Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4004: Sea –Sky Line and its Nearby Ships Detection Based on the Motion Attitude of Visible Light Sensors
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4004: Sea–Sky Line and its Nearby Ships Detection Based on the Motion Attitude of Visible Light Sensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19184004 Authors: Shan Zhao Pan Wang Zhao In the maritime scene, visible light sensors installed on ships have difficulty accurately detecting the sea–sky line (SSL) and its nearby ships due to complex environments and six-degrees-of-freedom movement. Aimed at this problem, this paper combines the camera and inertial sensor data, and proposes a novel maritime target detection algorithm based on camera motion attitude. The algorithm mai...
Source: Sensors - September 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shan Zhao Pan Wang Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3990: Impedimetric Immunosensor Utilizing Polyaniline/Gold Nanocomposite-Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes for Early Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease
Chuang The presence of small amounts of human serum albumin (HSA) in urine or microalbuminuria (30–300 µg/mL) is a valuable clinical biomarker for the early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Herein, we report on the development of an inexpensive and disposable immunosensor for the sensitive, specific, and label-free detection of HSA using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We have utilized a simple one-step screen-printing protocol to fabricate the carbon-based three-electrode system on flexible plastic substrates. To enable efficient antibody immobilization and improved...
Source: Sensors - September 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Omar Shaikh Boyanagunta Srikanth Pei-Yu Zhu Cheng-Hsin Chuang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3985: Design and Development of Photonic Biosensors for Swine Viral Diseases Detection
o Alessandra Camarca Sabato D’Auria Antonio Varriale Alessandro Giusti In this paper we introduce a field diagnostic device based on the combination of advanced bio-sensing and photonics technologies, to tackle emerging and endemic viruses causing swine epidemics, and consequently significant economic damage in farms. The device is based on the use of microring resonators fabricated in silicon nitride with CMOS compatible techniques. In the paper, the designed and fabricated photonic integrated circuit (PIC) sensors are presented and characterized, showing an optimized performance in terms of optical loss...
Source: Sensors - September 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Amadeu Griol Sergio Peransi Manuel Rodrigo Juan Hurtado Laurent Bellieres Teodora Ivanova David Zurita Carles S ánchez Sara Recuero Alejandro Hern ández Santiago Sim ón Gyula Balka Ioannis Bossis Alessandro Capo Alessandra Camarca Sabato D ’Auria Ant Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3986: Continuous Finger Gesture Recognition Based on Flex Sensors
Jie Jhang The goal of this work is to present a novel continuous finger gesture recognition system based on flex sensors. The system is able to carry out accurate recognition of a sequence of gestures. Wireless smart gloves equipped with flex sensors were implemented for the collection of the training and testing sets. Given the sensory data acquired from the smart gloves, the gated recurrent unit (GRU) algorithm was then adopted for gesture spotting. During the training process for the GRU, the movements associated with different fingers and the transitions between two successive gestures were taken into consideration...
Source: Sensors - September 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei-Chieh Chuang Wen-Jyi Hwang Tsung-Ming Tai De-Rong Huang Yun-Jie Jhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3987: Deep Learning for Industrial Computer Vision Quality Control in the Printing Industry 4.0
witz Wanja Wellbrock Rapid and accurate industrial inspection to ensure the highest quality standards at a competitive price is one of the biggest challenges in the manufacturing industry. This paper shows an application of how a Deep Learning soft sensor application can be combined with a high-resolution optical quality control camera to increase the accuracy and reduce the cost of an industrial visual inspection process in the Printing Industry 4.0. During the process of producing gravure cylinders, mistakes like holes in the printing cylinder are inevitable. In order to improve the defect detection performance and...
Source: Sensors - September 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Javier Villalba-Diez Daniel Schmidt Roman Gevers Joaqu ín Ordieres-Meré Martin Buchwitz Wanja Wellbrock Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3988: MLC-LSTM: Exploiting the Spatiotemporal Correlation between Multi-Level Weather Radar Echoes for Echo Sequence Extrapolation
Peng Weather radar echo is the data detected by the weather radar sensor and reflects the intensity of meteorological targets. Using the technique of radar echo extrapolation, which is the prediction of future echoes based on historical echo observations, the approaching short-term weather conditions can be forecasted, and warnings can be raised with regard to disastrous weather. Recently, deep learning based extrapolation methods have been proposed and show significant application potential. However, there are two limitations of existing extrapolation methods which should be considered. First, few methods have invest...
