Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5619: A Data Fusion Orientation Algorithm Based on the Weighted Histogram Statistics for Vector Hydrophone Vertical Array
Xin Zhou In this paper, we propose a data fusion algorithm based on the weighted histogram statistics (DF-WHS) to improve the performance of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for the vector hydrophone vertical array (VHVA). The processing frequency band is firstly divided into multiple sub-bands, and the high-resolution multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is applied to estimate the azimuth of each sub-band for each vector hydrophone. Then, the weighted least square (WLS) data fusion technique is used to fuse the sub-band estimation results of multiple sensors. Finally, the weighted histogram statist...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yan Liang Zhou Meng Yu Chen Yichi Zhang Mingyang Wang Xin Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5620: Incorporating a Ferrous Polymer Target into Elastomeric Liners for Socket Fit Sensing in Prosthesis Users
. Sanders Liner-to-socket distance measurement using inductive sensing may be an effective means to continuously monitor socket fit in people using trans-tibial prostheses. A practical limitation, however, is a means to incorporate a thin uniform-thickness layer of conductive or magnetically permeable target material into the wide range of prosthetic liner products that people with limb amputation commonly use. In this paper, a method is presented whereby a 0.50-mm thickness ferrous polymer made from a SEEPS polymer and iron powder that is formed adjacent to a 0.25-mm thick non-ferrous layer of SEEPS polymer is assembl...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ryan V. Carter Brian G. Larsen Jake B. McLean Joseph L. Garbini Joan E. Sanders Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5621: Recognition of Non-Manual Content in Continuous Japanese Sign Language
kadai The quality of recognition systems for continuous utterances in signed languages could be largely advanced within the last years. However, research efforts often do not address specific linguistic features of signed languages, as e.g., non-manual expressions. In this work, we evaluate the potential of a single video camera-based recognition system with respect to the latter. For this, we introduce a two-stage pipeline based on two-dimensional body joint positions extracted from RGB camera data. The system first separates the data flow of a signed expression into meaningful word segments on the base of a frame-wis...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Heike Brock Iva Farag Kazuhiro Nakadai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5622: Monitoring Shear Behavior of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girders Using Acoustic Emission and Digital Image Correlation
liedrecht In the Netherlands, many prestressed concrete bridge girders are found to have insufficient shear–tension capacity. We tested four girders taken from a demolished bridge and instrumented these with traditional displacement sensors and acoustic emission (AE) sensors, and used cameras for digital image correlation (DIC). The results show that AE can detect cracking before the traditional displacement sensors, and DIC can identify the cracks with detailed crack kinematics. Both AE and DIC methods provide additional information for the structural analysis, as compared to the conventional measurement...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fengqiao Zhang Gabriela I. Zarate Garnica Yuguang Yang Eva Lantsoght Henk Sliedrecht Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5623: A Dual-Padded, Protrusion-Incorporated, Ring-Type Sensor for the Measurement of Food Mass and Intake
In this study, we report the development of a highly sensitive ring-type biosensor for the detection of FMI for dietary monitoring. To identify lightweight food on a spoon, we enhance the sensing system’s sensitivity with three components: (1) a first-class lever mechanism, (2) a dual pad sensor, and (3) a force focusing structure using a ring surface having protrusions. As a result, we confirmed that, as the food arm’s length increases, the force detected at the sensor is amplified by the first-class lever mechanism. Moreover, we obtained 1.88 and 1.71 times amplification using the dual pad sen...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wonki Hong Jungmin Lee Won Gu Lee Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5624: Prediction of Sensory Parameters of Cured Ham: A Study of the Viability of the Use of NIR Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks
te;ndez-Jiménez Iván Martínez-Martín Dry-cured ham is a high-quality product owing to its organoleptic characteristics. Sensory analysis is an essential part of assessing its quality. However, sensory assessment is a laborious process which implies the availability of a trained tasting panel. The aim of this study was the prediction of dry-ham sensory characteristics by means of an instrumental technique. To do so, an artificial neural network (ANN) model for the prediction of sensory parameters of dry-cured hams based on NIR spectral information was developed and optimized. The NIR spectr...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pedro Hern ández-Ramos Ana Mar ía Vivar-Quintana Isabel Revilla Mar ía Inmaculada González-Martín Miriam Hern ández-Jiménez Iv án Martínez-Martín Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5625: The Use of Inertial Measurement Units for the Study of Free Living Environment Activity Assessment: A Literature Review
