Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6076: An Overview of IoT Sensor Data Processing, Fusion, and Analysis Techniques
t Qureshi In the recent era of the Internet of Things, the dominant role of sensors and the Internet provides a solution to a wide variety of real-life problems. Such applications include smart city, smart healthcare systems, smart building, smart transport and smart environment. However, the real-time IoT sensor data include several challenges, such as a deluge of unclean sensor data and a high resource-consumption cost. As such, this paper addresses how to process IoT sensor data, fusion with other data sources, and analyses to produce knowledgeable insight into hidden data patterns for rapid decision-making. This pa...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rajalakshmi Krishnamurthi Adarsh Kumar Dhanalekshmi Gopinathan Anand Nayyar Basit Qureshi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6074: Human and Animal Motion Tracking Using Inertial Sensors
te;ric Marin Motion is key to health and wellbeing, something we are particularly aware of in times of lockdowns and restrictions on movement. Considering the motion of humans and animals as a biomarker of the performance of the neuro-musculoskeletal system, its analysis covers a large array of research fields, such as sports, equine science and clinical applications, but also innovative methods and workplace analysis. In this Special Issue of Sensors, we focused on human and animal motion-tracking using inertial sensors. Ten research and two review papers, mainly on human movement, but also on the locomotion of the ho...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fr édéric Marin Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6077: Guitar Chord Sensing and Recognition Using Multi-Task Learning and Physical Data Augmentation with Robotics
utaki In recent years, many researchers have shown increasing interest in music information retrieval (MIR) applications, with automatic chord recognition being one of the popular tasks. Many studies have achieved/demonstrated considerable improvement using deep learning based models in automatic chord recognition problems. However, most of the existing models have focused on simple chord recognition, which classifies the root note with the major, minor, and seventh chords. Furthermore, in learning-based recognition, it is critical to collect high-quality and large amounts of training data to achieve the desired perfor...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gerelmaa Byambatsogt Lodoiravsal Choimaa Gou Koutaki Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6079: Future Flood Risk Assessment Under the Effects of Land Use and Climate Change in the Tiaoxi Basin
Wu Global warming and land-use change affects runoff in the regional basin. Affected by different factors, such as abundant rainfall and increased impervious surface, the Taihu basin becomes more vulnerable to floods. As a result, a future flood risk analysis is of great significance. This paper simulated the land-use expansion and analyzed the surface change from 2020 to 2050 using the neural network Cellular Automata Markov (CA-Markov) model. Moreover, the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset was corrected for deviation and used to analyze the climate trend. Second, t...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Yang Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6081: MeLa: A Programming Language for a New Multidisciplinary Oceanographic Float
n Hello Guust Nolet At 2000 m depth in the oceans, one can hear biological, seismological, meteorological, and anthropogenic activity. Acoustic monitoring of the oceans at a global scale and over long periods of time could bring important information for various sciences. The Argo project monitors the physical properties of the oceans with autonomous floats, some of which are also equipped with a hydrophone. These have a limited transmission bandwidth requiring acoustic data to be processed on board. However, developing signal processing algorithms for these instruments requires one to be an expert in embedded softwa...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: S ébastien Bonnieux Dorian Cazau S ébastien Mosser Mireille Blay-Fornarino Yann Hello Guust Nolet Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6082: An IoT Hardware Platform Architecture for Monitoring Power Grid Systems based on Heterogeneous Multi-Sensors
okWon Kim Partial discharge (PD) is a major indicator of various failures in power grid systems. PD exhibits a physical occurrence where a localized electrical discharge happens in insulation materials. This phenomenon causes damage to the insulating parts and, in various circumstances, leads to complete insulation breakdown. As a consequence, it can produce more costly outcomes such as abrupt outages or lost production. Therefore, PD detection plays a vital role in preventing insulation failure. In this work, we propose a system that utilizes heterogeneous sensors for the PD detection along with multi-sensor interface...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Phuoc Duc Nguyen Hieu Quang Vo Linh Ngoc Le SeokJin Eo LokWon Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6083: Cost-Effective Electrochemical Activation of Graphitic Carbon Nitride on the Glassy Carbon Electrode Surface for Selective Determination of Serotonin
