Single cell analyses to understand the immune continuum in atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is initiated by the accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall that trigger a complex and poorly understood network of inflammatory processes. At the same time, recent clinical findings reveal that targeting specific immune alterations in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a promising approach to preventing recurrent cardiovascular events. In order to achieve these tailored therapies, it is critical to resolve the heterogenous environment of the atherosclerotic lesion and decipher the complex structural and functional changes which immune cells undergo throughout disease progression. (So...
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Christopher A. Hill, Dawn M. Fernandez, Chiara Giannarelli Source Type: research

TIGAR mitigates atherosclerosis by promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophages
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of TIGAR on atherosclerosis and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 14, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zhen-Wang Zhao, Min Zhang, Jin Zou, Xiang-Jun Wan, Li Zhou, Yao Wu, Shang-Ming Liu, Ling-Xiao Liao, Heng Li, Yu-Sheng Qin, Xiao-Hua Yu, Chao-Ke Tang Source Type: research

Practical guidance for combination lipid-modifying therapy in high- and very-high-risk patients. A Statement from a European Atherosclerosis Society Task Force
This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Task Force provides practical guidance for combination therapy for elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) in high-risk and very-high-risk patients. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Maurizio Averna, Maciej Banach, Eric Bruckert, Heinz Drexel, Michel Farnier, Dan Gaita, Paolo Magni, Winfried M ärz, Luis Masana, Alberto Mello e Silva, Zeljko Reiner, Emilio Ros, Michal Vrablik, Alberto Zambon, Jose L. Zamorano, Jane K. Stock, Lale S. T Tags: From the EAS Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of medications directed against PCSK9 in familial hypercholesterolemia
Several medications targeting PCSK9 reduce LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). We aimed to assess in patients diagnosed clinically as HeFH, whether LDL-C reduction varied by different therapeutic approaches to PCSK9-targeting or by the underlying genetic variant. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Julia Brandts, Kanika I. Dharmayat, Antonio J. Vallejo-Vaz, Mansour Taghavi Azar Sharabiani, Rebecca Jones, John J.P. Kastelein, Frederick J. Raal, Kausik K. Ray Source Type: research

Circulatory markers of immunity and carotid atherosclerotic plaque
We aimed to determine the association of circulatory markers of innate and adaptive immunity with carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 7, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lana Fani, Dianne.H.K. van Dam-Nolen, Meike Vernooij, Maryam Kavousi, Aad van der Lugt, Daniel Bos Source Type: research

Impact of clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease as assessed by coronary artery calcium in COVID-19
The potential impact of coronary atherosclerosis, as detected by coronary artery calcium, on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients remains unsettled. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD), as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), in a large, unselected population of hospitalized COVID-19 patients undergoing non-gated chest computed tomography (CT) for clinical practice. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 6, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alessandra Scoccia, Guglielmo Gallone, Alberto Cereda, Anna Palmisano, Davide Vignale, Riccardo Leone, Valeria Nicoletti, Chiara Gnasso, Alberto Monello, Arif Khokhar, Alessandro Sticchi, Andrea Biagi, Carlo Tacchetti, Gianluca Campo, Claudio Rapezzi, F Source Type: research

Exploring the causal inference of shear stress associated DNA methylation in carotid plaque on cardiovascular risk
Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven inflammatory disease presumably initiated by endothelial activation. Low vascular shear stress is known for its ability to activate endothelial cells. Differential DNA methylation (DNAm) is a relatively unexplored player in atherosclerotic disease development and endothelial dysfunction. Previous studies showed that the expression of 11 genes was associated with differential DNAm due to low shear stress in murine endothelial cells. We hypothesized a causal relationship between DNAm of shear stress associated genes in human carotid plaque and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ruben Methorst, Gerard Pasterkamp, Sander W. van der Laan Source Type: research

