Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3865: Performance Assessment of an Ultra Low-Cost Inertial Measurement Unit for Ground Vehicle Navigation
ove Nowadays, navigation systems are becoming common in the automotive industry due to advanced driver assistance systems and the development of autonomous vehicles. The MPU-6000 is a popular ultra low-cost Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU) used in several applications. Although this mass-market sensor is used extensively in a variety of fields, it has not caught the attention of the automotive industry. Moreover, a detailed performance analysis of this inertial sensor for ground navigation systems is not available in the previous literature. In this work, a deep examination of one M...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rodrigo Gonzalez Paolo Dabove Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3866: A Temperature-Insensitive Resonant Pressure Micro Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Glass Vacuum Packaging
Jian Chen This paper presents a temperature-insensitive resonant pressure sensor, which is mainly composed of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer for pressure measurements and a silicon-on-glass (SOG) cap for vacuum packaging. The variations of pressure under measurement bend the pressure sensitive diaphragm and regulate the intrinsic frequencies of the resonators in the device layer. While, variations of temperature cannot significantly change the intrinsic frequencies of the resonators, due to the SOG cap to offset generated thermal stress. Numerical simulations, based on finite element analysis, were conducted to c...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pengcheng Yan Yulan Lu Chao Xiang Junbo Wang Deyong Chen Jian Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3867: Time-Series Laplacian Semi-Supervised Learning for Indoor Localization †
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3867: Time-Series Laplacian Semi-Supervised Learning for Indoor Localization † Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183867 Authors: Jaehyun Yoo Machine learning-based indoor localization used to suffer from the collection, construction, and maintenance of labeled training databases for practical implementation. Semi-supervised learning methods have been developed as efficient indoor localization methods to reduce use of labeled training data. To boost the efficiency and the accuracy of indoor localization, this paper proposes a new time-series semi-supervised learning algorithm. The key aspect of ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jaehyun Yoo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3868: A Zero-Cross Detection Algorithm for Cavity-Length Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Fabry –Perot Sensors
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3868: A Zero-Cross Detection Algorithm for Cavity-Length Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Fabry–Perot Sensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183868 Authors: Ma Song Huang Guo Yuan Chen Zhang Wang A zero-cross detection algorithm was proposed for the cavity-length interrogation of fiber-optic Fabry–Perot (FP) sensors. The method can avoid the inaccuracy of peak determination in the conventional peak-to-peak method for the cavity-length interrogation of fiber-optic FP sensors caused by the slow variation of the spectral power density in peak neighboring regions. ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ma Song Huang Guo Yuan Chen Zhang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3869: A Novel Message-Preserving Scheme with Format-Preserving Encryption for Connected Cars in Multi-Access Edge Computing
ung Lee In connected cars with various electronic control unit (ECU) modules, Ethernet is used to communicate data received by the sensor in real time, but it is partially used alongside a controller area network (CAN) due to the cost. There are security threats in the CAN, such as replay attacks and denial-of-service attacks, which can disrupt the driver or cause serious damage, such as a car accident through malicious manipulation. Although several secure protocols for protecting CAN messages have been proposed, they carry limitations, such as combining additional elements for security or modifying CAN messages with ...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Insu Oh Taeeun Kim Kangbin Yim Sun-Young Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3871: Fast Calibration Methods for Resistive Sensor Readout Based on Direct Interface Circuits
chez-Durán Oballe-Peinado A simple method to measure the resistance of a sensor and convert it into digital information in a programmable digital device is by using a direct interface circuit. This type of circuit deduces the value of the resistor based on the discharge time through it for a capacitor of a known value. Moreover, the discharge times of this capacitor should be measured through one or two resistors with known values in order to ensure that the estimate is not dependent on certain parameters that change with time, temperature, or aging. This can slow down the conversion speed, especially for hig...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hidalgo-L ópez Bot ín-Córdoba S ánchez-Durán Oballe-Peinado Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3872: Self-Referenced Optical Fiber Sensor for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection based on LSPR of Metallic Nanoparticles in Layer-by-Layer Films