g-Cheol Chang A simple one-step electrochemical deposition/activation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is highly desired for sensor configurations and remains a great challenge. Herein, we attempt an electrochemical route to exfoliate the g-C3N4 nanosheets in an aqueous solution of pH 7.0 for constructing a sensor, which is highly sensitive for the detection of serotonin (5-HT). The significance of our design is to exfoliate the g-C3N4 nanosheets, a strong electrocatalyst for 5-HT detection. Investigations regarding the effect of neutral pH (pH 7.0) on the bulk g-C3N4 and g-C3N4 nanosheets, physical characterizatio...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vijayaraj Kathiresan Thenmozhi Rajarathinam Seulah Lee Suhkmann Kim Jaewon Lee Dinakaran Thirumalai Seung-Cheol Chang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6084: Oxygen Gas Sensing with Photothermal Spectroscopy in a Hollow-Core Negative Curvature Fiber
Yingying Wang We demonstrate a compact all-fiber oxygen sensor using photothermal interferometry with a short length (4.3 cm) of hollow-core negative curvature fibers. The hollow-core fiber has double transmission windows covering both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Absorption of a pump laser beam at 760 nm produces photothermal phase modulation and a probe Fabry-Perot interferometer operating at 1550 nm is used to detect the phase modulation. With wavelength modulation and first harmonic detection, a limit of detection down to 54 parts per million (ppm) with a 600-s averaging time is achieved, correspon...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yingzhen Hong Haihong Bao Wei Jin Shoulin Jiang Hoi Lut Ho Shoufei Gao Yingying Wang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6085: Bismuth Subcarbonate Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite for the Sensitive Stripping Voltammetry Analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in Water
avid Jassby In this paper, bismuth subcarbonate (BiO)2CO3-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite incorporated in Nafion matrix ((BiO)2CO3-rGO-Nafion) was synthesized and further applied, for the first time, in the sensitive detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II) by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). (BiO)2CO3 composite pl...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo Zhao Mohammed Sedki Shengcun Ma Claudia Villarreal Ashok Mulchandani David Jassby Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6080: Wide-Band High Concentration-Ratio Volume-Holographic Grating for Solar Concentration
Ping Su Efficient and low-cost solar-energy collection has become the focus of many research works. This paper proposes a recording method and an experimental verification of a wide-band, large-angle, and high concentration-ratio volume-holographic grating for solar concentration. We applied the Kogelnik coupled-wave theory and photopolymer diffusion model to analyse the formation mechanism and influencing factors on the diffraction efficiency of monochromatic volume-holographic gratings. We design and construct a three-color laser-interference system to record three monochromatic volume-holographic gratings. The bes...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chengchen Wang Jianshe Ma Hongxu Kao Taihui Wu Ping Su Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6086: Monitoring of PM2.5 Concentrations by Learning from Multi-Weather Sensors
Xu This paper aims to monitor the ambient level of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) by learning from multi-weather sensors. Over the past decade, China has established a high-density network of automatic weather stations. In contrast, the number of PM monitors is much smaller than the number of weather stations. Since the haze process is closely related to the variation of meteorological parameters, it is possible and promising to calculate the concentration of PM2.5 by studying the data from weather sensors. Here, we use three machine learning methods, namely multivariate linear regression, mult...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuexia Wang Zhihuo Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6087: Characterization and Miniaturization of Silver-Nanoparticle Microcoil via Aerosol Jet Printing Techniques for Micromagnetic Cochlear Stimulation
tti According to the National Institute of Deafness and other Communication Disorders 2012 report, the number of cochlear implant (CI) users is steadily increasing from 324,000 CI users worldwide. The cochlea, located in the inner ear, is a snail-like structure that exhibits a tonotopic geometry where acoustic waves are filtered spatially according to frequency. Throughout the cochlea, there exist hair cells that transduce sensed acoustic waves into an electrical signal that is carried by the auditory nerve to ultimately reach the auditory cortex of the brain. A cochlear implant bridges the gap if non-functional hair c...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ressa Reneth Sarreal Pamela Bhatti Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6088: Application of Wireless Accelerometer Mounted on Wheel Rim for Parked Car Monitoring
