Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3736: Evaluating a Spoken Dialogue System for Recording Systems of Nursing Care
We describe the effects of DSCR on (1) documentation speed, (2) document accuracy and (3) user satisfaction. We tested the application with 12 participants to examine the usability and feasibility of DSCR. The evaluation shows that DSCR can collect data efficiently by achieving 96% of documentation accuracy. Average documentation speed was increased by 15% (P = 0.012) compared to traditional electronic forms (e-forms). The participants’ average satisfaction rating was 4.8 using DSCR compared to 3.6 using e-forms on a scale of 1–5 (P = 0.032). (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tittaya Mairittha Nattaya Mairittha Sozo Inoue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3737: Building Extraction from High –Resolution Remote Sensing Images by Adaptive Morphological Attribute Profile under Object Boundary Constraint
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3737: Building Extraction from High–Resolution Remote Sensing Images by Adaptive Morphological Attribute Profile under Object Boundary Constraint Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19173737 Authors: Chao Wang Yi Shen Hui Liu Kaiguang Zhao Hongyan Xing Xing Qiu A novel adaptive morphological attribute profile under object boundary constraint (AMAP–OBC) method is proposed in this study for automatic building extraction from high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS) images. By investigating the associated attributes in morphological attribute profiles (MAPs), the proposed method es...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chao Wang Yi Shen Hui Liu Kaiguang Zhao Hongyan Xing Xing Qiu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3738: Deep Learning and Machine Vision Approaches for Posture Detection of Individual Pigs
ller Oliver Hensel Posture detection targeted towards providing assessments for the monitoring of health and welfare of pigs has been of great interest to researchers from different disciplines. Existing studies applying machine vision techniques are mostly based on methods using three-dimensional imaging systems, or two-dimensional systems with the limitation of monitoring under controlled conditions. Thus, the main goal of this study was to determine whether a two-dimensional imaging system, along with deep learning approaches, could be utilized to detect the standing and lying (belly and side) postures of pigs und...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abozar Nasirahmadi Barbara Sturm Sandra Edwards Knut-H åkan Jeppsson Anne-Charlotte Olsson Simone M üller Oliver Hensel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3739: PVDF Nanofiber Sensor for Vibration Measurement in a String
Miao Flexible, self-powered and miniaturized sensors are extensively used in the areas of sports, soft robotics, health care and communication devices. Measurement of vibration is important for determining the mechanical properties of a structure, specifically the string tension in strings. In this work, a flexible, lightweight and self-powered sensor is developed and attached to a string to measure vibrations characteristics in strings. Electrospun poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers are deposited on a flexible liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate for the development of the sensor. The electrospinning proce...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rahul Kumar Singh Sun Woh Lye Jianmin Miao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3740: Compensation Method for Pipeline Centerline Measurement of in-Line Inspection during Odometer Slips Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion and LSTM Network
ui Li The accurate measurement of pipeline centerline coordinates is of great significance to the management of oil and gas pipelines and energy transportation security. The main method for pipeline centerline measurement is in-line inspection technology based on multi-sensor data fusion, which combines the inertial measurement unit (IMU), above-ground marker, and odometer. However, the observation of velocity is not accurate because the odometer often slips in the actual inspection, which greatly affects the accuracy of centerline measurement. In this paper, we propose a new compensation method for oil and gas pipelin...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shucong Liu Dezhi Zheng Rui Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3741: Screen-Printed Soft-Nitrided Carbon Electrodes for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide
Bishop Nitrogen-doped carbon materials have garnered much interest due to their electrocatalytic activity towards important reactions such as the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. N-doped carbon materials are typically prepared and deposited on solid conductive supports, which can sometimes involve time-consuming, complex, and/or costly procedures. Here, nitrogen-doped screen-printed carbon electrodes (N-SPCEs) were fabricated directly from a lab-formulated ink composed of graphite that was modified with surface nitrogen groups by a simple soft nitriding technique. N-SPCEs prepared from inexpensive starting materials (g...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chidiebere I. Ogbu Xu Feng Samson N. Dada Gregory W. Bishop Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3742: Fabrication of Au Nanorods by the Oblique Angle Deposition Process for Trace Detection of Methamphetamine with Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