Source: Sensors - September 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jinrui Jing Qian Li Xuan Peng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3989: Microstrip Patch Strain Sensor Miniaturization Using Sierpinski Curve Fractal Geometry
ato In this paper miniaturization of a microstrip patch strain sensor (MPSS) using fractal geometry was proposed and analyzed. For this purpose, the transducer of Sierpinski curve geometry was utilized and compared with the most commonly utilized rectangular resonator-based one. Both sensors were designed for the same resonant frequency value (2.725 GHz). This fact allows analysis of the influence of the patch (resonator) shape and size on the resonant frequency shift. This is very important as the sensors with the same resonator shape but designed on various operating frequencies have various resonant frequency shifts...
Source: Sensors - September 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michal Herbko Przemyslaw Lopato Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3970: Optimal Number of Message Transmissions for Probabilistic Guarantee of Latency in the IoT
We present two methods to compute the maximum number of transmissions per message required to achieve R. M F a i r is very easy to compute, whereas M O p t minimizes the total number of transmissions necessary for a message to reach the sink. M F a i r and M O p t are then integrated into a TSCH network with a load-based scheduler to evaluate the three KPIs on a generic data-gathering application. We first consider a toy example with eight nodes where the maximum number of transmissions M a x T r a n s is tuned per link and per flow. Finally, a network of 50 nodes, representative of real network deployments, is e...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pascale Minet Yasuyuki Tanaka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3974: Integrating Geophysical and Multispectral Data to Delineate Homogeneous Management Zones within a Vineyard in Northern Italy
The objective of this study was the fusion of EC and VIS-NIR data to delineate SSMZs in a rain-fed vineyard located in Northern Italy (Franciacorta), and the assessment of the obtained SSMZ map through the comparison with data acquired by a thermal infrared (TIR) survey carried out during a hot and dry period of the 2017 agricultural season. Data integration is performed by applying multivariate statistical methods (i.e., Principal Component Analysis). The results show that the combined use of soil, topography and crop information improves the SSMZ delineation. Indeed, the correspondence between the SSMZ map and the CWSI m...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bianca Ortuani Giovanna Sona Giulia Ronchetti Alice Mayer Arianna Facchi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3977: Electrospinning Nanoparticles-Based Materials Interfaces for Sensor Applications
Wei Su Electrospinning is a facile technique to fabricate nanofibrous materials with adjustable structure, property, and functions. Electrospun materials have exhibited wide applications in the fields of materials science, biomedicine, tissue engineering, energy storage, environmental science, sensing, and others. In this review, we present recent advance in the fabrication of nanoparticles (NPs)-based materials interfaces through electrospinning technique and their applications for high-performance sensors. To achieve this aim, first the strategies for fabricating various materials interfaces through electrospinni...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Jia Liu Wei Su Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3978: Interference-Aware Routing for Difficult Wireless Sensor Network Environment with SWIPT
Gwang-jun Kim The main challenges of sensing in harsh industrial and biological environments are the limited energy of sensor nodes and the difficulty of charging sensor nodes. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) is a non-invasive option to replenish energy. SWIPT harvests energy and decodes information from the same RF signal, which is influencing the design of a wireless sensor network. In multi-hop multi-flow wireless sensor networks, interference generally exists, and the interference has a different influence on SWIPT. Route, interference and SWIPT are dependent. However, existing works co...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shiming He Yangning Tang Zhuozhou Li Feng Li Kun Xie Hye-jin Kim Gwang-jun Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3979: Die-Attach Structure of Silicon-on-Glass MEMS Devices Considering Asymmetric Packaging Stress and Thermal Stress
g Ho Kong Die attach is a typical process that induces thermal stress in the fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. One solution to this problem is attaching a portion of the die to the package. In such partial die bonding, the lack of control over the spreading of the adhesive can cause non-uniform attachment. In this case, asymmetric packaging stress could be generated and transferred to the die. The performance of MEMS devices, which employ the differential outputs of the sensing elements, is directly affected by the asymmetric packaging stress. In this paper, we proposed a die-attach structure...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jun Eon An Usung Park Dong Geon Jung Chihyun Park Seong Ho Kong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3980: An SDN Focused Approach for Energy Aware Traffic Engineering in Data Centers
kas There is a lot of effort to limit the impact of CO2 emissions from the information communication technologies (ICT) industry by reducing the energy consumption on all aspects of networking technologies. In a service provider network, data centers (DCs) are the major power consumer and considerable gains are expected by regulating the operation network devices. In this context, we developed a mixed integer programming (MIP) algorithm to optimize the power consumption of network devices via energy aware traffic engineering. We verified our approach by simulating DC network topologies and demonstrated that clear benef...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Paris Charalampou Efstathios D. Sykas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3976: SAR and Optical Data Comparison for Detecting Co-Seismic Slip and Induced Phenomena during the 2018 Mw 7.5 Sulawesi Earthquake