-Pawlowski Damages of different kinds that can be inflicted to a parked car. Among them, loosening of the car wheel bolts is difficult to detect during normal use of the car and is at the same time very dangerous to the health and life of the driver. Moreover, in patents and publications, only little information is presented about electronic sensors available for activation from inside of the car to inform the driver about the mentioned dangerous situation. Thus, the main aim of this work is the proposition and examination of a sensing device using of a wireless accelerometer head to detect loosening of wheel fixing bo...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michal Borecki Arkadiusz Rychlik Arkadiusz Olejnik Przemys ław Prus Jan Szmidt Michael L. Korwin-Pawlowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6070: Mapping Utility Poles in Aerial Orthoimages Using ATSS Deep Learning Method
rcato Junior Wesley Gonçalves Mapping utility poles using side-view images acquired with car-mounted cameras is a time-consuming task, mainly in larger areas due to the need for street-by-street surveying. Aerial images cover larger areas and can be feasible alternatives although the detection and mapping of the utility poles in urban environments using top-view images is challenging. Thus, we propose the use of Adaptive Training Sample Selection (ATSS) for detecting utility poles in urban areas since it is a novel method and has not yet investigated in remote sensing applications. Here, we compared ATSS with ...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Matheus Gomes Jonathan Silva Diogo Gon çalves Pedro Zamboni Jader Perez Edson Batista Ana Ramos Lucas Osco Edson Matsubara Jonathan Li Jos é Marcato Junior Wesley Gon çalves Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6071: Random Fiber Grating Characterization Based on OFDR and Transfer Matrix Method
Xiaoyi Bao Random fiber gratings (RFGs) have shown great potential applications in fiber sensing and random fiber lasers. However, a quantitative relationship between the degree of randomness of the RFG and its spectral response has never been analyzed. In this paper, two RFGs with different degrees of randomness are first characterized experimentally by optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). Experimental results show that the high degree of randomness leads to low backscattering strength of the grating and strong strength fluctuations in the spatial domain. The local spectral response of the grating exhibits ...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zichao Zhou Chen Chen Ping Lu Stephen Mihailov Liang Chen Xiaoyi Bao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6072: Full-Duplex Relay for Millimeter Wave Vehicular Platoon Communciations
ong The safety and consistency of platoon-based driving are guaranteed via reliable communication between vehicles in a platoon. In this paper, we propose to exploit a full-duplex (FD) relay vehicle for millimeter-wave vehicular communications in platoon-based driving. Considering that a lead vehicle broadcasts information to all vehicles in a platoon, we consider two power allocation problems—maximizing broadcast information rates with a power constraint and minimizing power consumption with a quality-of-service constraint. In particular, for a four-vehicle platoon communication, we derive closed-form so...
Source: Sensors - October 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jong-Ho Lee Jiho Song Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6062: Mapping and Discriminating Rural Settlements Using Gaofen-2 Images and a Fully Convolutional Network
In this study, we proposed a novel framework to map rural settlements by leveraging the merits of Gaofen-2 HSR images and representation learning of deep learning. We combined a dilated residual convolutional network (Dilated-ResNet) and a multi-scale context subnetwork into an end-to-end architecture in order to learn high resolution feature representations from HSR images and to aggregate and refine the multi-scale features extracted by the aforementioned network. Our experiment in Tongxiang city showed that the proposed framework effectively mapped and discriminated rural settlements with an overall accuracy of 98% and ...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ziran Ye Bo Si Yue Lin Qiming Zheng Ran Zhou Lu Huang Ke Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6063: Research on Absolute Calibration of GNSS Receiver Delay through Clock-Steering Characterization
This article comprehensively analyzes the difficulty, composition, principle, and calculation of GNSS receiver delay. A universal method, based on clock-steering characterization, is proposed to absolutely calibrate all types of receivers. We use a hardware simulator to design several experiments to test the performance of GNSS receiver delay for different receiver types, radio frequency (RF) signals, operation status and time-to-phase (TtP). At first, through the receivers of Novatel and Septentrio, the channel delay of Septentrio is 2 ns far lower than 65 ns for Novatel, and for the inter-frequency bias of GLONASS L1, Se...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Feng Zhu Huijun Zhang Luxi Huang Xiaohui Li Ping Feng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6064: Autonomous Deployment of Underwater Acoustic Monitoring Devices Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: The Flying Hydrophone