This article presents an overview of fifty-eight articles dedicated to the evaluation of physical activity in free-living conditions using wearable motion sensors. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the technical aspects linked to sensors (types, number, body positions, and technical characteristics) as well as a deep discussion on the protocols implemented in free-living conditions (environment, duration, instructions, activities, and annotation). Finally, it presents a description and a comparison of the main algorithms and processing tools used for assessing physical activity from raw signals. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sylvain Jung Mona Michaud Laurent Oudre Eric Dorveaux Louis Gorintin Nicolas Vayatis Damien Ricard Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5626: PORF-DDPG: Learning Personalized Autonomous Driving Behavior with Progressively Optimized Reward Function
i Jiang Autonomous driving with artificial intelligence technology has been viewed as promising for autonomous vehicles hitting the road in the near future. In recent years, considerable progress has been made with Deep Reinforcement Learnings (DRLs) for realizing end-to-end autonomous driving. Still, driving safely and comfortably in real dynamic scenarios with DRL is nontrivial due to the reward functions being typically pre-defined with expertise. This paper proposes a human-in-the-loop DRL algorithm for learning personalized autonomous driving behavior in a progressive learning way. Specifically, a progressively op...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jie Chen Tao Wu Meiping Shi Wei Jiang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5627: Modeling Seasonal Variations in Vertical GPS Coordinate Time Series Using Independent Component Analysis and Varying Coefficient Regression
ing Xia Common seasonal variations in Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate time series always exist, and the modeling and correction of the seasonal signals are helpful for many geodetic studies using GPS observations. A spatiotemporal model was proposed to model the common seasonal variations in vertical GPS coordinate time series, based on independent component analysis and varying coefficient regression method. In the model, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to separate the common seasonal signals in the vertical GPS coordinate time series. Considering that the periodic signals in GPS coordinate tim...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bin Liu Xuemin Xing Jianbo Tan Qing Xia Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5628: LiDAR- and AR-Based Monitoring of Evolved Building Fa çades upon Zoning Conflicts
The objective of this study was to compare the evolved façades resultant from the changes made by the development of architectural history and urban planning. A combination of 3D scan technology and a smartphone augmented reality (AR) app, Augment®, was applied to the situated comparison with direct interaction on-site. The AR application compared 20 façades in the laboratory and 18 façades in four different sites using a flexible interface. The comparisons identified the correlation of evolved façades in real sites in terms of building volumes and com...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shih Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5629: Distributed Dynamic Strain Sensing Based on Brillouin Scattering in Optical Fibers
Zeni Over the past three decades, extensive research activity on Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber sensors has led to the availability of commercial instruments capable of measuring the static temperature/strain distribution over kilometer distances and with high spatial resolution, with applications typically covering structural and environmental monitoring. At the same time, the interest in dynamic measurements has rapidly grown due to the relevant number of applications which could benefit from this technology, including structural analysis for defect identification, vibration detection, railway ...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Agnese Coscetta Aldo Minardo Luigi Zeni Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5630: UAV Autonomous Tracking and Landing Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning Strategy
iao Zheng Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) autonomous tracking and landing is playing an increasingly important role in military and civil applications. In particular, machine learning has been successfully introduced to robotics-related tasks. A novel UAV autonomous tracking and landing approach based on a deep reinforcement learning strategy is presented in this paper, with the aim of dealing with the UAV motion control problem in an unpredictable and harsh environment. Instead of building a prior model and inferring the landing actions based on heuristic rules, a model-free method based on a partially observable Markov...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jingyi Xie Xiaodong Peng Haijiao Wang Wenlong Niu Xiao Zheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5631: Wastewater Quality Estimation Through Spectrophotometry-Based Statistical Models
uan Suardiaz-Muro Local administrations are increasingly demanding real-time continuous monitoring of pollution in the sanitation system to improve and optimize its operation, to comply with EU environmental policies and to reach European Green Deal targets. The present work shows a full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plant field-sampling campaign to estimate COD, BOD5, TSS, P, TN and NO3−N in both influent and effluent, in the absence of pre-treatment or chemicals addition to the samples, resulting in a reduction of the duration and cost of analysis. Different regression models were developed to estimate the...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daniel Carreres-Prieto Juan T. Garc ía Fernando Cerd án-Cartagena Juan Suardiaz-Muro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5632: Electrochemical Oxidation of Monosaccharides at Nanoporous Gold with Controlled Atomic Surface Orientation and Non-Enzymatic Galactose Sensing
