Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6486: A Benchmark of Data Stream Classification for Human Activity Recognition on Connected Objects
ard This paper evaluates data stream classifiers from the perspective of connected devices, focusing on the use case of Human Activity Recognition. We measure both the classification performance and resource consumption (runtime, memory, and power) of five usual stream classification algorithms, implemented in a consistent library, and applied to two real human activity datasets and three synthetic datasets. Regarding classification performance, the results show the overall superiority of the Hoeffding Tree, the Mondrian forest, and the Naïve Bayes classifiers over the Feedforward Neural Network and the Mi...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martin Khannouz Tristan Glatard Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6488: Analysis of Postural Control in Sitting by Pressure Mapping in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, Spinal Cord Injury and Friedreich ’s Ataxia: A Case Series Study
This study was carried out to determine the evaluations in pressure mapping and verifying whether they are different between the three sample groups (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and Friedreich’s ataxia), and to determine whether the variables extracted from the pressure mapping analysis are more sensitive than functional tests to evaluate the postural trunk control. A case series study was carried out in a sample of 10 adult patients with multiple sclerosis (n = 2), spinal cord injury (n = 4) and Friedreich’s ataxia (n = 4). The tests applied were: pressure mapping, seated Lateral Rea...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mar ía Mercedes Reguera-García Raquel Leir ós-Rodríguez Lorena Álvarez-Barrio Beatriz Alonso-Cort és Fradejas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6487: Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Target Tracking with Time-Varying Localization Uncertainty via Recursive Variational Bayesian Inference
anyu Ji Cooperative target tracking by multiple vehicles connected through inter-vehicle communication is a promising way to improve the estimation of target state. The effectiveness of cooperative tracking closely depends on the accuracy of relative localization between host and cooperative vehicles. However, the localization signal usually provided by the satellite-based navigation system is rather susceptible to dynamic driving environment, thus influencing the effectiveness of cooperative tracking. In order to implement reliable cooperative tracking, especially when the statistical characteristic of the relative lo...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaobo Chen Yanjun Wang Ling Chen Jianyu Ji Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6489: A Spatial-Frequency Domain Associated Image-Optimization Method for Illumination-Robust Image Matching
uhang Zhang Image matching forms an essential means of data association for computer vision, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The quality of image matching is heavily dependent on image details and naturalness. However, complex illuminations, denoting extreme and changing illuminations, are inevitable in real scenarios, and seriously deteriorate image matching performance due to their significant influence on the image naturalness and details. In this paper, a spatial-frequency domain associated image-optimization method, comprising two main models, is specially designed for improving image matching with complex illu...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chun Liu Shoujun Jia Hangbin Wu Doudou Zeng Fanjin Cheng Shuhang Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6490: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Millimetric-Scale Temperature Monitoring of Cardiac Tissue Undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation: A Feasibility Assessment
This study lays the foundations for the implementation of 3D thermal maps to investigate how the supplied power, treatment time, force of contact and irrigation flow of the catheter influence the thermal effects within the tissue. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martina Zaltieri Greta Allegretti Carlo Massaroni Emiliano Schena Filippo Maria Cauti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6492: HDDM Hardware Evaluation for Robust Interference Mitigation
ijo Felber Interference can significantly degrade the performance of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Therefore, mitigation methods are required to ensure reliable operations. However, as there are different types of interference, robust, multi-purpose mitigation algorithms are needed. This paper describes the most popular state-of-the-art interference mitigation techniques. The high-rate DFT-based data manipulator (HDDM) is proposed as a possible solution to overcome their limitations. This paper presents a hardware implementation of the HDDM algorithm. The hardware HDDM module is integrated in ...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Garzia van der Merwe R ügamer Urquijo Felber Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6491: A Novel Method for Sea-Land Clutter Separation Using Regularized Randomized and Kernel Ridge Neural Networks
uwen Xu Classification of clutter, especially in the context of shore based radars, plays a crucial role in several applications. However, the task of distinguishing and classifying the sea clutter from land clutter has been historically performed using clutter models and/or coastal maps. In this paper, we propose two machine learning, particularly neural network, based approaches for sea-land clutter separation, namely the regularized randomized neural network (RRNN) and the kernel ridge regression neural network (KRR). We use a number of features, such as energy variation, discrete signal amplitude change frequency, ...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Le Zhang Jeyan Thiyagalingam Anke Xue Shuwen Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6494: Study on the Moving Target Tracking Based on Vision DSP
