Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3898: Towards Real-Time Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Patients With Parkinson ’s Disease: Addressing the Class Imbalance Problem
This study demonstrates our algorithm’s potential for accurate prediction of gait events and the provision of preventive cueing in spite of limited event frequency. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nader Naghavi Aaron Miller Eric Wade Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3899: A Fault-Tolerant Polar Grid SINS/DVL/USBL Integrated Navigation Algorithm Based on the Centralized Filter and Relative Position Measurement
uyan Wu Navigation is a precondition for ocean space vehicles to work safely in polar regions. The traditional polar algorithms employ the grid strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) as the backbone and Doppler velocity log (DVL) output velocity as measurements to constitute the integrated navigation system, of which, however, the position errors still accumulate with time. The ultra-short baseline (USBL) position system can provide position information that can be used to improve the performance of the SINS/DVL integrated system. Therefore, a grid SINS/DVL/USBL integrated algorithm for polar navigation is propose...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lin Zhao Yingyao Kang Jianhua Cheng Mouyan Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3894: Assessing the Use of GACOS Products for SBAS-InSAR Deformation Monitoring: A Case in Southern California
ang Wei The Generic Atmospheric Correction Online Service (GACOS) products for interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) are widely used near-real-time and global-coverage atmospheric delay products which provide a new approach for the atmospheric correction of repeat-pass InSAR. However, it has not been determined whether these products can improve the accuracy of InSAR deformation monitoring. In this paper, GACOS products were used to correct atmospheric errors in short baseline subset (SBAS)-InSAR. Southern California in the U.S. was selected as the research area, and the effect of GACOS-based SBAS-InSAR was ...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qijie Wang Wenyan Yu Bing Xu Guoguang Wei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3900: Observing the Ocean Submesoscale with Enhanced-Color GOES-ABI Visible Band Data
. Crout Ocean color remote sensing has long been utilized as a fundamental research tool in the oceanographic investigations of coupled biological-physical processes. Despite numerous technical advances in the application of space borne ocean-viewing radiometers, host satellite platforms in a polar-orbiting configuration often render the temporal frequency of sensor data acquisition insufficient for studies of ocean processes that occur within increasingly smaller space-time scales. Whereas geostationary ocean color missions are presently the exception (GOCI) rather than the rule, this paper presents a method to convol...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jason K. Jolliff M. David Lewis Sherwin Ladner Richard L. Crout Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3901: Development of a Magnetic Compound Fluid Rubber Stability Sensor and a Novel Production Technique via Combination of Natural, Chloroprene and Silicone Rubbers
kahashi Expanding on our previous report, we investigate the stability of a magnetic compound fluid (MCF) rubber sensor that was developed for a variety of engineering applications. To stabilize this sensor, we proposed a novel combination technique that facilitates the addition of dimethylpolysiloxane (PDMS) to natural rubber (NR)-latex or chloroprene rubber (CR)-latex using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by experimentally and theoretically investigating issues related to instability. This technique is one of several other novel combinations of diene and non-diene rubbers. Silicone oil or rubber with PDMS can be combined wit...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kunio Shimada Ryo Ikeda Hiroshige Kikura Hideharu Takahashi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3902: On the Use of the AIRA-UAS Corpus to Evaluate Audio Processing Algorithms in Unmanned Aerial Systems
ranza Audio analysis over an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) is of interest it is an essential step for on-board sound source localization and separation. This could be useful for search & rescue operations, as well as for detection of unauthorized drone operations. In this paper, an analysis of the previously introduced Acoustic Interactions for Robot Audition (AIRA)-UAS corpus is presented, which is a set of recordings produced by the ego-noise of a drone performing different aerial maneuvers and by other drones flying nearby. It was found that the recordings have a very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), tha...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Caleb Rascon Oscar Ruiz-Espitia Jose Martinez-Carranza Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3903: Dimensionality Reduction and Subspace Clustering in Mixed Reality for Condition Monitoring of High-Dimensional Production Data