In this study, we investigated the electrochemical oxidation of monosaccharides at nanoporous gold (NPG) catalysts with different contributions of surface crystallographic orientations. Fructose elicited no clear electrochemical response, but glucose, galactose, and mannose produced clear oxidative current. The onset potentials for oxidation of these saccharides depended on the surface atomic structure of the NPG. The oxidation potential was approximately 100 mV less positive at the Au(100)-enhanced NPG than at the Au(111)-enhanced NPG. Furthermore, the voltammetric responses significantly differed among the saccharides. G...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yasuhiro Mie Shizuka Katagai Masiki Ikegami Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5633: Method for Fault Diagnosis of Temperature-Related MEMS Inertial Sensors by Combining Hilbert –Huang Transform and Deep Learning
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5633: Method for Fault Diagnosis of Temperature-Related MEMS Inertial Sensors by Combining Hilbert–Huang Transform and Deep Learning Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20195633 Authors: Tong Gao Wei Sheng Mingliang Zhou Bin Fang Futing Luo Jiajun Li In this paper, we propose a novel method for fault diagnosis in micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors using a bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM)-based Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) and a convolutional neural network (CNN). First, the method for fault diagnosis of inertial sensors is formulated into an H...
Source: Sensors - September 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tong Gao Wei Sheng Mingliang Zhou Bin Fang Futing Luo Jiajun Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5600: A Biological Retina Inspired Tone Mapping Processor for High-Speed and Energy-Efficient Image Enhancement
Guo Jun Zhou In this work, a biological retina inspired tone mapping processor for high-speed and energy-efficient image enhancement has been proposed. To achieve high throughput and high energy efficiency, several hardware design techniques have been proposed, including data partition based parallel processing with S-shape sliding, adjacent frame feature sharing, multi-layer convolution pipelining, and convolution filter compression with zero skipping convolution. Implemented on a Xilinx’s Virtex7 FPGA, the proposed design achieves a high throughput of 189 frames per second for 1024 × 76...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaoqiang Xiang Lili Liu Luying Que Conghan Jia Bo Yan Yongjie Li Jinhong Guo Jun Zhou Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5601: Research Progress of Graphene-Based Flexible Humidity Sensor
Weibin Wu Graphene is a new type of carbon material with a flexible, two-dimensional structure. Due to the excellent stability of its lattice structure and its mechanical flexibility, graphene-based materials can be applied in flexible humidity sensors. At present, the application of graphene-based flexible humidity sensors in the fields of medical care and environmental monitoring is attracting widespread attention. In this review, the basic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as moisture-sensitive materials and methods for their preparation were introduced. Moreover, three methods for...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rongxuan Liang Ansheng Luo Zhenbang Zhang Zhantong Li Chongyang Han Weibin Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5603: A Software Architecture for the Industrial Internet of Things —A Conceptual Model
This article proposes a software architecture for IIoT that has a low degree of abstraction compared to the reference architectures presented in the literature. The architecture is organized on four-layer and it integrates the latest concepts related to fog and edge computing. These concepts are activated through the use of fog/edge/gateway nodes, where the processing of data acquired from things is performed and it is the place where things interact with each other in the virtual environment. The main contributions of this paper are the proposal and description of a complete IIoT software architecture, the use of a unifie...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ioan Ungurean Nicoleta Cristina Gaitan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5604: A Secure IoT-Based Authentication System in Cloud Computing Environment
heng Chen The Internet of Things (IoT) is currently the most popular field in communication and information techniques. However, designing a secure and reliable authentication scheme for IoT-based architectures is still a challenge. In 2019, Zhou et al. showed that schemes pro-posed by Amin et al. and Maitra et al. are vulnerable to off-line guessing attacks, user tracking attacks, etc. On this basis, a lightweight authentication scheme based on IoT is proposed, and an authentication scheme based on IoT is proposed, which can resist various types of attacks and realize key security features such as user audit, mutual a...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hsiao-Ling Wu Chin-Chen Chang Yao-Zhu Zheng Long-Sheng Chen Chih-Cheng Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5602: New Insights towards High-Temperature Ethanol-Sensing Mechanism of ZnO-Based Chemiresistors
