important for the survival of an individual, and is a significant challenging problem. Generally, chest radiographs (X-ray) and computed tomography (CT) scans are used initially for the diagnosis of the malignant nodules; however, the possible existence of benign nodules leads to erroneous decisions. At early stages, the benign and the malignant nodules show very close resemblance to each other. In this paper, a novel deep learning-bas...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nasrullah Nasrullah Jun Sang Mohammad S. Alam Muhammad Mateen Bin Cai Haibo Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3721: Low-Cost Radon Detector with Low-Voltage Air-Ionization Chamber
;n Jan Šlégr This paper describes the design of a low-cost radon detector that can easily be fabricated in large quantities for the purposes of earthquake prediction. The described detector can also be used for monitoring radon levels in houses because high radon levels pose a great health risk. A very simple air-ionization chamber for alpha particles was used, considering the experimental results. Chamber current-sensing circuitry is also suggested, and an Internet of Things (IoT) sensor grid is described. The main advantages of this detector are the low cost, low power consumption, and complete elimin...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Filip Studni čka Jan Štěpán Jan Šlégr Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3720: Detection of Human Fall Using Floor Vibration and Multi-Features Semi-Supervised SVM
c Maxwell Human falls are the premier cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among older adults. The health outcome of a fall event is largely dependent on rapid response and rescue of the fallen elder. Being able to provide an accurate and fast fall detection will dramatically improve the health outcomes of the older population and reduce the associated healthcare cost after a fall. To achieve the goal, a multi-features semi-supervised support vector machines (MFSS-SVM) algorithm utilizing measurements from structural floor vibration obtained through accelerometers is proposed in this study to detect falling events with...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chengyin Liu Zhaoshuo Jiang Xiangxiang Su Samuel Benzoni Alec Maxwell Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3723: Using A Low-Cost Sensor Array and Machine Learning Techniques to Detect Complex Pollutant Mixtures and Identify Likely Sources
nigan An array of low-cost sensors was assembled and tested in a chamber environment wherein several pollutant mixtures were generated. The four classes of sources that were simulated were mobile emissions, biomass burning, natural gas emissions, and gasoline vapors. A two-step regression and classification method was developed and applied to the sensor data from this array. We first applied regression models to estimate the concentrations of several compounds and then classification models trained to use those estimates to identify the presence of each of those sources. The regression models that were used included fo...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jacob Thorson Ashley Collier-Oxandale Michael Hannigan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3724: Electromagnetic Energy Absorption in a Head Approaching a Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Reader Operating at 13.56 MHz in Users of Hearing Implants Versus Non-Users
Gryz The aim of this study was to model the absorption in the head of an electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by a radiofrequency identification reader operating at a frequency of 13.56 MHz (recognized as an RFID HF reader), with respect to the direct biophysical effects evaluated by the specific absorption rate (SAR), averaged over the entire head or locally, over any 10 g of tissues. The exposure effects were compared between the head of a user of a hearing implant with an acoustic sensor and a person without such an implant, used as a referenced case. The RFID HF reader, such as is used in shops or libraries, was mod...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Patryk Zradzi ński Jolanta Karpowicz Krzysztof Gryz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3725: ARTS, an AR Tourism System, for the Integration of 3D Scanning and Smartphone AR in Cultural Heritage Tourism and Pedagogy
Chen Interactions between cultural heritage, tourism, and pedagogy deserve investigation in an as-built environment under a macro- or micro-perspective of urban fabric. The heritage site of Shih Yih Hall, Lukang, was explored. An Augmented Reality Tourism System (ARTS) was developed on a smartphone-based platform for a novel application scenario using 3D scans converted from a point cloud to a portable interaction size. ARTS comprises a real-time environment viewing module, a space-switching module, and an Augmented Reality (AR) guide graphic module. The system facilitates scenario initiations, projection and superimp...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Naai-Jung Shih Pei-Huang Diao Yi Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3726: Marine Observation Beacon Clustering and Recycling Technology Based on Wireless Sensor Networks