Reply to “Dietary sucrose induces atherosclerotic diseases more than dietary fat in LDLr-/- ApoB100/100 mice: Is it independent of differences in plasma cholesterol levels?”
Dr. Mallat raises a few queries with regard to our recent publication “Dietary sucrose induces metabolic inflammation and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases more than dietary fat in LDLr-/- ApoB100/100 mice”[1] to which we reply below. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: La ís R. Perazza, Noëmie Daniel, Patricia L. Mitchell, Benjamin A.H. Jensen, André Marette Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Adiposity and the development of dyslipidemia in APOE ε2 homozygous subjects: A longitudinal analysis in two population-based cohorts
Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD), characterized by remnant lipoprotein accumulation and premature cardiovascular disease, occurs in homozygous carriers of the APOE ε2 allele, but genetic predisposition alone does not suffice for the clinical phenotype. Cross-sectional studies suggest that a second metabolic hit – notably adiposity or insulin resistance – is required, but the association between these risk factors and development of FD has not been studied prospectively. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 3, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Britt E. Heidemann, Frank J. Wolters, Maryam Kavousi, Eke G. Gruppen, Robin PF. Dullaart, A.David Marais, Frank LJ. Visseren, Charlotte Koopal Source Type: research

Improving the Identification of Patients with a Genetic Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia in Primary Care; A Strategy to achieve the NHS Long Term Plan
To validate a nurse-led process using electronic health records to identify those at risk of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) for genetic diagnosis in primary care. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 2, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lorna Ingoe, Aimee Potter, Susan Musson, Dermot Neely, Guy Pilkington, A. Joy Allen, Danielle Reay, Ahai Luvai, Ciaron McAnulty, Nick Camm, Ian Berry, Jody Nichols, Gareth Forbes, Julia Newton, Peter E. Carey Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - April 1, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Reduced adrenal stress response in patients on PCSK9 inhibitor therapy
Treatment with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i), in addition to statin therapy, reduces LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) in some patients to extremely low levels (i.e. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 30, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: S. Meier, M. Frick, M. Liu, S.S. Saeedi Saravi, G. Montrasio, H. Preiss, L. Pasterk, N. Bonetti, M. Egloff, H.R. Schmid, I. Sudano, G.G. Camici, F. Mach, T.F. Luescher, G. Ehret, J.H. Beer Source Type: research

Prevalence and influence of LPA gene variants and isoform size on the Lp(a)-lowering effect of pelacarsen
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting LPA to lower lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a]] are in clinical trials. Patients have been recruited according to various Lp(a) thresholds, but the prevalence of LPA genetic variants and their effect on efficacy of these ASOs are not well described. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 30, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ewa Karwatowska-Prokopczuk, Noemie Clouet-Foraison, Shuting Xia, Nicholas J. Viney, Joseph L. Witztum, Santica M. Marcovina, Sotirios Tsimikas Source Type: research

Atherosclerosis inflammation and burden in young adult smokers and vapers measured by PET/MR
Electronic cigarette (EC) use is popular among youth, touted as a safer alternative to smoking and promoted as a tool to aid in smoking cessation. EC cardiovascular safety however is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular consequences of EC use by evaluating their effect on the entire atherosclerotic cascade in young adults using noninvasive combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MR) and comparing EC use with age matched smokers of traditional cigarettes and nonsmoking controls. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 30, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Anoop Sahota, Sonum Naidu, Adam Jacobi, Chiara Giannarelli, Mark Woodward, Zahi A. Fayad, Venkatesh Mani Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiota is Associated with Clinical Response to Statin Treatment in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
The structure and composition of the gut microbiota influence patients ’ response to therapeutic interventions. It is also known that the response to statin treatment can vary greatly from one patient to another, suggesting a possible connection between microbiome composition and response to statins. In the present study, we aim to explore the influence of the microb iome composition on the response to statin treatment among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 29, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lijun Wang, Weiwei Zhou, Manyun Guo, Yiming Hua, Baihua Zhou, Xinyin Li, Xinxin Zhang, Jiakun Dong, Xiumei Yang, Yang Wang, Yue Wu, Jianqing She, Jianjun Mu Source Type: research

