Post-graduation Plans of Undergraduate BME Students: Gender, Self-efficacy, Value, and Identity Beliefs.
This study investigates career intentions and students' engineering attitudes in BME, with a focus on gender differences. Data from n = 716 undergraduate biomedical engineering students at a large public research institution in the United States were analyzed using hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis. Results revealed five clusters of intended post-graduation plans: Engineering Job and Graduate School, Any Job, Non-Engineering Job and Graduate School, Any Option, and Any Graduate School. Women were evenly distributed across clusters; there was no evidence of gendered career preferences. The main findings ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 23, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Patrick A, Borrego M, Riegle-Crumb C Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

2020 ABME Paper Awards.
PMID: 33219437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rowson B Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

2020 Athanasiou ABME Student Awards.
PMID: 33219438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rowson B Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

An Improved Method for Developing Injury Risk Curves Using the Brier Metric Score.
The objective of this study was to use the Brier Metric Score (BMS) to identify the most appropriate metric from an experiment that predicts injury outcomes. The Brier Metric Score assesses how well a metric predicts the outcome for a censored data point (a lower BMS is better). Survival analysis was then conducted with the selected metric and the best distribution was selected using Akaike information criterion (AIC). Confidence intervals (CIs) and the normalized confidence interval width (NCIS) were calculated for the injury probability curve. The testing and validation of the methods described were performed using biome...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hostetler ZS, Hsu FC, Yoganandan N, Pintar FA, Banerjee A, Voo L, Gayzik FS Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

EndoPil: A Magnetically Actuated Swallowable Capsule for Weight Management: Development and Trials.
Abstract Intragastric balloons (IGBs), by occupying the stomach space and prolonging satiety, is a promising method to treat obesity and consequently improves its associated comorbidities, e.g. coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. However, existing IGBs are often tethered with tubes for gas or liquid delivery or require endoscopic assistance for device delivery or removal, which are usually uncomfortable, costly, and may cause complications. This paper presents a novel tetherless, magnetically actuated capsule (EndoPil) which can deploy an IGB inside the stomach after being swallowed and being activated b...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Phan PT, Tiong AMH, Miyasaka M, Cao L, Kaan HL, Ho KY, Phee SJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Neck Muscle and Head/Neck Kinematic Responses While Bracing Against the Steering Wheel During Front and Rear Impacts.
Siegmund GP Abstract Drivers often react to an impending collision by bracing against the steering wheel. The goal of the present study was to quantify the effect of bracing on neck muscle activity and head/torso kinematics during low-speed front and rear impacts. Eleven seated subjects (3F, 8 M) experienced multiple sled impacts (Δv = 0.77 m/s; apeak = 19.9 m/s2, Δt = 65.5 ms) with their hands on the steering wheel in two conditions: relaxed and braced against the steering wheel. Electromyographic activity in eight neck muscles (sternohyoid...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Fice JB, Mang DWH, Ólafsdóttir JM, Brolin K, Cripton PA, Blouin JS, Siegmund GP Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A Computationally-Efficient, Online-Learning Algorithm for Detecting High-Voltage Spindles in the Parkinsonian Rats.
Abstract Abnormally-synchronized, high-voltage spindles (HVSs) are associated with motor deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats. The non-stationary, spike-and-wave HVSs (5-13 Hz) represent the cardinal parkinsonian state in the local field potentials (LFPs). Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for the Parkinson's disease, continuous stimulation results in cognitive and neuropsychiatric side effects. Therefore, an adaptive stimulator able to stimulate the brain only upon the occurrence of HVSs is demanded. This paper proposes an algorithm not only able to detect th...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Perumal R, Vigneron V, Chuang CF, Chang YC, Yeh SR, Chen H Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Load Distribution at the Patellofemoral Joint During Walking.
Abstract We combined computational modelling with experimental gait data to describe and explain load distribution across the medial and lateral facets of the patella during normal walking. The body was modelled as a 13-segment, 32-degree-of-freedom (DOF) skeleton actuated by 80 muscles. The knee was represented as a 3-body, 12-DOF mechanical system with deformable articular cartilage surfaces at the tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) joints. Passive responses of the knee model to 100 N anterior-posterior drawer and 5 Nm axial torque tests were consistent with cadaver data reported in the literature. Trajec...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Thomeer LT, Lin YC, Pandy MG Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A Review of On-Field Investigations into the Biomechanics of Concussion in Football and Translation to Head Injury Mitigation Strategies.