ukun Wu The embedded visual tracking system has higher requirements for real-time performance and system resources, and this is a challenge for visual tracking systems with available hardware resources. The major focus of this study is evaluating the results of hardware optimization methods. These optimization techniques provide efficient utilization based on limited hardware resources. This paper also uses a pragmatic approach to investigate the real-time performance effect by implementing and optimizing a kernel correlation filter (KCF) tracking algorithm based on a vision digital signal processor (vision DSP). We ex...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuan Gong Zichun Le Hui Wang Yukun Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6495: A Survey for the Ranking of Trajectory Prediction Algorithms on Ubiquitous Wireless Sensors
This study can be beneficial for multicriteria decision-making for various disciplines, including health care. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Daud Kamal Ali Tahir Muhammad Babar Kamal Faisal Moeen M. Asif Naeem Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6493: Multi-TALK: Multi-Microphone Cross-Tower Network for Jointly Suppressing Acoustic Echo and Background Noise
ang In this paper, we propose a multi-channel cross-tower with attention mechanisms in latent domain network (Multi-TALK) that suppresses both the acoustic echo and background noise. The proposed approach consists of the cross-tower network, a parallel encoder with an auxiliary encoder, and a decoder. For the multi-channel processing, a parallel encoder is used to extract latent features of each microphone, and the latent features including the spatial information are compressed by a 1D convolution operation. In addition, the latent features of the far-end are extracted by the auxiliary encoder, and they are effectivel...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Song-Kyu Park Joon-Hyuk Chang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6496: Closed-Loop Temperature Control Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Laser Ablation of Hepatic Tissue
Saccomandi Laser ablation (LA) of cancer is a minimally invasive technique based on targeted heat release. Controlling tissue temperature during LA is crucial to achieve the desired therapeutic effect in the organs while preserving the healthy tissue around. Here, we report the design and implementation of a real-time monitoring system performing closed-loop temperature control, based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) spatial measurements. Highly dense FBG arrays (1.19 mm length, 0.01 mm edge-to-edge distance) were inscribed in polyimide-coated fibers using the femtosecond point-by-point writing technology to obtain the...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Korganbayev Orrico Bianchi De Landro Wolf Dostovalov Saccomandi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6497: Dimensioning Method of Floating Offshore Objects by Means of Quasi-Similarity Transformation with Reduced Tolerance Errors
This article presents the method of transformation by similarity with elements of affine transformation, called Q-ST (Quasi-Similarity Transformation). The Q-ST has been designed for measurements on such unstable substrates when it is not possible to level the total station (when the number of adjustment points is small (4–6 points)). Such situation occurs, among others, when measuring before the offshore duties or during the jack up or semi-submersible rig move. The presented calculation model is characterized by zero deviations at the adjustment points (at four common points). The transformation concerns th...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: St ępień Tomczak Loosaar Zi ębka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6498: Analysis of Accuracy and Reliability of Different Types of GPS Receivers
ński There are several known cases of positioning error, leading to serious consequences, sometimes also deadly. Therefore, obtaining accurate position data by means of GPS receivers is paramount. With this perspective, the aim of this study was to test the within-field accuracy of different types of GPS receivers, and to determine their reliability. A proprietary software was used to determine the positioning accuracy of nine different types of satellite receivers. In addition, their reliability was investigated, by including tests aimed at measuring their positioning accuracy in field conditions. Thus, it was possib...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rychlicki Kasprzyk Rosi ński Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6499: Identification of Building Damage from UAV-Based Photogrammetric Point Clouds Using Supervoxel Segmentation and Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model
Huang Accurate assessment of building damage is very important for disaster response and rescue. Traditional damage detection techniques using 2D features at a single observing angle cannot objectively and accurately reflect the structural damage conditions. With the development of unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetric techniques and 3D point processing, automatic and accurate damage detection for building roof and facade has become a research hotspot in recent work. In this paper, we propose a building damage detection framework based on the boundary refined supervoxel segmentation and random forest–la...
