A dose-response association between serum ferritin and metabolic syndrome?
We read with great interest the article by Su árez-Ortegón et al. published recently in Atherosclerosis [1]. In the body, ferritin, a spherical heteropolymer comprised of 24 heavy- and light-chain subunits, is the principal protein for storing iron, which plays a role in the generation of reactive oxygen species and can cause cytotoxicity [2] . Thus, ferritin plays an important role in a wide range of both physiological and pathological processes. A growing number of research groups, including our own group, also support the notion that ferritin may serve as a suitable biomarker for predicting and even diagno...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xuexian Fang, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Time for risk assessment without borders
In the past few decades, there has been significant improvement in the diagnostic [1] and therapeutic interventions to combat atherosclerotic heart disease (ASCVD) [2]. Despite that, ASCVD remains the leading cause of death both globally and in the United States. In addition, there are significant variations in the prevalence and severity of ASCVD between genders and races. Most often clinicians utilize global risk scores developed and adopted by different professional societies for the assessment of ASCVD risk in asymptomatic patients. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mouaz H. Al-Mallah, Todd C. Villines Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

T2 magnetic resonance mapping: The key to find the ‘Brahmastra’ against atherosclerosis?
The ancient Indian Vedic scriptures (1200 BC) mention the Brahmastra as the ultimate weapon, which, when invoked for very specific reasons, never misses its target and causes complete annihilation of the enemy. The Brahmastra was created to uphold Dharma (i.e., cosmic law and order) and Satya (i.e., the truth). However, the Brahmastra could only be obtained by praying to The Lord Brahma (the creator of the Universe) and requires strict austerity and penance. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Arnav Kumar, Carlos Garcia Santos-Gallego, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Spectrum of mutations of familial hypercholesterolemia in the 22 Arab countries
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited genetic disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by a high serum LDL-cholesterol profile and xanthoma formation, and FH increases the risk of premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9), and LDLRAP1 genes have been associated with FH. Although FH is a major risk for CVD, the disease prevalence and its underlying molecular basis in the 22 Arab countries is still understudied. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dalal Alhababi, Hatem Zayed Source Type: research

Apoliporotein L3 interferes with endothelial tube formation via regulation of ERK1/2, FAK and Akt signaling pathway
Endothelial cells are main actors in vascular homeostasis as they regulate vascular pressure and permeability as well as hemostasis and inflammation. Disturbed stimuli delivered to and by endothelial cells correlate with the so-called endothelial dysfunction and disrupt this homeostasis. As constituents of the inner layer of blood vessels, endothelial cells are also involved in angiogenesis. Apolipoprotein Ls (APOL) comprise a family of newly discovered apolipoproteins with yet poorly understood function, and suggested to be involved in inflammatory processes and cell death mechanisms. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alia Khalil, Philippe Poelvoorde, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Alexandre Rousseau, Vincent Nuyens, Sophie Uzureau, Patrick Biston, EL-Makhour Yolla, Bassam Badran, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Luc Vanhamme Source Type: research

Early onset ACS: An age based clinico-epidemiologic and angiographic comparison
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the very young is a rare entity, with limited data. We aimed to study patterns and profile of ACS in patients aged 20 –30 years in comparison with those above 30 years. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 18, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shibba Takkar Chhabra, Tripat Kaur, Sarbjit Masson, Ravinder K. Soni, Namita Bansal, Brijesh Takkar, Rohit Tandon, Abhishek Goyal, Bhupinder Singh, Naved Aslam, Bishav Mohan, Gurpreet Singh Wander Source Type: research

Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to a myofibroblast phenotype in cardiac fibroblasts and is associated with autophagy after myocardial infarction in a mouse model
Cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI) is involved in fibroblast transforming and differentiating into myofibroblast phenoconversion, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated pathogen-associated molecular patterns are key factors that deteriorate cardiac remodelling after MI. Moreover, autophagy has dual roles in cell survival in myocardial tissues after MI. We evaluated the relationship between TLR4 signalling and cardiac myofibroblast transformation-differentiation after MI in vivo and in vitro and analysed the role of autophagy. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 18, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ruhui Yang, Zhaoxia Song, Songquan Wu, Zhe Wei, Yini Xu, Xiangchun Shen Source Type: research