Arregui Intensity-based optical fiber sensors are one of the most studied sensor approaches thanks to their simplicity and low cost. Nevertheless, their main issue is their lack of robustness since any light source fluctuation, or unexpected optical setup variation is directly transferred to the output signal, which, significantly reduces their reliability. In this work, a simple and robust hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) optical fiber sensor is proposed based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) sensitivity of silver and gold metallic nanoparticles. The precise and robust detection of H2O2 concentrations in the...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Goicoechea Rivero Sada Arregui Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3873: Automatic Detection of the Pharyngeal Phase in Raw Videos for the Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study Using Efficient Data Collection and 3D Convolutional Networks †
In this study, we present a novel approach that uses 3D convolutional networks to detect the pharyngeal phase in raw VFSS videos without manual annotations. For efficient collection of training data, we propose a cascade framework which no longer requires time intervals of the swallowing process nor the manual marking of anatomical positions for detection. For video classification, we applied the inflated 3D convolutional network (I3D), one of the state-of-the-art network for action classification, as a baseline architecture. We also present a modified 3D convolutional network architecture that is derived from the baseline...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jong Taek Lee Eunhee Park Tae-Du Jung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3870: A Two-Stage Interference Suppression Scheme Based on Antenna Array for GNSS Jamming and Spoofing
Xu Lu Jamming and spoofing are the two main types of intentional interference for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Due to the entirely different signal characteristics they have, a few techniques can deal with them simultaneously. This paper proposes a two-stage interference suppression scheme based on antenna arrays, which can detect and mitigate jamming and spoofing before the despreading of GNSS receivers. First, a subspace projection was adopted to eliminate the high-power jamming signals. The output signal is still a multi-dimensional vector so that the spatial processing technique can be us...
Source: Sensors - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Cui Xu Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3858: Effective Efficiency Advantage Assessment of Information Filter for Conventional Kalman Filter in GNSS Scenarios
Wang The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a widely used positioning technique. Computational efficiency is crucial to applications such as real-time GNSS positioning and GNSS network data processing. Many researchers have made great efforts to address this problem by means such as parameter elimination or satellite selection. However, parameter estimation is rarely discussed when analyzing GNSS algorithm efficiency. In addition, most studies on Kalman filter (KF) efficiency commonly have defects, such as neglecting application-specified optimization and limiting specific hardware platforms in the conclusi...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zheng Wang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3859: Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery and Deep Learning UNet to Extract Rice Lodging
In this study, a new method for rice lodging assessment based on a deep learning UNet (U-shaped Network) architecture was proposed. The UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) equipped with a high-resolution digital camera and a three-band multispectral camera synchronously was used to collect lodged and non-lodged rice images at an altitude of 100 m. After splicing and cropping the original images, the datasets with the lodged and non-lodged rice image samples were established by augmenting for building a UNet model. The research results showed that the dice coefficients in RGB (Red, Green and Blue) image and multispectral image te...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhao Yuan Song Ding Lin Liang Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3860: Method of Evaluating the Positioning System Capability for Complying with the Minimum Accuracy Requirements for the International Hydrographic Organization Orders
ht According to the IHO (International Hydrographic Organization) S-44 standard, hydrographic surveys can be carried out in four categories, the so-called orders—special, 1a, 1b, and 2—for which minimum accuracy requirements for the applied positioning system have been set out. These amount to, respectively: 2 m, 5 m, 5 m, and 20 m at a confidence level of 0.95. It is widely assumed that GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) network solutions with an accuracy of 2–5 cm (p = 0.95) and maritime DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) systems with an error of 1&n...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Specht Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3862: Active Body Pressure Relief System with Time-of-Flight Optical Pressure Sensors for Pressure Ulcer Prevention