Abstract This review paper summarizes the scientific advancements in the field of concussion biomechanics in American football throughout the past five decades. The focus is on-field biomechanical data collection, and the translation of that data to injury metrics and helmet evaluation. On-field data has been collected with video analysis for laboratory reconstructions or wearable head impact sensors. Concussion biomechanics have been studied across all levels of play, from youth to professional, which has allowed for comparison of head impact exposure and injury tolerance between different age groups. In general,...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rowson B, Duma SM Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Body Anthropometry and Bone Strength Conjointly Determine the Risk of Hip Fracture in a Sideways Fall.
In conclusion, the risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in a sideways fall depends on both body anthropometry and bone strength. PMID: 33184710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 12, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Palanca M, Perilli E, Martelli S Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Rapid CT-based Estimation of Articular Cartilage Biomechanics in the Knee Joint Without Cartilage Segmentation.
This study provides a new methodology for the analysis of knee joint and cartilage mechanics based on measurement of bone dimensions from native CT scans. PMID: 33179182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Mohammadi A, Myller KAH, Tanska P, Hirvasniemi J, Saarakkala S, Töyräs J, Korhonen RK, Mononen ME Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Biomechanics of Human Fetal Hearts with Critical Aortic Stenosis.
Abstract Critical aortic stenosis (AS) of the fetal heart causes a drastic change in the cardiac biomechanical environment. Consequently, a substantial proportion of such cases will lead to a single-ventricular birth outcome. However, the biomechanics of the disease is not well understood. To address this, we performed Finite Element (FE) modelling of the healthy fetal left ventricle (LV) based on patient-specific 4D ultrasound imaging, and simulated various disease features observed in clinical fetal AS to understand their biomechanical impact. These features included aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation (MR) an...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Ong CW, Ren M, Wiputra H, Mojumder J, Chan WX, Tulzer A, Tulzer G, Buist ML, Mattar CNZ, Lee LC, Yap CH Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Mechanical Regulation of Apoptosis in the Cardiovascular System.
Abstract Apoptosis is a highly conserved physiological process of programmed cell death which is critical for proper organism development, tissue maintenance, and overall organism homeostasis. Proper regulation of cell removal is crucial, as both excessive and reduced apoptotic rates can lead to the onset of a variety of diseases. Apoptosis can be induced in cells in response to biochemical, electrical, and mechanical stimuli. Here, we review literature on specific mechanical stimuli that regulate apoptosis and the current understanding of how mechanotransduction plays a role in apoptotic signaling. We focus on ho...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 9, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Goldblatt ZE, Cirka HA, Billiar KL Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Regenerative Potential of Mandibular Condyle Cartilage and Bone Cells Compared to Costal Cartilage Cells When Seeded in Novel Gelatin Based Hydrogels.
The objective of this study was to determine the regeneration potential of cartilage and bone cells from goat mandibular condyles in two different photocrosslinkable hydrogel systems, PGH and methacrylated gelatin, compared to the well-studied costal chondrocytes. PGH is composed of methacrylated poly(ethylene glycol), gelatin, and heparin. Histology, biochemistry and unconfined compression testing was performed after 4 weeks of culture. For bone derived cells, histology showed that PGH inhibited mineralization, while gelatin supported it. For chondrocytes, costal chondrocytes had robust glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 5, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Chin AR, Taboas JM, Almarza AJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Special Issue on Concussion Biomechanics in Football.
PMID: 33141348 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rowson B, Duma SM Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Effect of  Left and Right Coronary Flow Waveforms on Aortic Sinus Hemodynamics and Leaflet Shear Stress: Correlation with Calcification Locations.
The objectives of this study are to: (1) investigate the differences among sinus hemodynamics and leaflet wall shear stresses engendered by the left versus right versus non-coronary flow and (2) correlate respective wall shear stresses with leaflet calcification in patients. A left heart simulator flow loop with a tunable coronary circuit provided physiological coronary flow waveforms corresponding to the left coronary cusp case (LCC), right coronary cusp case (RCC), and non-coronary cusp case (NCC). High spatio-temporal resolution particle image velocimetry was conducted to quantify leaflet wall shear stress and sinus vor...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Flemister DC, Hatoum H, Guhan V, Zebhi B, Lincoln J, Crestanello J, Dasi LP Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Chronic Nicotine Exposure Minimally Affects Rat Supraspinatus Tendon Properties and Bone Microstructure.