Li Monitoring of marine polluted areas is an emergency task, where efficiency and low-power consumption are challenging for the recovery of marine monitoring equipment. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offer the potential for low-energy recovery of marine observation beacons. Reducing and balancing network energy consumption are major problems for this solution. This paper presents an energy-saving clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on k-means algorithm and fuzzy logic system (KFNS). The algorithm is divided into three phases according to the different demands of each recovery phase. In the moni...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Qi Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3727: Deep Visible and Thermal Image Fusion for Enhanced Pedestrian Visibility
ilips Reliable vision in challenging illumination conditions is one of the crucial requirements of future autonomous automotive systems. In the last decade, thermal cameras have become more easily accessible to a larger number of researchers. This has resulted in numerous studies which confirmed the benefits of the thermal cameras in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose a learning-based method for visible and thermal image fusion that focuses on generating fused images with high visual similarity to regular truecolor (red-green-blue or RGB) images, while introducing new informative details in pedest...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ivana Shopovska Ljubomir Jovanov Wilfried Philips Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3728: A Method of Short Text Representation Based on the Feature Probability Embedded Vector
n Sun Text representation is one of the key tasks in the field of natural language processing (NLP). Traditional feature extraction and weighting methods often use the bag-of-words (BoW) model, which may lead to a lack of semantic information as well as the problems of high dimensionality and high sparsity. At present, to solve these problems, a popular idea is to utilize deep learning methods. In this paper, feature weighting, word embedding, and topic models are combined to propose an unsupervised text representation method named the feature, probability, and word embedding method. The main idea is to use the word...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhou Wang Sun Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3729: Assessment of Ultra-Short Heart Variability Indices Derived by Smartphone Accelerometers for Stress Detection
ti Caiani Body acceleration due to heartbeat-induced reaction forces can be measured as mobile phone accelerometer (m-ACC) signals. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using m-ACC to detect changes induced by stress by ultra-short heart rate variability (USV) indices (standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval—SDNN and root mean square of successive differences—RMSSD). Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited; m-ACC was recorded while in supine position, during spontaneous breathing at rest conditions (REST) and during one minute of mental stress (MS) induced by arithmetic serial...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Landreani Faini Martin-Yebra Morri Parati Caiani Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3713: Pre-Impact Detection Algorithm to Identify Tripping Events Using Wearable Sensors
This study aimed to investigate the performance of an updated version of our pre-impact detection algorithm parsing out the output of a set of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) placed on lower limbs and designed to recognize signs of lack of balance due to tripping. Eight young subjects were asked to manage tripping events while walking on a treadmill. An adaptive threshold-based algorithm, relying on a pool of adaptive oscillators, was tuned to identify abrupt kinematics modifications during tripping. Inputs of the algorithm were the elevation angles of lower limb segments, as estimated by IMUs located on thighs, shanks a...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Federica Aprigliano Silvestro Micera Vito Monaco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3714: DMS-SLAM: A General Visual SLAM System for Dynamic Scenes with Multiple Sensors
Feng Xu Presently, although many impressed SLAM systems have achieved exceptional accuracy in a real environment, most of them are verified in the static environment. However, for mobile robots and autonomous driving, the dynamic objects in the scene can result in tracking failure or large deviation during pose estimation. In this paper, a general visual SLAM system for dynamic scenes with multiple sensors called DMS-SLAM is proposed. First, the combination of GMS and sliding window is used to achieve the initialization of the system, which can eliminate the influence of dynamic objects and construct a static initializ...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guihua Liu Weilin Zeng Bo Feng Feng Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3715: Self-Powered Portable Electronic Reader for Point-of-Care Amperometric Measurements