Source: Sensors - November 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chaoxian Liu Haigang Sui Lihong Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6468: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Performance Evaluation of Fast Magnetic Resonance Thermometry on Synthetic Phantom
This study evaluates the accuracy of fast MRTI on a synthetic phantom, using dense ultra-short Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) array, as a reference. Fast MRTI is achieved with a multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) sequence, allowing monitoring the temperature increase induced with a 980 nm laser source. The temperature distributions measured with 1 mm-spatial resolution with both FBGs and MRTI were compared. The root mean squared error (RMSE) value obtained by comparing temperature profiles showed a maximum error of 1.2 °C. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean of difference of 0.1 &d...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martina De Landro Jacopo Ianniello Maxime Yon Alexey Wolf Bruno Quesson Emiliano Schena Paola Saccomandi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6470: Demonstration of Three-Dimensional Indoor Visible Light Positioning with Multiple Photodiodes and Reinforcement Learning
Hong Chen To provide high-quality location-based services in the era of the Internet of Things, visible light positioning (VLP) is considered a promising technology for indoor positioning. In this paper, we study a multi-photodiodes (multi-PDs) three-dimensional (3D) indoor VLP system enhanced by reinforcement learning (RL), which can realize accurate positioning in the 3D space without any off-line training. The basic 3D positioning model is introduced, where without height information of the receiver, the initial height value is first estimated by exploring its relationship with the received signal strength (RSS),...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Chen Zeng Cao Hong Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6471: An Autonomous Log Storage Management Protocol with Blockchain Mechanism and Access Control for the Internet of Things
Le As the Internet of Things (IoT) has become prevalent, a massive number of logs produced by IoT devices are transmitted and processed every day. The logs should contain important contents and private information. Moreover, these logs may be used as evidences for forensic investigations when cyber security incidents occur. However, evidence legality and internal security issues in existing works were not properly addressed. This paper proposes an autonomous log storage management protocol with blockchain mechanism and access control for the IoT. Autonomous model allows sensors to encrypt their logs before sending ...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hsu Chen Le Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6472: Outage Probability and Ergodic Capacity of a Two-User NOMA Relaying System with an Energy Harvesting Full-Duplex Relay and Its Interference at the Near User
he Dung In this paper, we consider a two-user downlink full-duplex (FD) non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) relay system where the FD relay uses an energy harvesting (EH) technique to assist the communication between the base station and far user over flat, independent and non-identically Rayleigh fading channels. Importantly, since the relay operates in FD mode, we take into account the effect of the interference caused by relay on the near user. Considering this EH-FD-NOMA relay system, we derive the exact mathematical expressions of the outage probabilities and ergodic capacities of near and far users. Monte&a...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hoang Van Toan Tran Manh Hoang Tran Trung Duy Le The Dung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6473: Analysis of Throughput and Delay for an Underwater Multi-DATA Train Protocol with Multi-RTS Reception and Block ACK
ng We propose an underwater multi-DATA train protocol with multi-RTS reception and block ACK (BACK) for underwater acoustic sensor networks. Due to long underwater acoustic propagation delay, some RTS frames may not overlap at a sink node, even if the RTS frames were sent to the sink node simultaneously by different sensor nodes. We consider that our underwater sink node can recover these nonoverlapping RTS frames. Since our RTS frame contains ID of the RTS sending node and a timestamp, the sink node calculates the propagation delay between the RTS sending node and the sink node, then broadcasts a CTS frame. Since our ...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hwang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6474: IoT-Based Sensor Data Fusion for Determining Optimality Degrees of Microclimate Parameters in Commercial Greenhouse Production of Tomato
This study confirmed the applicability of using IoT sensors for real-time model-based assessment of greenhouse microclimate on a commercial scale. The presented IoT sensor node and the Simulink model provide growers with a better insight into interpreting crop growth environment. The outcome of this research contributes to the improvement of closed-field cultivation of tomato by providing an integrated decision-making framework that explores microclimate variation at different growth stages in the production season. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rezvani Abyaneh Shamshiri Balasundram Dworak Goodarzi Sultan Mahns Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6476: Real-Time Pattern-Recognition of GPR Images with YOLO v3 Implemented by Tensorflow