ramondo We use both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Optical data to constrain the co-seismic ground deformation produced by the 2018 Mw 7.5 Sulawesi earthquake. We exploit data processing techniques mainly based on pixel cross-correlation approach, applied to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical images to estimate the North–South (NS) displacement component. This component is the most significant because of the NNW–SSE geometry of the fault responsible for the seismic event, i.e., the Palu-Koro fault, characterized by a strike-slip faulting mechanism. Our results show a good agreeme...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marco Polcari Cristiano Tolomei Christian Bignami Salvatore Stramondo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3982: Affordable Thin Lens Using Single Polarized Disparate Filter Arrays for Beyond 5G toward 6G
ek Oh This paper proposes a novel design approach for a thin lens with the aim of overcoming fineness limits in the commercial millimeter wave printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing process. The PCB manufacturing process typically does not allow the fabrication of metallic patterns with a gap and width of less than 100 μm. This hampers expanding thin lens technology to 5G commercial applications, especially when such technology is considered for 60 GHz or higher frequency, which requires a finer gap and width of metallic traces. This paper proposes that problematic process conditions can be mitigated when...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Inseop Yoon Seongwoog Oh Jungsuek Oh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3981: Wayside Detection of Wheel Minor Defects in High-Speed Trains by a Bayesian Blind Source Separation Method
ng Ni For high-speed trains, out-of-roundness (OOR)/defects on wheel tread with small radius deviation may suffice to give rise to severe damage on both vehicle components and track structure when they run at high speeds. It is thus highly desirable to detect the defects in a timely manner and then conduct wheel re-profiling for the defective wheels. This paper presents a wayside fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based wheel condition monitoring system which can detect wheel tread defects online during train passage. A defect identification algorithm is developed to identify potential wheel defects with the monitoring data of ...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiao-Zhou Liu Chi Xu Yi-Qing Ni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3983: A Wi-Fi-Based Wireless Indoor Position Sensing System with Multipath Interference Mitigation
n Zhang Wi-Fi-based indoor position sensing solutions have the advantages of easy integration in mobile phones and low cost by using existing Wi-Fi access points. The mainstream methods are commonly based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which suffers from multipath interference in complicated indoor environments. Through the in-depth analysis of the multipath interference, an RSSI-assisted time difference of arrival (TDoA) method is proposed for Wi-Fi-based indoor position sensing in this work. The key idea is to compensate for the multipath interference in the received signals based on the coarse est...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tuo Xie Hanjun Jiang Xijin Zhao Chun Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3984: Improving Cognitive Visual-Motor Abilities in Individuals with Down Syndrome
Reyes-Alonso Hernández-Morales Down syndrome causes a reduction in cognitive abilities, with visual-motor skills being particularly affected. In this work, we have focused on this skill in order to stimulate better learning. The proposal relies on stimulating the cognitive visual-motor skills of individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) using exercises with a gestural interaction platform based on the KINECT sensor named TANGO:H, the goal being to improve them. To validate the proposal, an experimental single-case study method was designed using two groups: a control group and an experimental one, with similar cogn...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Torres-Carri ón Gonz ález-González Toledo-Delgado Mu ñoz-Cruz Gil-Iranzo Reyes-Alonso Hern ández-Morales Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3965: Climate-Triggered Insect Defoliators and Forest Fires Using Multitemporal Landsat and TerraClimate Data in NE Iran: An Application of GEOBIA TreeNet and Panel Data Analysis
This study was accomplished to test the performance of Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) TreeNet for discerning insect-infested forests induced by defoliators from healthy forests using Landsat 8 OLI and ancillary data in the broadleaved mixed Hyrcanian forests. Moreover, it has studied mutual associations between the intensity of forest defoliation and the severity of forest fires under TerraClimate-derived climate hazards by analyzing panel data models within the TreeNet-derived insect-infested forest objects. The TreeNet optimal performance was obtained after building 333 trees with a sensitivity of 93.7% ...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Omid Abdi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3966: Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Based on a Silver-Film Semi-Coated Nanosphere Array