uuml;diger Pryss Visual analytics are becoming increasingly important in the light of big data and related scenarios. Along this trend, the field of immersive analytics has been variously furthered as it is able to provide sophisticated visual data analytics on one hand, while preserving user-friendliness on the other. Furthermore, recent hardware developments such as smart glasses, as well as achievements in virtual-reality applications, have fanned immersive analytic solutions. Notably, such solutions can be very effective when they are applied to high-dimensional datasets. Taking this advantage into account, the wor...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Burkhard Hoppenstedt Manfred Reichert Klaus Kammerer Thomas Probst Winfried Schlee Myra Spiliopoulou R üdiger Pryss Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3904: Estimation of Arsenic Content in Soil Based on Laboratory and Field Reflectance Spectroscopy
In this study, in order to solve the difficulty of the inversion of soil arsenic (As) content using laboratory and field reflectance spectroscopy, we examined the transferability of the prediction method. Sixty-three soil samples from the Daye city area of the Jianghan Plain region of China were taken and studied in this research. The characteristic wavelengths of soil As content were then extracted from the full bands based on iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV) coupled with Spearman’s rank correlation analysis (SCA). Firstly, the IRIV algorithm was used to roughly select the original spectral...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei Yuan Yu Huang Cao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3905: Use of Thermistor Temperature Sensors for Cyber-Physical System Security
ruganti The last few decades have seen a large proliferation in the prevalence of cyber-physical systems. This has been especially highlighted by the explosive growth in the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Unfortunately, the increasing prevalence of these devices has begun to draw the attention of malicious entities which exploit them for their own gain. What makes these devices especially attractive is the various resource constraints present in these devices that make it difficult to add standard security features. Therefore, one intriguing research direction is creating security solutions out of already ...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carson Labrado Himanshu Thapliyal Stacy Prowell Teja Kuruganti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3906: CABE: A Cloud-Based Acoustic Beamforming Emulator for FPGA-Based Sound Source Localization
ellah Touhafi Microphone arrays are gaining in popularity thanks to the availability of low-cost microphones. Applications including sonar, binaural hearing aid devices, acoustic indoor localization techniques and speech recognition are proposed by several research groups and companies. In most of the available implementations, the microphones utilized are assumed to offer an ideal response in a given frequency domain. Several toolboxes and software can be used to obtain a theoretical response of a microphone array with a given beamforming algorithm. However, a tool facilitating the design of a microphone array taking ...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Laurent Segers Jurgen Vandendriessche Thibaut Vandervelden Benjamin Johan Lapauw Bruno da Silva An Braeken Abdellah Touhafi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3907: Pedestrian Positioning Using a Double-Stacked Particle Filter in Indoor Wireless Networks
m Kim The indoor pedestrian positioning methods are affected by substantial bias and errors because of the use of cheap microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices (e.g., gyroscope and accelerometer) and the users’ movements. Moreover, because radio-frequency (RF) signal values are changed drastically due to multipath fading and obstruction, the performance of RF-based localization systems may deteriorate in practice. To deal with this problem, various indoor localization methods that integrate the positional information gained from received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting scheme and the motion of ...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kwangjae Sung Hyung Kyu Lee Hwangnam Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3908: On-Site 4-in-1 Alignment: Visualization and Interactive CAD Model Retrofitting Using UAV, LiDAR ’s Point Cloud Data, and Video
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3908: On-Site 4-in-1 Alignment: Visualization and Interactive CAD Model Retrofitting Using UAV, LiDAR’s Point Cloud Data, and Video Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183908 Authors: Pavan Kumar B. N. Ashok Kumar Patil Chethana B. Young Ho Chai Acquisition of 3D point cloud data (PCD) using a laser scanner and aligning it with a video frame is a new approach that is efficient for retrofitting comprehensive objects in heavy pipeline industrial facilities. This work contributes a generic framework for interactive retrofitting in a virtual environment and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pavan Kumar B. N. Ashok Kumar Patil Chethana B. Young Ho Chai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3909: Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel for TNT Detection with Optical Micro-Ring Resonator Sensor Chips
n Wolfgang Schade A sensor for trinitrotoluene (TNT) detection was developed by using a combination of optical micro-ring technology and a receptor coating based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel layers. Two techniques for deposition of receptor layers were compared: Airbrush technology and electrospray ionization. A concentration of less than 5 ppb for TNT in the gas-phase, using electrospray deposition of the receptor layer, was detected. The cross-sensitivities to organic substances and further nitro-based explosives were compared. As a result, the sensitivity to TNT is about one order of magnitude higher in compar...