In conclusion, our study revealed limited effects of nicotine on the homeostatic condition of the supraspinatus tendon, enthesis, and underlying bone. Future studies are needed to ascertain effects of other components of tobacco products. PMID: 33145676 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Huegel J, Nuss CA, Chan PYW, Cheema AN, Kuntz AF, Soslowsky LJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Actin as a Target to Reduce Cell Invasiveness in Initial Stages of Metastasis.
Abstract We demonstrate the relative roles of the cell cytoskeleton, and specific importance of actin in facilitating mechanical aspects of metastatic invasion. A crucial step in metastasis, the typically lethal spread of cancer to distant body-sites, is cell invasion through dense tissues composed of extracellular matrix and various non-cancerous cells. Cell invasion requires cell-cytoskeleton remodeling to facilitate dynamic morphological changes and force application. We have previously shown invasive cell subsets in heterogeneous samples can rapidly (2 h) and forcefully indent non-degradable, impenetrable...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Alvarez-Elizondo MB, Merkher Y, Shleifer G, Gashri C, Weihs D Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Recent Developments in Prosthesis Sensors, Texture Recognition, and Sensory Stimulation for Upper Limb Prostheses.
Abstract Current developments being made in upper limb prostheses are focused on replacing lost sensory information to the amputees. Providing sensory stimulation from the prosthesis can directly improve control over the prosthetic and provide a sense of body ownership. The focus of this review article is on recent developments while including foundational knowledge for some of the critical concepts in neural prostheses. Reported concepts follow the flow of information from sensors to signal processing, with emphasis on texture recognition, and then to sensory stimulation strategies that reestablish the lost senso...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 2, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Masteller A, Sankar S, Kim HB, Ding K, Liu X, All AH Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Abrupt Deterioration of COVID-19 Patients and Spreading of SARS COV-2 Virions in the Lungs.
Abstract A unique feature of COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia is an abrupt progression to respiratory failure. Our calculation shows that this abrupt deteriorate may be caused by a sudden shift in the spread of virus-laden bioaerosols through the airways to many different regions of the lungs from the initial site of infection. PMID: 33140243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 2, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Filipovic N, Saveljic I, Hamada K, Tsuda A Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Do Head Injury Biomechanics Predict Concussion Clinical Recovery in College American Football Players?
Abstract Identifying the associations between head impact biomechanics and clinical recovery may inform better head impact monitoring procedures and identify athletes who may benefit from early treatments aimed to enhance recovery. The purpose of this study was to test whether head injury biomechanics are associated with clinical recovery of symptom severity, balance, and mental status, as well as symptom resolution time (SRT) and return-to-participation (RTP) time. We studied 45 college American football players (n = 51 concussions) who sustained an incident concussion while participating in a multi...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 2, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Mihalik JP, Chandran A, Powell JR, Roby PR, Guskiewicz KM, Stemper BD, Shah AS, Rowson S, Duma S, Harezlak J, Riggen L, Broglio SP, McAllister TW, McCrea M, CARE Consortium Investigators Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

HFUS Imaging of the Cochlea: A Feasibility Study for Anatomical Identification by Registration with MicroCT.
Abstract Cochlear implantation consists in electrically stimulating the auditory nerve by inserting an electrode array inside the cochlea, a bony structure of the inner ear. In the absence of any visual feedback, the insertion results in many cases of damages of the internal structures. This paper presents a feasibility study on intraoperative imaging and identification of cochlear structures with high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS). 6 ex-vivo guinea pig cochleae were subjected to both US and microcomputed tomography (µCT) we respectively referred as intraoperative and preoperative modalities. For each sample, ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Lavenir L, Zemiti N, Akkari M, Subsol G, Venail F, Poignet P Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Tendon Multiscale Structure, Mechanics, and Damage Are Affected by Osmolarity of Bath Solution.
Abstract One of the most common bath solutions used in musculoskeletal mechanical testing is phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In tendon, swelling induced by physiological PBS results in decreased tendon modulus and induces microstructural changes. It is critical to evaluate the multiscale mechanical behavior of tendon under swelling to interpret prior work and provide information to design future studies. We compared the effects of physiological PBS and 8% polyethylene glycol and saline bathing solutions on tendon multiscale tendon mechanics and damage as well as microstructure with TEM in order to understand...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Bloom ET, Lee AH, Elliott DM Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

In Vitro Investigation of the Effect of Left Ventricular Assist Device Speed and Pulsatility Mode on Intraventricular Hemodynamics.