In this study, we present the electronics system in detail and describe all modules that make up the system. Furthermore, we validate the device’s operation with different emulated FCs and sensors presented in the literature. The e-reader can be adjusted to numerous current ranges up to 3 mA, with a 13 nA resolution and an uncertainty of 1.8%. Besides, it only consumes 900 µW in the low power mode of operation, and it can operate with a minimum voltage of 330 mV. This concept can be extended to a wide range of fields, from biomedical to environmental applications. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yaiza Montes-Cebri án Albert Álvarez-Carulla Jordi Colomer-Farrarons Manel Puig-Vidal Pere Ll. Miribel-Catal à Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3716: Time Coherent Full-Body Poses Estimated Using Only Five Inertial Sensors: Deep versus Shallow Learning
H. Veltink Full-body motion capture typically requires sensors/markers to be placed on each rigid body segment, which results in long setup times and is obtrusive. The number of sensors/markers can be reduced using deep learning or offline methods. However, this requires large training datasets and/or sufficient computational resources. Therefore, we investigate the following research question: “What is the performance of a shallow approach, compared to a deep learning one, for estimating time coherent full-body poses using only five inertial sensors?”. We propose to incorporate past/future...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Frank J. Wouda Matteo Giuberti Nina Rudigkeit Bert-Jan F. van Beijnum Mannes Poel Peter H. Veltink Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3717: Improving GIS-based Landslide Susceptibility Assessments with Multi-temporal Remote Sensing and Machine Learning
This study developed a systematic approach with machine learning (ML) to apply the satellite remote sensing images, geographic information system (GIS) datasets, and spatial analysis for multi-temporal and event-based landslide susceptibility assessments at a regional scale. Random forests (RF) algorithm, one of the ML-based methods, was selected to construct the landslide susceptibility models. Different ratios of landslide and non-landslide samples were considered in the experiments. This study also employed a cost-sensitive analysis to adjust the decision boundary of the developed RF models with unbalanced sample ratios...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lai Tsai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3710: Wavelet-Based Analysis of Physical Activity and Sleep Movement Data from Wearable Sensors among Obese Adults
This study is critical for obesity management to prevent unhealthy weight gain by the recommendations of physical activity based on our results. Longitudinal multi-day monitoring using wearable sensors has great potential to be integrated into routine health care checkups to prevent obesity and promote physical activities. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rahul Soangra Vennila Krishnan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3711: RSS Indoor Localization Based on a Single Access Point
Stavrou This research work investigates how RSS information fusion from a single, multi-antenna access point (AP) can be used to perform device localization in indoor RSS based localization systems. The proposed approach demonstrates that different RSS values can be obtained by carefully modifying each AP antenna orientation and polarization, allowing the generation of unique, low correlation fingerprints, for the area of interest. Each AP antenna can be used to generate a set of fingerprint radiomaps for different antenna orientations and/or polarization. The RSS fingerprints generated from all antennas of the single ...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Akis Kokkinis Loizos Kanaris Antonio Liotta Stavros Stavrou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3712: Sensitivity of Vegetation Indices for Estimating Vegetative N Status in Winter Wheat
This study aimed at a critical assessment of the estimation ability depending on the level of the target traits. It included seven years’ data with nine measurement dates from early stem elongation until flowering in eight N regimes (0–420 kg N ha−1) for selected SVIs. Tested across years, a pronounced date-specific clustering was found particularly for DM and NC. While for DM, only the R900_970 gave moderate but saturated relationships (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.001) and no index was useful for NC across dates, NNI and Nup could be better estimated (REIP: R2 = 0.59, p &l...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lukas Prey Urs Schmidhalter Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3696: Locating Ultrasonic Signals Employing MEMS-On-Fiber Sensors
n Yiting Yu Sound sensing finds wide applications in various fields, such as underwater detection, structural health monitoring, and medical diagnosis, to name just a few. Based on our previously developed MEMS-on-fiber sensors, showing the advantages of low cost, small volume, and high performance, a three-dimensional ultrasonic localization system employing four such sensors was established in this work. A time difference of arrival (TDOA) algorithm was utilized to analyze the acquired data and then calculate the accurate position of the ultrasonic signal source. Plenty of practical measurements were performed, and...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenrong Si Chenzhao Fu Haoyong Li Jiaming Lv Chaoyu Xiong Peng Yuan Yiting Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3697: Validation of Wired and Wireless Interconnected Body Sensor Networks