Source: Sensors - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ludmila Eisner Isabel Wilhelm G ünter Flachenecker J ürgen Hürttlen Wolfgang Schade Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3885: A Calibration-Free Method Based on Grey Relational Analysis for Heterogeneous Smartphones in Fingerprint-Based Indoor Positioning
Lei Wang The fingerprint method has been widely adopted in Wi-Fi indoor positioning because of its advantage in non-line-of-sight channels between access points (APs) and mobile users. However, the received signal strength (RSS) during the fingerprint positioning process generally varies due to the dissimilar hardware configurations of heterogeneous smartphones. This difference may degrade the accuracy of fingerprint matching between fingerprint and test data. Thus, this paper puts forward a fingerprint method based on grey relational analysis (GRA) to approach the challenge of heterogeneous smartphones and to impro...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shuai Zhang Jiming Guo Nianxue Luo Di Zhang Wei Wang Lei Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3886: Heuristic Approaches for Enhancing the Privacy of the Leader in IoT Networks
Yizhi Ren The privacy and security of the Internet of Things (IoT) are emerging as popular issues in the IoT. At present, there exist several pieces of research on network analysis on the IoT network, and malicious network analysis may threaten the privacy and security of the leader in the IoT networks. With this in mind, we focus on how to avoid malicious network analysis by modifying the topology of the IoT network and we choose closeness centrality as the network analysis tool. This paper makes three key contributions toward this problem: (1) An optimization problem of removing k edges to minimize (maximize) the c...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jie Ji Guohua Wu Jinguo Shuai Zhen Zhang Zhen Wang Yizhi Ren Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3887: A Charging Algorithm for the Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network with Imperfect Charging Channel and Finite Energy Storage
iu Ma Recently, wireless energy transfer technology becomes a popular way to address energy shortage in wireless sensor networks. The capacity of the mobile wireless charging car (WCV) and the wireless channel between the WCV and the sensor are two important factors influencing the energy efficiency of the wireless sensor network, which has not been well considered. In this paper, we study the energy efficiency of a wireless rechargeable sensor network charged by a finite capacity WCV through an imperfect wireless channel. To estimate the energy efficiency, we first propose a new metric named waste rate, which is de...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tian Jiao Liu Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3888: Correction: Wang, Y.; et al. Magnesium Alloy Matching Layer for High-Performance Transducer Applications. Sensors 2018, 18, 4424
Dong Cao The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Tao Guo Li Huang Dong Cao Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3889: Selection of the Optimal Spectral Resolution for the Cadmium-Lead Cross Contamination Diagnosing Based on the Hyperspectral Reflectance of Rice Canopy
g Fei This paper proposed an optimal spectral resolution for diagnosing cadmium-lead (Cd-Pb) cross contamination with different pollution levels based on the hyperspectral reflectance of rice canopy. Feature bands were sequentially selected by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA2) and random forests from the high-dimensional hyperspectral data after preprocessing. Then Support Vector Machine (SVM) was applied to diagnose the pollution levels using different feature bands combination with different spectral resolutions and cross validation was conducted to evaluate the distinguishing accuracies. Finally, the optimal ...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Zhu Wang Fei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3890: Monitoring the Snowpack Volume in a Sinkhole on Mount Lebanon using Time Lapse Photogrammetry
Drapeau Lebanon has experienced serious water scarcity issues recently, despite being one of the wealthiest countries in the Middle East for water resources. A large fraction of the water resources originates from the melting of the seasonal snow on Mount Lebanon. Therefore, continuous and systematic monitoring of the Lebanese snowpack is becoming crucial. The top of Mount Lebanon is punctuated by karstic hollows named sinkholes, which play a key role in the hydrological regime as natural snow reservoirs. However, monitoring these natural snow reservoirs remains challenging using traditional in situ and remote sensi...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abou Chakra Gascoin Somma Fanise Drapeau Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3891: Improved Solid-Contact Nitrate Ion Selective Electrodes Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) as an Ion-to-Electron Transducer
