Soft Liver Phantom with a Hollow Biliary System.
Abstract Hepatobiliary interventions are regarded as difficult minimally-invasive procedures that require experience and skills of physicians. To facilitate the surgical training, we develop a soft, high-fidelity and durable liver phantom with detailed morphology. The phantom is anatomically accurate and feasible for the multi-modality medical imaging, including computer tomography (CT), ultrasound, and endoscopy. The CT results show that the phantom resembles the detailed anatomy of real livers including the biliary ducts, with a spatial root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.7 ± 0.7 mm and 0.9 ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Tan X, Li D, Jeong M, Yu T, Ma Z, Afat S, Grund KE, Qiu T Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Irreversible Electroporation Enhanced by Radiofrequency Ablation: An In Vitro and Computational Study in a 3D Liver Tumor Model.
Abstract In the present study, we used a computational and experimental study in a 3D liver tumor model (LTM) to explore the tumor ablation enhancement of irreversible electroporation (IRE) by pre-heating with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and elucidate the mechanism whereby this enhancement occurs. Three ablation protocols, including IRE alone, RFA45 → IRE (with the pre-heating temperature of 45 °C), and RFA60 → IRE (with the pre-heating temperature of 60 °C) were investigated. Both the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity of the 3D LTM were characterized with the change in the pre-h...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Fang Z, Mao H, Moser MAJ, Zhang W, Qian Z, Zhang B Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Is Current Social Distancing Enough?
PMID: 33575929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Kenjeres S, Henry FS, Tsuda A Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Effects of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Myocardial Stiffness on Myocardial Strain Under Preserved Ejection Fraction.
Abstract Despite numerous experimental observations regarding heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is characterized mainly by left ventricular hypertrophy and a left ventricular ejection fraction over 50%, myocardial dynamics under HFpEF have not yet been fully clarified, particularly regarding the relationship between myocardial strain distribution and myocardial work. To address this issue, we numerically investigated radial distribution of myocardial strain during a cardiac cycle with fixed internal volume at the end of the systolic and diastolic phases under different mechanical condit...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Morishita T, Takeishi N, Ii S, Wada S Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Effect of 3D Printing Temperature on Bioactivity of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Released from Polymeric Constructs.
Abstract Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) are potent tools for tissue engineering. Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers a potential strategy for delivery of BMP-2 from polymeric constructs; however, these biomolecules are sensitive to inactivation by the elevated temperatures commonly employed during extrusion-based 3D printing. Therefore, we aimed to correlate printing temperature to the bioactivity of BMP-2 released from 3D printed constructs composed of a model polymer, poly(propylene fumarate). Following encapsulation of BMP-2 in poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles, growth f...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Koons GL, Kontoyiannis PD, Diba M, Chim LK, Scott DW, Mikos AG Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Entropy Analysis in Gait Research: Methodological Considerations and Recommendations.
Abstract The usage of entropy analysis in gait research has grown considerably the last two decades. The present paper reviews the application of different entropy analyses in gait research and provides recommendations for future studies. While single-scale entropy analysis such as approximate and sample entropy can be used to quantify regularity/predictability/probability, they do not capture the structural richness and component entanglement characterized by a complex system operating across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Thus, for quantification of complexity, either multiscale entropy or refined composi...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Yentes JM, Raffalt PC Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Perfusion Flow Enhances Viability and Migratory Phenotype in 3D-Cultured Breast Cancer Cells.
Abstract Conventional 2D cell culture, a traditional tool in pre-clinical studies, can hardly be regarded as a representation of a natural cell microenvironment. In this respect, it might result in altered cellular behaviors. To overcome such a limitation, different approaches have been tested to conduct more representative in vitro studies. In particular, the use of 3D cell culture introduces variables, such as cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions; cell features such as survival, proliferation and migration are consequently influenced. For an example, an enhanced drug resistance and increased inva...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Pasini A, Lovecchio J, Cortesi M, Liverani C, Spadazzi C, Mercatali L, Ibrahim T, Giordano E Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

In Vivo Intravascular Pacing Using a Wireless Microscale Stimulator.