itao Dong Oblique angle deposition (OAD) is a simple, low cost, effective, and maskless nanofabrication process. It can offer a reliable method for the mass fabrication of uniform metal nanorods which can be used as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with an excellent enhancing performance. Up to now, Ag nanorods SERS substrates have been extensively studied. However, Ag is chemically active and easy to oxidize under atmospheric conditions. Comparatively, Au is chemically stable and has better biocompatibility than Ag. In this paper, we in detail, studied the electromechanical (EM) field distributio...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Baini Li Tianran Wang Qingqing Su Xuezhong Wu Peitao Dong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3744: Wavenumber Imaging of Near-Surface Defects in Rails using Green ’s Function Reconstruction of Ultrasonic Diffuse Fields
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3744: Wavenumber Imaging of Near-Surface Defects in Rails using Green’s Function Reconstruction of Ultrasonic Diffuse Fields Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19173744 Authors: Hui Zhang Haiyan Zhang Jiayan Zhang Jianquan Liu Wenfa Zhu Guopeng Fan Qi Zhu Wavenumber imaging with Green’s function reconstruction of ultrasonic diffuse fields is used to realize fast imaging of near-surface defects in rails. Ultrasonic phased array has been widely used in industries because of its high sensitivity and strong flexibility. However, the directly measured signal is always complicat...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hui Zhang Haiyan Zhang Jiayan Zhang Jianquan Liu Wenfa Zhu Guopeng Fan Qi Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3745: Fabric Circuit Board Connecting to Flexible Sensors or Rigid Components for Wearable Applications
Wang Electronic textiles demand a new family of flexible circuit boards in the construction of fiber or fiber assemblies. This paper presents a stretchable woven fabric circuit board (FCB) with permanent as well as detachable electrical connections to sensors or other wearable electronics components. The woven FCB was created by integrating conductive yarns into an elastic woven fabric. Permanent connection was designed between the conductive tracks and flexible sensors; detachable connection was achieved by the helical structure of conductive yarns wrapping around the rigid component electrode encapsulated within ...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Ran Ding Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3743: Narrow Band Solid-Liquid Composite Arrangements: Alternative Solutions for Phononic Crystal-Based Liquid Sensors
alf Lucklum Periodic elastic composite structures attract great attention. They offer the ability to design artificial properties to advance the control over the propagation of elastic/acoustic waves. In previous work, we drew attention to composite periodic structures comprising liquids. It was shown that the transmission spectrum of the structure, specifically a well-isolated peak, follows the material properties of liquid constituent in a distinct manner. This idea was realized in several liquid sensor concepts that launched the field of phononic crystal liquid sensors. In this work we introduce a novel concept&...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nikolay Mukhin Mykhailo Kutia Aleksandr Oseev Ulrike Steinmann Stefan Palis Ralf Lucklum Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3746: Data Transmission Efficiency in Bluetooth Low Energy Versions
Biasizzo One important aspect when choosing a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) solution is to analyze its energy consumption for various connection parameters and desired throughput to build an optimal low-power Internet-of-Things (IoT) application and to extend the battery life. In this paper, energy consumption and data throughput for various BLE versions are studied. We have tested the effect of connection interval on the throughput and compared power efficiency relating to throughput for various BLE versions and different transactions. The presented results reveal that shorter connection intervals increase throughput fo...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Patricio Buli ć Ga šper Kojek Anton Biasizzo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3747: Robust Stereo Visual-Inertial Odometry Using Nonlinear Optimization
Fang The fusion of visual and inertial odometry has matured greatly due to the complementarity of the two sensors. However, the use of high-quality sensors and powerful processors in some applications is difficult due to size and cost limitations, and there are also many challenges in terms of robustness of the algorithm and computational efficiency. In this work, we present VIO-Stereo, a stereo visual-inertial odometry (VIO), which jointly combines the measurements of the stereo cameras and an inexpensive inertial measurement unit (IMU). We use nonlinear optimization to integrate visual measurements with IMU readi...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ma Bai Wang Fang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3730: A Temperature Plasmonic Sensor Based on a Side Opening Hollow Fiber Filled with High Refractive Index Sensing Medium
ongsheng Hu A surface plasmon resonance temperature sensor based on a side opening hollow-core microstructured optical fiber is proposed in this paper. This design employs a gold nanowire to excite the plasmon mode, and can be easily filled with the sensing medium through the side opening of the fiber, which not only simplifies the fabrication of the sensor but can also use the high refractive index sensing medium. The coupling characteristics, sensing performance and fabrication tolerance of the sensor are analyzed by using the finite element method. The simulation results indicate that the maximum sensitivity is 3.21...