Mao Ting Mei In this paper, we present a convenient and economical method to fabricate a silver (Ag)-film semi-coated polystyrene (PS) nanosphere array substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The SERS substrate was fabricated using the modified self-assembled method combined with the vacuum thermal evaporation method. By changing the thickness of the Ag film, the surface morphology of the Ag film coated on the PS nanospheres can be adjusted to obtain the optimized localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) effect. The 3D-finite-difference time-domain simulation results show that the SERS substrat...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wending Zhang Tianyang Xue Lu Zhang Fanfan Lu Min Liu Chao Meng Dong Mao Ting Mei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3967: Sensing and Self-Sensing Actuation Methods for Ionic Polymer –Metal Composite (IPMC): A Review
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3967: Sensing and Self-Sensing Actuation Methods for Ionic Polymer–Metal Composite (IPMC): A Review Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183967 Authors: WanHasbullah MohdIsa Andres Hunt S. Hassan HosseinNia Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMC) are smart material transducers that bend in response to low-voltage stimuli and generate voltage in response to bending. IPMCs are mechanically compliant, simple in construction, and easy to cut into desired shape. This allows the designing of novel sensing and actuation systems, e.g., for soft and bio-inspired robotics. IPMC sensing can be...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: WanHasbullah MohdIsa Andres Hunt S. Hassan HosseinNia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3968: Assessing the Mass Sensitivity for Different Electrode Materials Commonly Used in Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCMs)
Yao Yao Mass sensitivity is vital for quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based data analysis. The mass sensitivity distribution of QCMs may differ greatly depending on the shapes, thicknesses, sizes, and materials of the metal electrodes. This is not considered by the Sauerbrey equation, and has a large potential to cause errors in QCM-based data analysis. Many previous works have studied the effects of shape, thickness, and size of metal electrodes on mass sensitivity. However, it is necessary to continue to clarify the relationship between the mass sensitivity and the electrode material of the QCM. In this paper, th...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xianhe Huang Qiao Chen Wei Pan Jianguo Hu Yao Yao Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3969: Enabling Heart Self-Monitoring for All and for AAL —Portable Device within a Complete Telemedicine System
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3969: Enabling Heart Self-Monitoring for All and for AAL—Portable Device within a Complete Telemedicine System Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183969 Authors: Andrés-Lorenzo Bleda Francisco-Manuel Melgarejo-Meseguer Francisco-Javier Gimeno-Blanes Arcadi García-Alberola José Luis Rojo-Álvarez Javier Corral Ricardo Ruiz Rafael Maestre-Ferriz During the last decades there has been a rapidly growing elderly population and the number of patients with chronic heart-related diseases has exploded. Many of them (such as those with congestive heart failure or so...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andr és-Lorenzo Bleda Francisco-Manuel Melgarejo-Meseguer Francisco-Javier Gimeno-Blanes Arcadi Garc ía-Alberola Jos é Luis Rojo-Álvarez Javier Corral Ricardo Ruiz Rafael Maestre-Ferriz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3970: Optimal Number of Message Transmissions forProbabilistic Guarantee of Latency in the IoT
We present two methods to compute the maximum number of transmissions per message required to achieve R. M F a i r is very easy to compute, whereas M O p t minimizes the total number of transmissions necessary for a message to reach the sink. M F a i r and M O p t are then integrated into a TSCH network with a load-based scheduler to evaluate the three KPIs on a generic data-gathering application. We first consider a toy example with eight nodes where the maximum number of transmissions M a x T r a n s is tuned per link and per flow. Finally, a network of 50 nodes, representative of real network deployments, is e...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pascale Minet Yasuyuki Tanaka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3971: Multivariate Analysis of Difference Raman Spectra of the Irradiated Nucleus and Cytoplasm Region of SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells
ia Lepore Previous works showed that spatially resolved Raman spectra of cytoplasm and nucleus region of single cells exposed to X-rays evidence different features. The present work aims to introduce a new approach to profit from these differences to deeper investigate X-ray irradiation effects on single SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. For this aim, Raman micro-spectroscopy was performed in vitro on single cells after irradiation by graded X-ray doses (2, 4, 6, 8 Gy). Spectra from nucleus and cytoplasm regions were selectively acquired. The examination by interval Principal Component Analysis (i-PCA) of the differen...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ines Delfino Valerio Ricciardi Lorenzo Manti Maria Lasalvia Maria Lepore Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3972: Automatic Tunnel Steel Arches Extraction Algorithm Based on 3D LiDAR Point Cloud
Bin Xie Automation is an inevitable trend in the development of tunnel shotcrete machinery. Tunnel environmental perception based on 3D LiDAR point cloud has become a research hotspot. Current researches about the detection of tunnel point clouds focus on the completed tunnel with a smooth surface. However, few people have researched the automatic detection method for steel arches installed on a complex rock surface. This paper presents a novel algorithm to extract tunnel steel arches. Firstly, we propose a refined function for calibrating the tunnel axis by minimizing the density variance of the projected point cloud....