Zhi Qiu Artificial intelligence (AI) is widely used in pattern recognition and positioning. In most of the geological exploration applications, it needs to locate and identify underground objects according to electromagnetic wave characteristics from the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) images. Currently, a few robust AI approach can detect targets by real-time with high precision or automation for GPR images recognition. This paper proposes an approach that can be used to identify parabolic targets with different sizes and underground soil or concrete structure voids based on you only look once (YOLO) v3. With the Tenso...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuanhong Li Zuoxi Zhao Yangfan Luo Zhi Qiu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6475: Improving CSI Prediction Accuracy with Deep Echo State Networks in 5G Networks
icano The forthcoming fifth-generation networks require improvements in cognitive radio intelligence, going towards more smart and aware radio systems. In the emerging radio intelligence approach, the empowerment of cognitive capabilities is performed through the adoption of machine learning techniques. This paper investigates the combined application of the convolutional and recurrent neural networks for the channel state information forecasting, providing a multivariate scalar time series prediction by taking into account the multiple factors dependence of the channel state conditions. Finally, the system performance...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tommaso Pecorella Romano Fantacci Benedetta Picano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6477: Identification of Heart Sounds with an Interpretable Evolving Fuzzy Neural Network
fer Heart problems are responsible for the majority of deaths worldwide. The use of intelligent techniques to assist in the identification of existing patterns in these diseases can facilitate treatments and decision making in the field of medicine. This work aims to extract knowledge from a dataset based on heart noise behaviors in order to determine whether heart murmur predilection exists or not in the analyzed patients. A heart murmur can be pathological due to defects in the heart, so the use of an evolving hybrid technique can assist in detecting this comorbidity team, and at the same time, extract knowledge thro...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Paulo Vitor de Campos Souza Edwin Lughofer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6478: Wearable Sensors Detect Differences between the Sexes in Lower Limb Electromyographic Activity and Pelvis 3D Kinematics during Running
Conclusions: understanding the differences between men and women, in terms of muscle activation and pelvic kinematic values, could be especially useful to allow health professionals detect athletes who may be at risk of injury. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Iv án Nacher Moltó Juan Pardo Albiach Juan Jos é Amer-Cuenca Eva Segura-Ort í Willig Gabriel Javier Mart ínez-Gramage Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6469: Modelling of Phase Contrast Imaging with X-ray Wavefront Sensor and Partial Coherence Beams
Zeitoun The Hartmann wavefront sensor is able to measure, separately and in absolute, the real δ and imaginary part β of the X-ray refractive index. While combined with tomographic setup, the Hartman sensor opens many interesting opportunities behind the direct measurement of the material density. In order to handle the different ways of using an X-ray wavefront sensor in imaging, we developed a 3D wave propagation model based on Fresnel propagator. The model can manage any degree of spatial coherence of the source, thus enabling us to model experiments accurately using tabletop, synchrotron ...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ginevra Begani Provinciali Alessia Cedola Ombeline de La Rochefoucauld Philippe Zeitoun Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6449: A Novel Reconstruction Method for Measurement Data Based on MTLS Algorithm
zhi Luo Reconstruction methods for discrete data, such as the Moving Least Squares (MLS) and Moving Total Least Squares (MTLS), have made a great many achievements with the progress of modern industrial technology. Although the MLS and MTLS have good approximation accuracy, neither of these two approaches are robust model reconstruction methods and the outliers in the data cannot be processed effectively as the construction principle results in distorted local approximation. This paper proposes an improved method that is called the Moving Total Least Trimmed Squares (MTLTS) to achieve more accurate and robust estimatio...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tianqi Gu Chenjie Hu Dawei Tang Tianzhi Luo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6450: Meta-Transfer Learning Driven Tensor-Shot Detector for the Autonomous Localization and Recognition of Concealed Baggage Threats