Abstract Millions of patients worldwide are implanted with permanent pacemakers for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders. The increased use of these devices has established a growing clinical need to mitigate associated complications. Pacemaker leads, in particular, present the primary risks in most implants. While wireless power transfer holds great promise in eliminating implantable device leads, anatomical constraints limit efficient wireless transmission over the necessary operational range. We thereby developed a transmitter-centered control system for wireless power transfer with suf...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 3, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Abiri P, Duarte-Vogel S, Chou TC, Abiri A, Gudapati V, Yousefi A, Roustaei M, Chang CC, Cui Q, Hsu JJ, Bersohn M, Markovic D, Chen J, Tai YC, Hsiai TK Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Atomistic Basis of Microtubule Dynamic Instability Assessed Via Multiscale Modeling.
Abstract Microtubule "dynamic instability," the abrupt switching from assembly to disassembly caused by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP within the β subunit of the αβ-tubulin heterodimer, is necessary for vital cellular processes such as mitosis and migration. Despite existing high-resolution structural data, the key mechanochemical differences between the GTP and GDP states that mediate dynamic instability behavior remain unclear. Starting with a published atomic-level structure as an input, we used multiscale modeling to find that GTP hydrolysis results in both longitudinal bond weakening ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 3, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hemmat M, Odde DJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Assessing Pressure-Volume Relationship in Developing Heart of Zebrafish In-Vivo.
Abstract During embryogenesis, the developing heart transforms from a linear peristaltic tube into a multi-chambered pulsatile pump with blood flow-regulating valves. In this work, we report how hemodynamic parameters evolve during the heart's development, leading to its rhythmic pumping and blood flow regulation as a functioning organ. We measured the time course of intra-ventricular pressure from zebrafish embryos at 3, 4, and 5 days post fertilization (dpf) using the servo null method. We also measured the ventricular volume and monitored the opening/closing activity of the AV and VB valves using 4D selective p...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Salehin N, Villarreal C, Teranikar T, Dubansky B, Lee J, Chuong CJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Impact Performance Comparison of Advanced Snow Sport Helmets with Dedicated Rotation-Damping Systems.
In conclusion, rotation-damping systems of advanced snow sport helmets can significantly reduce rotational head acceleration and the associated concussion risk. PMID: 33528683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - February 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: DiGiacomo G, Tsai S, Bottlang M Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Accuracy of a Low-Cost Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump Prototype: In Vitro Study Using Combined Methodologies.
This study presents a low-cost prototype as a candidate to be used by type 1 diabetic patients in Brazil and developing countries, especially in the context of public health. PMID: 33495976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Tenorio FS, Martins LEG, Cunha TS Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Size-Dependent Effective Diffusivity in Healthy Human and Porcine Joint Synovium.
Abstract Intra-articular drug delivery can be effective in targeting a diseased joint but is hampered by rapid clearance times from the diarthrodial joint. The synovium is a multi-layered tissue that surrounds the diarthrodial joint and governs molecular transport into and out of the joint. No models of drug clearance through synovium exist to quantify diffusivity across solutes, tissue type and disease pathology. We previously have developed a finite element model of synovium as a porous, permeable, fluid-filled tissue and used an inverse method to determine urea's effective diffusivity (Deff) in de-vitalize...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Guang Y, Davis AL, McGrath TM, Pham CTN, Fitzpatrick JAJ, Setton LA Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Machine-Learning Provides Patient-Specific Prediction of Metastatic Risk Based on Innovative, Mechanobiology Assay.