This article presents results from the development of a UAV system equipped with an underwater acoustic recorder aimed at assisting with the monitoring of harbour porpoises in Special Areas of Conservation in the United Kingdom. The UAV is capable of autonomous navigation, persistent landing, take-off and automatic data acquisition at specified waypoints. The system architecture that enables autonomous UAV flight including waypoint planning and control is described. A bespoke lightweight underwater acoustic recorder (named the PorpDAQ) capable of transmitting the results of fast Fourier transforms (FFT) applied to incoming...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daniel Babatunde Simon Pomeroy Paul Lepper Ben Clark Rebecca Walker Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6065: An Analysis of the Eurasian Tectonic Plate Motion Parameters Based on GNSS Stations Positions in ITRF2014
ka The article is the fourth part of our research program concerning an analysis of tectonic plates’ motion parameters that is based on an observation campaign of an array of satellite techniques: SLR, DORIS, VLBI, and now GNSS. In this paper, based on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014 (ITRF2014) for observations and using the GNSS technique, the Eurasian tectonic plate motion was analyzed and the plate motion parameters Φ, Λ (the position of the rotation pole), and ω (the angular rotation speed) were adjusted. Approximately 1000 station positions ...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marcin Jagoda Mi łosława Rutkowska Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6066: Analysis of Various Pickup Coil Designs in Nonmodule-Type GaN Power Semiconductors
Kim Gallium nitride (GaN) devices are advantageous over conventional Silicon (Si) devices in terms of their small size, low on-resistance, and high dv/dt characteristics; these ensure a high integrated density circuit configuration, high efficiency, and fast switching speed. Therefore, in the diagnosis and protection of a system containing a GaN power semiconductor, the transient state for accurate switch current measurement must be analyzed. The pick-up coil, as a current sensor for switch current measurement in a system comprising a surface-mount-device-type nonmodular GaN power semiconductor, has the advantages of a...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ui-Jin Kim Rae-Young Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6067: Portable Sleep Apnea Syndrome Screening and Event Detection Using Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network
n-Hao Huang Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by repeated airflow partial reduction or complete cessation due to upper airway collapse during sleep. OSAHS can induce frequent awake and intermittent hypoxia that is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular events. Full-channel Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for diagnosing OSAHS; however, this PSG evaluation process is unsuitable for home screening. To solve this problem, a measuring module integrating abdominal and thoracic triaxial accelerometers, a pulsed oximeter (SpO2) and an electrocardiogram sensor was devised in ...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hung-Chi Chang Hau-Tieng Wu Po-Chiun Huang Hsi-Pin Ma Yu-Lun Lo Yuan-Hao Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6068: A Low-Cost 3D Phenotype Measurement Method of Leafy Vegetables Using Video Recordings from Smartphones
Han Leafy vegetables are an essential source of the various nutrients that people need in their daily lives. The quantification of vegetable phenotypes and yield estimation are prerequisites for the selection of genetic varieties and for the improvement of planting methods. The traditional method is manual measurement, which is time-consuming and cumbersome. Therefore, there is a need for efficient and convenient in situ vegetable phenotype identification methods to provide data support for breeding research and for crop yield monitoring, thereby increasing vegetable yield. In this paper, a novel approach was develope...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Han Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6069: Electrical Resistance Tomography for Control Applications: Quantitative Study of the Gas-Liquid Distribution inside A Cyclone
nt Babout Phase separation based centrifugal forces is effective, and thus widely explored by the process industry. In an inline swirl separator, a core of the light phase is formed in the center of the device and captured further downstream. Given the inlet conditions, this gas core created varies in shape and size. To predict the separation behavior and control the process in an optimal way, the gas core diameter should be measured with the minimum possible intrusiveness. Process tomography techniques such as electrical resistance tomography (ERT) allows us to measure the gas core diameter in a fast and non-intrusive...