Iva Matolínová Martin Vrňata In this work, we investigate ethanol (EtOH)-sensing mechanisms of a ZnO nanorod (NRs)-based chemiresistor using a near-ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS). First, the ZnO NRs-based sensor was constructed, showing good performance on interaction with 100 ppm of EtOH in the ambient air at 327 °C. Then, the same ZnO NRs film was investigated by NAP-XPS in the presence of 1 mbar oxygen, simulating the ambient air atmosphere and O2/EtOH mixture at the same temperature. The partial pressure of EtOH was 0.1 mbar, which corresponded to the partia...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lesia Piliai David Tome ček Martin Hru ška Ivan Khalakhan Jaroslava Nov áková P řemysl Fitl Roman Yatskiv Jan Grym Mykhailo Vorokhta Iva Matol ínová Martin Vr ňata Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5606: Real-Time Cuffless Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation Using Deep Learning Model
Der Lin Blood pressure monitoring is one avenue to monitor people’s health conditions. Early detection of abnormal blood pressure can help patients to get early treatment and reduce mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is very valuable to have a mechanism to perform real-time monitoring for blood pressure changes in patients. In this paper, we propose deep learning regression models using an electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) for the real-time estimation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values. We use a bidirectional layer of...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yung-Hui Li Latifa Nabila Harfiya Kartika Purwandari Yue-Der Lin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5605: Biosensors Based on Mechanical and Electrical Detection Techniques
rayan Biosensors are powerful analytical tools for biology and biomedicine, with applications ranging from drug discovery to medical diagnostics, food safety, and agricultural and environmental monitoring. Typically, biological recognition receptors, such as enzymes, antibodies, and nucleic acids, are immobilized on a surface, and used to interact with one or more specific analytes to produce a physical or chemical change, which can be captured and converted to an optical or electrical signal by a transducer. However, many existing biosensing methods rely on chemical, electrochemical and optical methods of identificati...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Thomas Chalklen Qingshen Jing Sohini Kar-Narayan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5607: Developing a Multi-Element Sensor to Non-Destructively Monitor Several Fundamental Parameters Related to Concrete Durability
Yang Gu A design scheme of multi-element sensor which included electrical resistivity probes, multiple Cl− selective electrodes, and a steel corrosion monitoring system was proposed in this work. Embedding this multi-element sensor in concrete enables the real-time and non-destructive monitoring of internal electrical resistivity, free Cl− (Clf) contents in the concrete pore solution at different depths, and steel corrosion parameters. Based on the monitoring data obtained by the multi-element sensor, the freezing-thawing (F-T) damage degree, the Clf diffusion coefficient, the quantit...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jin Ma Zeng Liu Jiang Yang Gu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5608: RDCPF: A Redundancy-Based Duty-Cycling Pipelined-Forwarding MAC for Linear Sensor Networks
Fei Tong Existing duty-cycling and pipelined-forwarding (DCPF) protocols applied in battery-powered wireless sensor networks can significantly alleviate the sleep latency issue and save the energy of networks. However, when a DCPF protocol applies to a linear sensor network (LSN), it lacks the ability to handle the bottleneck issue called the energy-hole problem, which is mainly manifested due to the excessive energy consumption of nodes near the sink node. Without overcoming this issue, the lifespan of the network could be greatly reduced. To that end, this paper proposes a method of deploying redundant nodes in LS...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Quanwei Zhang Dazhong Li Yue Fei Jiakang Zhang Yu Chen Fei Tong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5609: Novel Ensemble Approach of Deep Learning Neural Network (DLNN) Model and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm for Prediction of Gully Erosion Susceptibility
This study aims to evaluate a new approach in modeling gully erosion susceptibility (GES) based on a deep learning neural network (DLNN) model and an ensemble particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with DLNN (PSO-DLNN), comparing these approaches with common artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) models in Shirahan watershed, Iran. For this purpose, 13 independent variables affecting GES in the study area, namely, altitude, slope, aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, drainage density, distance from a river, land use, soil, lithology, rainfall, stream power index (SPI), and topographic w...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shahab S. Band Saeid Janizadeh Subodh Chandra Pal Asish Saha Rabin Chakrabortty Manouchehr Shokri Amirhosein Mosavi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5610: Dual Circularly Polarized Planar Four-Port MIMO Antenna with Wide Axial-Ratio Bandwidth
Wook Kim A broadband compact-sized planar four-port multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna with polarization diversity is presented. The proposed dual circularly polarized (CP) MIMO antenna consists of four G-shaped monopole elements, two of which are left-hand CP and the other two are right-hand CP. A vertical line strip in the G-shaped radiating element acts in balancing the vertical and horizontal electric field components to obtain 90° phase difference between them for circular polarization. Also, an I-shaped strip is incorporated between the ground planes of the G-shaped antenna e...