g Dongkyu Lee A body pressure relief system was newly developed with optical pressure sensors for pressure ulcer prevention. Unlike a conventional alternating pressure air mattress (APAM), this system automatically regulates air flow into a body supporting mattress with adaptive inflation (or deflation) duration in response to the pressure level in order to reduce skin stress due to prolonged high pressures. The system continuously quantifies the body pressure distribution using time-of-flight (ToF) optical sensors. The proposed pressure sensor, a ToF optical sensor in the air-filled cell, measures changes in surface...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kang-Ho Lee Yeong-Eun Kwon Hyukjin Lee Yongkoo Lee Joonho Seo Ohwon Kwon Shin-Won Kang Dongkyu Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3861: Superpixel-Based Temporally Aligned Representation for Video-Based Person Re-Identification
Nong Sang Most existing person re-identification methods focus on matching still person images across non-overlapping camera views. Despite their excellent performance in some circumstances, these methods still suffer from occlusion and the changes of pose, viewpoint or lighting. Video-based re-id is a natural way to overcome these problems, by exploiting space–time information from videos. One of the most challenging problems in video-based person re-identification is temporal alignment, in addition to spatial alignment. To address the problem, we propose an effective superpixel-based temporally aligned ...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Changxin Gao Jin Wang Leyuan Liu Jin-Gang Yu Nong Sang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3863: Multiple-Antenna Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Based on the Wavelet Transform and Gaussian Mixture Model
wei Zhang Spectrum sensing is a core technology in cognitive radio (CR) systems. In this paper, a multiple-antenna cooperative spectrum sensor based on the wavelet transform and Gaussian mixture model (MAWG) is proposed. Compared with traditional methods, the MAWG method avoids the derivation of the threshold and improves the performance of single secondary user (SU) spectrum sensing in cases of channel loss and hidden terminal. The MAWG method reduces the noise of the signal which collected by the multiple-antenna SUs through the wavelet transform. Then, the fusion center (FC) extracts the statistical features from th...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shunchao Zhang Yonghua Wang Hantao Yuan Pin Wan Yongwei Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3846: Virtual Dual-Loop Feedback Control with Model-Construction Linear Extended State Observer for Free Space Optical Communication
Yao Mao The stable alignment and transmission of free space optical communication (FSO) is susceptible to internal dynamics and external disturbances. In this paper, a virtual dual-loop feedback control (VDFC) with model-construction linear extended state observer (MCLESO), which is applied to the fast tip-tilt mirror platform to enhance the disturbance suppression ability (DSA) for FSO. MCLESO, which is modified on a classical linear extended state observer by introducing the available model information, is shown to use the input and output signal data of the system to observe total disturbances, including internal dy...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kang Nie Wei Ren Xi Zhou Yao Mao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3847: Stabilization of Polymeric Nanofibers Layers for Use as Real-Time and In-Flow Photonic Sensors
eves Murillo Jaime García-Rupérez In order to increase the sensitivity of a sensor, the relationship between its volume and the surface available to be functionalized is of great importance. Accordingly, porous materials are becoming very relevant, because they have a notable surface-to-volume ratio. Moreover, they offer the possibility to infiltrate the target substances on them. Among other porous structures, polymeric nanofibers (NFs) layers fabricated by electrospinning have emerged as a very promising alternative to low-cost and easy-to-produce high-performance photonic sensors. However, experiment...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Salvador Ponce-Alc ántara Paula Mart ínez-Pérez Ana P érez-Márquez Jon Maudes Nieves Murillo Jaime Garc ía-Rupérez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3848: Solid State Electronic Sensors for Detection of Carbon Dioxide
Li Detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) is very important for environmental, health, safety and space applications. We have studied novel multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanocomposite based chemiresistive sensor for detection of CO2 at room temperature. The sensor has been miniaturized to a chip size (1 cm × 2 cm). Good sensing performance was observed with a wide detection range of CO2 concentrations (100–6000 ppm). Structural properties of the sensing materials were characterized using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier-Transform Infrared and R...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ami Hannon Jing Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3849: The Design and Experimental Development of Air Scanning Using a Sniffer Quadcopter