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenting Zhang Wenjie Qiu Di Song Bin Xie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3973: Towards Sustainable Energy-Efficient Communities Based on a Scheduling Algorithm
Gardel The Internet of Things (IoT) and Demand Response (DR) combined have transformed the way Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) contribute to saving energy and reducing costs, while also giving consumers more control over their energy footprint. Unlike current price and incentive based DR strategies, we propose a DR model that promotes consumers reaching coordinated behaviour towards more sustainable (and green) communities. A cooperative DR system is designed not only to bolster energy efficiency management at both home and district levels, but also to integrate the renewable energy resource informati...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carlos Cruz Esther Palomar Ignacio Bravo Alfredo Gardel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3975: A Framework for the Joint Placement of Edge Service Infrastructure and User Plane Functions for 5G
ó-Pastor Achieving less than 1 ms end-to-end communication latency, required for certain 5G services and use cases, is imposing severe technical challenges for the deployment of next-generation networks. To achieve such an ambitious goal, the service infrastructure and User Plane Function (UPF) placement at the network edge, is mandatory. However, this solution implies a substantial increase in deployment and operational costs. To cost-effectively solve this joint placement problem, this paper introduces a framework to jointly address the placement of edge nodes (ENs) and UPFs. Our framework proposal relies on I...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Irian Leyva-Pupo Alejandro Santoyo-Gonz ález Cristina Cervell ó-Pastor Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3953: Microelectromechanical System-Based Electrochemical Seismometers with Two Pairs of Electrodes Integrated on One Chip
i Bowen Liu This paper presents microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based electrochemical seismometers with two pairs of electrodes integrated on one chip. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations were conducted to reveal the working principle of the proposed electrochemical seismometers, finding that flow holes distributed on cathodes rather than anodes can produce significantly higher sensitivities. The proposed electrochemical seismometers were fabricated based on conventional micromachined processes with high fabrication repeatability. Sensitivity measurements of the proposed seismometers and their co...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xichen Zheng Deyong Chen Junbo Wang Jian Chen Chao Xu Wenjie Qi Bowen Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3954: Parametrically Amplified Low-Power MEMS Capacitive Humidity Sensor
We present the design, fabrication, and response of a polymer-based Laterally Amplified Chemo-Mechanical (LACM) humidity sensor based on mechanical leveraging and parametric amplification. The device consists of a sense cantilever asymmetrically patterned with a polymer and flanked by two stationary electrodes on the sides. When exposed to a humidity change, the polymer swells after absorbing the analyte and causes the central cantilever to bend laterally towards one side, causing a change in the measured capacitance. The device features an intrinsic gain due to parametric amplification resulting in an enhanced signal-to-n...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rugved Likhite Aishwaryadev Banerjee Apratim Majumder Mohit Karkhanis Hanseup Kim Carlos H. Mastrangelo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3955: An Accurate Image Measurement Method Based on a Laser-Based Virtual Scale
Huang Image measurement methods have been widely used in broad areas due to their accuracy and efficiency. However, current techniques usually involve complex calibration, an elaborate optical design, or sensitivity to the test environment. In this paper, a simple optical device was designed to emit parallel beams to obtain a virtual scale for measurement purposes. The proposed theory ensures the robustness of the system when obtaining each scale in the presence of uncertainty. The scale creates a mapping from image coordinates to world coordinates. By using the moving least squares (MLS) method, a full-field scale map...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shiping Huang Wei Ding Yonghui Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3956: DNA Biosensor Based on Double-Layer Discharge for the Detection of HPV Type 16
Ayala Durón DNA electrochemical biosensors represent a feasible alternative for the diagnosis of different pathologies. In this work, the development of an electrochemical method for Human Papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) sensing is reported based on potential relaxation measurements related to the discharge of a complex double layer of a DNA-modified gold electrode. The method used allows us to propose an equivalent circuit (EC) for a DNA/Au electrode, which was corroborated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. This model differs from the Randles circuit that is commonly used in double-...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Espinosa Galv án Qui ñones Ayala Dur ón Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3957: Waveform Design for Improved Detection of Extended Targets in Sea Clutter