Source: Sensors - September 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sachin Kumar Gwan Hui Lee Dong Hwi Kim Hyun Chul Choi Kang Wook Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5583: RaveGuard: A Noise Monitoring Platform Using Low-End Microphones and Machine Learning
Salomoni Urban noise is one of the most serious and underestimated environmental problems. According to the World Health Organization, noise pollution from traffic and other human activities, negatively impact the population health and life quality. Monitoring noise usually requires the use of professional and expensive instruments, called phonometers, able to accurately measure sound pressure levels. In many cases, phonometers are human-operated; therefore, periodic fine-granularity city-wide measurements are expensive. Recent advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) offer a window of opportunities for low-cost auton...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lorenzo Monti Mattia Vincenzi Silvia Mirri Giovanni Pau Paola Salomoni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5586: Medium Access Control Protocols for the Internet of Things Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Comparative Survey
Moh The Internet of Things (IoT), which consists of a large number of small low-cost devices, has become a leading solution for smart cities, smart agriculture, smart buildings, smart grids, e-healthcare, etc. Integrating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with IoT can result in an airborne UAV-based IoT (UIoT) system and facilitate various value-added services from sky to ground. In addition to wireless sensors, various kinds of IoT devices are connected in UIoT, making the network more heterogeneous. In a UIoT system, for achieving high throughput in an energy-efficient manner, it is crucial to design an efficient mediu...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shreya Khisa Sangman Moh Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5587: Considerations for Determining the Coefficient of Inertia Masses for a Tracked Vehicle
Grigore The purpose of the article is to present a point of view on determining the mass moment of inertia coefficient of a tracked vehicle. This coefficient is very useful to be able to estimate the performance of a tracked vehicle, including slips in the converter. Determining vehicle acceleration plays an important role in assessing vehicle mobility. Additionally, during the transition from the Hydroconverter to the hydro-clutch regime, these estimations become quite difficult due to the complexity of the propulsion aggregate (engine and hydrodynamic transmission) and rolling equipment. The algorithm for determini...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexa Corope țchi Vasile Oncioiu Grigore Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5588: Optimizing the Sensor Placement for Foot Plantar Center of Pressure without Prior Knowledge Using Deep Reinforcement Learning
ao-Li Han We study the foot plantar sensor placement by a deep reinforcement learning algorithm without using any prior knowledge of the foot anatomical area. To apply a reinforcement learning algorithm, we propose a sensor placement environment and reward system that aims to optimize fitting the center of pressure (COP) trajectory during the self-selected speed running task. In this environment, the agent considers placing eight sensors within a 7 × 20 grid coordinate system, and then the final pattern becomes the result of sensor placement. Our results show that this method (1) can generate a sensor pla...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheng-Wu Lin Shanq-Jang Ruan Wei-Chun Hsu Ya-Wen Tu Shao-Li Han Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5590: Functionalized Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for Bioimaging of Cancer Cells
Martínez-Martínez Functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles were designed and synthesized to selectively target cancer cells for bioimaging analysis. The synthesis method and characterization of functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles (50–60 nm), as well as internalization and subcellular localization in HeLa cells is reported here. The dye, rhodamine 101 (R101) was physically embedded during the sol–gel synthesis. The dye loading was optimized by varying the synthesis conditions (temperature and dye concentration added to the gel) and by the use of different orga...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruth Prieto-Montero Alberto Katsumiti Miren Pilare Cajaraville I ñigo López-Arbeloa Virginia Mart ínez-Martínez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5592: A CMM-Based Method of Control Point Position Calibration for Light Pen Coordinate Measuring System
g Mao A light pen coordinate measuring system (LPCMS) is a kind of vision-based portable coordinate measuring technique. It implements coordinate measurement by analyzing the image of a light pen, which has several control points and a probe. The relative positions of control points need to be determined before measurement and serve as the measuring basis in LPCMS. How to accurately calibrate the relative positions of control points is the most important issue in system calibration. In this paper, a new method of control point position calibration based on a traditional coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is proposed. A...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sen Wang Shugui Liu Qing Mao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5589: A Low-Cost Automatic Vehicle Identification Sensor for Traffic Networks Analysis