Source: Sensors - October 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Awais Sattar Matheus Martinez Garcia Robert Banasiak Luis M. Portela Laurent Babout Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6046: Tensor Decomposition for Spatial —Temporal Traffic Flow Prediction with Sparse Data
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6046: Tensor Decomposition for Spatial—Temporal Traffic Flow Prediction with Sparse Data Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216046 Authors: Funing Yang Guoliang Liu Liping Huang Cheng Siong Chin Urban transport traffic surveillance is of great importance for public traffic control and personal travel path planning. Effective and efficient traffic flow prediction is helpful to optimize these real applications. The main challenge of traffic flow prediction is the data sparsity problem, meaning that traffic flow on some roads or of certain periods cannot be monitored. This paper presents a tra...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Funing Yang Guoliang Liu Liping Huang Cheng Siong Chin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6047: Towards Improving TSCH Energy Efficiency: An Analytical Approach to a Practical Implementation
L. Rebelatto The IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard defines a number of Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocols for low power wireless communications, which are desirable for energy-constrained Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Originally defined in the IEEE 802.15.4e amendment, the Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) has recently been attracting attention from the research community due to its reduced contention (time scheduling) and robustness against fading (channel hopping). However, it requires a certain level of synchronization between the nodes, which can increase the energy consumption. In this work, we implement ...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marcos A. Sordi Ohara K. Rayel Guilherme L. Moritz Jo ão L. Rebelatto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6048: Upconversion Nanocrystal Doped Polymer Fiber Thermometer
ehl Detlev Ristau In recent years, lanthanide-doped nanothermometers have been mainly used in thin films or dispersed in organic solvents. However, both approaches have disadvantages such as the short interaction lengths of the active material with the pump beam or complicated handling, which can directly affect the achievable temperature resolution. We investigated the usability of a polymer fiber doped with upconversion nanocrystals as a thermometer. The fiber was excited with a wavelength stabilized diode laser at a wavelength of 976 nm. Emission spectra were recorded in a temperature range from 10 to 35 ∘C and ...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jonas Thiem Simon Spelthann Laurie Neumann Florian Jakobs Hans-Hermann Johannes Wolfgang Kowalsky Dietmar Kracht Joerg Neumann Axel Ruehl Detlev Ristau Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6049: Sensitivity Enhancement of Modified D-Shaped Microchannel PCF-Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor
Feroz Ahmed In this work, a highly sensitive dual-core configured microchannel-based plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor was investigated, which can be used for low RI detection. Both the sensing layer and the plasmonic material layer were built outside of the fiber design to detect the surrounding medium’s RI changes. Additionally, the effects of different plasmonic materials gold (Au), silver (Ag), and copper (Cu) toward sensitivity were investigated for the same structure. An adhesive agent was used in this work, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and was coated on top of the plasmonic material to prevent the...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdullah Al Noman Emranul Haque Md. Anwar Hossain Nguyen Hoang Hai Yoshinori Namihira Feroz Ahmed Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6050: Comparison of Enhanced Noise Model Performance Based on Analysis of Civilian GPS Data
l Schumayer We recorded the time series of location data from stationary, single-frequency (L1) GPS positioning systems at a variety of geographic locations. The empirical autocorrelation function of these data shows significant temporal correlations. The Gaussian white noise model, widely used in sensor-fusion algorithms, does not account for the observed autocorrelations and has an artificially large variance. Noise-model analysis—using Akaike’s Information Criterion—favours alternative models, such as an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck or an autoregressive process. We sugge...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andy W. R. Soundy Bradley J. Panckhurst Phillip Brown Andrew Martin Timothy C. A. Molteno Daniel Schumayer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6051: Measuring Transverse Displacements Using Unmanned Aerial Systems Laser Doppler Vibrometer (UAS-LDV): Development and Field Validation
This study also identified barriers for industrial adoption of this technology and proposed operational development practices for both technical and cost-effective implementation. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Piyush Garg Roya Nasimi Ali Ozdagli Su Zhang David Dennis Lee Mascarenas Mahmoud Reda Taha Fernando Moreu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6052: Design, Validation and Comparison of Path Following Controllers for Autonomous Vehicles