Serum calcium and long-term outcomes after ischemic stroke: Results from the China National Stroke Registry III
Serum calcium abnormality is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the effects of serum calcium level on stroke outcomes remain unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between serum calcium level and 1-year outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 29, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jun-Fang Zhang, Xia Meng, Jing Jing, Yuesong Pan, Yi-Long Wang, Xing-Quan Zhao, Jin-Xi Lin, Xin-Sheng Han, Bin-Bin Song, Zheng-Chang Jia, Song-Di Wu, Xiao-Fei Chen, Wen-Jun Xue, Yun-Cheng Wu, Yong-Jun Wang Source Type: research

Risk of peripheral artery disease according to race and sex: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
Previous community-based studies have demonstrated sex and race-based disparities in the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine the association of sex and race with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) related hospitalizations. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 29, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Caitlin W. Hicks, Ning Ding, Lucia Kwak, Shoshana H. Ballew, Corey A. Kalbaugh, Aaron R. Folsom, Gerardo Heiss, Josef Coresh, James H. Black, Elizabeth Selvin, Kunihiro Matsushita Source Type: research

Association of aldosterone and blood pressure with the risk for cardiovascular events after treatments in primary aldosteronism
We used a dataset from a Japanese nationwide registry of patients with primary aldosteronism, to determine which of the parameters of hyperaldosteronism and blood pressure before or after treatments for primary aldosteronism (i.e., surgical adrenalectomy or a medication treatment) are important in terms of cardiovascular prognosis. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 29, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tatsuya Haze, Nobuhito Hirawa, Yuichiro Yano, Kouichi Tamura, Isao Kurihara, Hiroki Kobayashi, Mika Tsuiki, Takamasa Ichijo, Norio Wada, Takuyuki Katabami, Koichi Yamamoto, Kenji Oki, Nobuya Inagaki, Shintaro Okamura, Tatsuya Kai, Shoichiro Izawa, Masanob Source Type: research

Intravascular ultrasound-based deep learning for plaque characterization in coronary artery disease
Although plaque characterization by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is important for risk stratification, frame-by-frame analysis of a whole vascular segment is time-consuming. The aim was to develop IVUS-based algorithms for classifying attenuation and calcified plaques. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 29, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hyungjoo Cho, Soo-Jin Kang, Hyun-Seok Min, June-Goo Lee, Won-Jang Kim, Se Hun Kang, Do-Yoon Kang, Pil Hyung Lee, Jung-Min Ahn, Duk-Woo Park, Seung-Whan Lee, Young-Hak Kim, Cheol Whan Lee, Seong-Wook Park, Seung-Jung Park Source Type: research

Evolocumab in the management of children < 10 years of age affected by homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from birth and an increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 28, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Paola Sabrina Buonuomo, Gerarda Mastrogiorgio, Giovanna Leone, Ippolita Rana, Michaela Veronika Gonfiantini, Marina Macchiaiolo, Davide Vecchio, Maria Gnazzo, Andrea Bartuli Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cardiovascular events and the role of accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic vasculitis
The spectrum of inflammatory blood vessel diseases includes both atherosclerosis and the primary systemic vasculitides. Although the inciting triggers differ, significant overlap exists in the mechanisms that contribute to sustained inflammation and vascular damage in both entities. With improvement in therapeutics to control acute vasculitis leading to longer survival, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has emerged as the leading cause of death for vasculitis patients. Cardiovascular events likely occur as a consequence of vasculitis, vascular damage from prior inflammation causing a sustained procoagulant state, and ...
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 28, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alison H. Clifford, Jan Willem Cohen Tervaert Source Type: research