Source: Sensors - August 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lei Zhao Haixia Han Nannan Luan Jianfei Liu Li Song Yongsheng Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3718: Recognition of Dorsal Hand Vein Based Bit Planes and Block Mutual Information
an Tang The dorsal hand vein images captured by cross-device may have great differences in brightness, displacement, rotation angle and size. These deviations must influence greatly the results of dorsal hand vein recognition. To solve these problems, the method of dorsal hand vein recognition was put forward based on bit plane and block mutual information in this paper. Firstly, the input gray image of dorsal hand vein was converted to eight-bit planes to overcome the interference of brightness inside the higher bit planes and the interference of noise inside the lower bit planes. Secondly, the texture of each bit pla...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yiding Wang Heng Cao Xiaochen Jiang Yuanyan Tang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3719: A Low-Temperature Micro Hotplate Gas Sensor Based on AlN Ceramic for Effective Detection of Low Concentration NO2
un-Bo Shi Air pollution is one of the major threats to human health. The monitoring of toxic NO2 gas in urban air emission pollution is becoming increasingly important. Thus, the development of an NO2 sensor with low power consumption, low cost, and high performance is urgent. In this paper, a planar structural micro hotplate gas sensor based on an AlN ceramic substrate with an annular Pt film heater was designed and prepared by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, in which Pt/Nb/In2O3 composite semiconductor oxide was used as the sensitive material with a molar ratio of In:Nb = 9:1. The annular thermal i...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wen-Jie Zhao Dan Xu Yin-Sheng Chen Xuan Wang Yun-Bo Shi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3722: Automated Lung Nodule Detection and Classification Using Deep Learning Combined with Multiple Strategies
Haibo Hu Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths due to its aggressive nature and delayed detections at advanced stages. Early detection of lung cancer is very important for the survival of an individual, and is a significant challenging problem. Generally, chest radiographs (X-ray) and computed tomography (CT) scans are used initially for the diagnosis of the malignant nodules; however, the possible existence of benign nodules leads to erroneous decisions. At early stages, the benign and the malignant nodules show very close resemblance to each other. In this paper, a novel deep learning-bas...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nasrullah Nasrullah Jun Sang Mohammad S. Alam Muhammad Mateen Bin Cai Haibo Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3721: Low-Cost Radon Detector with Low-Voltage Air-Ionization Chamber
;n Jan Šlégr This paper describes the design of a low-cost radon detector that can easily be fabricated in large quantities for the purposes of earthquake prediction. The described detector can also be used for monitoring radon levels in houses because high radon levels pose a great health risk. A very simple air-ionization chamber for alpha particles was used, considering the experimental results. Chamber current-sensing circuitry is also suggested, and an Internet of Things (IoT) sensor grid is described. The main advantages of this detector are the low cost, low power consumption, and complete elimin...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Filip Studni čka Jan Štěpán Jan Šlégr Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3720: Detection of Human Fall Using Floor Vibration and Multi-Features Semi-Supervised SVM
c Maxwell Human falls are the premier cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among older adults. The health outcome of a fall event is largely dependent on rapid response and rescue of the fallen elder. Being able to provide an accurate and fast fall detection will dramatically improve the health outcomes of the older population and reduce the associated healthcare cost after a fall. To achieve the goal, a multi-features semi-supervised support vector machines (MFSS-SVM) algorithm utilizing measurements from structural floor vibration obtained through accelerometers is proposed in this study to detect falling events with...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chengyin Liu Zhaoshuo Jiang Xiangxiang Su Samuel Benzoni Alec Maxwell Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3723: Using A Low-Cost Sensor Array and Machine Learning Techniques to Detect Complex Pollutant Mixtures and Identify Likely Sources
nigan An array of low-cost sensors was assembled and tested in a chamber environment wherein several pollutant mixtures were generated. The four classes of sources that were simulated were mobile emissions, biomass burning, natural gas emissions, and gasoline vapors. A two-step regression and classification method was developed and applied to the sensor data from this array. We first applied regression models to estimate the concentrations of several compounds and then classification models trained to use those estimates to identify the presence of each of those sources. The regression models that were used included fo...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jacob Thorson Ashley Collier-Oxandale Michael Hannigan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3724: Electromagnetic Energy Absorption in a Head Approaching a Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Reader Operating at 13.56 MHz in Users of Hearing Implants Versus Non-Users