i Naoufel Werghi Screening baggage against potential threats has become one of the prime aviation security concerns all over the world, where manual detection of prohibited items is a time-consuming and hectic process. Many researchers have developed autonomous systems to recognize baggage threats using security X-ray scans. However, all of these frameworks are vulnerable against screening cluttered and concealed contraband items. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, no framework possesses the capacity to recognize baggage threats across multiple scanner specifications without an explicit retraining process. To...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Taimur Hassan Muhammad Shafay Samet Ak çay Salman Khan Mohammed Bennamoun Ernesto Damiani Naoufel Werghi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6451: An sEMG-Controlled 3D Game for Rehabilitation Therapies: Real-Time Time Hand Gesture Recognition Using Deep Learning Techniques
zorla In recent years the advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have been seen to play an important role in human well-being, in particular enabling novel forms of human-computer interaction for people with a disability. In this paper, we propose a sEMG-controlled 3D game that leverages a deep learning-based architecture for real-time gesture recognition. The 3D game experience developed in the study is focused on rehabilitation exercises, allowing individuals with certain disabilities to use low-cost sEMG sensors to control the game experience. For this purpose, we acquired a novel dataset of seven gestures using t...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nadia Nasri Sergio Orts-Escolano Miguel Cazorla Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6452: Efficient Upper Limb Position Estimation Based on Angular Displacement Sensors for Wearable Devices
aacute;ez-Sáez Fernando Blaya Haro Motion tracking techniques have been extensively studied in recent years. However, capturing movements of the upper limbs is a challenging task. This document presents the estimation of arm orientation and elbow and wrist position using wearable flexible sensors (WFSs). A study was developed to obtain the highest range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder with as few sensors as possible, and a method for estimating arm length and a calibration procedure was proposed. Performance was verified by comparing measurement of the shoulder joint angles obtained from commercial two-axis so...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Aldo-Francisco Contreras-Gonz ález Manuel Ferre Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Urán Francisco Javier S áez-Sáez Fernando Blaya Haro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6453: Foot-Worn Inertial Sensors Are Reliable to Assess Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Axial Spondyloarthritis under Single and Dual Task Walking in Axial Spondyloarthritis
s Vuillerme The aim of this study was (1) to evaluate the relative and absolute reliability of gait parameters during walking in single- and dual-task conditions in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), (2) to evaluate the absolute and relative reliability of dual task effects (DTE) parameters, and (3) to determine the number of trials required to ensure reliable gait assessment, in patients with axSpA. Twenty patients with axSpa performed a 10-m walk test in single- and dual-task conditions, three times for each condition. Spatiotemporal, symmetry, and DTE gait parameters were calculated from foot-worn inerti...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Julie Soulard Jacques Vaillant Romain Balaguier Athan Baillet Philippe Gaudin Nicolas Vuillerme Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6454: A Low-Cost Calibration Method for Low-Cost MEMS Accelerometers Based on 3D Printing
Leocundo Aguilar A ubiquitous sensor in embedded systems is the accelerometer, as it enables a range of applications. However, accelerometers experience nonlinearities in their outputs caused by error terms and axes misalignment. These errors are a major concern because, in applications such as navigations systems, they accumulate over time, degrading the position accuracy. Through a calibration procedure, the errors can be modeled and compensated. Many methods have been proposed; however, they require sophisticated equipment available only in laboratories, which makes them complex and expensive. In this article, a sim...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jes ús A. García Evangelina Lara Leocundo Aguilar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6456: Blockchain Reference System Architecture Description for the ISA95 Compliant Traditional and Smart Manufacturing Systems
Onori The next-generation technologies enabled by the industry 4.0 revolution put immense pressure on traditional ISA95 compliant manufacturing systems to evolve into smart manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the transformation of old to new manufacturing technologies is a slow process. Therefore, the manufacturing industry is currently in a situation that the legacy and modern manufacturing systems share the same factory environment. This heterogeneous ecosystem leads to challenges in systems scalability, interoperability, information security, and data quality domains. Our former research effort concluded that bloc...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Erkan Yalcinkaya Antonio Maffei Mauro Onori Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6455: First-Order Linear Mechatronics Model for Closed-Loop MEMS Disk Resonator Gyroscope