s Inmaculada Gallego In recent years, different techniques to address the problem of observability in traffic networks have been proposed in multiple research projects, being the technique based on the installation of automatic vehicle identification sensors (AVI), one of the most successful in terms of theoretical results, but complex in terms of its practical application to real studies. Indeed, a very limited number of studies consider the possibility of installing a series of non-definitive plate scanning sensors in the elements of a network, which allow technicians to obtain a better conclusions when they deal w...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fernando Álvarez-Bazo Santos S ánchez-Cambronero David Vallejo Carlos Glez-Morcillo Ana Rivas Inmaculada Gallego Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5585: Feasibility Study of Precise Balloon Catheter Tracking and Visualization with Fast Photoacoustic Microscopy
Changho Lee Correct guiding of the catheter is a critical issue in almost all balloon catheter applications, including arterial stenosis expansion, coronary arterial diseases, and gastrointestinal tracking. To achieve safe and precise guiding of the balloon catheter, a novel imaging method with high-resolution, sufficient depth of penetration, and real-time display is required. Here, we present a new balloon catheter guiding method using fast photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) technique for precise balloon catheter tracking and visualization as a feasibility study. We implemented ex vivo and in vivo experiments with three ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jahae Kim Thi Thao Mai Jin Young Kim Jung-Joon Min Chulhong Kim Changho Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5594: Advances in Analysis of Milk Proteases Activity at Surfaces and in a Volume by Acoustic Methods
ianik This review is focused on the application of surface and volume-sensitive acoustic methods for the detection of milk proteases such as trypsin and plasmin. While trypsin is an important protein of human milk, plasmin is a protease that plays an important role in the quality of bovine, sheep and goat milks. The increased activity of plasmin can cause an extensive cleavage of β-casein and, thus, affect the milk gelation and taste. The basic principles of surface-sensitive acoustic methods, as well as high-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US), are presented. The current state-of-the-art examples o...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mark Dizon Marek Tatarko Tibor Hianik Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5591: Improving OPC UA Publish-Subscribe Mechanism over UDP with Synchronization Algorithm and Multithreading Broker Application
odi Communication protocols are evolving continuously as the interfacing and interoperability requirements are the foundation of Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), and the Open Platform Communication Unified Architecture (OPC UA) protocol is a major enabling technology. OPC UA was adopted by the industry, and research is continuously carried out to extend and to improve its capabilities, to fulfil the growing requirements of specific industries and hierarchical levels. Consistent issues that have to be approached are related to the latest specifications and the real-time context that could extend th...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexandru Ioana Adrian Korodi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5593: A Study of Defect Detection Techniques for Metallographic Images
In this study, we propose a novel convolutional neural network architecture for metallographic analysis based on a modified residual neural network (ResNet). Multi-scale ResNet (M-ResNet), the modified method, improves efficiency by utilizing multi-scale operations for the accurate detection of objects of various sizes, especially small objects. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields an accuracy of 85.7% (mAP) in recognition performance, which is higher than existing methods. As a consequence, we propose a novel system for automatic defect detection as an application for metallographic analysis. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei-Hung Wu Jen-Chun Lee Yi-Ming Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5595: A Review of Endogenous and Exogenous Contrast Agents Used in Photoacoustic Tomography with Different Sensing Configurations
Wong Optical-based sensing approaches have long been an indispensable way to detect molecules in biological tissues for various biomedical research and applications. The advancement in optical microscopy is one of the main drivers for discoveries and innovations in both life science and biomedical imaging. However, the shallow imaging depth due to the use of ballistic photons fundamentally limits optical imaging approaches’ translational potential to a clinical setting. Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) is a rapidly growing hybrid imaging modality that is capable of acoustically detecting optical contr...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Victor T.C. Tsang Xiufeng Li Terence T.W. Wong Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5596: A Comprehensive Study on Light Signals of Opportunity for Subdecimetre Unmodulated Visible Light Positioning