Abstract Cancer mortality is mostly related to metastasis. Metastasis is currently prognosed via histopathology, disease-statistics, or genetics; those are potentially inaccurate, not rapidly available and require known markers. We had developed a rapid (~ 2 h) mechanobiology-based approach to provide early prognosis of the clinical likelihood for metastasis. Specifically, invasive cell-subsets seeded on impenetrable, physiological-stiffness polyacrylamide gels forcefully indent the gels, while non-invasive/benign cells do not. The number of indenting cells and their attained depths, the mechanical invasivene...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rozen R, Weihs D Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A 3-Layered Bioartificial Blood Vessel with Physiological Wall Architecture Generated by Mechanical Stimulation.
r U Abstract The generation of cellularized bioartificial blood vessels resembling all three layers of the natural vessel wall with physiological morphology and cell alignment is a long pursued goal in vascular tissue engineering. Simultaneous culture of all three layers under physiological mechanical conditions requires highly sophisticated perfusion techniques and still today remains a key challenge. Here, three-layered bioartificial vessels based on fibrin matrices were generated using a stepwise molding technique. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were differentiated to smooth muscle cells (SMC) and integrated ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Helms F, Lau S, Aper T, Zippusch S, Klingenberg M, Haverich A, Wilhelmi M, Böer U Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Electric Field Stimulation for the Functional Assessment of Isolated Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuron Excitability.
Abstract Genetically encoded calcium indicators have proven useful for characterizing dorsal root ganglion neuron excitability in vivo. Challenges persist in achieving high spatial-temporal resolutions in vivo, however, due to deep tissue imaging and motion artifacts that may be limiting technical factors in obtaining measurements. Here we report an ex vivo imaging method, using a peripheral neuron-specific Advillin-GCaMP mouse line and electric field stimulation of dorsal root ganglion tissues, to assess the sensitivity of neurons en bloc. The described method rapidly characterizes Ca2+ activity in hundreds of do...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Berke IM, McGrath TM, Stivers JJ, Gui C, Barcellona MN, Gayoso MG, Tang SY, Cao YQ, Gupta MC, Setton LA Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Is the 0.2%-Strain-Offset Approach Appropriate for Calculating the Yield Stress of Cortical Bone?
Abstract The 0.2% strain offset approach is mostly used to calculate the yield stress and serves as an efficient method for cross-lab comparisons of measured material properties. However, it is difficult to accurately determine the yield of the bone. Especially when computational models require accurate material parameters, clarification of the yield point is needed. We tested 24 cortical specimens harvested from six bovine femora in three-point bending mode, and 11 bovine femoral cortical specimens in the tensile mode. The Young's modulus and yield stress for each specimen derived from the specimen-specific finit...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Zhang G, Luo J, Zheng G, Bai Z, Cao L, Mao H Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Ranking and Rating Bicycle Helmet Safety Performance in Oblique Impacts Using Eight Different Brain Injury Models.
The objective of this study was to determine how eight brain models and eight metrics based on global kinematics rank and rate a large number of bicycle helmets (n=17) subjected to oblique impacts. The results showed that the ranking and rating are influenced by the choice of model and metric. Kendall's tau varied between 0.50 and 0.95 when the ranking was based on maximum principal strain from brain models. One specific helmet was rated as 2-star when using one brain model but as 4-star by another model. This could cause confusion for consumers rather than inform them of the relative safety performance of a helmet. Theref...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Fahlstedt M, Abayazid F, Panzer MB, Trotta A, Zhao W, Ghajari M, Gilchrist MD, Ji S, Kleiven S, Li X, Annaidh AN, Halldin P Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Antifriction Mechanism of Longitudinal Vibration-Assisted Insertion in DBS.
Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease. The insertion of brain tissue is an important procedure that affects the whole operation and the sequela. During the insertion process, the friction between the tissue and the needle shaft is the main factor affecting the degree of tissue damage and the accuracy of target location. Vibration-assisted needle insertion has been shown to reduce friction during needle insertion into biological tissue. LuGre model is a friction model that includes coulomb friction and viscous friction between two contact surfaces and accurately des...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Wu W, Zhou J, Huang P, Pan C, Huang Z, Xu C Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

An Evolving Clinical Need: Discordant Oxygenation Measurements of Intubated COVID-19 Patients.