ao Du Adaptive waveform design for cognitive radar in the case of extended target detection under compound-Gaussian (CG) sea clutter is addressed. Based on the CG characteristics of sea clutter, the texture component is employed to characterize the clutter ensemble during each closed-loop feedback and its estimation can be used for the next transmitted waveform design. The resulting waveform design problem is formulated according to the following optimization criterion: maximization of the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for sea clutter suppression, and imposing a further constraint on sidelobes l...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Linke Zhang Na Wei Xuhao Du Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3958: Real-Time Vehicle-Detection Method in Bird-View Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicle Imagery
Kwon Vehicle detection is an important research area that provides background information for the diversity of unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV) applications. In this paper, we propose a vehicle-detection method using a convolutional-neural-network (CNN)-based object detector. We design our method, DRFBNet300, with a Deeper Receptive Field Block (DRFB) module that enhances the expressiveness of feature maps to detect small objects in the UAV imagery. We also propose the UAV-cars dataset that includes the composition and angular distortion of vehicles in UAV imagery to train our DRFBNet300. Lastly, we propose a Split Image...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seongkyun Han Jisang Yoo Soonchul Kwon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3959: Ferrogels Ultrasonography for Biomedical Applications
Kurlyandskaya Ferrogels (FG) are magnetic composites that are widely used in the area of biomedical engineering and biosensing. In this work, ferrogels with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the radical polymerization of acrylamide in stabilized aqueous ferrofluid. FG samples were prepared in various shapes that are suitable for different characterization techniques. Thin cylindrical samples were used to simulate the case of targeted drug delivery test through blood vessels. Samples of larger size that were in the shape of cylindrical plates were used for the evaluation of th...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Felix A. Blyakhman Sergey Yu Sokolov Alexander P. Safronov Olga A. Dinislamova Tatyana F. Shklyar Andrey Yu Zubarev Galina V. Kurlyandskaya Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3960: Development of a Single Leg Knee Exoskeleton and Sensing Knee Center of Rotation Change for Intention Detection
In this study, we developed a single leg knee joint assistance robot. Commonly used exoskeletons have a left-right pair, but when only one leg of the wearer is uncomfortable, it is effective to wear the exoskeleton on only the uncomfortable leg. The designed exoskeleton uses a lightweight material and uses a wire-driven actuator, which reduces the weight of the driving section that is attached on the knee directly. Therefore, proposed exoskeleton reduces the force of inertia that the wearer experiences. In addition, the lower frame length of the exoskeleton can be changed to align with the complex movement of the knee. Fur...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dae-Hoon Moon Donghan Kim Young-Dae Hong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3961: MIMO Radar Accurate 3-D Imaging and Motion Parameter Estimation for Target with Complex Motions
g Huang In this paper, three-dimensional (3-D) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar accurate localization and imaging method with motion parameter estimation is proposed for targets with complex motions. To characterize the target accurately, a multi-dimensional signal model is established including the parameters on target 3-D position, translation velocity, and rotating angular velocity. For simplicity, the signal model is transformed into three-joint two-dimensional (2-D) parametric models by analyzing the motion characteristics. Then a gridless method based on atomic norm optimization is proposed to improve ...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ziying Hu Wei Wang Fuwang Dong Ping Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3962: Novel Drift Reduction Methods in Foot-Mounted PDR System
Yuan The zero-velocity update (ZUPT)-aided extended Kalman filter (EKF) is commonly used in the traditional inertial navigation system (INS)-based foot-mounted pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) system, which can effectively suppress the error growth of the inertial-based pedestrian navigation systems. However, in the realistic test, the system still often suffers from drift, which is commonly caused by two reasons: failed detection of the stationary phase in the dynamic pedestrian gait and heading drift, which is a poorly observable variable of the ZUPT method. In this paper, firstly, in order to improve the initial he...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Wei Yuan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3964: Corrosion Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Oil and Natural Gas Infrastructure: A Review