Gryz The aim of this study was to model the absorption in the head of an electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by a radiofrequency identification reader operating at a frequency of 13.56 MHz (recognized as an RFID HF reader), with respect to the direct biophysical effects evaluated by the specific absorption rate (SAR), averaged over the entire head or locally, over any 10 g of tissues. The exposure effects were compared between the head of a user of a hearing implant with an acoustic sensor and a person without such an implant, used as a referenced case. The RFID HF reader, such as is used in shops or libraries, was mod...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Patryk Zradzi ński Jolanta Karpowicz Krzysztof Gryz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3725: ARTS, an AR Tourism System, for the Integration of 3D Scanning and Smartphone AR in Cultural Heritage Tourism and Pedagogy
Chen Interactions between cultural heritage, tourism, and pedagogy deserve investigation in an as-built environment under a macro- or micro-perspective of urban fabric. The heritage site of Shih Yih Hall, Lukang, was explored. An Augmented Reality Tourism System (ARTS) was developed on a smartphone-based platform for a novel application scenario using 3D scans converted from a point cloud to a portable interaction size. ARTS comprises a real-time environment viewing module, a space-switching module, and an Augmented Reality (AR) guide graphic module. The system facilitates scenario initiations, projection and superimp...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Naai-Jung Shih Pei-Huang Diao Yi Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3726: Marine Observation Beacon Clustering and Recycling Technology Based on Wireless Sensor Networks
Li Monitoring of marine polluted areas is an emergency task, where efficiency and low-power consumption are challenging for the recovery of marine monitoring equipment. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offer the potential for low-energy recovery of marine observation beacons. Reducing and balancing network energy consumption are major problems for this solution. This paper presents an energy-saving clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on k-means algorithm and fuzzy logic system (KFNS). The algorithm is divided into three phases according to the different demands of each recovery phase. In the moni...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Qi Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3727: Deep Visible and Thermal Image Fusion for Enhanced Pedestrian Visibility
ilips Reliable vision in challenging illumination conditions is one of the crucial requirements of future autonomous automotive systems. In the last decade, thermal cameras have become more easily accessible to a larger number of researchers. This has resulted in numerous studies which confirmed the benefits of the thermal cameras in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose a learning-based method for visible and thermal image fusion that focuses on generating fused images with high visual similarity to regular truecolor (red-green-blue or RGB) images, while introducing new informative details in pedest...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ivana Shopovska Ljubomir Jovanov Wilfried Philips Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3728: A Method of Short Text Representation Based on the Feature Probability Embedded Vector
n Sun Text representation is one of the key tasks in the field of natural language processing (NLP). Traditional feature extraction and weighting methods often use the bag-of-words (BoW) model, which may lead to a lack of semantic information as well as the problems of high dimensionality and high sparsity. At present, to solve these problems, a popular idea is to utilize deep learning methods. In this paper, feature weighting, word embedding, and topic models are combined to propose an unsupervised text representation method named the feature, probability, and word embedding method. The main idea is to use the word...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhou Wang Sun Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3729: Assessment of Ultra-Short Heart Variability Indices Derived by Smartphone Accelerometers for Stress Detection
ti Caiani Body acceleration due to heartbeat-induced reaction forces can be measured as mobile phone accelerometer (m-ACC) signals. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using m-ACC to detect changes induced by stress by ultra-short heart rate variability (USV) indices (standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval—SDNN and root mean square of successive differences—RMSSD). Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited; m-ACC was recorded while in supine position, during spontaneous breathing at rest conditions (REST) and during one minute of mental stress (MS) induced by arithmetic serial...