l Khalifa Possible improvement of the performance characteristics, reliability and selectivity of solid-contact nitrate ion-selective electrodes (ISE) (SC/NO3−-ISE) is attained by the application of a nitron-nitrate (Nit+/NO3−) ion association complex and inserting multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as an ion-to-electron transducer between the ion sensing membrane (ISM) and the electronic conductor glassy carbon (GC) substrate. The potentiometric performance of the proposed electrode revealed a Nernstian slope −55.1 ± 2.1 (r² = 0.997) mV/decad...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hassan Eldin Amr Al-Omar Kamel Khalifa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3877: Multipoint-Detection Strain Sensor with a Single Electrode Using Optical Ultrasound Generated by Carbon Nanotubes
This study demonstrates the application of the multipoint strain sensor with a single electrode for measurements up to a strain of 30% (interval of 1%). We considered the optical and acoustic energy losses in the sensor design. In addition, to evaluate the utility of the sensor, finger bending with three-point CNTs and flexible phantom bending with six-point CNTs for the identification of an S-curve having mixed expansion and compression components were carried out. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Won Young Choi Hyeong Geun Jo Soo Won Kwon Young Hun Kim Joo Young Pyun Kwan Kyu Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3878: High Efficiency Crumpled Carbon Nanotube Heaters for Low Drift Hydrogen Sensing
oon Kim This work presents the fabrication of crumpled carbon nanotubes (C-CNTs) thin film heaters and their application towards high sensitivity and low drift hydrogen gas sensing. Utilizing a spray coating of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and thermal shrinkage of polystyrene (PS) substrate, we have fabricated C-CNTs with closely packed junctions. Joule heating of C-CNTs gives higher temperature at a given input voltage compared to as-deposited CNTs. In addition, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is analyzed for accurate temperature control and measurement of the heater. The C-CNT heaters a...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jeonhyeong Park Il Ryu Jang Kyungtaek Lee Hoe Joon Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3879: Early Crack Detection of Reinforced Concrete Structure Using Embedded Sensors
Salamak The damage in reinforced concrete (RC) structures can be induced either by the dynamic or static load. The inspection technologies available today have difficulty in detecting slowly progressive, locally limited damage, especially in hard-to-reach areas in the superstructure. The four-point bending test on the benchmark RC structure was used as a test of the quality and sensitivity of the embedded sensors. It allowed assessment of whether any cracking and propagation that occurs with the embedded sensors can be detected. Various methods are used for the analysis of the ultrasonic signals. By determining the fea...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Joyraj Chakraborty Andrzej Katunin Piotr Klikowicz Marek Salamak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3880: Genetic Algorithm Approach to the 3D Node Localization in TDOA Systems
González Manuel Castejón-Limas Hilde Perez Positioning asynchronous architectures based on time measurements are reaching growing importance in Local Positioning Systems (LPS). These architectures have special relevance in precision applications and indoor/outdoor navigation of automatic vehicles such as Automatic Ground Vehicles (AGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The positioning error of these systems is conditioned by the algorithms used in the position calculation, the quality of the time measurements, and the sensor deployment of the signal receivers. Once the algorithms have been defined...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Javier D íez-González Rub én Álvarez David Gonz ález-Bárcena Lidia S ánchez-González Manuel Castej ón-Limas Hilde Perez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3881: Predicting N Status in Maize with Clip Sensors: Choosing Sensor, Leaf Sampling Point, and Timing
This study (combining five different field experiments in Central Spain) tried to identify the ability of the clip sensors in maize N status identification and yield prediction, comparing two different devices (SPAD-502® and Dualex®) and identifying the best protocol for maize leaf sampling. As a result, the study demonstrated that different leaf clip chlorophyll sensors presented similar results, although some differences appeared at larger N concentrations. Complementary polyphenol information (as flavonol) can improve the maize N deficiency prediction. Moreover, valuable information for a proper ...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jose Luis Gabriel Miguel Quemada Mar ía Alonso-Ayuso Jon I. Lizaso Diana Mart ín-Lammerding Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3882: A Smartphone-Based Whole-Cell Array Sensor for Detection of Antibiotics in Milk