ng Zhuo As one of the core issues of autonomous vehicles, vehicle motion control directly affects vehicle safety and user experience. Therefore, it is expected to design a simple, reliable, and robust path following the controller that can handle complex situations. To deal with the longitudinal motion control problem, a speed tracking controller based on sliding mode control with nonlinear conditional integrator is proposed, and its stability is proved by the Lyapunov theory. Then, a linear parameter varying model predictive control (LPV-MPC) based lateral controller is formulated that the optimization problem is s...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Xiong Leng Zeng Zhuo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6053: Irradiance Restoration Based Shadow Compensation Approach for High Resolution Multispectral Satellite Remote Sensing Images
In this study, to further settle these problems, we analyzed the surface irradiance of both shadow and non-shadow areas based on a satellite sensor imaging mechanism and radiative transfer theory, and finally develop an irradiance restoration based (IRB) shadow compensation approach under the assumption that the shadow area owns the same irradiance to the nearby non-shadow area containing the same type features. To validate the performance of the proposed IRB approach for shadow compensation, we tested numerous images of WorldView-2 and WorldView-3 acquired at different sites and times. We particularly evaluated the shadow...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongyin Han Chengshan Han Liang Huang Taiji Lan Xucheng Xue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6054: Expansion-Induced Crack Propagation in Rocks Monitored by Using Piezoelectric Transducers
The objective of this study is to develop a new vibration-free excavation method based on vermiculite expansion for rock cracking and to evaluate the performance of the heating system via elastic wave monitoring. Natural vermiculites expand rapidly in volume when heated above 800 °C. MgO powder is used to evenly transmit the surface temperature of a heater rod, which can attain high temperatures rapidly, to the vermiculites. The insertion direction of the heater rod greatly affects the expansion pressure. Three cuboid rock specimens are prepared and equipped with the heating system at different hole-to-face dis...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ahn Kim Byun Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6055: Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Multi-Modal Activity Recognition
zhao Liao This paper aims to develop an activity recognition algorithm to allow parents to monitor their children at home after school. A common method used to analyze electroencephalograms is to use infinite impulse response filters to decompose the electroencephalograms into various brain wave components. However, nonlinear phase distortions will be introduced by these filters. To address this issue, this paper applies empirical mode decomposition to decompose the electroencephalograms into various intrinsic mode functions and categorize them into four groups. In addition, common features used to analyze electroencep...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lingyue Hu Kailong Zhao Xueling Zhou Bingo Wing-Kuen Ling Guozhao Liao Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6056: Robust Intra-Body Communication Using SHA1-CRC Inversion-Based Protection and Error Correction for Securing Electronic Authentication
ark The explosive increase in the number of IoT devices requires various types of communication methods. This paper presents secure personal authentication using electrostatic coupling Intra-body communication (IBC) based on frequency shift keying (FSK) and error correction. The proposed architecture uses GPIO for a transmitter and analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) for a receiver. We mplemented FSK modulation, demodulation, data protection, and error correction techniques in the MCU software without applying hardware devices. We used the characteristic that the carrier signal is 50% duty square wave for 1-bit error co...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seongho Cho Daejin Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6057: Optical OFDM for SiPM-Based Underwater Optical Wireless Communication Links
houayri Underwater optical wireless systems have dual requirements of high data rates and long ranges in harsh scattering and attenuation conditions. In this paper, we investigate the advantages and limitations of optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) signaling when a silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) is used at the receiver in order to ensure high sensitivity. Considering a light-emitting diode (LED) transmitter and taking into account the limited dynamic range imposed by the transmitter and the SiPM receiver, we study the performance of three popular O-OFDM schemes, i.e., DC-biased, asymmetrically...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Taha Essalih Mohammad Ali Khalighi Steve Hranilovic Hassan Akhouayri Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6058: Underwater Ambiguity Elimination Method Based on Co-Prime Sensor Array
o Qiu Recently, the direction of arrival estimation with co-prime arrays has gradually been applied in underwater scenarios because of its significant advantages over traditional uniform linear arrays. Despite the advantages of co-prime arrays, the spatial spectra obtained directly from conventional beamforming can be degraded by grating lobes due to the sparse spatial sampling in passive sensing applications, which will seriously deteriorate the estimation performance. In this paper, capon beamforming is applied to a co-prime sensor array as a pretreatment before high-resolution direction of arrival (DOA) estimation m...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tian Lan Yilin Wang Longhao Qiu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6059: Detection and Quantification of Tomato Paste Adulteration Using Conventional and Rapid Analytical Methods