Mahtab Alam Current medical facilities usually lead to a very high cost especially for developing countries, rural areas and mass casualty incidents. Therefore, advanced electronic health systems are gaining momentum. In this paper, we first compared our novel off the shelf experimental wired Body Sensor Networks (BSN), that is, Digital First Aid (DigiAID) with the existing commercial product called as Hexoskin. We showed the viability of DigiAID through extensive real measurements during daily activities by both male and females. It was found that the major hurdle was wires to be worn by the subjects. Accordingly, we ...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anum Talpur Faisal Karim Shaikh Natasha Baloch Emad Felemban Abdelmajid Khelil Muhammad Mahtab Alam Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3699: SLAM in Dynamic Environments: A Deep Learning Approach for Moving Object Tracking Using ML-RANSAC Algorithm
ozorg The important problem of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic environments is less studied than the counterpart problem in static settings. In this paper, we present a solution for the feature-based SLAM problem in dynamic environments. We propose an algorithm that integrates SLAM with multi-target tracking (SLAMMTT) using a robust feature-tracking algorithm for dynamic environments. A novel implementation of RANdomSAmple Consensus (RANSAC) method referred to as multilevel-RANSAC (ML-RANSAC) within the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) framework is applied for multi-target tracking (MTT). We also ap...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Masoud S. Bahraini Ahmad B. Rad Mohammad Bozorg Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3698: MW-PPG Sensor: An on-Chip Spectrometer Approach
In this study we developed a chip-scale MW-PPG sensor using innovative on-chip spectrometers, aimed at wearable applications. Also in this paper we present signal processing methods for robustly extracting the PPG signals, in which an increase of up to 50% in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was observed. Example measurements of saturation of peripheral blood oxygen (SpO2) and blood pressure were conducted. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheng-Chun Chang Chien-Ta Wu Byung Il Choi Tong-Jing Fang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3700: Validation of Glacier Topographic Acquisitions from an Airborne Single-Pass Interferometer
We present the first validation results of the operational sensor, collected in 2013 over glaciers in Alaska and followed by more exhaustive collections from Greenland in 2016 and 2017. In Alaska, overlapping flight-tracks were mosaicked to mitigate potential residual trends across-track and the resultant maps are validated with lidar. Furthermore, repeat acquisitions of Columbia Glacier collected with a three day separation indicate excellent stability and repeatability. Commencing 2016, GLISTIN-A has circumnavigated Greenland for 4 consecutive years. Due to flight hour limitations, overlapping swaths were not flown. In 2...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Delwyn Moller Scott Hensley Jeremie Mouginot Joshua Willis Xiaoqing Wu Christopher Larsen Eric Rignot Ronald Muellerschoen Ala Khazendar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3701: The Impact of the Land Cover Dynamics on Surface Urban Heat Island Variations in Semi-Arid Cities: A Case Study in Ahmedabad City, India, Using Multi-Sensor/Source Data
This study examines the behavior of land surface temperature (LST) and surface urban heat island (SUHI) from MODIS data over Ahmedabad city, Gujarat state (India), from 2003 to 2018. Summer and winter LST patterns were analyzed, both daytime and nighttime. Ahmedabad, one of the fastest growing metropolitan cities in India, is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The investigation focuses on the SUHI variations due to warming or cooling trends of both urban and rural areas, providing quantitative interpretations by means of multi-sensor/source data. Land cover maps, normalized differential vegetation index, surface albedo,...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pir Mohammad Ajanta Goswami Stefania Bonafoni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3702: Deep Learning-Based Target Tracking and Classification for Low Quality Videos Using Coded Aperture Cameras
enne-Cummings Compressive sensing has seen many applications in recent years. One type of compressive sensing device is the Pixel-wise Code Exposure (PCE) camera, which has low power consumption and individual control of pixel exposure time. In order to use PCE cameras for practical applications, a time consuming and lossy process is needed to reconstruct the original frames. In this paper, we present a deep learning approach that directly performs target tracking and classification in the compressive measurement domain without any frame reconstruction. In particular, we propose to apply You Only Look Once (YOLO) to de...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chiman Kwan Bryan Chou Jonathan Yang Akshay Rangamani Trac Tran Jack Zhang Ralph Etienne-Cummings Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3703: Wasserstein Distance Learns Domain Invariant Feature Representations for Drift Compensation of E-Nose