This article critically reviews conventional corrosion sensors and emerging sensor technologies in terms of sensing principles, sensor designs, advantages, and limitations. Conventional corrosion sensors encompass corrosion coupons, electrical resistance probes, electrochemical sensors, ultrasonic testing sensors, magnetic flux leakage sensors, electromagnetic sensors, and in-line inspection tools. Emerging sensor technologies highlight optical fiber sensors (point, quasi-distributed, distributed) and passive wireless sensors such as passive radio-frequency identification sensors and surface acoustic wave sensors. Emerging...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruishu F. Wright Ping Lu Jagannath Devkota Fei Lu Margaret Ziomek-Moroz Paul R. Ohodnicki Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3963: Epoxy Composites with Reduced Graphene Oxide –Cellulose Nanofiber Hybrid Filler and Their Application in Concrete Strain and Crack Monitoring
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3963: Epoxy Composites with Reduced Graphene Oxide–Cellulose Nanofiber Hybrid Filler and Their Application in Concrete Strain and Crack Monitoring Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183963 Authors: Zhiqiang Wu Jun Wei Rongzhen Dong Hao Chen Advances in nanotechnology have provided approaches for the fabrication of new composite materials for sensing. Flexible sensors can make up for the shortcomings of traditional strain sensors in monitoring the surface strain and cracks of concrete structures. Using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a conductive filler, cellulose nanofiber (CNF) as a disper...
Source: Sensors - September 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhiqiang Wu Jun Wei Rongzhen Dong Hao Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3950: Preliminary Clinical Application of Textile Insole Sensor for Hemiparetic Gait Pattern Analysis
This study developed a 10-channeled textile capacitive pressure sensing insole (TCPSI) with a real-time monitoring system and tested its performance through hemiparetic gait pattern analysis. Thirty-five subjects (18 hemiparetic, 17 healthy) walked down a 40-m long corridor at a comfortable speed while wearing TCPSI inside the shoe. For gait analysis, the percentage of the plantar pressure difference (PPD), the step count, the stride time, the coefficient of variation, and the phase coordination index (PCI) were used. The results of the stroke patients showed a threefold higher PPD, a higher step count (41.61 &plus...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Kim Shin Min Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3951: A Proof of Concept of a Mobile Health Application to Support Professionals in a Portuguese Nursing Home
José Machado Over the past few years, the rapidly aging population has been posing several challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. Consequently, in Portugal, nursing homes have been getting a higher demand, and health professionals working in these facilities are overloaded with work. Moreover, the lack of health information and communication technology (HICT) and the use of unsophisticated methods, such as paper, in nursing homes to clinically manage residents lead to more errors and are time-consuming. Thus, this article proposes a proof of concept of a mobile health (mHealth) application developed for ...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: M árcia Esteves Marisa Esteves Ant ónio Abelha Jos é Machado Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3952: A Self-Assembly Portable Mobile Mapping System for Archeological Reconstruction Based on VSLAM-Photogrammetric Algorithm
* Three Dimensional (3D) models are widely used in clinical applications, geosciences, cultural heritage preservation, and engineering; this, together with new emerging needs such as building information modeling (BIM) develop new data capture techniques and devices with a low cost and reduced learning curve that allow for non-specialized users to employ it. This paper presents a simple, self-assembly device for 3D point clouds data capture with an estimated base price under €2500; furthermore, a workflow for the calculations is described that includes a Visual SLAM-photogrammetric threaded algorithm th...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: * * Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3926: Delaunay Triangulation-Based Spatial Clustering Technique for Enhanced Adjacent Boundary Detection and Segmentation of LiDAR 3D Point Clouds
Cho In spatial data with complexity, different clusters can be very contiguous, and the density of each cluster can be arbitrary and uneven. In addition, background noise that does not belong to any clusters in the data, or chain noise that connects multiple clusters may be included. This makes it difficult to separate clusters in contact with adjacent clusters, so a new approach is required to solve the nonlinear shape, irregular density, and touching problems of adjacent clusters that are common in complex spatial data clustering, as well as to improve robustness against various types of noise in spatial clusters. Ac...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jongwon Kim Jeongho Cho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3927: Efficient Resource Scheduling for Multipath Retransmission over Industrial WSAN Systems