Abstract Since the first appearance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) earlier this year, clinicians and researchers alike have been faced with dynamic, daily challenges of recognizing, understanding, and treating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2. Those who are moderately to severely ill with COVID-19 are likely to develop acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and require administration of supplemental oxygen. Assessing the need to initiate or titrate oxygen therapy is largely dependent on evaluating the patient's existing blood oxygenation status, either by...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rubano JA, Maloney LM, Simon J, Rutigliano DN, Botwinick I, Jawa RS, Shapiro MJ, Vosswinkel JA, Talamini M, Kaushansky K Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Two Magnetic Sensor Based Real-Time Tracking of Magnetically Inflated Swallowable Intragastric Balloon.
Abstract This paper presents a two magnetic sensor based tracking method for a magnetically inflated intragastric balloon capsule (MIBC) which is used for obesity treatment. After the MIBC is swallowed, it is designed to be inflated inside the stomach by approaching a permanent magnet (PM) externally near the abdomen. However, if the balloon inflation is accidentally triggered while the MIBC is still in the esophagus, the esophagus will be damaged. Therefore, to safely inflate the MIBC, we aim to track the MIBC's position along the esophagus and confirm the MIBC passes through. Typically, magnetic sensor based tra...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Miyasaka M, Tiong AMH, Phan PT, Huang Y, Kaan HL, Ho KY, Phee SJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Review of Wearable and Portable Sensors for Monitoring Personal Solar UV Exposure.
Abstract Sunlight is one of the main environmental resources that keeps all the organisms alive on earth. The ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is essential for vitamin D synthesis in the human body, which is crucial for bone and muscle health. In addition, sun exposure also helps to reduce the risk of some cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, excessive UV exposure can lead to adverse effects, including some eye diseases, premature aging, sunburn and skin cancers. The solar UV irradiance itself depends on many environmental factors. In fact, the UV index reported in weather forecasts is an estimatio...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Huang X, Chalmers AN Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Forces Involved with Labor and Delivery-A Biomechanical Perspective.
Abstract Childbirth is a primarily biomechanical process of physiology, and one that engineers have recently begun to address in a broader fashion. Computational models are being developed to address the biomechanical effects of parturition on both maternal and fetal tissues. Experimental research is being conducted to understand how maternal tissues adapt to intrauterine forces near the onset of labor. All of this research requires an understanding of the forces that are developed through maternal efforts-both uterine contractions and semi-voluntary pushing-and that can be applied by the clinician to assist with ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Grimm MJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Is Experience in Hemodialysis Cannulation Related to Expertise? A Metrics-based Investigation for Skills Assessment.
Abstract Cannulation is not only one of the most common medical procedures but also fraught with complications. The skill of the clinician performing cannulation directly impacts cannulation outcomes. However, current methods of teaching this skill are deficient, relying on subjective demonstrations and unrealistic manikins that have limited utility for skills training. Furthermore, of the factors that hinders effective continuing medical education is the assumption that clinical experience results in expertise. In this work, we examine if objective metrics acquired from a novel cannulation simulator are able to d...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 8, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Liu Z, Zhang Z, Kunkel D, Roy-Chaudhury P, Singapogu R Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Bioengineering Approaches for Placental Research.
Abstract Research into the human placenta's complex functioning is complicated by a lack of suitable physiological in vivo models. Two complementary approaches have emerged recently to address these gaps in understanding, computational in silico techniques, including multi-scale modeling of placental blood flow and oxygen transport, and cellular in vitro approaches, including organoids, tissue engineering, and organ-on-a-chip models. Following a brief introduction to the placenta's structure and function and its influence on the substantial clinical problem of preterm birth, these different bioengineering approach...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 8, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Wheeler ML, Oyen ML Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

From Transcript to Tissue: Multiscale Modeling from Cell Signaling to Matrix Remodeling.