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5596: A Comprehensive Study on Light Signals of Opportunity for Subdecimetre Unmodulated Visible Light Positioning Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20195596 Authors: Bastiaens Deprez Martens Joseph Plets Currently, visible light positioning (VLP) enabling an illumination infrastructure requires a costly retrofit. Intensity modulation systems not only necessitate changes to the internal LED driving module, but decrease the LEDs’ radiant flux as well. This hinders the infrastructure’s ability to meet the maintained illuminance standards. Ideally, the LEDs could b...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bastiaens Deprez Martens Joseph Plets Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5597: MS Location Estimation Based on the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
ng Chen With the mature technology of wireless communications, the function of estimating the mobile station (MS) position has become essential. Suppressing the bias resulting from non-line-of-sight (NLSO) scenarios is the main issue for a wireless location network. The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, based on the depiction of bee swarm’s foraging characteristics, is widely applied to solve optimization problems in several fields. Based on three measurements of time-of-arrival (TOA), an objective function is used to quantify the additional NLOS error on the MS positioning scheme. The ABC algorithm ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chien-Sheng Chen Jen-Fa Huang Nan-Chun Huang Kai-Sheng Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5598: Design of a High Sensitivity Microwave Sensor for Liquid Dielectric Constant Measurement
Wei Ruan In order to improve the sensitivity of liquid dielectric constant measurements, a liquid dielectric constant sensor based on a cubic container structure is proposed for the first time. The cubic container, which consists of a dielectric substrate with a split resonant ring (SRR) and microstrip lines, can enhance the electric field intensity in the measuring area. High sensitivity can be obtained from measuring the dielectric constant with the characteristics of the structure resonate. The research results show that the resonant frequency of the sensor is shifted from 7.69 GHz to 5.70 GHz, with about a 2 GHz f...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Honggang Hao Dexu Wang Zhu Wang Bo Yin Wei Ruan Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5599: Microscopic Structure from Motion (SfM) for Microscale 3D Surface Reconstruction
Lee In microscale photogrammetry, the confocal microscopic imaging technique has been the dominant trend. Unlike the confocal imaging mostly for transparent objects, we propose a novel method to construct a 3D shape in microscale for various micro-sized solid objects in a broad spectrµm of applications. Recently, the structure from motion (SfM) demonstrated reliable 3D reconstruction capability for macroscale objects. In this paper, we discuss the results of a novel micro-surface reconstruction method using the Structure from Motion in microscale. The proposed micro SfM technique utilizes the photometric ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dugan Um Sangsoo Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5570: Pedestrian Navigation System with Trinal-IMUs for Drastic Motions
chun Wang The combination of biomechanics and inertial pedestrian navigation research provides a very promising approach for pedestrian positioning in environments where Global Positioning System (GPS) signal is unavailable. However, in practical applications such as fire rescue and indoor security, the inertial sensor-based pedestrian navigation system is facing various challenges, especially the step length estimation errors and heading drift in running and sprint. In this paper, a trinal-node, including two thigh-worn inertial measurement units (IMU) and one waist-worn IMU, based simultaneous localization and occupa...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yiming Ding Zhi Xiong Wanling Li Zhiguo Cao Zhengchun Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5571: Co-FeS2/CoS2 Heterostructured Nanomaterials for pH Sensing
In this study, we demonstrate the use of a one-step hydrothermal method to prepare Co-FeS2/CoS2 nanomaterials as pH sensor (pH vs. overpotential) for the first time. The proposed pH sensor exhibits outstanding performance in KOH solutions via electrochemical methods with good stability. Overall, the results of this study not only add to the non-noble transition metal electrocatalysis research, but also identify important sensing characteristics for electrocatalysts. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuan Gao Zehui Peng Ka Wang Shancheng Yan Zixia Lin Xin Xu Yi Shi Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5573: Fatigue Monitoring in Running Using Flexible Textile Wearable Sensors