This study showed how LVAD speed, peripheral resistance and afterload impact the complex intraventricular flow patterns in a ventricle implanted with an LVAD and quantify their thrombogenic risk. PMID: 33128182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Chassagne F, Miramontes M, Chivukula VK, Li S, Beckman JA, Mahr C, Aliseda A Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

3D Analysis of the Proximal Femur Compared to 2D Analysis for Hip Fracture Risk Prediction in a Clinical Population.
Abstract Due to the adverse impacts of hip fractures on patients' lives, it is crucial to enhance the identification of people at high risk through accessible clinical techniques. Reconstructing the 3D geometry and BMD distribution of the proximal femur could be beneficial in enhancing hip fracture risk predictions; however, it is associated with a high computational burden. It is also not clear whether it provides a better performance than 2D model analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the 2D and 3D model reconstruction's ability to predict hip fracture risk in a clinical population of pat...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Jazinizadeh F, Quenneville CE Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Multimodal Loading Environment Predicts Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds' Durability.
Abstract Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds were considered the fourth generation of endovascular implants deemed to revolutionize cardiovascular interventions. Yet, unexpected high risk of scaffold thrombosis and post-procedural myocardial infractions quenched the early enthusiasm and highlighted the gap between benchtop predictions and clinical observations. To better understand scaffold behavior in the mechanical environment of vessels, animal, and benchtop tests with multimodal loading environment were conducted using industrial standard scaffolds. Finite element analysis was also performed to study the relation...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Wang PJ, Berti F, Antonini L, Nezami FR, Petrini L, Migliavacca F, Edelman ER Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Multi-directional Morphological Assessment of Single Bacterial Colonies Through Non-invasive Optical Imaging.
In conclusion, we have demonstrated that OCT is a highly feasible, non-invasive method for the identification of bacterial species, providing detailed morphological and visual information. It thus has strong potential for applications in bacteriology, as well as biomedical and food sciences. PMID: 33118064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 28, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Lee J, Lee SY, Han S, Seong D, Wijesinghe RE, Kim P, Jeon M, Jung HY, Kim J Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Concussion Risk Between Individual Football Players: Survival Analysis of Recurrent Events and Non-events.
We describe an approach for selecting an optimal cumulative distribution function to model risk between subjects by minimizing injury prediction error. We illustrate that small differences in distribution fit can result in large predictive errors. Given the vast amounts of on-field data researchers are collecting across sports, this approach can be applied to develop population-specific risk curves that can ultimately inform interventions that reduce concussion incidence. PMID: 33113020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 28, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rowson S, Campolettano ET, Duma SM, Stemper B, Shah A, Harezlak J, Riggen L, Mihalik JP, Brooks A, Cameron KL, Svoboda SJ, Houston MN, McAllister T, Broglio S, McCrea M Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Mechanobiology of Bone Consolidation During Distraction Osteogenesis: Bone Lengthening Vs. Bone Transport.
e;nguez J, Reina-Romo E Abstract Bone lengthening and bone transport are regeneration processes that commonly rely on distraction osteogenesis, a widely accepted surgical procedure to deal with numerous bony pathologies. Despite the extensive study in the literature of the influence of biomechanical factors, a lack of knowledge about their mechanobiological differences prevents a clinical particularization. Bone lengthening treatments were performed on sheep metatarsus by reproducing the surgical and biomechanical protocol of previous bone transport experiments. Several in vivo monitoring techniques were employed ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Blázquez-Carmona P, Mora-Macías J, Morgaz J, Fernández-Sarmiento JA, Domínguez J, Reina-Romo E Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

High Energy Side and Rear American Football Head Impacts Cause Obvious Performance Decrement on Video.
The objective of this study was to compare head impact data acquired with an impact monitoring mouthguard (IMM) to the video-observed behavior of athletes' post-collision relative to their pre-collision behaviors. A total of n = 83 college and high school American football players wore the IMM and were video-recorded over 260 athlete-exposures. Ex-athletes and clinicians reviewed the video in a two-step process and categorized abnormal post-collision behaviors according to previously published Obvious Performance Decrement (OPD) definitions. Engineers qualitatively reviewed datasets to check head impact and n...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Bartsch AJ, Hedin D, Alberts J, Benzel EC, Cruickshank J, Gray RS, Cameron K, Houston MN, Rooks T, McGinty G, Kozlowski E, Rowson S, Maroon JC, Miele VJ, Ashton JC, Siegmund GP, Shah A, McCrea M, Stemper B Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Machine Learning Classification of Verified Head Impact Exposure Strengthens Associations with Brain Changes.