This study presents a detailed analysis of an air monitoring development system using quadcopters. The data collecting method is based on gas dispersion investigation to pinpoint the gas source location and determine the gas concentration level. Due to its flexibility and low cost, a quadcopter was integrated with air monitoring sensors to collect the required data. The analysis started with the sensor placement on the quadcopter and their correlation with the generated vortex. The reliability and response time of the sensor used determine the duration of the data collection process. The dynamic nature of the environment m...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Endrowednes Kuantama Radu Tarca Simona Dzitac Ioan Dzitac Tiberiu Vesselenyi Ioan Tarca Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3845: Bidirectional Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
ius This paper represents a numerical and experimental investigation of the bidirectional piezoelectric energy harvester. The harvester can harvest energy from the vibrating base in two perpendicular directions. The introduced harvester consists of two cantilevers that are connected by a particular angle and two seismic masses. The first mass is placed at a free end of the harvester while the second mass is fixed at the joining point of the cantilevers. The piezoelectric energy harvester employs the first and the second out of plane bending modes. The numerical investigation was carried out to obtain optimal geometrica...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrius Čeponis Dalius Ma žeika Art ūras Kilikevičius Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3850: Development of Graphene Quantum Dots-Based Optical Sensor for Toxic Metal Ion Detection
n Saleviter About 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Human beings, animals, and plants need water in order to survive. Therefore, it is one of the most important substances that exist on Earth. However, most of the water resources nowadays are insufficiently clean, since they are contaminated with toxic metal ions due to the improper disposal of pollutants into water through industrial and agricultural activities. These toxic metal ions need to be detected as fast as possible so that the situation will not become more critical and cause more harm in the future. Since then, numerous sensing ...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nur Ain Asyiqin Anas Yap Wing Fen Nur Alia Sheh Omar Wan Mohd Ebtisyam Mustaqim Mohd Daniyal Nur Syahira Md Ramdzan Silvan Saleviter Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3851: NurseNet: Monitoring Elderly Levels of Activity with a Piezoelectric Floor
ren Monitoring the activity of elderly individuals in nursing homes is key, as it has been shown that physical activity leads to significant health improvement. In this work, we introduce NurseNet, a system that combines an unobtrusive, affordable, and robust piezoelectric floor sensor with a convolutional neural network algorithm, which aims at measuring elderly physical activity. Our algorithm is trained using signal embedding based on atoms of a pre-learned dictionary and focuses the network’s attention on step-related signals. We show that NurseNet is able to avoid the main limitation of floor sensors...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ludovic Minvielle Julien Audiffren Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3852: Leveraging a Publish/Subscribe Fog System to Provide Collision Warnings in Vehicular Networks
rlos Cano Fog computing, an extension of the Cloud Computing paradigm where routers themselves may provide the virtualisation infrastructure, aims at achieving fluidity when distributing in-network functions, in addition to allowing fast and scalable processing, and exchange of information. In this paper we present a fog computing architecture based on a “content island” which interconnects sets of “things” to exchange and process data among themselves or with other content islands. We then present a use case that focuses on a smartphone-based forward collision wa...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Subhadeep Patra Pietro Manzoni Carlos T. Calafate Willian Zamora Juan-Carlos Cano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3853: Risk-Aware Resource Management in Public Safety Networks
iliou Modern Public Safety Networks (PSNs) are assisted by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to provide a resilient communication paradigm during catastrophic events. In this context, we propose a distributed user-centric risk-aware resource management framework in UAV-assisted PSNs supported by both a static UAV and a mobile UAV. The mobile UAV is entitled to a larger portion of the available spectrum due to its capability and flexibility to re-position itself, and therefore establish better communication channel conditions to the users, compared to the static UAV. However, the potential over-exploitation of the mobile ...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Panagiotis Vamvakas Eirini Eleni Tsiropoulou Symeon Papavassiliou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3854: Emerging Technologies for Future Sensor Networks —Selected Papers from ICGHIT 2019
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3854: Emerging Technologies for Future Sensor Networks—Selected Papers from ICGHIT 2019 Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19183854 Authors: Byung-Seo Kim Sung Won Kim Chi Zhang Yuanxiong Guo Tariq Umer The International Conference on Green and Human Information Technology (ICGHIT) is an international conference focusing on green and information technologies oriented toward humanity [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Byung-Seo Kim Sung Won Kim Chi Zhang Yuanxiong Guo Tariq Umer Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3855: Real-Time Efficient Relocation Algorithm Based on Depth Map for Small-Range Textureless 3D Scanning