We present an integral smartphone-based whole-cell biosensor, LumiCellSense (LCS), which incorporates a 16-well biochip with an oxygen permeable coating, harboring bioluminescent Escherichia coli bioreporter cells, a macro lens, a lens barrel, a metal heater tray, and a temperature controller, enclosed in a light-impermeable case. The luminescence emitted by the bioreporter cells in response to the presence of the target chemicals is imaged by the phone’s camera, and a dedicated phone-embedded application, LCS_Logger, is employed to calculate photon emission intensity and plot it in real time on the device&am...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mei-Yi Lu Wei-Chen Kao Shimshon Belkin Ji-Yen Cheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3883: Analyzing the Use of Accelerometers as a Method of Early Diagnosis of Alterations in Balance in Elderly People: A Systematic Review
te;n Vicente Romo-Pérez Alterations of balance are a growing public health problem as they affect one in three adults over the age of 65, and one in two over the age of 80. Identifying the factors that affect postural stability is essential in designing specific interventions to maintain the independence and mobility of older people. The aim of this review was to understand the use of accelerometers in order to assess the balance in older people. Analyzing the most appropriate evaluation methodology and protocolizing it will optimize the processes of early identification of balance alterations. However, quanti...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Raquel Leir ós-Rodríguez Jose L. Garc ía-Soidán Vicente Romo-P érez Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3884: Predictive Maintenance with Sensor Data Analytics on a Raspberry Pi-Based Experimental Platform
a Chang Predictive maintenance techniques can determine the conditions of equipment in order to evaluate when maintenance should be performed. Thus, it minimizes the unexpected device downtime, lowers the maintenance costs, extends equipment lifecycle, etc. Therefore, this article developed a predictive maintenance mechanism with the construction of a test platform and data analysis along with machine learning. The information transmission of sensors was based on Raspberry Pi via the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) communication protocol. The sensors used for environmental sensing were implemen...
Source: Sensors - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shang-Yi Chuang Nilima Sahoo Hung-Wei Lin Yeong-Hwa Chang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3874: Fast Method for Liquid Crystal Cell Spatial Variations Estimation Based on Modeling the Spectral Transmission
drian Stern Liquid crystal phase retarders are utilized by photonic devices and imaging systems for various applications, such as tunable filtering, light modulation, polarimetric imaging, remote sensing and quality inspection. Due to technical difficulties in the manufacturing process, these phase retarders may suffer from spatial non-uniformities, which degrade the performance of the systems. These non-uniformities can be characterized by measuring the spectral transmission at each voltage and each point on the liquid crystal cell, which is time consuming. In this work, we present a new fast and simple method for mea...
Source: Sensors - September 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shauli Shmilovich Liat Revah Yaniv Oiknine Isaac August Ibrahim Abdulhalim Adrian Stern Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3875: Prediction of pH Value by Multi-Classification in the Weizhou Island Area
iang Li Ocean acidification is changing the chemical environment on which marine life depends. It causes a decrease in seawater pH and changes the water quality parameters of seawater. Changes in water quality parameters may affect pH, a key indicator for assessing ocean acidification. Therefore, it is particularly important to study the correlation between pH and various water quality parameters. In this paper, several water quality parameters with potential correlation with pH are investigated, and multiple linear regression, softmax regression, and support vector machine are used to perform multi-classification. Mos...
Source: Sensors - September 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haocai Huang Rendong Feng Jiang Zhu Peiliang Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3876: Design of a Portable Orthogonal Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor System for Simultaneous Sensing and Removal of Nonspecifically Bound Proteins
otla One challenge for current surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensors is reducing nonspecific adsorption. A device propagating Rayleigh and shear horizontal surface acoustic waves in orthogonal directions fabricated in ST quartz has the capability of achieving simultaneous detection and nonspecific binding (NSB) protein removal. Current measurement methods for a SAW sensor system based on this device require large-size and expensive equipment such as a vector network analyzer (VNA), signal generator, and frequency counter, which are not suitable for portable, especially point-of-care, applications. In this work, a port...