Abstract Cumulative exposure to head impacts during contact sports can elicit potentially deleterious brain white matter alterations in young athletes. Head impact exposure is commonly quantified using wearable sensors; however, these sensors tend to overestimate the number of true head impacts that occur and may obfuscate potential relationships with longitudinal brain changes. The purpose of this study was to examine whether data-driven filtering of head impact exposure using machine learning classification could produce more accurate quantification of exposure and whether this would reveal more pronounced relat...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: DiCesare CA, Green B, Yuan W, Diekfuss JA, Barber Foss KD, Dudley J, Qin Y, Wang P, Myer GD Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Correction to: Trunk Reaction Time and Kinematic Changes Following Slip Perturbations in Subjects with Recurrent Low Back Pain.
Abstract This erratum is to correct the results section on page 490. PMID: 33111971 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Sung PS, Danial P Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

In-Vitro Assessment of the Effects of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Leaflet Design on Neo-Sinus Geometry and Flow.
This study evaluated the effects of TAV leaflet features on the neo-sinus flow as a measure of leaflet thrombosis risk. Five TAVs of varied leaflet length and insertion height were tested in a simulator. Hydrodynamics and leaflet kinematics through en-phase imaging were quantified. Velocity fields were assessed using high-speed particle image velocimetry. Regions of flow stasis and particle residence times (PRTs) were quantified. TAVs with shorter leaflet length exhibited larger orifice areas and lower transvalvular pressure gradients. Shorter leaflet length and increased leaflet insertion TAVs additionally exhibited lower...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 23, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Ncho B, Sadri V, Ortner J, Kollapaneni S, Yoganathan A Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Whole Body Spine Response to Sub-Injurious Vertical Loading.
Abstract It is critical to understand the relationship between under-body blast (UBB) loading and occupant response to provide optimal protection to the warfighter from serious injuries, many of which affect the spine. Previous studies have examined component and whole body response to accelerative based UBB loading. While these studies both informed injury prediction efforts and examined the shortcomings of traditional anthropomorphic test devices in the evaluation of human injury, few studies provide response data against which future models could be compared and evaluated. The current study examines four differ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Ott KA, Demetropoulos CK, Luongo ME, Titus JM, Merkle AC, Drewry DG Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Mapping Stresses on the Tibial Plateau Cartilage in an Ovine Model Using In-Vivo Gait Kinematics.
This study provides the first accurate, direct measurement of stress in a joint during in vivo gait replication. It was hypothesized that the results would indicate a direct link between gait kinematics and measured stress values. Contrary to this expectation no direct link was found between individualistic differences in kinematics and differences in stress magnitudes. This finding highlights the complex multifactorial nature of stress magnitudes and distribution patterns across articular joints. The results also indicate that stress magnitudes within the knee joint are highly position dependent with magnitudes varying su...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Vakiel P, Shekarforoush M, Dennison CR, Scott M, Muench G, Hart DA, Shrive NG Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Measuring the Internal Stress in Ovine Meniscus During Simulated In Vivo Gait Kinematics: A Novel Method Using Fibre Optic Technology.
In this study, a novel method for measuring stress within the menisci is presented. Small Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors were inserted inside menisci and used to measure mechanical stress during replicated gait cycles. In-vitro stress measurements within the menisci were preformed for healthy gait and gait following surgical damage to the joints. Together with our capability to reproduce in vivo motions accurately, the improvements in fibre optic technology have allowed for the first direct measurement of mechanical stress in menisci. PMID: 33094418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Vakiel P, Dennison CR, Shekarforoush M, Scott M, Hart DA, Shrive NG Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Six-Degree-of-Freedom Tibiofemoral and Patellofemoral Joint Motion During Activities of Daily Living.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional movements of the femur, tibia and patella in healthy young people during activities of daily living. A mobile biplane X-ray imaging system was used to obtain simultaneous measurements of six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in ten participants during standing, level walking, downhill walking, stair ascent, stair descent and open-chain (non-weightbearing) knee flexion. Seven of the eleven secondary motions at the knee-three translations at the tibiofemoral joint, three translations...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Thomeer L, Guan S, Gray H, Schache A, de Steiger R, Pandy M Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Evaluating the Impact of Calcification on Plaque Vulnerability from the Aspect of Mechanical Interaction Between Blood Flow and Artery Based on MRI.