Abstract Tissue-level biomechanical properties and function derive from underlying cell signaling, which regulates mass deposition, organization, and removal. Here, we couple two existing modeling frameworks to capture associated multiscale interactions-one for vessel-level growth and remodeling and one for cell-level signaling-and illustrate utility by simulating aortic remodeling. At the vessel level, we employ a constrained mixture model describing turnover of individual wall constituents (elastin, intramural cells, and collagen), which has proven useful in predicting diverse adaptations as well as disease prog...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Irons L, Latorre M, Humphrey JD Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A Millifluidic Perfusion Cassette for Studying the Pathogenesis of Enteric Infections Using Ex-Vivo Organoids.
Abstract To generate physiologically-relevant experimental models, the study of enteric diarrheal diseases is turning increasingly to advanced in vitro models that combine ex vivo, stem cell-derived "organoid" cell lines with bioengineered culture environments that expose them to mechanical stimuli, such as fluid flow. However, such approaches require considerable technical expertise with both microfabrication and organoid culture, and are, therefore, inaccessible to many researchers. For this reason, we have developed a perfusion system that is simple to fabricate, operate, and maintain. Its dimensions ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Wilson RL, Hewes SA, Rajan A, Lin SC, Bomidi C, Iida T, Estes MK, Maresso AW, Grande-Allen KJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Low-Profile Electromagnetic Field Sensors in the Measurement and Modelling of Three-Dimensional Jaw Kinematics and Occlusal Loading.
DC Abstract Dynamic occlusal loading during mastication is clinically relevant in the design and functional assessment of dental restorations and removable dentures, and in evaluating temporomandibular joint dysfunction. The aim of this study was to develop a modelling framework to evaluate subject-specific dynamic occlusal loading during chewing and biting over the entire dental arch. Measurements of jaw motion were performed on one healthy male adult using low-profile electromagnetic field sensors attached to the teeth, and occlusal anatomy quantified using an intra-oral scanner. During testing, the subject che...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Woodford SC, Robinson DL, Edelmann C, Mehl A, Röhrle O, Vee Sin Lee P, Ackland DC Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Comparison of in Vascular Bioreactors and In Vivo Models of Degradation and Cellular Response of Mg-Zn-Mn Stents.
This study could provide a correlation and difference of the degradation behavior and cellular response to the degradation of Mg-based stent between ex vivo and in vivo approaches. PMID: 33409851 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Zhou N, Li P, Qiu H, Wang J, Huang N, Zhao A, Wang J Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Liquid Poly-N-acetyl Glucosamine (sNAG) Improves Achilles Tendon Healing in a Rat Model.
Abstract The Achilles tendon, while the strongest and largest tendon in the body, is frequently injured. Even after surgical repair, patients risk re-rupture and long-term deficits in function. Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (sNAG) polymer has been shown to increase the rate of healing of venous leg ulcers, and use of this material improved tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model of rotator cuff injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the healing properties of liquid sNAG polymer suspension in a rat partial Achilles tear model. We hypothesized that repeated sNAG injections throughout healing would...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Nuss CA, Huegel J, Finkielsztein S, Soslowsky LJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Characterization of Chitosan-Based Scaffolds Seeded with Sheep Nasal Chondrocytes for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.
vanković H Abstract The treatment of cartilage defect remains a challenging issue in clinical practice. Chitosan-based materials have been recognized as a suitable microenvironment for chondrocyte adhesion, proliferation and differentiation forming articular cartilage. The use of nasal chondrocytes to culture articular cartilage on an appropriate scaffold emerged as a promising novel strategy for cartilage regeneration. Beside excellent properties, chitosan lacks in biological activity, such as RGD-sequences. In this work, we have prepared pure and protein-modified chitosan scaffolds of different deacetylation de...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rogina A, Pušić M, Štefan L, Ivković A, Urlić I, Ivanković M, Ivanković H Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Microengineered 3D Tumor Models for Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery in Female-Related Cancers.