Source: Sensors - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Landreani Faini Martin-Yebra Morri Parati Caiani Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3713: Pre-Impact Detection Algorithm to Identify Tripping Events Using Wearable Sensors
This study aimed to investigate the performance of an updated version of our pre-impact detection algorithm parsing out the output of a set of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) placed on lower limbs and designed to recognize signs of lack of balance due to tripping. Eight young subjects were asked to manage tripping events while walking on a treadmill. An adaptive threshold-based algorithm, relying on a pool of adaptive oscillators, was tuned to identify abrupt kinematics modifications during tripping. Inputs of the algorithm were the elevation angles of lower limb segments, as estimated by IMUs located on thighs, shanks a...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Federica Aprigliano Silvestro Micera Vito Monaco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3714: DMS-SLAM: A General Visual SLAM System for Dynamic Scenes with Multiple Sensors
Feng Xu Presently, although many impressed SLAM systems have achieved exceptional accuracy in a real environment, most of them are verified in the static environment. However, for mobile robots and autonomous driving, the dynamic objects in the scene can result in tracking failure or large deviation during pose estimation. In this paper, a general visual SLAM system for dynamic scenes with multiple sensors called DMS-SLAM is proposed. First, the combination of GMS and sliding window is used to achieve the initialization of the system, which can eliminate the influence of dynamic objects and construct a static initializ...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guihua Liu Weilin Zeng Bo Feng Feng Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3715: Self-Powered Portable Electronic Reader for Point-of-Care Amperometric Measurements
In this study, we present the electronics system in detail and describe all modules that make up the system. Furthermore, we validate the device’s operation with different emulated FCs and sensors presented in the literature. The e-reader can be adjusted to numerous current ranges up to 3 mA, with a 13 nA resolution and an uncertainty of 1.8%. Besides, it only consumes 900 µW in the low power mode of operation, and it can operate with a minimum voltage of 330 mV. This concept can be extended to a wide range of fields, from biomedical to environmental applications. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yaiza Montes-Cebri án Albert Álvarez-Carulla Jordi Colomer-Farrarons Manel Puig-Vidal Pere Ll. Miribel-Catal à Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3716: Time Coherent Full-Body Poses Estimated Using Only Five Inertial Sensors: Deep versus Shallow Learning
H. Veltink Full-body motion capture typically requires sensors/markers to be placed on each rigid body segment, which results in long setup times and is obtrusive. The number of sensors/markers can be reduced using deep learning or offline methods. However, this requires large training datasets and/or sufficient computational resources. Therefore, we investigate the following research question: “What is the performance of a shallow approach, compared to a deep learning one, for estimating time coherent full-body poses using only five inertial sensors?”. We propose to incorporate past/future...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Frank J. Wouda Matteo Giuberti Nina Rudigkeit Bert-Jan F. van Beijnum Mannes Poel Peter H. Veltink Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3717: Improving GIS-based Landslide Susceptibility Assessments with Multi-temporal Remote Sensing and Machine Learning
This study developed a systematic approach with machine learning (ML) to apply the satellite remote sensing images, geographic information system (GIS) datasets, and spatial analysis for multi-temporal and event-based landslide susceptibility assessments at a regional scale. Random forests (RF) algorithm, one of the ML-based methods, was selected to construct the landslide susceptibility models. Different ratios of landslide and non-landslide samples were considered in the experiments. This study also employed a cost-sensitive analysis to adjust the decision boundary of the developed RF models with unbalanced sample ratios...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lai Tsai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3710: Wavelet-Based Analysis of Physical Activity and Sleep Movement Data from Wearable Sensors among Obese Adults
This study is critical for obesity management to prevent unhealthy weight gain by the recommendations of physical activity based on our results. Longitudinal multi-day monitoring using wearable sensors has great potential to be integrated into routine health care checkups to prevent obesity and promote physical activities. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rahul Soangra Vennila Krishnan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3711: RSS Indoor Localization Based on a Single Access Point
Stavrou This research work investigates how RSS information fusion from a single, multi-antenna access point (AP) can be used to perform device localization in indoor RSS based localization systems. The proposed approach demonstrates that different RSS values can be obtained by carefully modifying each AP antenna orientation and polarization, allowing the generation of unique, low correlation fingerprints, for the area of interest. Each AP antenna can be used to generate a set of fingerprint radiomaps for different antenna orientations and/or polarization. The RSS fingerprints generated from all antennas of the single ...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Akis Kokkinis Loizos Kanaris Antonio Liotta Stavros Stavrou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3712: Sensitivity of Vegetation Indices for Estimating Vegetative N Status in Winter Wheat
This study aimed at a critical assessment of the estimation ability depending on the level of the target traits. It included seven years’ data with nine measurement dates from early stem elongation until flowering in eight N regimes (0–420 kg N ha−1) for selected SVIs. Tested across years, a pronounced date-specific clustering was found particularly for DM and NC. While for DM, only the R900_970 gave moderate but saturated relationships (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.001) and no index was useful for NC across dates, NNI and Nup could be better estimated (REIP: R2 = 0.59, p &l...