The objective of our algorithm is to improve efficiency and schedulability for the use of slot and channel resources. In detail, the proposed algorithm uses the approaches of CCA (clear channel assessment)-Embedded slot and Multiple sinks with Rate Monotonic scheme (CEM-RM) to decrease the number of collisions. We have simulated and implemented our algorithm in hardware and verified its performance in a real industrial environment. The achieved results show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the schedulability without trading off reliability and real-time performance. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongchao Wang Jian Ma Dong Yang Mikael Gidlund Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3928: Development of Fluorescent Reagent Based on Ligand Exchange Reaction for the Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Serum
i A new fluorescent probe (BDP-Fe2+) was developed for targeting dopamine, with a boron–dipyrromethenyl (BDP) group as the fluorophore and a Fe2+ complex as the ligand exchange site. The free form of BDP-Fe2+ in solution displayed weak fluorescence emission, while it showed strong fluorescence emission after interaction with dopamine due to the release of Fe2+ from BDP-Fe2+, confirming the binding of Fe2+ to dopamine. The increase in fluorescence intensity was concentration-dependent, and a good linear relationship was observed between the fluorescence intensity and dopamine concentration. The detection l...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yoshio Suzuki Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3929: Survey of Deep-Learning Approaches for Remote Sensing Observation Enhancement
Tsakalides Deep Learning, and Deep Neural Networks in particular, have established themselves as the new norm in signal and data processing, achieving state-of-the-art performance in image, audio, and natural language understanding. In remote sensing, a large body of research has been devoted to the application of deep learning for typical supervised learning tasks such as classification. Less yet equally important effort has also been allocated to addressing the challenges associated with the enhancement of low-quality observations from remote sensing platforms. Addressing such channels is of paramount importance, bo...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Grigorios Tsagkatakis Anastasia Aidini Konstantina Fotiadou Michalis Giannopoulos Anastasia Pentari Panagiotis Tsakalides Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3930: Monitoring Severe Slugging in Pipeline-Riser System Using Accelerometers for Application in Early Recognition
jae Seong The use of accelerometer signals for early recognition of severe slugging is investigated in a pipeline-riser system conveying an air–water two-phase flow, where six accelerometers are installed from the bottom to the top of the riser. Twelve different environmental conditions are produced by changing water and gas superficial velocities, of which three conditions are stable states and the other conditions are related to severe slugging. For online recognition, simple parameters using statistics and linear prediction coefficients are employed to extract useful features. Binary classification to ...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sunah Jung Haesang Yang Kiheum Park Yutaek Seo Woojae Seong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3933: Tactile Image Sensors Employing Camera: A Review
a A tactile image sensor employing a camera is capable of obtaining rich tactile information through image sequences with high spatial resolution. There have been many studies on the tactile image sensors from more than 30 years ago, and, recently, they have been applied in the field of robotics. Tactile image sensors can be classified into three typical categories according to the method of conversion from physical contact to light signals: Light conductive plate-based, marker displacement- based, and reflective membrane-based sensors. Other important elements of the sensor, such as the optical system, image sensor, a...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kazuhiro Shimonomura Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3931: Experimental Evaluation of an RSSI-Based Localization Algorithm on IoT End-Devices
Araujo In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have experienced a significant growth as a fundamental part of the Internet of Things (IoT). WSNs nodes constitute part of the end-devices present in the IoT, and in many cases location data of these devices is expected by IoT applications. For this reason, many localization algorithms for WSNs have been developed in the last years, although in most cases the results provided are obtained from simulations that do not consider the resource constraints of the end-devices. Therefore, in this work we present an experimental evaluation of a received signal strength in...
Source: Sensors - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rosa Pita Ramiro Utrilla Roberto Rodriguez-Zurrunero Alvaro Araujo Tags: Article Source Type: research