Abstract The burden of cancer continues to increase in society and negatively impacts the lives of numerous patients. Due to the high cost of current treatment strategies, there is a crucial unmet need to develop inexpensive preclinical platforms to accelerate the process of anti-cancer drug discovery to improve outcomes in cancer patients, most especially in female patients. Many current methods employ expensive animal models which not only present ethical concerns but also do not often accurately predict human physiology and the outcomes of anti-cancer drug responsiveness. Conventional treatment approaches for c...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Amirghasemi F, Adjei-Sowah E, Pockaj BA, Nikkhah M Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Automatic Respiratory Phase Identification Using Tracheal Sounds and Movements During Sleep.
Abstract One of the most important signals to assess respiratory function, especially in patients with sleep apnea, is airflow. A convenient method to estimate airflow is based on analyzing tracheal sounds and movements. However, this method requires accurate identification of respiratory phases. Our goal is to develop an automatic algorithm to analyze tracheal sounds and movements to identify respiratory phases during sleep. Data from adults with suspected sleep apnea who were referred for in-laboratory sleep studies were included. Simultaneously with polysomnography, tracheal sounds and movements were recorded w...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Montazeri Ghahjaverestan N, Kabir M, Saha S, Zhu K, Gavrilovic B, Alshaer H, Taati B, Yadollahi A Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A Method Based on 3D Shape Analysis Towards the Design of Flexible Instruments for Endoscopic Maxillary Sinus Surgery.
Abstract The emergence of steerable flexible instruments has widened the uptake of minimally invasive surgical techniques. In sinus surgery, such flexible instruments could enable the access to difficult-to-reach anatomical areas. However, design-oriented metrics, essential for the development of steerable flexible instruments for maxillary sinus surgery, are still lacking. This paper proposes a method to process measurements and provides the instrument designer with essential information to develop adapted flexible instruments for limited access surgery. This method was applied to maxillary sinus surgery and show...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Legrand J, Niu K, Qian Z, Denis K, Vander Poorten V, Van Gerven L, Vander Poorten E Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Boundary-Condition Analysis of an Idealized Left Atrium Model.
-Paniagua J Abstract The most common type of cardiac arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation (AF), which is characterised by irregular and ineffective atrial contraction. This behaviour results into the formation of thrombi, mainly in the left atrial appendage (LAA), responsible for thromboembolic events. Very different approaches are considered as therapy for AF patients. Therefore, it is necessary to yield insight into the flow physics of thrombi formation to determine which is the most appropriate strategy in each case. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has proven successful in getting a better understanding of the ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Dueñas-Pamplona J, Sierra-Pallares J, García J, Castro F, Munoz-Paniagua J Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Finite Element Simulations of the ID Venous System to Treat Venous Compression Disorders: From Model Validation to Realistic Implant Prediction.
Abstract The ID Venous System is an innovative device proposed by ID NEST MEDICAL to treat venous compression disorders that involve bifurcations, such as the May-Thurner syndrome. The system consists of two components, ID Cav and ID Branch, combined through a specific connection that prevents the migration acting locally on the pathological region, thereby preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. Preliminary trials are required to ensure the safety and efficacy of the device, including numerical simulations. In-silico models are intended to corroborate experimental data, providing additional local information ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Zaccaria A, Migliavacca F, Contassot D, Heim F, Chakfe N, Pennati G, Petrini L Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Regional Brain Tissue Displacement and Strain is Elevated in Subjects with Chiari Malformation Type I Compared to Healthy Controls: A Study Using DENSE MRI.