Source: Sensors - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lukas Prey Urs Schmidhalter Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3696: Locating Ultrasonic Signals Employing MEMS-On-Fiber Sensors
n Yiting Yu Sound sensing finds wide applications in various fields, such as underwater detection, structural health monitoring, and medical diagnosis, to name just a few. Based on our previously developed MEMS-on-fiber sensors, showing the advantages of low cost, small volume, and high performance, a three-dimensional ultrasonic localization system employing four such sensors was established in this work. A time difference of arrival (TDOA) algorithm was utilized to analyze the acquired data and then calculate the accurate position of the ultrasonic signal source. Plenty of practical measurements were performed, and...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenrong Si Chenzhao Fu Haoyong Li Jiaming Lv Chaoyu Xiong Peng Yuan Yiting Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3697: Validation of Wired and Wireless Interconnected Body Sensor Networks
Mahtab Alam Current medical facilities usually lead to a very high cost especially for developing countries, rural areas and mass casualty incidents. Therefore, advanced electronic health systems are gaining momentum. In this paper, we first compared our novel off the shelf experimental wired Body Sensor Networks (BSN), that is, Digital First Aid (DigiAID) with the existing commercial product called as Hexoskin. We showed the viability of DigiAID through extensive real measurements during daily activities by both male and females. It was found that the major hurdle was wires to be worn by the subjects. Accordingly, we ...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anum Talpur Faisal Karim Shaikh Natasha Baloch Emad Felemban Abdelmajid Khelil Muhammad Mahtab Alam Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3699: SLAM in Dynamic Environments: A Deep Learning Approach for Moving Object Tracking Using ML-RANSAC Algorithm
ozorg The important problem of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic environments is less studied than the counterpart problem in static settings. In this paper, we present a solution for the feature-based SLAM problem in dynamic environments. We propose an algorithm that integrates SLAM with multi-target tracking (SLAMMTT) using a robust feature-tracking algorithm for dynamic environments. A novel implementation of RANdomSAmple Consensus (RANSAC) method referred to as multilevel-RANSAC (ML-RANSAC) within the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) framework is applied for multi-target tracking (MTT). We also ap...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Masoud S. Bahraini Ahmad B. Rad Mohammad Bozorg Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3698: MW-PPG Sensor: An on-Chip Spectrometer Approach
In this study we developed a chip-scale MW-PPG sensor using innovative on-chip spectrometers, aimed at wearable applications. Also in this paper we present signal processing methods for robustly extracting the PPG signals, in which an increase of up to 50% in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was observed. Example measurements of saturation of peripheral blood oxygen (SpO2) and blood pressure were conducted. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheng-Chun Chang Chien-Ta Wu Byung Il Choi Tong-Jing Fang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3700: Validation of Glacier Topographic Acquisitions from an Airborne Single-Pass Interferometer
We present the first validation results of the operational sensor, collected in 2013 over glaciers in Alaska and followed by more exhaustive collections from Greenland in 2016 and 2017. In Alaska, overlapping flight-tracks were mosaicked to mitigate potential residual trends across-track and the resultant maps are validated with lidar. Furthermore, repeat acquisitions of Columbia Glacier collected with a three day separation indicate excellent stability and repeatability. Commencing 2016, GLISTIN-A has circumnavigated Greenland for 4 consecutive years. Due to flight hour limitations, overlapping swaths were not flown. In 2...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Delwyn Moller Scott Hensley Jeremie Mouginot Joshua Willis Xiaoqing Wu Christopher Larsen Eric Rignot Ronald Muellerschoen Ala Khazendar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3701: The Impact of the Land Cover Dynamics on Surface Urban Heat Island Variations in Semi-Arid Cities: A Case Study in Ahmedabad City, India, Using Multi-Sensor/Source Data