gxiong Gong As an important part of industrial 3D scanning, a relocation algorithm is used to restore the position and the pose of a 3D scanner or to perform closed-loop detection. The real time and the relocation correct ratio are prominent and difficult points in 3D scanning relocation research. By utilizing the depth map information captured by a binocular vision 3D scanner, we developed an efficient and real-time relocation algorithm to estimate the current position and pose of the sensor real-time and high-correct-rate relocation algorithm for small-range 3D texture less scanning. This algorithm mainly involves fe...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fengbo Zhu Shunyi Zheng Xiaonan Wang Yuan He Li Gui Liangxiong Gong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3856: Peptide Nanotube Encapsulated Enzyme Biosensor for Vapor Phase Detection of Malathion, an Organophosphorus Compound
This study explores the use of a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-based, reversible reaction biosensor using screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) having a smaller working surface area than the single-use electrodes previously studied. Previous research demonstrated the prospective application of a single-use biosensor fabricated with an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme encapsulated in peptide nanotubes (PNTs) and enhanced with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to detect organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) in aqueous and gas phases. In the current study, potential improvements to the biosensor are investigated. BChE-based biosensors wer...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Christopher Edwards Surachet Duanghathaipornsuk Mark Goltz Sushil Kanel Dong-Shik Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3857: Portable Skin Analyzers with Simultaneous Measurements of Transepidermal Water Loss, Skin Conductance and Skin Hardness
Il Doh Simultaneous measurement of skin physiological and physical properties are important for the diagnosis of skin diseases and monitoring of human performance, since it provides more comprehensive understanding on the skin conditions. Current skin analysis devices, however, require each of probes and unique protocols for the measurement of individual skin properties, resulting in inconvenience and increase of measurement uncertainty. This paper presents a pen-type skin analyzing device capable tomeasure three key skin properties at the same time: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin conductance, and skin hardnes...
Source: Sensors - September 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daniel (Jai Kyoung) Sim Sung Mok Kim Steve S. Kim Il Doh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3833: Error Analysis and Compensation of a Laser Measurement System for Simultaneously Measuring Five-Degree-of-Freedom Error Motions of Linear Stages
hao Fan A robust laser measurement system (LMS), consisting of a sensor head and a detecting part, for simultaneously measuring five-degree-of-freedom (five-DOF) error motions of linear stages, is proposed and characterized. For the purpose of long-travel measurement, all possible error sources that would affect the measurement accuracy are considered. This LMS not only integrates the merits of error compensations for the laser beam drift, beam spot variation, detector sensitivity variation, and non-parallelism of dual-beam that have been resolved by the author’s group before, but also eliminates the cros...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yindi Cai Qi Sang Zhi-Feng Lou Kuang-Chao Fan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3834: Environment Monitoring for Anomaly Detection System Using Smartphones
ben Milocco Currently, the popularity of smartphones with networking capabilities equipped with various sensors and the low cost of the Internet have opened up great opportunities for the use of smartphones for sensing systems. One of the most popular applications is the monitoring and the detection of anomalies in the environment. In this article, we propose to enhance classic road anomaly detection methods using the Grubbs test on a sliding window to make it adaptive to the local characteristics of the road. This allows more precision in the detection of potholes and also building algorithms that consume less resourc...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Van Khang Nguyen Éric Renault Ruben Milocco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3835: Game Theoretic Solution for Power Management in IoT-Based Wireless Sensor Networks
me Lloret Internet of things (IoT) is a very important research area, having many applications such as smart cities, intelligent transportation system, tracing, and smart homes. The underlying technology for IoT are wireless sensor networks (WSN). The selection of cluster head (CH) is significant as a part of the WSN’s optimization in the context of energy consumption. In WSNs, the nodes operate on a very limited energy source, therefore, the routing protocols designed must meet the optimal utilization of energy consumption in such networks. Evolutionary games can be designed to meet this aspect by provid...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Sohail Shafiullah Khan Rashid Ahmad Dhananjay Singh Jaime Lloret Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3836: Traffic Speed Prediction: An Attention-Based Method