Comment on “Mean platelet volume and long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease”
This study's findings indicated that a low mean platelet (MPV) was associated with worse clinical outcomes among stable coronary artery disease patients. However, there are major limitations about MPV levels in this study: (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 18, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Erkan Coban Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Plasma levels of the oxyphytosterol 7 α-hydroxycampesterol are associated with cardiovascular events
This study aimed to analyze associations of plasma oxyphytosterol levels with cardiovascular events. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Arne Fuhrmann, Oliver Weing ärtner, Sven Meyer, Bodo Cremers, Sarah Seiler-Mußler, Hans-F. Schött, Anja Kerksiek, Silvia Friedrichs, Ursula Ulbricht, Adam M. Zawada, Ulrich Laufs, Bruno Scheller, Danilo Fliser, Paul Christian Schulze, Michael Böhm, Gu Source Type: research

Effect of visit-to-visit LDL-, HDL-, and non-HDL-cholesterol variability on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention
Visit-to-visit variability in biological measures has been suggested as an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are important risk factors of CVD, there are few studies investigating the effect of variability in LDL-C and HDL-C on cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated the association between visit-to-visit variability in LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eun Young Lee, Yeoree Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon, Wook Sung Chung, Seung-Hwan Lee, Kiyuk Chang Source Type: research

Effect of low carbohydrate high fat diet on ldl cholesterol and gene expression in normal-weight, young adults: A randomized controlled study
This study aim to explore the effects of a diet with less than 20  g carbohydrates per day (LCHF) on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in young and healthy adults. Secondary aim was the assessment of lipid profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) gene expression. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kjetil Retterst øl, Mette Svendsen, Ingunn Narverud, Kirsten B. Holven Source Type: research

Development and validation of modified risk prediction models for cardiovascular disease and its subtypes: The Hisayama Study
Predicting cardiovascular events is of practical benefit for disease prevention. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an updated risk prediction model for cardiovascular diseases and its subtypes. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Takanori Honda, Daigo Yoshida, Jun Hata, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Yuki Ishida, Mao Shibata, Satoko Sakata, Takanari Kitazono, Toshiharu Ninomiya Source Type: research

Lipid accumulation product in relation to 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence in Caucasian adults: The ATTICA study
The lipid accumulation product (LAP) is an index describing lipid over-accumulation based on waist circumference (WC) and fasting triglycerides, and can outperform the body mass index (BMI) in recognizing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We aimed to explore the association of LAP with long-term CVD risk and compare its CVD-predictive value against common anthropometric indices/ratios of obesity. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ioannis Kyrou, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Georgia-Maria Kouli, Ekavi Georgousopoulou, Christina Chrysohoou, Constantine Tsigos, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christos Pitsavos Source Type: research

Cholesterol and inflammatory risk: Insights from secondary and primary prevention
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is undeniably causal for cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1]. Evidence from both the FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk) trial in patients with stable cardiovascular disease (CVD), and ODYSSEY Outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients, supports a ‘lower is better’ strategy with no apparent lower threshold for benefit from LDL-C lowering. These data provide food for thought for guideline groups [2–4]. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 16, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane Stock Tags: Discussion Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: A model of impaired vascular remodeling
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a model of abnormal vascular remodeling associated with a dramatically increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1]. In this issue of Atherosclerosis, Matsushita [2] and coworkers expand our knowledge by showing in a large, prospective epidemiological study a graded and independent association of renal function at study inception with the risk of developing abdominal aorta aneurism (AAA) at follow-up [2]. Compared to individuals with normal renal function [estimated glomerular filtration rate – (eGFR) > 90 ml/min/1,73 m2], a significant 4.40 [95% Confidence Interval (95%CI...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 10, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Antonio Bellasi, Serio Papagni, Luca Di Lullo Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Proteoglycan 4 regulates macrophage function without altering atherosclerotic lesion formation in a murine bone marrow-specific deletion model.” [Atherosclerosis 274 (July 2018) 120–127]
The Materials and methods section 2.1 “Microarray” reads as follows: “Data were used from the microarray as published in Lagraauw et al. Atherosclerosis 2014 [24]. In short, bilateral collars were placed in male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) KO mice fed a Western-type diet containing 0.25% cholesterol and 0.15% cacao butter (SDS, Sussex , UK) to induce localized atherosclerotic lesion development. Microarray analysis was performed on carotid arteries that were harvested every two weeks from week 0 to week 8 after induction of atherosclerotic lesion formation.” This should read: “Data were used from ...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Joya E. Nahon, Menno Hoekstra, Stefan R. Havik, Peter J. Van Santbrink, Geesje M. Dallinga-Thie, Jan-Albert Kuivenhoven, Janine J. Geerling, Miranda Van Eck Source Type: research