Abstract Acute cerebral ischemic events and thrombosis are associated with the rupture/erosion of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of calcification deposition on the wall shear stress (WSS) and stresses within the plaques using 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models. Six patients with calcified carotid atherosclerosis underwent multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were divided into three groups according to the calcification volume. To evaluate the role of the calcification deposition on the stresses, the calcification content was replaced...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Benitez J, Fontanarosa D, Wang J, Paritala PK, McGahan T, Lloyd T, Li Z Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Position-Specific Circumstances of Concussions in the NFL: Toward the Development of Position-Specific Helmets.
Abstract Consideration of position-specific features of the NFL concussion environment could enable improved risk mitigation through the design of position-specific helmets to improve self-protection as well as protection for the other player with whom the contact occurs. The purpose of this paper is to quantify position-specific features of scenarios resulting in concussions to NFL players, and the players they contact, by reviewing all game footage (broadcast and non-broadcast) over 4 seasons. Position-specific features were documented for 647 concussions in which a primary exposure could be visualized, includin...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Lessley DJ, Kent RW, Cormier JM, Sherwood CP, Funk JR, Crandall JR, Myers BS, Arbogast KB Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Effects of the Lower Airway Secretions on Airway Opening Pressures and Suction Pressures in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: A Computational Simulation.
In this study we retrospectively analyzed respiratory data from 24 critically ill patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation and recruitment maneuver at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, China. Among 24 patients, the mean inspiratory plateau pressure was 52.4 ± 4.4 cmH2O (mean ± [SD]). Particularly, the capnograms presented an upward slope during the expiratory plateau, indicting the existence of airway obstruction. A computational model of airway opening was subsequently introduced to investigate possible fluid dynamic mechanisms for the extraordinarily high inspirator...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Chen Z, Zhong M, Jiang L, Chen N, Tu S, Wei Y, Sang L, Zheng X, Zhang C, Tao J, Deng L, Song Y Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

On-Field Performance of an Instrumented Mouthguard for Detecting Head Impacts in American Football.
This study describes the development and evaluation of a head impact detection system consisting of a mouthguard sensor and machine learning model for distinguishing head impacts from spurious events in football games. Twenty-one collegiate football athletes participating in 11 games during the 2018 and 2019 seasons wore a custom-fit mouthguard instrumented with linear and angular accelerometers to collect kinematic data. Video was reviewed to classify sensor events, collected from instrumented players that sustained head impacts, as head impacts or spurious events. Data from 2018 games were used to train the ML model to c...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Gabler LF, Huddleston SH, Dau NZ, Lessley DJ, Arbogast KB, Thompson X, Resch JE, Crandall JR Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Validation of Wall Shear Stress Assessment in Non-invasive Coronary CTA versus Invasive Imaging: A Patient-Specific Computational Study.
In this study an optimized methodology was developed to derive ESS, pressure drop and oscillatory shear index using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in 3D models of coronary arteries derived from non-invasive coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). These CTA-based ESS calculations were compared to the ESS calculations using the gold standard with fusion of invasive imaging and CTA. In 14 patients paired patient-specific CFD models based on invasive and non-invasive imaging of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries were created. Ten patients were used to optimize the methodology, and four patients to...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Eslami P, Hartman EMJ, Albaghadai M, Karady J, Jin Z, Thondapu V, Cefalo NV, Lu MT, Coskun A, Stone PH, Marsden A, Hoffmann U, Wentzel JJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Segmentation and Pore Structure Estimation in SEM Images of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Using Genetic Algorithm.
Abstract A python computer package is developed to segment and analyze scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The method requires only a portion of an SEM image to be labeled and used for training. The algorithm is then able to detect the pore characteristics for other SEM images acquired at different ambient conditions from different scaffolds with the same material as the labeled image. The quality of SEM images is first enhanced using histogram equalization. Then, a global thresholding method is used to perform the image analysis. The thresholding values for the SEM ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rouhollahi A, Ilegbusi O, Foroosh H Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Bovine Pericardium of High Fibre Dispersion Has High Fatigue Life and Increased Collagen Content; Potentially an Untapped Source of Heart Valve Leaflet Tissue.