Juan Xu Electronic nose (E-nose), a kind of instrument which combines with the gas sensor and the corresponding pattern recognition algorithm, is used to detect the type and concentration of gases. However, the sensor drift will occur in realistic application scenario of E-nose, which makes a variation of data distribution in feature space and causes a decrease in prediction accuracy. Therefore, studies on the drift compensation algorithms are receiving increasing attention in the field of the E-nose. In this paper, a novel method, namely Wasserstein Distance Learned Feature Representations (WDLFR), is put forward fo...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Tao Chunyan Li Zhifang Liang Haocheng Yang Juan Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3704: IoT and UAV Integration in 5G Hybrid Terrestrial-Satellite Networks
trone The Fifth Generation of Mobile Communications (5G) will lead to the growth of use cases demanding higher capacity and a enhanced data rate, a lower latency, and a more flexible and scalable network able to offer better user Quality of Experience (QoE). The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of these use cases. It has been spreading in the recent past few years, and it covers a wider range of possible application scenarios, such as smart city, smart factory, and smart agriculture, among many others. However, the limitations of the terrestrial network hinder the deployment of IoT devices and services. Besides, the exi...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mario Marchese Aya Moheddine Fabio Patrone Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3705: CPG-Based Gait Generation of the Curved-Leg Hexapod Robot with Smooth Gait Transition
nhong Zhong This paper presents a novel CPG-based gait generation of the curved-leg hexapod robot that can enable smooth gait transitions between multi-mode gaits. First, the locomotion of the curved leg and instability during the gait transitions are analyzed. Then, a modified Hopf oscillator is applied in the CPG control, which can realize multiple gaits by adjusting a simple parameter. In addition, a smooth gait switching method is also proposed via smooth gait transition functions and gait planning. Tripod gait, quadruped gait, and wave gait are planned for the hexapod robot to achieve quick and stable gait transit...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Long Bai Hao Hu Xiaohong Chen Yuanxi Sun Chaoyang Ma Yuanhong Zhong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3706: Development of Open-Tubular-Type Micro Gas Chromatography Column with Bump Structures
This study reports an open-tubular-type micro GC (μ-GC) column with internal bump structures (bump structure μ-GC column) that substantially increase the interaction between the gas mixture and a stationary phase. The developed bump structure μ-GC column, which was fabricated on a 2 cm × 2 cm μ-GC chip and coated with a non-polar stationary phase, is 1.5 m-long, 150 μm-wide, and 400 μm-deep. It has an internal microfluidic channel in which the bumps, which are 150 μm diameter half-circles, are alternatingly disposed to face each othe...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee Lim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3707: An FPGA-Based Ultra-High-Speed Object Detection Algorithm with Multi-Frame Information Fusion
aku Ishii An ultra-high-speed algorithm based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for hardware implementation at 10,000 frames per second (FPS) under complex backgrounds is proposed for object detection. The algorithm is implemented on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) in the high-speed-vision platform, in which 64 pixels are input per clock cycle. The high pixel parallelism of the vision platform limits its performance, as it is difficult to reduce the strides between detection windows below 16 pixels, thus introduce non-negligible deviation of object detection. In addition,...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xianlei Long Shenhua Hu Yiming Hu Qingyi Gu Idaku Ishii Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3708: Assessing the Ability of Luojia 1-01 Imagery to Detect Feeble Nighttime Lights
n Sun The Luojia1-01 (LJ1-01) satellite launched on June 2, 2018 provides a new option for nighttime light (NTL) application research. In this paper, four types of human settlements, such as cities, counties, towns and villages, are sampled to evaluate the potential of LJ1-01 to detect feeble NTL by comparing with the NTL images from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite. First, the landscape indices and cutoff threshold method are applied ...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Liu Chen Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3709: Multi-Biometric System Based on Cutting-Edge Equipment for Experimental Contactless Verification