In this study, regional brain tissue displacement and principal strains in 43 CMI subjects and 25 controls were quantified using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology known as displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE). Measurements from MRI were obtained for seven different brain regions-the brainstem, cerebellum, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, frontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. Mean displacements in the cerebellum and brainstem were found to be 106 and 64% higher, respectively, for CMI subjects than controls (p 
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Nwotchouang BST, Eppelheimer MS, Pahlavian SH, Barrow JW, Barrow DL, Qiu D, Allen PA, Oshinski JN, Amini R, Loth F Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Longitudinal Evolution of Pulmonary Artery Wall Shear Stress in a Swine Model of Pulmonary Artery Stenosis and Stent Interventions.
ate A Abstract Branch pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) commonly occurs in congenital heart disease and it has previously been hypothesized that in branch PAS the pulmonary arteries (PAs) remodel their lumen diameter to maintain constant wall shear stress (WSS). We quantified the longitudinal progression of PA WSS in a swine model of unilateral PAS and two different intervention time courses to test this hypothesis. To quantify WSS in the entire pulmonary tree we used 4D Flow MRI for the large-proximal PAs and a structured tree model for the small-distal PAs. Our results only partially supported the hypothesis that ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - January 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Pewowaruk R, Lamers L, Roldán-Alzate A Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Myocardial Perfusion Simulation for Coronary Artery Disease: A Coupled Patient-Specific Multiscale Model.
Abstract Patient-specific models of blood flow are being used clinically to diagnose and plan treatment for coronary artery disease. A remaining challenge is bridging scales from flow in arteries to the micro-circulation supplying the myocardium. Previously proposed models are descriptive rather than predictive and have not been applied to human data. The goal here is to develop a multiscale patient-specific model enabling blood flow simulation from large coronary arteries to myocardial tissue. Patient vasculatures are segmented from coronary computed tomography angiography data and extended from the image-based m...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - December 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Papamanolis L, Kim HJ, Jaquet C, Sinclair M, Schaap M, Danad I, van Diemen P, Knaapen P, Najman L, Talbot H, Taylor CA, Vignon-Clementel I Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Brain Strain: Computational Model-Based Metrics for Head Impact Exposure and Injury Correlation.
Abstract Athletes participating in contact sports are exposed to repetitive subconcussive head impacts that may have long-term neurological consequences. To better understand these impacts and their effects, head impacts are often measured during football to characterize head impact exposure and estimate injury risk. Despite widespread use of kinematic-based metrics, it remains unclear whether any single metric derived from head kinematics is well-correlated with measurable changes in the brain. This shortcoming has motivated the increasing use of finite element (FE)-based metrics, which quantify local brain defor...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Miller LE, Urban JE, Davenport EM, Powers AK, Whitlow CT, Maldjian JA, Stitzel JD Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

In Silico Ventilation Within the Dose-Volume is Predictive of Lung Function Post-radiation Therapy in Patients with Lung Cancer.
In this study, the capability of image-based modelling of regional ventilation in lung cancer patients to predict lung function post-RT was investigated. Twenty-five patient-based models were created using CT images to define the airway geometry, size and location of tumour, and distribution of emphysema. Simulated ventilation within the 20 Gy isodose volume showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s 12-months post-RT (p = 0.001, R = - 0.61). Patients with higher simulated ventilation within the 20 Gy isodose volume h...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Dong Y, Kumar H, Tawhai M, Veiga C, Szmul A, Landau D, McClelland J, Lao L, Burrowes KS Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Analyzing Liver Surface Indentation for In Vivo Refinement of Tumor Location in Minimally Invasive Surgery.
Abstract Manual palpation to update the position of subsurface tumor(s) is a normal practice in open surgery, but is not possible through the small incisions of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). This paper proposes a method that has the potential to use a simple constant-force indenter and the existing laparoscopic camera for tumor location refinement in MIS. The indenter floats with organ movement to generate a static surface deformation on the soft tissue, resolving problems of previous studies that require complicated measurement of force and displacement during indentation. By analyzing the deformation profile...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Yang Y, Yung KL, Hung TWR, Yu KM Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Post-graduation Plans of Undergraduate BME Students: Gender, Self-efficacy, Value, and Identity Beliefs.