This study presents the possibility of a shift from the traditional choice of circumferentially aligned GLBP leaflets, to that of high fibre dispersion arrangements. Characterised by its high fatigue life and increased collagen content, in addition to multiple fibre orientations, GLBP of high fibre dispersion may provide better patient outcomes under the multi-directional loading to which BHV leaflets are subjected in vivo. PMID: 33063231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Whelan A, Williams E, Nolan DR, Murphy B, Gunning PS, O'Reilly D, Lally C Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Regulations and Behavioral Interventions on Head Impacts and Concussions in Youth, High-School, and Collegiate Football: A Systematized Review.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of regulations and behavioral interventions on head impacts and concussions in youth, high-school, and collegiate football, using a systematic search strategy to identify relevant literature. Six databases were searched using key search terms related to three categories: football, head-injuries, and interventions. Studies that met inclusion criteria were included in the study and underwent data extraction. Twenty articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the final systematized review. Of the 20 included studies, 8 studies evaluated inter...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Phillips N, Crisco JJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A Two-Phased Approach to Quantifying Head Impact Sensor Accuracy: In-Laboratory and On-Field Assessments.
The objective of this paper is to introduce a two-phased approach to evaluating head impact sensor accuracy. The first phase consists of in-lab impact testing on a dummy headform at varying impact severities under loading conditions representative of each sensor's intended use. We quantify in-lab accuracy by calculating the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between a sensor's kinematic measurements and headform reference measurements. For sensors that performed reasonably well in the lab (CCC ≥ 0.80), we completed a second phase of evaluation on-field. Through video validation of impacts measured by sensors on a...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Kieffer EE, Begonia MT, Tyson AM, Rowson S Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Head Impact Sensor Studies In Sports: A Systematic Review Of Exposure Confirmation Methods.
Abstract To further the understanding of long-term sequelae as a result of repetitive head impacts in sports, in vivo head impact exposure data are critical to expand on existing evidence from animal model and laboratory studies. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of head impact sensors to estimate the head impact exposure of human subjects in vivo. Previous research has identified the limitations of filtering algorithms to process sensor data. In addition, observer and/or video confirmation of sensor-recorded events is crucial to remove false positives. The purpose of the current study was...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Patton DA, Huber CM, Jain D, Myers RK, McDonald CC, Margulies SS, Master CL, Arbogast KB Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Customised Selection of the Haptic Design in C-Loop Intraocular Lenses Based on Deep Learning.
This study might help manufacturers and ophthalmologists both analyse any IOL design and select the best IOL for each patient. In order to facilitate its application, a graphical user interface (GUI) was created to show the potential of deep learning methods in cataract surgery. PMID: 33037510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 9, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Cabeza-Gil I, Ríos-Ruiz I, Calvo B Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Estimating Knee Joint Load Using Acoustic Emissions During Ambulation.
Abstract Quantifying joint load in activities of daily life could lead to improvements in mobility for numerous people; however, current methods for assessing joint load are unsuitable for ubiquitous settings. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that joint acoustic emissions contain information to estimate this internal joint load in a potentially wearable implementation. Eleven healthy, able-bodied individuals performed ambulation tasks under varying speed, incline, and loading conditions while joint acoustic emissions and essential gait measures-electromyography, ground reaction forces, and motion capture tr...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 9, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Scherpereel KL, Bolus NB, Jeong HK, Inan OT, Young AJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Fully Implanted Prostheses for Musculoskeletal Limb Reconstruction After Amputation: An In Vivo Feasibility Study.
The objectives of our study were to (1) test the feasibility of implanting a limb prosthesis, or endoprosthesis, entirely within living skin at the distal end of a residual limb, and (2) identify effective surgical and post-surgical care approaches for implanting endoprostheses in a rabbit model of hindlimb amputation. We iteratively designed, fabricated, and implanted unjointed endoprosthesis prototypes in six New Zealand White rabbits following amputation. In the first three rabbits, the skin failed to heal due to ishemia and dehiscence along the sutured incision. The skin of the final three subsequent rabbits successful...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 9, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hall PT, Bratcher SZ, Stubbs C, Rifkin RE, Grzeskowiak RM, Burton BJ, Greenacre CB, Stephenson SM, Anderson DE, Crouch DL Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research