g Xie In this paper, a first-order closed-loop mechatronics model of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) disk resonator gyroscope (DRG) with a configurable ASIC is established for closed-loop design and performance analysis. There are usually some nonlinear modules in the gyroscope mechatronics model, and it is difficult to design the closed-loop controllers using classical automatic control theory. An order-reduction method (ORM) based on the Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transform is proposed to linearize the nonlinear modules. The linearized model is proved to show good agreement with the original mechat...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hao Wang Xiupu Wang Jianbing Xie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6457: DLNR-SIQA: Deep Learning-Based No-Reference Stitched Image Quality Assessment
eon Lee Due to recent advancements in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), the demand for high quality immersive contents is a primary concern for production companies and consumers. Similarly, the topical record-breaking performance of deep learning in various domains of artificial intelligence has extended the attention of researchers to contribute to different fields of computer vision. To ensure the quality of immersive media contents using these advanced deep learning technologies, several learning based Stitched Image Quality Assessment methods have been proposed with reasonable performances. However,...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hayat Ullah Muhammad Irfan Kyungjin Han Jong Weon Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6458: Survey on Security Threats in Agricultural IoT and Smart Farming
xakis The agriculture sector has held a major role in human societies across the planet throughout history. The rapid evolution in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) strongly affects the structure and the procedures of modern agriculture. Despite the advantages gained from this evolution, there are several existing as well as emerging security threats that can severely impact the agricultural domain. The present paper provides an overview of the main existing and potential threats for agriculture. Initially, the paper presents an overview of the evolution of ICT solutions and how these may be utilized and...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Konstantinos Demestichas Nikolaos Peppes Theodoros Alexakis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6459: Effect of Surface and Interfacial Tension on the Resonance Frequency of Microfluidic Channel Cantilever
Chun Il Kim The bending resonance of micro-sized resonators has been utilized to study adsorption of analyte molecules in complex fluids of picogram quantity. Traditionally, the analysis to characterize the resonance frequency has focused solely on the mass change, whereas the effect of interfacial tension of the fluid has been largely neglected. By observing forced vibrations of a microfluidic cantilever filled with a series of alkanes using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV), we studied the effect of surface and interfacial tension on the resonance frequency. Here, we incorporated the Young–Laplace equa...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rosmi Abraham Faheem Khan Syed A. Bukhari Qingxia Liu Thomas Thundat Hyun-Joong Chung Chun Il Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6460: Developing an Individual Glucose Prediction Model Using Recurrent Neural Network
In this study, we propose a personalized glucose prediction model using deep learning for hospitalized patients who experience Type-2 diabetes. We aim for our model to assist the medical personnel who check the blood glucose and control the amount of insulin doses. Herein, we employed a deep learning algorithm, especially a recurrent neural network (RNN), that consists of a sequence processing layer and a classification layer for the glucose prediction. We tested a simple RNN, gated recurrent unit (GRU), and long-short term memory (LSTM) and varied the architectures to determine the one with the best performance. For that,...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dae-Yeon Kim Dong-Sik Choi Jaeyun Kim Sung Wan Chun Hyo-Wook Gil Nam-Jun Cho Ah Reum Kang Jiyoung Woo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6461: A Computerized Bioinspired Methodology for Lightweight and Reliable Neural Telemetry
We present bioinspired electroceptive compressive sensing (BeCoS) as an approach for minimizing these penalties. It is a lightweight and reliable approach for the compression and transmission of neural signals inspired by active electroceptive sensing used by weakly electric fish. It uses a signature signal and a sensed pseudo-sparse differential signal to transmit and reconstruct the signals remotely. We have used EEG datasets to compare BeCoS with the block sparse Bayesian learning-bound optimization (BSBL-BO) technique—A popular compressive sensing technique used for low-energy wireless telemonitoring of E...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Olufemi Adeluyi Miguel A. Risco-Castillo Mar ía Liz Crespo Andres Cicuttin Jeong-A Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6462: Metrology of a Focusing Capillary Using Optical Ptychography