un Fadeyi Biometric verification methods have gained significant popularity in recent times, which has brought about their extensive usage. In light of theoretical evidence surrounding the development of biometric verification, we proposed an experimental multi-biometric system for laboratory testing. First, the proposed system was designed such that it was able to identify and verify a user through the hand contour, and blood flow (blood stream) at the upper part of the hand. Next, we detailed the hard and software solutions for the system. A total of 40 subjects agreed to be a part of data generation team, which prod...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lukas Kolda Ondrej Krejcar Ali Selamat Kamil Kuca Oluwaseun Fadeyi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3686: Application of Near-Infrared Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) to the Detection of Ammonia in Exhaled Human Breath
Long The qualitative and quantitative analysis to trace gas in exhaled human breath has become a promising technique in biomedical applications such as disease diagnosis and health status monitoring. This paper describes an application of a high spectral resolution optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) for ammonia detection in exhaled human breath, and the main interference of gases such as CO2 and H2O are approximately eliminated at the same time. With appropriate optical feedback, a fibered distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser emitting at 1531.6 nm is locked to the resonance of a V-sha...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhifu Luo Zhongqi Tan Xingwu Long Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3688: An Energy-Efficient Method for Human Activity Recognition with Segment-Level Change Detection and Deep Learning
Kim Human activity recognition (HAR), which is important in context awareness services, needs to occur continuously in daily life, owing to which an energy-efficient method is needed. However, because human activities have a longer cycle than HAR methods, which have analysis cycles of a few seconds, continuous classification of human activities using these methods is computationally and energy inefficient. Therefore, we propose segment-level change detection to identify activity change with very low computational complexity. Additionally, a fully convolutional network (FCN) with a high recognition rate is used to class...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chi Yoon Jeong Mooseop Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3689: Endpoints-Clipping CSI Amplitude for SVM-Based Indoor Localization
ng Shao With the wide application of Channel State Information (CSI) in the field of sensing, the accuracy of positioning accuracy of indoor fingerprint positioning is increasingly necessary. The flexibility of the CSI signals may lead to an increase in fingerprint noise and inaccurate data classification. This paper presents an indoor localization algorithm based on Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN), Endpoints-Clipping (EC) CSI amplitude, and Support Vector Machine (EC-SVM). In the offline phase, the CSI amplitude information collected through the three channels is combined and clipp...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhanjun Hao Yan Yan Xiaochao Dang Chenguang Shao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3690: Estimation of Knee Joint Forces in Sport Movements Using Wearable Sensors and Machine Learning
This study supports the use of wearable sensors in combination with ANN for estimating joint reactions in sports applications. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bernd J. Stetter Steffen Ringhof Frieder C. Krafft Stefan Sell Thorsten Stein Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3691: Heat Flux Sensing for Machine-Learning-Based Personal Thermal Comfort Modeling
iller In recent years, physiological features have gained more attention in developing models of personal thermal comfort for improved and accurate adaptive operation of Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Pursuing the identification of effective physiological sensing systems for enhancing flexibility of human-centered and distributed control, using machine learning algorithms, we have investigated how heat flux sensing could improve personal thermal comfort inference under transient ambient conditions. We have explored the variations of heat exchange rates of facial and ...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wooyoung Jung Farrokh Jazizadeh Thomas E. Diller Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3692: Reliable Indoor Pseudolite Positioning Based on a Robust Estimation and Partial Ambiguity Resolution Method
In this study, a robust UKF (RUKF) and partial AR (PAR) algorithm are introduced and applied in indoor PL positioning. First, the UKF is used for parameter estimation. Then, the anomaly recognition statistics and optimal ambiguity subset of PAR are constructed on the basis of the posterior residuals. The IGGIII scheme is adopted to weaken the influence of abnormal observation, and the PAR strategy is conducted in case of failure of the conventional PL-AR. The superiority of our proposed algorithm is validated using the measured indoor PL data for code-based differential PL (DPL) and phase-based real-time kinematic (RTK) po...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xin Li Guanwen Huang Peng Zhang Qin Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3693: Predicting Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Levels from Videos Using the Facial Action Coding System