iao Han Short-term traffic speed prediction has become one of the most important parts of intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). In recent years, deep learning methods have demonstrated their superiority both in accuracy and efficiency. However, most of them only consider the temporal information, overlooking the spatial or some environmental factors, especially the different correlations between the target road and the surrounding roads. This paper proposes a traffic speed prediction approach based on temporal clustering and hierarchical attention (TCHA) to address the above issues. We apply temporal clustering to...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Duanyang Liu Longfeng Tang Guojiang Shen Xiao Han Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3837: Navigation in Unknown Dynamic Environments Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning
n Cong Hu In this paper, we propose a novel Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) algorithm which can navigate non-holonomic robots with continuous control in an unknown dynamic environment with moving obstacles. We call the approach MK-A3C (Memory and Knowledge-based Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic) for short. As its first component, MK-A3C builds a GRU-based memory neural network to enhance the robot’s capability for temporal reasoning. Robots without it tend to suffer from a lack of rationality in face of incomplete and noisy estimations for complex environments. Additionally, robots with certain mem...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Junjie Zeng Rusheng Ju Long Qin Yue Hu Quanjun Yin Cong Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3838: Plume Noise Suppression Algorithm for Missile-Borne Star Sensor Based on Star Point Shape and Angular Distance between Stars
Wang When a missile is launched, the plume generated by the propulsion system will produce a lot of fake stars in the star image, which will affect the normal work of the missile-borne star sensor. A plume noise suppression algorithm based on star point shape and angular distance between stars is proposed in this paper, which is a preprocessing algorithm for star identification. Firstly, principal component analysis is used to extract the shape features of star points. Secondly, the authenticity of star points is evaluated based on length-width ratios. Thirdly, in two consecutive frames of star images, according to th...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qiaoyun Fan Zhixu Cai Gangyi Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3839: Cuvette-Type LSPR Sensor for Highly Sensitive Detection of Melamine in Infant Formulas
g Sook Chun Yun Suk Huh The globalization of food distribution has made necessary to secure safe products to the general consumers through the rapid detection of harmful additives on the field. For this purpose, we developed a cuvette-type localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor that can be easily used by consumers with conventional ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer for in-situ measurements. Gold nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on a transparent substrate via a self-assembly method to obtain a plasmonically active chip, and the chemical receptor p-nitroaniline (p-NA) was functionalized to st...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seo Yeong Oh Min Ji Lee Nam Su Heo Suji Kim Jeong Su Oh Yuseon Lee Eun Jeong Jeon Hyungsil Moon Hyung Soo Kim Tae Jung Park Guiim Moon Hyang Sook Chun Yun Suk Huh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3840: A Novel Graphene Oxide-Based Aptasensor for Amplified Fluorescent Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Powder
Jiaqi Wang In this paper, a rapid and sensitive fluorescent aptasensor for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk powder was developed. Graphene oxide (GO) was employed to quench the fluorescence of a carboxyfluorescein-labelled aptamer and protect the aptamer from nuclease cleavage. Upon the addition of AFM1, the formation of an AFM1/aptamer complex resulted in the aptamer detaching from the surface of GO, followed by the aptamer cleavage by DNase I and the release of the target AFM1 for a new cycle, which led to great signal amplification and high sensitivity. Under optimized conditions, the GO-based detecti...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaodong Guo Fang Wen Qinqin Qiao Nan Zheng Matthew Saive Marie-Laure Fauconnier Jiaqi Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3841: Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Incorporated with Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Sensors for the Evaluation of Water Contents in Sandy Soils
This study developed a dynamic cone penetrometer incorporated with time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors (TDCP). The TDCP is composed of an anvil, a driving rod, and a TDCP probe. Three wave guides and a K-type thermocouple are installed on the TDCP probe. For utilization of TDCP, relationships between relative permittivities measured by TDCP and those measured by standard TDR probe, temperature, and volumetric water content of the soils were investigated. In addition, the relationship between penetration indices by TDCP (TPI) and by standard dynamic cone penetrometer was established. In the field application test, relat...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Won-Taek Hong Jung-Doung Yu Sang Yeob Kim Jong-Sub Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3842: Cooperative Localization Approach for Multi-Robot Systems Based on State Estimation Error Compensation