n Yong S. Chu The focusing property of an ellipsoidal monocapillary has been characterized using the ptychography method with a 405 nm laser beam. The recovered wavefront gives a 12.5×10.4μm2 focus. The reconstructed phase profile of the focused beam can be used to estimate the height error of the capillary surface. The obtained height error shows a Gaussian distribution with a standard deviation of 1.3 μm. This approach can be used as a quantitative tool for evaluating the inner functional surfaces of reflective optics, complementary to conventional metrology methods. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaojing Huang Evgeny Nazaretski Weihe Xu Dean Hidas Mark Cordier Benjamin Stripe Wenbing Yun Yong S. Chu Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6463: Noninvasive Measurement of Time-Varying Arterial Wall Elastance Using a Single-Frequency Vibration Approach
xi Chen The arterial wall elastance is an important indicator of arterial stiffness and a kind of manifestation associated with vessel-related disease. The time-varying arterial wall elastances can be measured using a multiple-frequency vibration approach according to the Voigt and Maxwell model. However, such a method needs extensive calculation time and its operating steps are very complex. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a simple and easy method for assessing the time-varying arterial wall elastances with the single-frequency vibration approach. This method was developed according to the simplified Voigt a...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jia-Jung Wang Shing-Hong Liu Wei-Kung Tseng Wenxi Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6464: Beamforming Techniques for Over-the-Air Computation in MIMO IoT Networks
Jung In this paper, a novel beamforming technique is proposed as the over-the-air computation (AirComp) framework in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Internet-of-things (IoT) network consisting of multiple IoT sensors (STAs) and a single access point (AP). We assume that each IoT device has the channel state information (CSI) from itself to the AP and the AP has the global CSI of all IoT devices. We consider the mean squared error (MSE), which represents the reliability of function computation, as a performance metric. In short, each IoT device exploits maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) as a transmit beamforming...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Young-Seok Lee Ki-Hun Lee Bang Chul Jung Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6465: On the Accuracy of Fault Diagnosis for Rolling Element Bearings Using Improved DFA and Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Method
Wang Rolling element bearings are widely employed in almost every rotating machine. The health status of bearings plays an important role in the reliability of rotating machines. This paper deals with the principle and application of an effective multi-sensor data fusion fault diagnosis approach for rolling element bearings. In particular, two single-axis accelerometers are employed to improve classification accuracy. By applying the improved detrended fluctuation analysis (IDFA), the corresponding fluctuations detrended by the local fit of vibration signals are evaluated. Then the polynomial fitting coefficients of t...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qiang Song Sifang Zhao Mingsheng Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6467: Unsupervised End-to-End Deep Model for Newborn and Infant Activity Recognition
hoi Human activity recognition (HAR) works have mostly focused on the activities of adults. However, HAR is typically beneficial to the safety and wellness of newborn or infants because they have difficulties in verbal communication. The activities of infants are different from those of adults in terms of its types and intensity. Hence, it is necessary to study the behavior of infants separately. We study newborn and infant activity recognition by analyzing accelerometer data from the sensors attached to body. We aim to classify four types of activities: sleeping, moving in agony, moving in normal condition, and moveme...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kyungkoo Jun Soonpil Choi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6466: Enhanced LoRaWAN Adaptive Data Rate for Mobile Internet of Things Devices
ng Pyun A long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN) is one of the leading communication technologies for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In order to fulfill the IoT-enabled application requirements, LoRaWAN employs an adaptive data rate (ADR) mechanism at both the end device (ED) and the network server (NS). NS-managed ADR aims to offer a reliable and battery-efficient resource to EDs by managing the spreading factor (SF) and transmit power (TP). However, such management is severely affected by the lack of agility in adapting to the variable channel conditions. Thus, several hours or even days may be required to co...