Gillay Kovacs Tomato, and its concentrate are important food ingredients with outstanding gastronomic and industrial importance due to their unique organoleptic, dietary, and compositional properties. Various forms of food adulteration are often suspected in the different tomato-based products causing major economic and sometimes even health problems for the farmers, food industry and consumers. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and electronic tongue (e-tongue) have been lauded as advanced, high sensitivity techniques for quality control. The aim of the present research was to detect and predict relatively low conc...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vitalis Zaukuu Bodor Aouadi Hitka Kaszab Zsom-Muha Gillay Kovacs Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6060: Improved Distorted Configuration Space Path Planning and its Application to Robot Manipulators
Yang Real-time obstacle avoidance path planning is critically important for a robot when it operates in a crowded or cluttered workspace. At the same time, the computational cost is a big concern once the degree of freedom (DOF) of a robot is high. A novel path planning strategy, the distorted configuration space (DC-space) method, was proposed and proven to outperform the traditional search-based methods in terms of computational efficiency. However, the original DC-space method did not sufficiently consider the demands on automatic planning, convex space preservation, and path optimization, which makes it not pract...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xie Zhou Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6061: Seabed Topography Changes in the Sopot Pier Zone in 2010 –2018 Influenced by Tombolo Phenomenon
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6061: Seabed Topography Changes in the Sopot Pier Zone in 2010–2018 Influenced by Tombolo Phenomenon Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216061 Authors: Artur Makar Cezary Specht Mariusz Specht Paweł Dąbrowski Paweł Burdziakowski Oktawia Lewicka Bathymetric surveys of the same body of water, performed at regular intervals, apart from updating the geospatial information used to create paper and electronic maps, allow for several additional analyses, including an evaluation of geomorphological changes occurring in the coastal zone. This research is particularly important in places where...
Source: Sensors - October 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Artur Makar Cezary Specht Mariusz Specht Pawe ł Dąbrowski Pawe ł Burdziakowski Oktawia Lewicka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6029: A Novel Adaptive Two-Stage Information Filter Approach for Deep-Sea USBL/DVL Integrated Navigation
Wang An accurate observation model and statistical model are critical in underwater integrated navigation. However, it is often the case that the statistical characteristics of noise are unknown through the ultra-short baseline (USBL) system/Doppler velocity log (DVL) integrated navigation in the deep-sea. Additionally, the velocity of underwater vehicles relative to the bottom of the sea or the currents is commonly provided by the DVL, and an adaptive filtering solution is needed to correctly estimate the velocity with unknown currents. This paper focuses on the estimation of unknown currents and measurement noise c...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: He Liu Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6027: Performance Evaluation of Real-Time Precise Point Positioning with Both BDS-3 and BDS-2 Observations
In this study, the global positioning performance of real-time PPP with BDS-3/BDS-2 observations is initially evaluated using the datasets from 147 stations. In the east, north and upward directions, positioning accuracy of 1.8, 1.2 and 2.5 cm in the static mode, and of 6.7, 5.1 and 10.4 cm in the kinematic mode can be achieved for the BDS-3/BDS-2 real-time PPP, respectively, while the corresponding convergence time with a threshold of 10 cm is 32.9, 23.7 and 32.8 min, and 66.9, 42.9 and 69.1 min in the two modes in the three directions, respectively. To complete this, the availability of BDS-3/BDS-2 constellations, the qu...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lin Pan Xuanping Li Wenkun Yu Wujiao Dai Cuilin Kuang Jun Chen Fade Chen Pengfei Xia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6022: Voice Communication in Noisy Environments in a Smart House Using Hybrid LMS+ICA Algorithm
la-Sterniuk This publication describes an innovative approach to voice control of operational and technical functions in a real Smart Home (SH) environment, where, for voice control within SH, it is necessary to provide robust technological systems for building automation and for technology visualization, software for recognition of individual voice commands, and a robust system for additive noise canceling. The KNX technology for building automation is used and described in the article. The LabVIEW SW tool is used for visualization, data connectivity to the speech recognizer, connection to the sound card, and the actu...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Radek Martinek Jan Vanus Jan Nedoma Michael Fridrich Jaroslav Frnda Aleksandra Kawala-Sterniuk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6030: A Case Study on the Development of a Data Privacy Management Solution Based on Patient Information