Targeting the phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells to tackle atherosclerosis
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. A crucial step in VSMC biology is the switch from contractile (differentiated, quiescent, non-migratory) to synthetic (dedifferentiated, proliferative, migratory) phenotypes (Figure 1). The exact mechanisms underlying VSMC phenotypic switch are not fully known and various pieces of information have been recently added to this puzzle (1-5). For instance, in this issue of Atherosclerosis, Halvorsen ’s team demonstrates that Neil3, known to participate in DNA repair, can mediate VSMC phenotypic switch via non-canonical...
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 28, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Urna Kansakar, Stanislovas S. Jankauskas, Jessica Gambardella, Gaetano Santulli Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Carbohydrates: Separating fact from fiction
The role of carbohydrate in a healthy diet has been controversial. The confusion over carbohydrate has come from the long standing limitation of dietary recall studies as well as inability in many of these studies to delineate between the different types of carbohydrates. It is the aim of this paper, to understand and review the data on the role of carbohydrate as pertaining to weight, insulin resistance, diabetes, inflammation, lipids, as well as epidemiological data on long-term cardiovascular outcome and all-cause mortality. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 27, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ellen E. Blaak, Gabriele Riccardi, Leslie Cho Source Type: research

Does variation in serum LDL-cholesterol response to dietary fatty acids help explain the controversy over fat quality and cardiovascular disease risk?
Controversy over fat quality and cardiovascular disease risk stems from a series of meta-analyses of prospective cohort and randomised intervention trials, which found little evidence for a significant relationship between the intake of saturated fat and disease endpoints. Possible explanations for these null findings include difficulties inherent in estimating true food intake, the confounding effects of macronutrient replacement and food composition, and marked inter-individual variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 27, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bruce A. Griffin, Ronald P. Mensink, Julie A. Lovegrove Source Type: research

Latest European Atherosclerosis Society statement reaffirms commitment to the UN Sustainable Development Goals 2030 Agenda
The United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development 2030 Agenda targets 17 goals critical for the sustainability of the planet. This initiative was adopted by all UN member states in 2015, aiming to end poverty, protect the planet, and improve the lives and prospects for all (1). With less than 10 years remaining, urgent action is needed if these goals are to be met. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 27, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane Stock Tags: From the EAS Source Type: research

Triglyceride-induced cardiac lipotoxicity is mitigated by Silybum marianum
Silybum marianum (SM) is an herbal product with cytoprotective and antioxidant properties. We have previously demonstrated that SM ameliorates ventricular remodeling and improves cardiac performance. Here, we evaluated whether SM could exert beneficial effects against cardiac lipotoxicity in a pig model of closed-chest myocardial infarction (MI). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 27, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gemma Vilahur, Pablo Sutelman, Guiomar Mendieta, Soumaya Ben-Aicha, Mar ía Borrell, Esther Peña, Javier Crespo, Laura Casaní, Lina Badimon Source Type: research

C-Kit inhibition: From promising cancer therapy to culprit in atherosclerosis
Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) play an important role during the development of atherosclerotic lesions, especially by providing strength to the plaque cap by secreting extracellular matrix (ECM) and other structural proteins1. In contrast to the classical views, it has been demonstrated that vSMCs play a more important role in atherosclerosis development as they are much more plastic than previously recognized and can adopt alternative phenotypes, including phenotypes resembling foam cells2. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 27, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Emiel P.C. van der Vorst Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Acute effect of a single session of lipoprotein apheresis on central haemodynamics in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia
To the Editor, We read with interest the paper by Pottle et al. demonstrating a 62.5% reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events following introduction of lipoprotein apheresis (LA)1. Previous work has shown that LA results in improvements in coronary and peripheral vasomotor function, which may, in part account for the associated improvements in clinical outcomes, alongside the reduction in atherogenic ApoB-containing particles2, 3. However, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) appear unchanged post-LA4, 5, but its influence on other cardiovascular physiological biomarkers is less well known. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 26, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Elizabeth A. Ellins, Suzanne Watkins, D Aled Rees, Dev BN. Datta, Julian P. Halcox Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events among statin eligible individuals with and without long-term healthy arterial aging
A large proportion of statin eligible candidates have a baseline absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and low 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. We sought to determine the proportion of statin eligible individuals who had long-term healthy arterial aging (persistent CAC=0) and their examined 15-year ASCVD outcomes. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 26, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alexander C. Razavi, Tanika N. Kelly, Matthew J. Budoff, Lydia A. Bazzano, Jiang He, Camilo Fernandez, Joao Lima, Khurram Nasir, Roger S. Blumenthal, Michael J. Blaha, Seamus P. Whelton Source Type: research