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in atherosclerosis: Molecular marker, mechanistic insight, and therapeutic target
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a member of the metzincin metalloproteinase superfamily, can enhance local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) bioavailability through proteolytic cleavage of three IGF binding proteins. In patients with coronary atherosclerosis disease (CAD), elevated PAPP-A levels are significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. Accumulating evidence indicates that this protease exerts a proatherogenic effect by altering a variety of pathological processes involved in atherosclerosis, including lipid accumulation, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vascula...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiao-Hua Yu, Lin-Hao He, Jia-Hui Gao, Da-Wei Zhang, Xi-Long Zheng, Chao-Ke Tang Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Potential epigenetic therapeutics for atherosclerosis treatment
Notwithstanding the intense efforts into understanding and preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), its complex pathology remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The pivotal role of epigenetic changes in the control of gene expression has been profiled in several diseases, such as cancer and inflammatory disorders. In the last decade, increasing evidence has also linked aberrant epigenetic modulation as a contributor to CVD development. Differential profiles of DNA methylation, histone methylation and acetylation have consistently been observed in tissues and cells (comprising the aortic lesions, vascular endothe...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ioana Nicorescu, Geesje M. Dallinga, Menno P.J. de Winther, Erik S.G. Stroes, Mahnoush Bahjat Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Vascular brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis: Effect of anti-rheumatic drugs” [Atherosclerosis 274 (July 2018) 77–85]
The Authors of the above paper regret that there was an error in the published Abstract section. The correct section is therefore published below (the word ‘lower’ has replaced the word ‘higher’ in the first sentence). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 6, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Martin Pedard, Aurore Quirie, Perle Totoson, Frank Verhoeven, Philippe Garnier, Anne Tessier, Ce'line Demougeot, Christine Marie Source Type: research

Nature and nurture of tissue-specific macrophage phenotypes
Macrophages are key players in immunity and tissue homeostasis but can also contribute to a diverse range of human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Enhancers, cis-acting DNA elements regulating gene activity, have been shown to be crucial for control of macrophage development and function. The selection and activities of macrophage-specific enhancers are regulated by the combined actions of lineage determining transcription factors (LDTFs) and signal dependent transcription factors (SDTFs) that are specified by developmental origin and tissue-specific signals. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 6, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Marten A. Hoeksema, Christopher K. Glass Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Hyperuricemia and endothelial function: From molecular background to clinical perspectives
Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism catalyzed by xanthine oxidase in humans. In the process of purine metabolism, reactive oxygen species, including superoxide, are generated concomitantly with uric acid production, which may deteriorate endothelial function through the reaction of superoxide with nitric oxide (NO), leading to decreased NO bioavailability and increased production of peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant. Therefore, xanthine oxidase may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 6, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tatsuya Maruhashi, Ichiro Hisatome, Yasuki Kihara, Yukihito Higashi Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Relative survival potential of platelets is associated with platelet CXCR4/CXCR7 surface exposure and functional recovery following STEMI
This study investigates the CXCR4/CXCR7 platelet survival axis ex vivo. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 6, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dominik Rath, Madhumita Chatterjee, Lennart Meyer, Nina Tekath, Carolin Olma, Patrick Krumm, Constantin Adams, Oliver Borst, Karin M üller, Michal Droppa, Konstantin Nikolaou, Joachim Riethmüller, Meinrad Gawaz, Tobias Geisler Source Type: research