We present the first study in the literature that has aimed to determine Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) levels by analyzing facial expressions using Facial Action Coding System (FACS) by means of a unique noninvasive architecture on three layers designed to offer high accuracy and fast convergence: in the first layer, Active Appearance Models (AAM) and a set of multiclass Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used for Action Unit (AU) classification; in the second layer, a matrix is built containing the AUs’ intensity levels; and in the third layer, an optimal feedforward neural network (FFNN) analyzes th...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mihai Gavrilescu Nicolae Vizireanu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3694: Experimental Investigation of Inductive Sensor Characteristic for Blade Tip Clearance Measurement at High Temperature
ng Zhao Turbine tip clearance of aero-engine is important to engine performance. Proper tip clearance can reduce the gas leakage over turbine blade tips and improve the engine efficiency of turbo machinery and reduce the fuel consumption. Therefore, accurate tip clearance measurement is essential. The inductive measurement method is one of the non-contact distance measurement methods, which has the characteristics of high sensitivity, fast response speed, and strong anti-interference ability. Based on the principle of inductive sensor measuring tip clearance, the ambient temperature change may cause the material electr...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhenxia Liu Ziyu Zhao Yaguo Lyu Lingqiang Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3695: Ground Moving Target 2-D Velocity Estimation and Refocusing for Multichannel Maneuvering SAR with Fixed Acceleration
okun Tian It is difficult for multichannel maneuvering synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to achieve ground moving target 2D velocity estimation and refocusing. In this paper, a novel method based on back projection (BP) and velocity SAR (VSAR) is proposed to cope with the issues. First, the static scene is reconstructed by BP to solve the imaging problem of multichannel maneuvering SAR. Then, the static clutter is suppressed, and the range velocity is estimated via VSAR processing. As for azimuth velocity estimation and refocusing, a velocity search method based on velocity-aided BP (VA-BP) and VSAR is proposed to accompl...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xinxin Tang Xiaoling Zhang Jun Shi Shunjun Wei Bokun Tian Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3687: Monitoring Dust Storms in Iraq Using Satellite Data
shmi Dust storms can suspend large quantities of sand and cause haze in the boundary layer over local and regional scales. Iraq is one of the countries that is often impacted to a large degree by the occurrences of dust storms. The time between June 29 to July 8, 2009 is considered one of the worst dust storm periods of all times and many Iraqis suffered medical problems as a result. We used data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). MODIS Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m data were utilized to calculate the Normalized Difference Dust Index (NDDI). The MYD09GA V006 product was ...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Albarakat Lakshmi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3677: Retrospective Continuous-Time Blood Glucose Estimation in Free Living Conditions with a Non-Invasive Multisensor Device
Sparacino Even if still at an early stage of development, non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring (NI-CGM) sensors represent a promising technology for optimizing diabetes therapy. Recent studies showed that the Multisensor provides useful information about glucose dynamics with a mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 35.4% in a fully prospective setting. Here we propose a method that, exploiting the same Multisensor measurements, but in a retrospective setting, achieves a much better accuracy. Data acquired by the Multisensor during a long-term study are retrospectively processed following a two-step procedur...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Giada Acciaroli Mattia Zanon Andrea Facchinetti Andreas Caduff Giovanni Sparacino Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3678: Prediction of Pullout Behavior of Belled Piles through Various Machine Learning Modelling Techniques
Hoang Nguyen The main goal of this study is to estimate the pullout forces by developing various modelling technique like feedforward neural network (FFNN), radial basis functions neural networks (RBNN), general regression neural network (GRNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). A hybrid learning algorithm, including a back-propagation and least square estimation, is utilized to train ANFIS in MATLAB (software). Accordingly, 432 samples have been applied, through which 300 samples have been considered as training dataset with 132 ones for testing dataset. All results have been analyzed by ANFIS, in whic...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dieu Tien Bui Hossein Moayedi Mu ’azu Mohammed Abdullahi Ahmad Safuan A Rashid Hoang Nguyen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3679: On the Implementation of Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Excitations and Measurements for Electrical Impedance Tomography