Cao In order to improve the localization accuracy of multi-robot systems, a cooperative localization approach with communication delays was proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, the reason for the time delay of the robots’ cooperative localization approach was analyzed first, and then the state equation and measure equation were reconstructed by introducing the communication delays into the states and measurements. Furthermore, the cooperative localization algorithm using the extended Kalman filtering technique based on state estimation error compensation was proposed to reduce the state estima...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Cao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3843: Detection of Sleep Biosignals Using an Intelligent Mattress Based on Piezoelectric Ceramic Sensors
g Cheng Physiological information such as respiratory rate and heart rate in the sleep state can be used to evaluate the health condition of the sleeper. Traditional sleep monitoring systems need body contact and are intrusive, which limits their applicability. Thus, a comfortable sleep biosignals detection system with both high accuracy and low cost is important for health care. In this paper, we design a sleep biosignals detection system based on low-cost piezoelectric ceramic sensors. 18 piezoelectric ceramic sensors are deployed under the mattress to capture the pressure data. The appropriate sensor that captures r...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Min Peng Zhizhong Ding Lusheng Wang Xusheng Cheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3844: Sensor Drift Compensation Based on the Improved LSTM and SVM Multi-Class Ensemble Learning Models
Han Yu Drift is an important issue that impairs the reliability of sensors, especially in gas sensors. The conventional method usually adopts the reference gas to compensate for the drift. However, its classification accuracy is not high. We propose a supervised learning algorithm that is based on multi-classifier integration for drift compensation in this paper, which incorporates drift compensation into the classification process, motivated by the fact that the goal of drift compensation is to improve the classification performance. In our method, with the obtained characteristics of sensors and the advantage ...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhao Li Xiao Meng Han Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3832: py2DIC: A New Free and Open Source Software for Displacement and Strain Measurements in the Field of Experimental Mechanics
ttia Crespi Thanks to the advances in computer power, memory storage and the availability of low-cost and high resolution digital cameras, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is currently one of the most used optical and non-contact techniques for measuring material deformations. A free and open source 2D DIC software, named py2DIC, was developed at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division of the Sapienza University of Rome. Implemented in Python, the software is based on the template matching method and computes the 2D displacements and strains of samples subjected to mechanical loading. In this work, the potentialities of py2D...
Source: Sensors - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Valeria Belloni Roberta Ravanelli Andrea Nascetti Martina Di Rita Domitilla Mattei Mattia Crespi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3815: Gold and ZnO-Based Metal-Semiconductor Network for Highly Sensitive Room-Temperature Gas Sensing
This study provides a method for producing a new type of metal-semiconductor network structure and demonstrates its application in gas sensing. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Renyun Zhang Magnus Hummelg ård Joel Ljunggren H åkan Olin Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3817: Automatic Identification of Tool Wear Based on Convolutional Neural Network in Face Milling Process
lei Mou Monitoring of tool wear in machining process has found its importance to predict tool life, reduce equipment downtime, and tool costs. Traditional visual methods require expert experience and human resources to obtain accurate tool wear information. With the development of charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor and the deep learning algorithms, it has become possible to use the convolutional neural network (CNN) model to automatically identify the wear types of high-temperature alloy tools in the face milling process. In this paper, the CNN model is developed based on our image dataset. The convolutional auto...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuefeng Wu Yahui Liu Xianliang Zhou Aolei Mou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3818: A Fast Image Deformity Correction Algorithm for Underwater Turbulent Image Distortion