Misperceptions and management of risk: Ongoing challenges in women's cardiovascular health
That women experience relative protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD) during the premenopausal years compared with men or postmenopausal women is well established. However, CVD risk increases following the menopausal transition, and CVD remains the leading cause of mortality for both women and men [1]. Traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, whilst all risk factors that can occur at any time in a woman's lifespan, become more prevalent after the menopausal transition [2]. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 24, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zareen M. Farukhi, Samia Mora Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Misperceptions and management of risk: Ongoing challenges in women ’s cardiovascular health
That women experience relative protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD) during the premenopausal years compared with men or postmenopausal women is well established. However, CVD risk increases following the menopausal transition, and CVD remains the leading cause of mortality for both women and men (1). Traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, whilst all risk factors that can occur at any time in a woman ’s lifespan, become more prevalent after the menopausal transition (2). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 24, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zareen M. Farukhi, Samia Mora Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cholesterol lowering in secondary prevention: Could do better
It is not so many years ago that it was disputed whether after myocardial infarction (MI) or the onset of angina the serum cholesterol was related to the incidence of subsequent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events [1]. Our knowledge has moved on considerably since then, but shades of that controversy linger as is shown by the currently half-hearted attempts to lower LDL cholesterol in a substantial proportion of myocardial infarction survivors [2]. The issue of how strongly cholesterol relates to the risk of new ASCVD events after MI is not the issue. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 24, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Paul N. Durrington, Handrean Soran Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sex related differences in therapy and outcome of patients with intermittent claudication in a real-world cohort
The prevalence of lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) is increasing worldwide and sex-related differences are a current matter of debate. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 24, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: L. Makowski, J. Feld, J. K öppe, J. Illner, L. Kühnemund, A. Wiederhold, P. Dröge, C. Günster, J. Gerß, H. Reinecke, E. Freisinger Source Type: research

Aging-induced isoDGR-modified fibronectin activates monocytic and endothelial cells to promote atherosclerosis
Aging is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms underlying age-linked atherosclerosis remain unclear. We previously observed that long-lived vascular matrix proteins can acquire ‘gain-of-function’ isoDGR motifs that might play a role in atherosclerotic pathology. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 24, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jung Eun Park, Gnanasekaran JebaMercy, Kalailingam Pazhanchamy, Xue Guo, SoFong Cam Ngan, Ken Cheng Kang Liou, Soe EinSi Lynn, Ser Sue Ng, Wei Meng, Su Chi Lim, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, A.Mark Richards, Daniel J. Pennington, Dominique P.V. de Kleijn, Vital Source Type: research

Bleeding Associated with Co-Administration of Clopidogrel and ACEi in Patients Undergoing PCI and DAPT
The coprescription of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) with clopidogrel reportedly increases bleeding risk. However, studies have not described such an increase in cases of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 24, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Chun-Li Wang, Yu-Tung Huang, Hui-Tzu Tu, Chang-Fu Kuo, Shao-Wei Chen, Ming-Shien Wen, Chi-Ching Kuo, Shang-Hung Chang Source Type: research