Single and combined effects of peripheral artery disease and of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the risk of cardiovascular events: A prospective cohort study
The individual and combined effects of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and of peripheral artery disease (PAD) on future cardiovascular events are unknown and are addressed in the present investigation. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Christoph H. Saely, Marc Schindewolf, Daniela Zanolin, Christine F. Heinzle, Alexander Vonbank, Guenter Silbernagel, Andreas Leiherer, Heinz Drexel, Iris Baumgartner Source Type: research

Thoracic adipose tissue density as a novel marker of increased cardiovascular risk
Thoracic adipose tissues belong to the visceral adipose tissues, surrounding the heart and coronary arteries. They are metabolically and inflammatory active and secret pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines [1,2]. The amount of total thoracic fat, epicardial as well as pericoronary fat is associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors, extent and progression of coronary atherosclerosis, and hard coronary events [3 –5]. There is emerging evidence that thoracic visceral adipose tissues may locally promote the development of atherosclerosis in the underlying coronary artery [5,6]. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Amir A. Mahabadi, Tienush Rassaf Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Reference values for cardiometabolic risk scores in children and adolescents: Suggesting a common standard
International reference values for cardiometabolic risk variables, to allow for standardization of continuous risk scores in children, are not currently available. The aim of this study was to provide international age- and gender-specific reference values for cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mette Stavnsbo, Geir K. Resaland, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Sidsel L. Domazet, Turid Skrede, Luis B. Sardinha, Susi Kriemler, Ulf Ekelund, Lars B. Andersen, Eivind Aadland Source Type: research

Next generation MicroRNA sequencing to identify coronary artery disease patients at risk of recurrent myocardial infarction
Variation in micro-RNA (miRNA) levels in blood has been associated with alterations of physiological functions of the cardiovascular system. Circulating miRNA have the potential to become reliable biomarkers for risk stratification and early detection of cardiovascular events. Recurrent thrombotic events in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) demonstrate the need for personalized approaches to secondary prevention, especially in light of recent novel treatment approaches. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 3, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sri H. Kanuri, Joseph Ipe, Kameel Kassab, Hongyu Gao, Yunlong Liu, Todd C. Skaar, Rolf P. Kreutz Source Type: research

The prognostic value of interleukin 6 in multiple chronic diseases and all-cause death: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
We aimed to evaluate the associations and prognostic value of interleukin-6 (IL6) for the prediction of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, heart failure (HF), and other chronic diseases in a large, multi-ethnic, contemporary population. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 3, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Cristina Enjuanes, Philip Greenland, John W. McEvoy, Mary Cushman, Zeina Dardari, Khurram Nasir, Matthew J. Budoff, Mouaz H. Al-Mallah, Joseph Yeboah, Michael D. Miedema, Roger S. Blumenthal, Josep Comin-Colet, Michael J. Blaha Source Type: research

HDL is essential for atherosclerotic lesion regression in Apoe knockout mice by bone marrow Apoe reconstitution
Although studies in mice have suggested that lesion regression is feasible, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we determined the impact of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on atherosclerosis regression outcome. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 3, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ronald J. van der Sluis, Robin A.F. Verwilligen, Zsuzsanna Lendvai, Robbert Wever, Menno Hoekstra, Miranda Van Eck Source Type: research

Health related quality of life in individuals at high risk for familial hypercholesterolemia undergoing genetic cascade screening in Brazil
This study evaluated HRQoL in index cases (IC) and first-degree relatives (FDR) of individuals at high risk of FH undergoing genetic cascade screening. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ana Cristina Souto, Marcio H. Miname, Julia Fukushima, Cinthia E. Jannes, Jose E. Krieger, Martin Hagger, Alexandre C. Pereira, Raul D. Santos Source Type: research