an Zeng An algorithm correcting distortion based on estimating the pixel shift is proposed for the degradation caused by underwater turbulence. The distorted image is restored and reconstructed by reference frame selection and two–dimensional pixel registration. A support vector machine-based kernel correlation filtering algorithm is proposed and applied to improve the speed and efficiency of the correction algorithm. In order to validate the algorithm, laboratory experiments on a controlled simulation system of turbulent water and field experiments in rivers and oceans are carried out, and the experiment...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Min Zhang Yuzhang Chen Yongcai Pan Zhangfan Zeng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3821: A Hash-Based RFID Authentication Mechanism for Context-Aware Management in IoT-Based Multimedia Systems
tarda With the technological advances in the areas of Machine-To-Machine (M2M) and Device-To-Device (D2D) communication, various smart computing devices now integrate a set of multimedia sensors such as accelerometers, barometers, cameras, fingerprint sensors, gestures, iris scanners, etc., to infer the environmental status. These devices are generally identified using radio-frequency identification (RFID) to transfer the collected data to other local or remote objects over a geographical location. To enable automatic data collection and transition, a valid RFID embedded object is highly recommended. It is used to auth...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Deebak B D Fadi Al-Turjman Leonardo Mostarda Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3820: Ultra-Sensitive Fiber Refractive Index Sensor with Intensity Modulation and Self-Temperature Compensation
iuru Yang In this paper, a novel in-line modal interferometer for refractive index (RI) sensing is proposed and experimentally fabricated by cascading single-taper and multimode-double- cladding-multimode (MDM) fiber structure. Owing to evanescent field in taper area, the ultra-sensitive and linear intensity-responses to the varied surrounding RI are gained in both single- and double-pass structures. Moreover, the crosstalk from temperature can be effectively discriminated and compensated by means of the RI-free nature of MDM. The experimental results show that the RI sensitivities in single- and double-pass structures...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhaojun Li Liangtao Hou Lingling Ran Jing Kang Jiuru Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3819: An Out-of-Plane Operated Soft Engine Driving Stretchable Zone Plate for Adjusting Focal Point of an Ultrasonic Beam
Liu This paper presents a soft engine which performs up-and-down motion with four planar film-structured ionic polymer—metal composites (IPMC) actuators. This soft engine assembled with a stretchable Fresnel zone plate is capable of tuning the focus of ultrasonic beam. Instead of conventional clamps, we employ 3D printed frame pairs with magnets and a conductive gold cloth to provide an alternative solution for securing the IPMC actuators during assembly. The design and analysis of the zone plate are carefully performed. The zone plate allows the plane ultrasonic wave to be effectively focused. The motion...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo-Hua Feng Hong-Yu Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3822: A New Switched State Jump Observer for Traffic Density Estimation in Expressways Based on Hybrid-Dynamic-Traffic-Network-Model
In this study, the expressway network is firstly modeled as the special discrete switched system, which is called the piecewise affine system model, a partition of state subspace is introduced, and the convex polytopes are utilized to describe the combination modes of cells. Secondly, based on the hybrid dynamic traffic network model, the corresponding switched observer (including state jumps) is designed. Furthermore, by applying multiple Lyapunov functions and S-procedure theory, the observer design problem can be converted into the existence issue of the solutions to the linear matrix inequality. As a result, a set of g...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenbin Zha Yuqi Guo Huawei Wu Miguel Angel Sotelo Yulin Ma Qian Yi Zhixiong Li Xin Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3823: A Novel Helmet Fitness Evaluation Device Based on the Flexible Pressure Sensor Matrix
This study is expected to allow this intuitive and efficient technology to fit other wearable products, such as goggles, glasses, earphones and neck braces. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jianwei Niu Cong Zhang Xiao Chen Chuang Ma Liyang Chen Chao Tong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3816: Multi-sensor Fusion Road Friction Coefficient Estimation During Steering with Lyapunov Method
Zhuoping Yu The road friction coefficient is a key parameter for autonomous vehicles and vehicle dynamic control. With the development of autonomous vehicles, increasingly, more environmental perception sensors are being installed on vehicles, which means that more information can be used to estimate the road friction coefficient. In this paper, a nonlinear observer aided by vehicle lateral displacement information for estimating the road friction coefficient is proposed. First, the tire brush model is modified to describe the tire characteristics more precisely in high friction conditions using tire test data. Then,...
Source: Sensors - September 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Letian Gao Lu Xiong Xuefeng Lin Xin Xia Wei Liu Yishi Lu Zhuoping Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research