Source: Sensors - November 12, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Arshad Farhad Dae-Ho Kim Santosh Subedi Jae-Young Pyun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6437: Few-Shot Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis with Metric-Based Meta Learning
Shuai Zhou Fault diagnosis methods based on deep learning and big data have achieved good results on rotating machinery. However, the conventional deep learning method of bearing fault diagnosis is mostly based on laboratory artificial simulation data, and there is an error with actual fault data, which will reduce the generalization performance of the deep learning method. In addition, labeled data are very precious in real industrial environment. Due to expensive equipment and personnel safety issues, it is difficult to obtain a large amount of high-quality fault labeling data. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a...
Source: Sensors - November 11, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sihan Wang Dazhi Wang Deshan Kong Jiaxing Wang Wenhui Li Shuai Zhou Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6438: Design and Analysis of a Novel Piezoceramic Stack-based Smart Aggregate
This study contributes to providing a method to investigate the characteristics and optimize the structural parameters of the proposed PiSSAs. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 11, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lu Zhu Wang Hao Tan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6440: Evaluation of the ZWD/ZTD Values Derived from MERRA-2 Global Reanalysis Products Using GNSS Observations and Radiosonde Data
Chen Xie Tropospheric delay is one of the main errors affecting high-precision positioning and navigation and is a key parameter of water vapor detection in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) is the latest generation of reanalysis data collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which can be used to calculate tropospheric delay products with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, there is no report analyzing the accuracy of the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) and zenith wet delay (ZWD)...
Source: Sensors - November 11, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Huang Guo Liu Chen Chen Xie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6439: Intelligent Calibration of Static FEA Computations Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning Reference
Neumann The demand for efficient and accurate finite element analysis (FEA) is becoming more prevalent with the increase in advanced calibration technologies and sensor-based monitoring methods. The current research explores a deep learning-based methodology to calibrate FEA results. The utilization of monitoring reference results from measurements, e.g., terrestrial laser scanning, can help to capture the actual features in the static loading process. We learn the deviation sequence results between the standard FEA computations with the simplified geometry and refined reference values by the long short-term memory met...
Source: Sensors - November 11, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei Xu Xiangyu Bao Genglin Chen Ingo Neumann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6441: Edge-Computing Architectures for Internet of Things Applications: A Survey
ajali The rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications and their interference with our daily life tasks have led to a large number of IoT devices and enormous sizes of IoT-generated data. The resources of IoT devices are limited; therefore, the processing and storing IoT data in these devices are inefficient. Traditional cloud-computing resources are used to partially handle some of the IoT resource-limitation issues; however, using the resources in cloud centers leads to other issues, such as latency in time-critical IoT applications. Therefore, edge-cloud-computing technology has recently evolved. This t...
Source: Sensors - November 11, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Salam Hamdan Moussa Ayyash Sufyan Almajali Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6442: A Review on Early Forest Fire Detection Systems Using Optical Remote Sensing
malidis The environmental challenges the world faces nowadays have never been greater or more complex. Global areas covered by forests and urban woodlands are threatened by natural disasters that have increased dramatically during the last decades, in terms of both frequency and magnitude. Large-scale forest fires are one of the most harmful natural hazards affecting climate change and life around the world. Thus, to minimize their impacts on people and nature, the adoption of well-planned and closely coordinated effective prevention, early warning, and response approaches are necessary. This paper presents an overview...
Source: Sensors - November 11, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Panagiotis Barmpoutis Periklis Papaioannou Kosmas Dimitropoulos Nikos Grammalidis Tags: Review Source Type: research