Source: Sensors - September 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Bhethanabotla Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3864: A Smart Tongue Depressor-Based Biosensor for Glucose
u Yue Cui The development of new bioelectronic platforms for direct interactions with oral fluid could open up significant opportunities for healthcare monitoring. A tongue depressor is a widely used medical tool that is inserted into the mouth, where it comes into close contact with saliva. Glucose is a typical salivary biomarker. Herein, we report—for the first time—a tongue depressor-based biosensor for the detection of glucose in both phosphate buffer and real human saliva. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive electronic materials, with excellent electrochemical properties. The senso...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaojin Luo Weihua Shi Yiqun Liu Pengju Sha Yanan Chu Yue Cui Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3865: Performance Assessment of an Ultra Low-Cost Inertial Measurement Unit for Ground Vehicle Navigation
ove Nowadays, navigation systems are becoming common in the automotive industry due to advanced driver assistance systems and the development of autonomous vehicles. The MPU-6000 is a popular ultra low-cost Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU) used in several applications. Although this mass-market sensor is used extensively in a variety of fields, it has not caught the attention of the automotive industry. Moreover, a detailed performance analysis of this inertial sensor for ground navigation systems is not available in the previous literature. In this work, a deep examination of one M...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rodrigo Gonzalez Paolo Dabove Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3866: A Temperature-Insensitive Resonant Pressure Micro Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Glass Vacuum Packaging
Jian Chen This paper presents a temperature-insensitive resonant pressure sensor, which is mainly composed of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer for pressure measurements and a silicon-on-glass (SOG) cap for vacuum packaging. The variations of pressure under measurement bend the pressure sensitive diaphragm and regulate the intrinsic frequencies of the resonators in the device layer. While, variations of temperature cannot significantly change the intrinsic frequencies of the resonators, due to the SOG cap to offset generated thermal stress. Numerical simulations, based on finite element analysis, were conducted to c...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pengcheng Yan Yulan Lu Chao Xiang Junbo Wang Deyong Chen Jian Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3867: Time-Series Laplacian Semi-Supervised Learning for Indoor Localization †
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3867: Time-Series Laplacian Semi-Supervised Learning for Indoor Localization † Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183867 Authors: Jaehyun Yoo Machine learning-based indoor localization used to suffer from the collection, construction, and maintenance of labeled training databases for practical implementation. Semi-supervised learning methods have been developed as efficient indoor localization methods to reduce use of labeled training data. To boost the efficiency and the accuracy of indoor localization, this paper proposes a new time-series semi-supervised learning algorithm. The key aspect of ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jaehyun Yoo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3868: A Zero-Cross Detection Algorithm for Cavity-Length Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Fabry –Perot Sensors
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3868: A Zero-Cross Detection Algorithm for Cavity-Length Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Fabry–Perot Sensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183868 Authors: Ma Song Huang Guo Yuan Chen Zhang Wang A zero-cross detection algorithm was proposed for the cavity-length interrogation of fiber-optic Fabry–Perot (FP) sensors. The method can avoid the inaccuracy of peak determination in the conventional peak-to-peak method for the cavity-length interrogation of fiber-optic FP sensors caused by the slow variation of the spectral power density in peak neighboring regions. ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ma Song Huang Guo Yuan Chen Zhang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3869: A Novel Message-Preserving Scheme with Format-Preserving Encryption for Connected Cars in Multi-Access Edge Computing
ung Lee In connected cars with various electronic control unit (ECU) modules, Ethernet is used to communicate data received by the sensor in real time, but it is partially used alongside a controller area network (CAN) due to the cost. There are security threats in the CAN, such as replay attacks and denial-of-service attacks, which can disrupt the driver or cause serious damage, such as a car accident through malicious manipulation. Although several secure protocols for protecting CAN messages have been proposed, they carry limitations, such as combining additional elements for security or modifying CAN messages with ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Insu Oh Taeeun Kim Kangbin Yim Sun-Young Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3871: Fast Calibration Methods for Resistive Sensor Readout Based on Direct Interface Circuits