This study examines the behavior of land surface temperature (LST) and surface urban heat island (SUHI) from MODIS data over Ahmedabad city, Gujarat state (India), from 2003 to 2018. Summer and winter LST patterns were analyzed, both daytime and nighttime. Ahmedabad, one of the fastest growing metropolitan cities in India, is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The investigation focuses on the SUHI variations due to warming or cooling trends of both urban and rural areas, providing quantitative interpretations by means of multi-sensor/source data. Land cover maps, normalized differential vegetation index, surface albedo,...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pir Mohammad Ajanta Goswami Stefania Bonafoni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3702: Deep Learning-Based Target Tracking and Classification for Low Quality Videos Using Coded Aperture Cameras
enne-Cummings Compressive sensing has seen many applications in recent years. One type of compressive sensing device is the Pixel-wise Code Exposure (PCE) camera, which has low power consumption and individual control of pixel exposure time. In order to use PCE cameras for practical applications, a time consuming and lossy process is needed to reconstruct the original frames. In this paper, we present a deep learning approach that directly performs target tracking and classification in the compressive measurement domain without any frame reconstruction. In particular, we propose to apply You Only Look Once (YOLO) to de...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chiman Kwan Bryan Chou Jonathan Yang Akshay Rangamani Trac Tran Jack Zhang Ralph Etienne-Cummings Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3703: Wasserstein Distance Learns Domain Invariant Feature Representations for Drift Compensation of E-Nose
Juan Xu Electronic nose (E-nose), a kind of instrument which combines with the gas sensor and the corresponding pattern recognition algorithm, is used to detect the type and concentration of gases. However, the sensor drift will occur in realistic application scenario of E-nose, which makes a variation of data distribution in feature space and causes a decrease in prediction accuracy. Therefore, studies on the drift compensation algorithms are receiving increasing attention in the field of the E-nose. In this paper, a novel method, namely Wasserstein Distance Learned Feature Representations (WDLFR), is put forward fo...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Tao Chunyan Li Zhifang Liang Haocheng Yang Juan Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3704: IoT and UAV Integration in 5G Hybrid Terrestrial-Satellite Networks
trone The Fifth Generation of Mobile Communications (5G) will lead to the growth of use cases demanding higher capacity and a enhanced data rate, a lower latency, and a more flexible and scalable network able to offer better user Quality of Experience (QoE). The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of these use cases. It has been spreading in the recent past few years, and it covers a wider range of possible application scenarios, such as smart city, smart factory, and smart agriculture, among many others. However, the limitations of the terrestrial network hinder the deployment of IoT devices and services. Besides, the exi...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mario Marchese Aya Moheddine Fabio Patrone Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3705: CPG-Based Gait Generation of the Curved-Leg Hexapod Robot with Smooth Gait Transition
nhong Zhong This paper presents a novel CPG-based gait generation of the curved-leg hexapod robot that can enable smooth gait transitions between multi-mode gaits. First, the locomotion of the curved leg and instability during the gait transitions are analyzed. Then, a modified Hopf oscillator is applied in the CPG control, which can realize multiple gaits by adjusting a simple parameter. In addition, a smooth gait switching method is also proposed via smooth gait transition functions and gait planning. Tripod gait, quadruped gait, and wave gait are planned for the hexapod robot to achieve quick and stable gait transit...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Long Bai Hao Hu Xiaohong Chen Yuanxi Sun Chaoyang Ma Yuanhong Zhong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3706: Development of Open-Tubular-Type Micro Gas Chromatography Column with Bump Structures
This study reports an open-tubular-type micro GC (μ-GC) column with internal bump structures (bump structure μ-GC column) that substantially increase the interaction between the gas mixture and a stationary phase. The developed bump structure μ-GC column, which was fabricated on a 2 cm × 2 cm μ-GC chip and coated with a non-polar stationary phase, is 1.5 m-long, 150 μm-wide, and 400 μm-deep. It has an internal microfluidic channel in which the bumps, which are 150 μm diameter half-circles, are alternatingly disposed to face each othe...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee Lim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3707: An FPGA-Based Ultra-High-Speed Object Detection Algorithm with Multi-Frame Information Fusion