A Belgian consensus strategy to identify familial hypercholesterolaemia in the coronary care unit and its subsequent cascade screening and treatment: BEL-FaHST (The BELgium Familial Hypercholesterolaemia STrategy)
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant lipoprotein disorder characterized by significant elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and markedly increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because of the very high coronary artery disease risk associated with this condition, the prevalence of FH among patients admitted for CVD outmatches many times the prevalence in the general population. Awareness of this disease is crucial for recognizing FH in the aftermath of a hospitalization of a patient with CVD, and also represents a unique opportunity to identify relatives of the i...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Olivier S. Descamps, Olivier Van Caenegem, Michel P. Hermans, Jean-Luc Balligand, Christophe Beauloye, Antoine Bondue, St éphane Carlier, Emilie Castermans, Fabien Chenot, Marc Claeys, Christophe De Block, Anne de Leener, Antoine De Meester, Fabian Demeu Source Type: research

Statins and other lipid-lowering therapy and pregnancy outcomes in homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: A retrospective review of 39 pregnancies
Pregnancy in HoFH females is associated with further elevation of already markedly elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, particularly if lipid-lowering therapy is discontinued, placing the mother and fetus at increased cardiovascular risk. Lipoprotein apheresis is the current recommended treatment for pregnant HoFH patients. However, this is costly, time consuming, and is not available in many countries. Alternative treatment strategies to control hypercholesterolaemia during pregnancy in HoFH patients are necessary. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Theunis C. Botha, Gillian J. Pilcher, Karen Wolmarans, Dirk J. Blom, Frederick J. Raal Source Type: research

Identifying patients with familial hypercholesterolemia using data mining methods in the Northern Great Plain region of Hungary
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most frequent diseases with monogenic inheritance. Previous data indicated that the heterozygous form occurred in 1:250 people. Based on these reports, around 36,000 –40,000 people are estimated to have FH in Hungary, however, there are no exact data about the frequency of the disease in our country. Therefore, we initiated a cooperation with a clinical site partner company that provides modern data mining methods, on the basis of medical and statistical recor ds, and we applied them to two major hospitals in the Northern Great Plain region of Hungary to find patients ...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gy örgy Paragh, Mariann Harangi, Zsolt Karányi, Bálint Daróczy, Ákos Németh, Péter Fülöp Source Type: research

Familial hypercholesterolemia in Canada: Initial results from the FH Canada national registry
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is under-diagnosed and under-treated in most of the world, including Canada. National registries play a key role in identifying patients with FH, understanding gaps in care, and advancing the science of FH to better treat these patients. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Liam R. Brunham, Isabelle Ruel, Etienne Khoury, Robert A. Hegele, Patrick Couture, Jean Bergeron, Alexis Baass, Robert Dufour, Gordon A. Francis, Lubomira Cermakova, G.B. John Mancini, James M. Brophy, Dianne Brisson, Daniel Gaudet, Jacques Genest Source Type: research

Clinical utility of the polygenic LDL-C SNP score in familial hypercholesterolemia
Mutations in any of three genes (LDLR, APOB and PCSK9) are known to cause autosomal dominant FH, but a mutation can be found in only ∼40% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH. In the remainder, a polygenic aetiology may be the cause of the phenotype, due to the co-inheritance of common LDL-C raising variants. In 2013, we reported the development of a 12-SNP LDL-C “SNP-Score” based on common variants identified as LDL -C raising from genome wide association consortium studies, and have confirmed the validity of this score in samples of no-mutation FH adults and children from more than six countries wi...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Marta Futema, Mafalda Bourbon, Maggie Williams, Steve E. Humphries Tags: Review article Source Type: research

The development of the Mexican Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) National Registry
In Mexico, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is, as in other parts of the world, largely underdiagnosed and undertreated, and represents a significant burden to the healthcare system. However, there is not enough information to design public policies against the disease. Genetic studies have shown that LDLR mutations are the most common cause, but in a large percentage of the cases, no mutation has been identified in the FH genes. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Roopa Mehta, Alexandro J. Martagon, Gabriela A. Galan Ramirez, Gustavo Gonzalez Retana, Magdalena Martinez-Beltran, Arsenio Vargas Vazquez, Alejandra Vazquez-Cardenas, Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Lipid profile evaluation and severe hypercholesterolaemia screening in the middle-aged population according to nationwide primary prevention programme in Lithuania
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of premature death in Lithuania where abnormal lipid levels are very common among middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate lipid profile in middle-aged Lithuanians and perform population-based severe hypercholesterolaemia (SH) screening. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sandra Kutkiene, Zaneta Petrulioniene, Aleksandras Laucevicius, Rimante Cerkauskiene, Justina Staigyte, Akvile Saulyte, Emilija Petrulionyte, Urte Gargalskaite, Egle Skiauteryte, Gabija Matuzeviciene, Milda Kovaite, Egidija Rinkuniene Source Type: research