chez-Durán Oballe-Peinado A simple method to measure the resistance of a sensor and convert it into digital information in a programmable digital device is by using a direct interface circuit. This type of circuit deduces the value of the resistor based on the discharge time through it for a capacitor of a known value. Moreover, the discharge times of this capacitor should be measured through one or two resistors with known values in order to ensure that the estimate is not dependent on certain parameters that change with time, temperature, or aging. This can slow down the conversion speed, especially for hig...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hidalgo-L ópez Bot ín-Córdoba S ánchez-Durán Oballe-Peinado Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3872: Self-Referenced Optical Fiber Sensor for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection based on LSPR of Metallic Nanoparticles in Layer-by-Layer Films
Arregui Intensity-based optical fiber sensors are one of the most studied sensor approaches thanks to their simplicity and low cost. Nevertheless, their main issue is their lack of robustness since any light source fluctuation, or unexpected optical setup variation is directly transferred to the output signal, which, significantly reduces their reliability. In this work, a simple and robust hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) optical fiber sensor is proposed based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) sensitivity of silver and gold metallic nanoparticles. The precise and robust detection of H2O2 concentrations in the...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Goicoechea Rivero Sada Arregui Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3873: Automatic Detection of the Pharyngeal Phase in Raw Videos for the Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study Using Efficient Data Collection and 3D Convolutional Networks †
In this study, we present a novel approach that uses 3D convolutional networks to detect the pharyngeal phase in raw VFSS videos without manual annotations. For efficient collection of training data, we propose a cascade framework which no longer requires time intervals of the swallowing process nor the manual marking of anatomical positions for detection. For video classification, we applied the inflated 3D convolutional network (I3D), one of the state-of-the-art network for action classification, as a baseline architecture. We also present a modified 3D convolutional network architecture that is derived from the baseline...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jong Taek Lee Eunhee Park Tae-Du Jung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3870: A Two-Stage Interference Suppression Scheme Based on Antenna Array for GNSS Jamming and Spoofing
Xu Lu Jamming and spoofing are the two main types of intentional interference for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Due to the entirely different signal characteristics they have, a few techniques can deal with them simultaneously. This paper proposes a two-stage interference suppression scheme based on antenna arrays, which can detect and mitigate jamming and spoofing before the despreading of GNSS receivers. First, a subspace projection was adopted to eliminate the high-power jamming signals. The output signal is still a multi-dimensional vector so that the spatial processing technique can be us...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Cui Xu Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3858: Effective Efficiency Advantage Assessment of Information Filter for Conventional Kalman Filter in GNSS Scenarios
Wang The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a widely used positioning technique. Computational efficiency is crucial to applications such as real-time GNSS positioning and GNSS network data processing. Many researchers have made great efforts to address this problem by means such as parameter elimination or satellite selection. However, parameter estimation is rarely discussed when analyzing GNSS algorithm efficiency. In addition, most studies on Kalman filter (KF) efficiency commonly have defects, such as neglecting application-specified optimization and limiting specific hardware platforms in the conclusi...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zheng Wang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3859: Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery and Deep Learning UNet to Extract Rice Lodging
In this study, a new method for rice lodging assessment based on a deep learning UNet (U-shaped Network) architecture was proposed. The UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) equipped with a high-resolution digital camera and a three-band multispectral camera synchronously was used to collect lodged and non-lodged rice images at an altitude of 100 m. After splicing and cropping the original images, the datasets with the lodged and non-lodged rice image samples were established by augmenting for building a UNet model. The research results showed that the dice coefficients in RGB (Red, Green and Blue) image and multispectral image te...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhao Yuan Song Ding Lin Liang Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3860: Method of Evaluating the Positioning System Capability for Complying with the Minimum Accuracy Requirements for the International Hydrographic Organization Orders