Cédric Bellis The investigation of quickly-evolving flow patterns in high-pressure and high-temperature flow rigs requires the use of a high-speed and non-intrusive imaging technique. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) allows reconstructing the admittivity distribution characterizing a flow from the knowledge of currents and voltages on its periphery. The need for images at high frame rates leads to the strategy of simultaneous multi-frequency voltage excitations and simultaneous current measurements, which are discriminated using fast Fourier transforms. The present study introduces the theory for a 16-elec...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mathieu Darnajou Antoine Dupr é Chunhui Dang Guillaume Ricciardi Salah Bourennane C édric Bellis Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3680: Fusion of Video and Inertial Sensing for Deep Learning –Based Human Action Recognition
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3680: Fusion of Video and Inertial Sensing for Deep Learning–Based Human Action Recognition Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19173680 Authors: Haoran Wei Roozbeh Jafari Nasser Kehtarnavaz This paper presents the simultaneous utilization of video images and inertial signals that are captured at the same time via a video camera and a wearable inertial sensor within a fusion framework in order to achieve a more robust human action recognition compared to the situations when each sensing modality is used individually. The data captured by these sensors are turned into 3D video images and 2D inert...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haoran Wei Roozbeh Jafari Nasser Kehtarnavaz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3681: Intelligent Framework for Learning Physics with Aikido (Martial Art) and Registered Sensors
urgos Physics is considered a tough academic subject by learners. To leverage engagement in the learning of this STEM area, teachers try to come up with creative ideas about the design of their classroom lessons. Sports-related activities can foster intuitive knowledge about physics (gravity, speed, acceleration, etc.). In this context, martial arts also provide a novel way of visualizing these ideas when performing the predefined motions needed to master the associated techniques. The recent availability of cheap monitoring hardware (accelerometers, cameras, etc.) allows an easy tracking of the aforementioned movement...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alberto Corbi Olga C. Santos Daniel Burgos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3682: Hybrid IRBM-BPNN Approach for Error Parameter Estimation of SINS on Aircraft
Li Ren To realize the error parameter estimation of strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) and improve the navigation accuracy for aircraft, a hybrid improved restricted Boltzmann machine BP neural network (IRBM-BPNN) approach, which combines restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) and BP neural network (BPNN), is proposed to forecast the inertial measurement unit (IMU) instrument errors and initial alignment errors of SINS. Firstly, the error generation mechanism of SINS is analyzed, and initial alignment error model and IMU instrument error model are established. Secondly, an unsupervised RBM method is introduce...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo Xian Zhang Li Ren Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3683: A Barcoded Polymer-Based Cross-Reactive Spectroscopic Sensor Array for Organic Volatiles
nniri The development of cross-reactive sensor arrays for volatile organics (electronic noses, e-noses) is an active area of research. In this manuscript, we present a new format for barcoded polymer sensor arrays based on porous polymer beads. An array of nine self-encoded polymers was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy before and after exposure to a series of volatile organic compounds, and the changes in the vibrational fingerprints of their polymers was recorded before and after exposure. Our results show that the spectroscopic changes experienced by the porous spectroscopically encoded beads after exposure to an analy...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jessica E. Fitzgerald Jianliang Shen Hicham Fenniri Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3684: Evaluation of Horizontal Stresses in Soil during Direct Simple Shear by High-Resolution Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing
Paegle This paper presents an approach for evaluating the horizontal stresses that develop in geotechnical Direct Simple Shear (DSS) tests through the use of high-resolution distributed fiber optic sensing. For this aim, fiber optics were embedded in 3D printed rings used for confining the soil in the test procedure. An analytical approach linking the measured spatially-distributed strain profile and the internal soil-ring contact stresses is developed in the paper. The method is based on representation of the contact stresses by a Fourier series expansion, and determining the coefficients of the series by minimizing ...
Source: Sensors - August 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Assaf Klar Michael Roed Irene Rocchi Ieva Paegle Tags: Article Source Type: research