This study investigates career intentions and students' engineering attitudes in BME, with a focus on gender differences. Data from n = 716 undergraduate biomedical engineering students at a large public research institution in the United States were analyzed using hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis. Results revealed five clusters of intended post-graduation plans: Engineering Job and Graduate School, Any Job, Non-Engineering Job and Graduate School, Any Option, and Any Graduate School. Women were evenly distributed across clusters; there was no evidence of gendered career preferences. The main findings ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 23, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Patrick A, Borrego M, Riegle-Crumb C Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

2020 ABME Paper Awards.
PMID: 33219437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rowson B Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

2020 Athanasiou ABME Student Awards.
PMID: 33219438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rowson B Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

An Improved Method for Developing Injury Risk Curves Using the Brier Metric Score.
The objective of this study was to use the Brier Metric Score (BMS) to identify the most appropriate metric from an experiment that predicts injury outcomes. The Brier Metric Score assesses how well a metric predicts the outcome for a censored data point (a lower BMS is better). Survival analysis was then conducted with the selected metric and the best distribution was selected using Akaike information criterion (AIC). Confidence intervals (CIs) and the normalized confidence interval width (NCIS) were calculated for the injury probability curve. The testing and validation of the methods described were performed using biome...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hostetler ZS, Hsu FC, Yoganandan N, Pintar FA, Banerjee A, Voo L, Gayzik FS Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

EndoPil: A Magnetically Actuated Swallowable Capsule for Weight Management: Development and Trials.
Abstract Intragastric balloons (IGBs), by occupying the stomach space and prolonging satiety, is a promising method to treat obesity and consequently improves its associated comorbidities, e.g. coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. However, existing IGBs are often tethered with tubes for gas or liquid delivery or require endoscopic assistance for device delivery or removal, which are usually uncomfortable, costly, and may cause complications. This paper presents a novel tetherless, magnetically actuated capsule (EndoPil) which can deploy an IGB inside the stomach after being swallowed and being activated b...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Phan PT, Tiong AMH, Miyasaka M, Cao L, Kaan HL, Ho KY, Phee SJ Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Neck Muscle and Head/Neck Kinematic Responses While Bracing Against the Steering Wheel During Front and Rear Impacts.
Siegmund GP Abstract Drivers often react to an impending collision by bracing against the steering wheel. The goal of the present study was to quantify the effect of bracing on neck muscle activity and head/torso kinematics during low-speed front and rear impacts. Eleven seated subjects (3F, 8 M) experienced multiple sled impacts (Δv = 0.77 m/s; apeak = 19.9 m/s2, Δt = 65.5 ms) with their hands on the steering wheel in two conditions: relaxed and braced against the steering wheel. Electromyographic activity in eight neck muscles (sternohyoid...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Fice JB, Mang DWH, Ólafsdóttir JM, Brolin K, Cripton PA, Blouin JS, Siegmund GP Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A Computationally-Efficient, Online-Learning Algorithm for Detecting High-Voltage Spindles in the Parkinsonian Rats.
Abstract Abnormally-synchronized, high-voltage spindles (HVSs) are associated with motor deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats. The non-stationary, spike-and-wave HVSs (5-13 Hz) represent the cardinal parkinsonian state in the local field potentials (LFPs). Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for the Parkinson's disease, continuous stimulation results in cognitive and neuropsychiatric side effects. Therefore, an adaptive stimulator able to stimulate the brain only upon the occurrence of HVSs is demanded. This paper proposes an algorithm not only able to detect th...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Perumal R, Vigneron V, Chuang CF, Chang YC, Yeh SR, Chen H Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Load Distribution at the Patellofemoral Joint During Walking.
Abstract We combined computational modelling with experimental gait data to describe and explain load distribution across the medial and lateral facets of the patella during normal walking. The body was modelled as a 13-segment, 32-degree-of-freedom (DOF) skeleton actuated by 80 muscles. The knee was represented as a 3-body, 12-DOF mechanical system with deformable articular cartilage surfaces at the tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) joints. Passive responses of the knee model to 100 N anterior-posterior drawer and 5 Nm axial torque tests were consistent with cadaver data reported in the literature. Trajec...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Thomeer LT, Lin YC, Pandy MG Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research