Correspondence on: “Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in Italy: Clinical and molecular features”
I read with interest the article by Bertolini et al entitled “Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in Italy: Clinical and molecular features”1. This helpful and important review of interesting patients could have been enhanced by the adoption of formal and precise genetic terminology. While one can appreciate that a number of terms used in that articl e are of wide and longstanding use in lipidology and other subspecialities, use of the correct terminology would have enhanced the publication and better served the readership. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 19, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Leslie G. Biesecker Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to: “It's time to stop the nonsense of withholding lipid lowering therapy on account of age” and “The evidence around safe and effective LDL cholesterol-lowering therapy in elderly individuals demands validity and clinical relevance”
Recent correspondence from Marco Tullio Suadoni [1] and David Spence [2] make valid points regarding the use of lipid-lowering therapy in elderly patients, a follow-up to a previous European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) update [3]. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane K. Stock Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to: "It ’s time to stop the nonsense of withholding lipid lowering therapy on account of age" and "The evidence around safe and effective LDL cholesterol-lowering therapy in elderly individuals demands validity and clinical relevance."
Recent correspondence from Marco Tullio Suadoni (1) and David Spence (2) make valid points regarding the use of lipid-lowering therapy in elderly patients, a follow-up to a previous European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) update (3). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane Stock Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Genotype-phenotype correlation in pseudoxanthoma elasticum
Background and aims: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is caused by variants in the ABCC6 gene. It results in calcification in the skin, peripheral arteries and the eyes, but has considerable phenotypic variability. We investigated the association between the ABCC6 genotype and calcification and clinical phenotypes in these different organs.Methods: ABCC6 sequencing was performed in 289 PXE patients. Genotypes were grouped as two truncating, mixed, or two non-truncating variants. Arterial calcification mass was quantified on whole body, low dose CT scans; and peripheral arterial disease was measured with the ankle brachial in...
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 13, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jonas W. Bartstra, Sara Risseeuw, Pim A. de Jong, Bram van Os, Lianne Kalsbeek, Chris Mol, Annette F. Baas, Shana Verschuere, Olivier Vanakker, Ralph J. Florijn, Jeroen Hendrikse, Willem Mali, Saskia Imhof, Jeannette Ossewaarde-van Norel, Redmer van Leeuw Source Type: research

An elevated ankle-brachial index is not a valid proxy for peripheral medial arterial calcification
This study aims to investigate the use of an elevated ABI as proxy for MAC, as visualized with computed tomography (CT). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Anna G. Hoek, Sabine R. Zwakenberg, Petra J.M. Elders, Pim A. de Jong, Wilko Spiering, Jonas W. Bartstra, Teddo Doesburg, Amber A. van der Heijden, Yvonne T. van der Schouw, Joline W.J. Beulens, on behalf of the SMART Study Group Source Type: research

Inducible phospholipid transfer protein deficiency ameliorates atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis progression and regression studies are related to its prevention and treatment. Although we have gained extensive knowledge on germline phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) deficiency, the effect of inducible PLTP deficiency in atherosclerosis remains unexplored. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ke Zhang, Jiao Zhen, Yunqin Chen, Jibin Dong, Zhiqiang Li, Yeun-Po Chiang, Mulin He, Qingxia Huang, Huiru Tang, Xian-Cheng Jiang Source Type: research

The effect of transgender hormonal treatment on high density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity
A decrease in HDL-cholesterol concentrations during transgender hormone therapy has been shown. However, the ability of HDL to remove cholesterol from arterial wall macrophages, termed cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), has proven to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) largely independently of HDL-concentrations. In addition, the serum capacity to load macrophages with cholesterol (cholesterol loading capacity, CLC) represents an index of pro-atherogenic potential. As transgender individuals are exposed to lifelong exogenous hormone therapy, it becomes of interest to study whether HDL-CEC and serum CLC ar...
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Daan M. van Velzen, Maria Pia Adorni, Francesca Zimetti, Arianna Strazzella, Suat Simsek, Cesare R. Sirtori, Martin den Heijer, Massimiliano Ruscica Source Type: research

Atherogenic index of plasma and the risk of rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis beyond traditional risk factors
This study aimed to assess the association between AIP and the rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis using serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ki-Bum Won, Ran Heo, Hyung-Bok Park, Byoung Kwon Lee, Fay Y. Lin, Martin Hadamitzky, Yong-Jin Kim, Ji Min Sung, Edoardo Conte, Daniele Andreini, Gianluca Pontone, Matthew J. Budoff, Ilan Gottlieb, Eun Ju Chun, Filippo Cademartiri, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marqu Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids ameliorate vascular inflammation: A rationale for their atheroprotective effects
Clinical trials have demonstrated reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events with purified high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), independent of effects on lipids. We aimed to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acids reduce vascular inflammation, a critical mediator of atherosclerosis, and hypothesised that EPA is superior to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Anthony D. Pisaniello, Peter J. Psaltis, Peta M. King, Ge Liu, Robert A. Gibson, Joanne TM. Tan, MyNgan Duong, Tracy Nguyen, Christina A. Bursill, Matthew I. Worthley, Stephen J. Nicholls, Belinda A. Di Bartolo Source Type: research