Unusual genetic variants associated with hypercholesterolemia in Argentina
Marked hypercholesterolemia, defined as low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels  ≥ 190 mg/dL, may be due to LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 variants. In a recent analysis, only 1.7% of cases had such variants. Our goal was to identify other potential genetic causes of hypercholesterolemia. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Pablo Corral, Andrew S. Geller, Eliana Y. Polisecki, Graciela I. Lopez, Virginia G. Ba ñares, Leonardo Cacciagiu, Gabriela Berg, Robert A. Hegele, Ernst J. Schaefer, Laura E. Schreier Source Type: research

Effects of medication, treatment, and behavioral beliefs on intentions to take medication in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia
Although familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be effectively managed using cholesterol-lowering medication, patients often fall short of complete treatment adherence. Identifying the psychological factors associated with self-regulation of FH medication is important to inform interventions to maximize adherence. The aim of the present study was to test an integrated psychological model in predicting FH patients' intentions to take medication. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Martin S. Hagger, Sarah J. Hardcastle, Miao Hu, See Kwok, Jie Lin, Hapizah M. Nawawi, Jing Pang, Raul D. Santos, Handrean Soran, Ta-Chen Su, Brian Tomlinson, Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research

Latvian registry of familial hypercholesterolemia: The first report of three-year results
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) was rarely diagnosed in Latvia before 2015, when the Latvian Registry of FH (LRFH) was established. Here, we report the first experience of the LRFH over three years (2015 –2017). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gustavs Latkovskis, Vita Saripo, Dainus Gilis, Georgijs Nesterovics, Arta Upena-Roze, Andrejs Erglis Source Type: research

Establishing a national screening programme for familial hypercholesterolaemia in Lithuania
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a widely underdiagnosed genetic disorder characterized by severely elevated levels of serum cholesterol and associated with premature mortality. Screening programmes and registries have been established worldwide to find and monitor patients with FH. The aim of this paper was to describe the approaches currently applied to identify patients with possible FH in Lithuania. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zaneta Petrulioniene, Urte Gargalskaite, Sandra Kutkiene, Justina Staigyte, Rimante Cerkauskiene, Aleksandras Laucevicius Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in Vietnam: Case series, genetics and cascade testing of families
Familial hypercholesterolaemia has not been previously described in the Vietnamese population. We aimed to describe the features of patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (hoFH) in Vietnam and the outcomes of screening family members using genetic and cholesterol testing. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Thanh Huong Truong, Ngoc Thanh Kim, Mai Ngoc Thi Nguyen, Jing Pang, Amanda J. Hooper, Gerald F. Watts, Doan Loi Do Source Type: research

Epidemiology of familial hypercholesterolaemia: Community and clinical
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disorder affecting the metabolism of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, leading to high LDL-cholesterol levels maintained over time and higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) early in life.Contemporary studies have challenged prior estimations of FH prevalence and suggest this condition to be more frequent than previously considered, with an overall prevalence rate of 1:200 –300 individuals in the general population (1:160,000–300,000 for homozygous FH). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Antonio J. Vallejo-Vaz, Kausik K. Ray Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Further evidence of novel APOB mutations as a cause of familial hypercholesterolaemia
APOB mutations are a rare cause of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and, until recently, routine genetic diagnosis only included the study of two small APOB fragments. In previous years, 5 novel functional mutations have been described in APOB fragments not routinely studied, our group having functionally characterized 2 of them.The main aim of this work was to identify and characterize novel alterations in APOB to assess the genetic cause of hypercholesterolemia in patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ana Catarina Alves, Asier Benito-Vicente, Ana Margarida Medeiros, Kaajal Reeves, Cesar Martin, Mafalda Bourbon Source Type: research