This study uses flexible textile strain sensors to continuously monitor the kinematics during running and uses a machine learning approach to estimate the level of fatigue during running. Five female participants used the sensor-instrumented garment while running to a state of fatigue. In addition to the kinematic data from the flexible textile strain sensors, the perceived level of exertion was monitored for each participant as an indication of their actual fatigue level. A stacked random forest machine learning model was used to estimate the perceived exertion levels from the kinematic data. The machine learning algorith...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mohsen Gholami Christopher Napier Astrid Garc ía Patiño Tyler J. Cuthbert Carlo Menon Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5574: Hardware Impaired Self-Energized Bidirectional Sensor Networks over Complex Fading Channels
anathan Rapid emergence of wireless sensor networks (WSN) faces significant challenges due to limited battery life capacity of composing sensor nodes. It is substantial to construct efficient techniques to prolong the battery life of the connected sensors in order to derive their full potential in the future Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. For that purpose, different energy harvesting (EH) schemes are relying on a wide array of sources. Following the same objective, in this work, we have observed a time-switching EH for half-duplex (HD) bidirectional WSN, which performed in-between relaying over Hoyt fading channels...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stefan R. Panic Dushantha Nalin K. Jayakody Sofiene Affes Palanivelu Muthuchidambaranathan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5572: A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Directly Immobilized Hemoglobin and Myoglobin
kola Malinowski Immobilization of proteins on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) transducer is a delicate procedure since loss of protein bioactivity can occur upon contact with the untreated metal surface. Solution to the problem is the use of an immobilization matrix having a complex structure. However, this is at the expense of biosensor selectivity and sensitivity. It has been shown that the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) method has been successfully applied for direct immobilization (without a built-in matrix) of proteins, preserving their bioactivity. So far, MAPLE deposition has not been perform...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Georgi Dyankov Ekaterina Borisova Evdokia Belina Hristo Kisov Ivan Angelov Alexander Gisbrecht Velichka Strijkova Nikola Malinowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5575: Arrays Formation of Zinc Oxide Nano-Objects with Varying Morphology for Sensor Applications
kiy The regularities and features of the formation of arrays of zinc oxide nano-objects with varying morphology are determined by CO2 laser processing with intensification of diffusion processes in the solid state of Cu–Zn metallic materials which are selectively oxidizable. In the process of laser treatment in air using the synergy of heat exposure and vibrations induced by laser with a force fundamental frequency of 100 Hz, the brass surface of samples is oxidized mainly with the generation of ZnO nanowires. The condition for intensification is the local non-stationary deformation caused by sound waves ...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Serguei P. Murzin Nikolay L. Kazanskiy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5576: Improvement of P300-Based Brain –Computer Interfaces for Home Appliances Control by Data Balancing Techniques
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5576: Improvement of P300-Based Brain–Computer Interfaces for Home Appliances Control by Data Balancing Techniques Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20195576 Authors: Taejun Lee Minju Kim Sung-Phil Kim The oddball paradigm used in P300-based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) intrinsically poses the issue of data imbalance between target stimuli and nontarget stimuli. Data imbalance can cause overfitting problems and, consequently, poor classification performance. The purpose of this study is to improve BCI performance by solving this data imbalance problem with sampling techniques...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Taejun Lee Minju Kim Sung-Phil Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 5577: SAIF: A Correction-Detection Deep-Learning Architecture for Personal Assistants
sch Intelligent agents that can interact with users using natural language are becoming increasingly common. Sometimes an intelligent agent may not correctly understand a user command or may not perform it properly. In such cases, the user might try a second time by giving the agent another, slightly different command. Giving an agent the ability to detect such user corrections might help it fix its own mistakes and avoid making them in the future. In this work, we consider the problem of automatically detecting user corrections using deep learning. We develop a multimodal architecture called SAIF, which detects such u...
Source: Sensors - September 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Amos Azaria Keren Nivasch Tags: Communication Source Type: research