Reinforcing adherence to lipid-lowering therapy after an acute coronary syndrome: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial
Achieving the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a milestone often missed due to suboptimal adherence to secondary prevention treatments. Whether improved adherence could result in reduced LDL-C levels is unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether an educational-motivational intervention increases long-term lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) adherence and LDL-C goal attainment rate among post-ACS patients. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 12, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Stefanos Zafeiropoulos, Ioannis Farmakis, Anastasios Kartas, Alexandra Arvanitaki, Areti Pagiantza, Aristi Boulmpou, Athina Tampaki, Diamantis Kosmidis, Vassileios Nevras, Eleftherios Markidis, Ioannis Papadimitriou, Anastasia Vlachou, Konstantinos Arvani Source Type: research

Association between geriatric nutritional risk index and stroke risk in hemodialysis patients: 10-years outcome of the Q-Cohort study
The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), which is calculated using the serum albumin level and body mass index, is a nutritional marker associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients who are receiving hemodialysis. However, no studies have examined the association between the GNRI level and the incidence of stroke in this population. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 11, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shoji Tsuneyoshi, Yuta Matsukuma, Yasuhiro Kawai, Hiroto Hiyamuta, Shunsuke Yamada, Hiromasa Kitamura, Shigeru Tanaka, Masatomo Taniguchi, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Toshiaki Nakano, Takanari Kitazono Source Type: research

New prediction tools for coronary plaque erosion: Don't forget computational fluid dynamic analysis
We read with great interest the review by Vergallo et al. regarding the novel prediction tools for plaque erosion in acute coronary syndrome [1]. As the author evidenced, the accurate and non-invasive prediction of plaque erosion still represents an unmet medical need in cardiovascular medicine. To this regard, among the available predictive tools, the authors in their elegant analysis did not report the promising results obtained over the last years using the computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD) [2]. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 9, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Marco Zuin, Gianluca Rigatelli, Giovanni Zuliani, Loris Roncon Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

New prediction tools for coronary plaque erosion: Don ’t forget computational fluid dynamic analysis
We read with great interest the review by Vergallo et al. regarding the novel prediction tools for plaque erosion in acute coronary syndrome [1]. As the author evidenced, the accurate and non-invasive prediction of plaque erosion still represents an unmet medical need in cardiovascular medicine. To this regard, among the available predictive tools, the authors in their elegant analysis did not report the promising results obtained over the last years using the computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD) [2]. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 9, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Marco Zuin, Gianluca Rigatelli, Giovanni Zuliani, Loris Roncon Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Phospholipid transfer to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) upon triglyceride lipolysis is directly correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and is not associated with cardiovascular risk
While low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) represent a well-established cardiovascular risk factor, extremely high HDL-C is paradoxically associated with elevated cardiovascular risk, resulting in the U-shape relationship with cardiovascular disease. Free cholesterol transfer to HDL upon lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) was recently reported to underlie this relationship, linking HDL-C to triglyceride metabolism and atherosclerosis. In addition to free cholesterol, other surface components of TGRL, primarily phospholipids, are transferred to HDL during lipolysis. (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 9, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Feng Ma, Maryam Darabi, Marie Lhomme, Emilie Tubeuf, Aur élie Canicio, Jean Brerault, Narcisse Medadje, Fabiana Rached, Sandrine Lebreton, Eric Frisdal, Fernando Brites, Carlos Serrano, Raul Santos, Emmanuel Gautier, Thierry Huby, Petra El Khoury, Alain Source Type: research

c-Kit expression in smooth muscle cells reduces atherosclerosis burden in hyperlipidemic mice
This study aimed to investigate if such unusual atheroprotective phenotype depends upon c-Kit ’s function in smooth muscle cells (SMC). (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Source: Atherosclerosis - March 9, 2021 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zachary M. Zigmond, Lei Song, Laisel Martinez, Roberta M. Lassance-Soares, Omaida C. Velazquez, Roberto I. Vazquez-Padron Source Type: research