ht According to the IHO (International Hydrographic Organization) S-44 standard, hydrographic surveys can be carried out in four categories, the so-called orders—special, 1a, 1b, and 2—for which minimum accuracy requirements for the applied positioning system have been set out. These amount to, respectively: 2 m, 5 m, 5 m, and 20 m at a confidence level of 0.95. It is widely assumed that GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) network solutions with an accuracy of 2–5 cm (p = 0.95) and maritime DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) systems with an error of 1&n...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Specht Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3862: Active Body Pressure Relief System with Time-of-Flight Optical Pressure Sensors for Pressure Ulcer Prevention
g Dongkyu Lee A body pressure relief system was newly developed with optical pressure sensors for pressure ulcer prevention. Unlike a conventional alternating pressure air mattress (APAM), this system automatically regulates air flow into a body supporting mattress with adaptive inflation (or deflation) duration in response to the pressure level in order to reduce skin stress due to prolonged high pressures. The system continuously quantifies the body pressure distribution using time-of-flight (ToF) optical sensors. The proposed pressure sensor, a ToF optical sensor in the air-filled cell, measures changes in surface...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kang-Ho Lee Yeong-Eun Kwon Hyukjin Lee Yongkoo Lee Joonho Seo Ohwon Kwon Shin-Won Kang Dongkyu Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3861: Superpixel-Based Temporally Aligned Representation for Video-Based Person Re-Identification
Nong Sang Most existing person re-identification methods focus on matching still person images across non-overlapping camera views. Despite their excellent performance in some circumstances, these methods still suffer from occlusion and the changes of pose, viewpoint or lighting. Video-based re-id is a natural way to overcome these problems, by exploiting space–time information from videos. One of the most challenging problems in video-based person re-identification is temporal alignment, in addition to spatial alignment. To address the problem, we propose an effective superpixel-based temporally aligned ...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Changxin Gao Jin Wang Leyuan Liu Jin-Gang Yu Nong Sang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3863: Multiple-Antenna Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Based on the Wavelet Transform and Gaussian Mixture Model
wei Zhang Spectrum sensing is a core technology in cognitive radio (CR) systems. In this paper, a multiple-antenna cooperative spectrum sensor based on the wavelet transform and Gaussian mixture model (MAWG) is proposed. Compared with traditional methods, the MAWG method avoids the derivation of the threshold and improves the performance of single secondary user (SU) spectrum sensing in cases of channel loss and hidden terminal. The MAWG method reduces the noise of the signal which collected by the multiple-antenna SUs through the wavelet transform. Then, the fusion center (FC) extracts the statistical features from th...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shunchao Zhang Yonghua Wang Hantao Yuan Pin Wan Yongwei Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3846: Virtual Dual-Loop Feedback Control with Model-Construction Linear Extended State Observer for Free Space Optical Communication
Yao Mao The stable alignment and transmission of free space optical communication (FSO) is susceptible to internal dynamics and external disturbances. In this paper, a virtual dual-loop feedback control (VDFC) with model-construction linear extended state observer (MCLESO), which is applied to the fast tip-tilt mirror platform to enhance the disturbance suppression ability (DSA) for FSO. MCLESO, which is modified on a classical linear extended state observer by introducing the available model information, is shown to use the input and output signal data of the system to observe total disturbances, including internal dy...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kang Nie Wei Ren Xi Zhou Yao Mao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3847: Stabilization of Polymeric Nanofibers Layers for Use as Real-Time and In-Flow Photonic Sensors
eves Murillo Jaime García-Rupérez In order to increase the sensitivity of a sensor, the relationship between its volume and the surface available to be functionalized is of great importance. Accordingly, porous materials are becoming very relevant, because they have a notable surface-to-volume ratio. Moreover, they offer the possibility to infiltrate the target substances on them. Among other porous structures, polymeric nanofibers (NFs) layers fabricated by electrospinning have emerged as a very promising alternative to low-cost and easy-to-produce high-performance photonic sensors. However, experiment...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Salvador Ponce-Alc ántara Paula Mart ínez-Pérez Ana P érez-Márquez Jon Maudes Nieves Murillo Jaime Garc ía-Rupérez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3848: Solid State Electronic Sensors for Detection of Carbon Dioxide
Li Detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) is very important for environmental, health, safety and space applications. We have studied novel multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanocomposite based chemiresistive sensor for detection of CO2 at room temperature. The sensor has been miniaturized to a chip size (1 cm × 2 cm). Good sensing performance was observed with a wide detection range of CO2 concentrations (100–6000 ppm). Structural properties of the sensing materials were characterized using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier-Transform Infrared and R...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ami Hannon Jing Li Tags: Article Source Type: research