aku Ishii An ultra-high-speed algorithm based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for hardware implementation at 10,000 frames per second (FPS) under complex backgrounds is proposed for object detection. The algorithm is implemented on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) in the high-speed-vision platform, in which 64 pixels are input per clock cycle. The high pixel parallelism of the vision platform limits its performance, as it is difficult to reduce the strides between detection windows below 16 pixels, thus introduce non-negligible deviation of object detection. In addition,...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xianlei Long Shenhua Hu Yiming Hu Qingyi Gu Idaku Ishii Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3708: Assessing the Ability of Luojia 1-01 Imagery to Detect Feeble Nighttime Lights
n Sun The Luojia1-01 (LJ1-01) satellite launched on June 2, 2018 provides a new option for nighttime light (NTL) application research. In this paper, four types of human settlements, such as cities, counties, towns and villages, are sampled to evaluate the potential of LJ1-01 to detect feeble NTL by comparing with the NTL images from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite. First, the landscape indices and cutoff threshold method are applied ...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Liu Chen Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3709: Multi-Biometric System Based on Cutting-Edge Equipment for Experimental Contactless Verification
un Fadeyi Biometric verification methods have gained significant popularity in recent times, which has brought about their extensive usage. In light of theoretical evidence surrounding the development of biometric verification, we proposed an experimental multi-biometric system for laboratory testing. First, the proposed system was designed such that it was able to identify and verify a user through the hand contour, and blood flow (blood stream) at the upper part of the hand. Next, we detailed the hard and software solutions for the system. A total of 40 subjects agreed to be a part of data generation team, which prod...
Source: Sensors - August 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lukas Kolda Ondrej Krejcar Ali Selamat Kamil Kuca Oluwaseun Fadeyi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3686: Application of Near-Infrared Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) to the Detection of Ammonia in Exhaled Human Breath
Long The qualitative and quantitative analysis to trace gas in exhaled human breath has become a promising technique in biomedical applications such as disease diagnosis and health status monitoring. This paper describes an application of a high spectral resolution optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) for ammonia detection in exhaled human breath, and the main interference of gases such as CO2 and H2O are approximately eliminated at the same time. With appropriate optical feedback, a fibered distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser emitting at 1531.6 nm is locked to the resonance of a V-sha...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhifu Luo Zhongqi Tan Xingwu Long Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3688: An Energy-Efficient Method for Human Activity Recognition with Segment-Level Change Detection and Deep Learning
Kim Human activity recognition (HAR), which is important in context awareness services, needs to occur continuously in daily life, owing to which an energy-efficient method is needed. However, because human activities have a longer cycle than HAR methods, which have analysis cycles of a few seconds, continuous classification of human activities using these methods is computationally and energy inefficient. Therefore, we propose segment-level change detection to identify activity change with very low computational complexity. Additionally, a fully convolutional network (FCN) with a high recognition rate is used to class...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chi Yoon Jeong Mooseop Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3689: Endpoints-Clipping CSI Amplitude for SVM-Based Indoor Localization
ng Shao With the wide application of Channel State Information (CSI) in the field of sensing, the accuracy of positioning accuracy of indoor fingerprint positioning is increasingly necessary. The flexibility of the CSI signals may lead to an increase in fingerprint noise and inaccurate data classification. This paper presents an indoor localization algorithm based on Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN), Endpoints-Clipping (EC) CSI amplitude, and Support Vector Machine (EC-SVM). In the offline phase, the CSI amplitude information collected through the three channels is combined and clipp...
Source: Sensors - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhanjun Hao Yan Yan Xiaochao Dang Chenguang Shao Tags: Article Source Type: research