LDL-cholesterol target achievement in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia at Groote Schuur Hospital: Minority at target despite large reductions in LDL-C
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by markedly increased LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). LDL-C lowering is the cornerstone of therapy.The aim of our study was to evaluate LDL-C target achievement and explore reasons for not reaching target in FH patients attending a public-sector lipid clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xander M. van Delden, Roeland Huijgen, Karen H. Wolmarans, Brigitte C. Brice, Jennifer K. Barron, Dirk J. Blom, A. David Marais Source Type: research

Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in specialist centres in South Africa, Australia and Brazil: Importance of early detection and lifestyle advice
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the commonest monogenic disorder that accelerates atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We compared and contrasted the characteristics of patients from three specialist centres in the southern hemisphere. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jing Pang, A. David Marais, Dirk J. Blom, Brigitte C. Brice, Pamela RS. Silva, Cinthia E. Jannes, Alexandre C. Pereira, Amanda J. Hooper, Kausik K. Ray, Raul D. Santos, Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research

Prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia in patients with acute coronary syndrome in Japan: Results of the EXPLORE-J study
Prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a common genetic disorder with a high risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), is high among CAD patients; however, data on FH prevalence among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are limited. EXPLORE-J is the largest registry to diagnose FH among Japanese ACS patients using the 2012 Japan Atherosclerosis Society guidelines. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mariko Harada-Shiba, Junya Ako, Hidenori Arai, Atsushi Hirayama, Yoshitaka Murakami, Atsushi Nohara, Asuka Ozaki, Kiyoko Uno, Masato Nakamura Source Type: research

Treatment pattern of familial hypercholesterolemia in Slovakia: Targets, treatment and obstacles in common practice
Maximal doses of potent statins are the cornerstone of treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Despite this, a substantial proportion of FH patients are either under-treated or not treated at all. The aim of this work was to evaluate, in a retrospective study, the treatment of FH patients, the proportion of FH patients reaching low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals, and reasons for not reaching LDL-C goals, in 8 lipid clinics in Slovakia dealing with FH patients. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Branislav Vohnout, Ľubomíra Fábryová, Alexander Klabník, Michaela Kadurová, Karin Bálinth, Miriam Kozárová, Ingrid Bugáňová, Jana Sirotiaková, Katarína Rašlová Source Type: research

Universal screening for familial hypercholesterolemia in children: The Slovenian model and literature review
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is arguably the most common monogenic disorder in humans, but severely under-diagnosed. Individuals with untreated FH have an over 10-fold elevated risk of cardiovascular complications as compared to unaffected individuals; early diagnosis and timely management substantially reduce this risk.Slovenia has gradually implemented the program of universal FH screening in pre-school children, consisting of a two step approach: (1) universal hypercholesterolemia screening in pre-school children at the primary care level; (2) genetic FH screening in children referred to the tertiary care level ac...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Urh Groselj, Jernej Kovac, Ursa Sustar, Matej Mlinaric, Zlatko Fras, Katarina Trebusak Podkrajsek, Tadej Battelino Source Type: research

Familial hypercholesterolemia treatments: Guidelines and new therapies
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder resulting from mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in the metabolism of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and characterized by premature cardiovascular disease due to the exposure to high levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) from birth. Thus, the early identification of FH subjects, followed by appropriate treatment is essential to prevent or at least delay the onset of cardiovascular events. However, FH is largely underdiagnosed; in addition, FH patients are frequently not adequately treated, despite the availability of several pharmacological therapies to signi...
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Frederick J. Raal, G. Kees Hovingh, Alberico L. Catapano Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Novel combined variants of LDLR and LDLRAP1 genes causing severe familial hypercholesterolemia
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a predominantly autosomal dominant hereditary disorder with significant potential for expansion of coronary artery disease. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fahad Alnouri, Mohammad Athar, Faisal A. Al-Allaf, Zainularifeen Abduljaleel, Mohiuddin M. Taher, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Dalal Al Ammari, Hussam Karrar, Monirah Albabtain Source Type: research