Valderi Reis Quietinho Leithardt Data on diagnosis of infection in the general population are strategic for different applications in the public and private spheres. Among them, the data related to symptoms and people displacement stand out, mainly considering highly contagious diseases. This data is sensitive and requires data privacy initiatives to enable its large-scale use. The search for population-monitoring strategies aims at social tracking, supporting the surveillance of contagions to respond to the confrontation with COVID-19. There are several data privacy issues in environments where IoT devices are used fo...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Arielle Verri Lucca Lu ís Augusto Silva Rodrigo Luchtenberg Leonardo Garcez Xuzeng Mao Ra úl García Ovejero Ivan Miguel Pires Jorge Luis Vict ória Barbosa Valderi Reis Quietinho Leithardt Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6028: A Model for Predictive Maintenance Based on Asset Administration Shell
fia Maintenance is one of the most important aspects in industrial and production environments. Predictive maintenance is an approach that aims to schedule maintenance tasks based on historical data in order to avoid machine failures and reduce the costs due to unnecessary maintenance actions. Approaches for the implementation of a maintenance solution often differ depending on the kind of data to be analyzed and on the techniques and models adopted for the failure forecasts and for maintenance decision-making. Nowadays, Industry 4.0 introduces a flexible and adaptable manufacturing concept to satisfy a market requirin...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Salvatore Cavalieri Marco Giuseppe Salafia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6031: Internet of Things and Machine Learning for Healthy Ageing: Identifying the Early Signs of Dementia
heung Identifying the symptoms of the early stages of dementia is a difficult task, particularly for older adults living in residential care. Internet of Things (IoT) and smart environments can assist with the early detection of dementia, by nonintrusive monitoring of the daily activities of the older adults. In this work, we focus on the daily life activities of adults in a smart home setting to discover their potential cognitive anomalies using a public dataset. After analysing the dataset, extracting the features, and selecting distinctive features based on dynamic ranking, a classification model is built. We compar...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Farhad Ahamed Seyed Shahrestani Hon Cheung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6033: Compressing Deep Networks by Neuron Agglomerative Clustering
Kaizhu Huang In recent years, deep learning models have achieved remarkable successes in various applications, such as pattern recognition, computer vision, and signal processing. However, high-performance deep architectures are often accompanied by a large storage space and long computational time, which make it difficult to fully exploit many deep neural networks (DNNs), especially in scenarios in which computing resources are limited. In this paper, to tackle this problem, we introduce a method for compressing the structure and parameters of DNNs based on neuron agglomerative clustering (NAC). Specifically, we util...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li-Na Wang Wenxue Liu Xiang Liu Guoqiang Zhong Partha Pratim Roy Junyu Dong Kaizhu Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6032: Enhancing Crowd Monitoring System Functionality through Data Fusion: Estimating Flow Rate from Wi-Fi Traces and Automated Counting System Data
This study establishes that the RNN model best predicts the flow rate for this particular purpose. In addition, this research shows that model structures that incorporate information regarding the average current state of the area and the temporal variation in the Wi-Fi/count ratio perform best. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dorine C. Duives Tim van Oijen Serge P. Hoogendoorn Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6034: Influence of Data Sampling Frequency on Household Consumption Load Profile Features: A Case Study in Spain
This study presents a methodology that makes two new contributions. Firstly, it proposes periodograms along with autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation analyses and an empirical distribution-based statistical analysis, which are able to describe household consumption profile features with greater accuracy. Secondly, it proposes a framework for data collection in households at a high sampling frequency. This methodology is able to analyze the influence of data granularity on the description of household consumption profile features. Its effectiveness was confirmed in a case study of four households in Spain. The result...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: J. C. Hernandez F. Sanchez-Sutil A. Cano-Ortega C. R. Baier Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6035: Feasibility of Smartphone-Based Badminton Footwork Performance Assessment System
Ju Tsai Footwork is the most fundamental skill in badminton, involving the ability of acceleration or deceleration and changing directions on the court, which is related to accurate shots and better game performance. The footwork performance in-field is commonly assessed using the total finished time, but does not provide any information in each direction. With the higher usage of the smartphones, utilizing their built-in inertial sensors to assess footwork performance in-field might be possible by providing information about body acceleration in each direction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ...
Source: Sensors - October 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ya-Lan Chiu Chia-Liang Tsai Wen-Hsu Sung Yi-Ju Tsai Tags: Article Source Type: research