Pericardial decompression syndrome: A comprehensive review.
Abstract Pericardial decompression syndrome (PDS) is an infrequent, life-threatening complication following pericardial drainage for cardiac tamponade physiology. PDS usually develops after initial clinical improvement following pericardiocentesis and is significantly underreported and may be overlooked in the clinical practice. Although the precise mechanisms resulting in PDS are not well understood, this seems to be highly associated with patients who have some underlying ventricular dysfunction. Physicians performing pericardial drainage should be mindful of the risk factors associated with the procedure includ...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - December 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prabhakar Y, Goyal A, Khalid N, Sharma N, Nayyar R, Spodick DH, Chhabra L Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Red blood cell distribution width: A marker of anisocytosis potentially associated with atrial fibrillation.
Abstract The incorporation of biomarkers in the actually used risk scores seem to be helpful for early identifying atrial fibrillation (AF) patients at higher risk. The aim of this critical review of the scientific literature is to investigate the potential clinical significance of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in AF. A systematic electronic search was carried out to identify all articles describing an epidemiological association between RDW and AF in adult human populations. Data abstraction was conducted on a final number of 35 articles (13 cross-sectional, 12 prospective and 10 retrospective studies)....
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - December 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lippi G, Cervellin G, Sanchis-Gomar F Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries: A comprehensive review and future research directions.
ey JR Abstract Acute coronary syndromes constitute a variety of myocardial injury presentations that include a subset of patients presenting with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA). This acute coronary syndrome differs from type 1 myocardial infarction (MI) regarding patient characteristics, presentation, physiopathology, management, treatment, and prognosis. Two-thirds of MINOCA subjects present ST-segment elevation; MINOCA patients are younger, are more often female and tend to have fewer cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, MINOCA is a working diagnosis, and defining the aet...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - December 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vidal-Perez R, Abou Jokh Casas C, Agra-Bermejo RM, Alvarez-Alvarez B, Grapsa J, Fontes-Carvalho R, Rigueiro Veloso P, Garcia Acuña JM, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy following aortic arch stenting: A case report.
CONCLUSION: Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy is a rare complication of aortic arch stenting not previously reported. PMID: 31908731 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - December 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fürniss HE, Hummel J, Stiller B, Grohmann J Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Novel lipid-modifying therapies addressing unmet needs in cardiovascular disease.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, it is well established that dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors leading to the development of atherosclerosis and CVD. Statins remain the standard-of-care in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and their use has significantly reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, recent advances in lipid-modifying therapies, such as the development of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors, have further improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypercholesterolemi...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kosmas CE, Sourlas A, Silverio D, Montan PD, Guzman E Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Multi-modality imaging in transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy.
Abstract Transthyretin amyloid (TTR) cardiomyopathy is a disease of insidious onset, which is often accompanied by debilitating neurological and/or cardiac complications. The true prevalence is not fully known due to its elusive presentation, being often under-recognized and usually diagnosed only late in its natural history and in older patients. Because of this, effective treatment options are usually precluded by multiple comorbidities and frailty associated with such patients. Therefore, high clinical suspicion with earlier and better detection of this disease is needed. In this review, the novel applications ...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Traynor BP, Shamsi A, Voon V Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Management of atherosclerotic plaque in left internal mammary artery graft five years after angiographic patency: A case report.
CONCLUSION: This case highlights the rapid and late development of atherosclerosis in a graft 5 years after documented patency and the importance for consideration of expectant thrombus management. PMID: 31798794 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nandal S, Narayan O, Barlis P, Ponnuthurai FA Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Social media in cardiology: Reasons to learn how to use it.
ey JR Abstract Social media has changed the way we learn, educate, and interact with our peers. The dynamic nature of social media and their immediate availability through our portable devices (smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, etc.) is quickly transforming the way we participate in society. The scope of these digital tools is broad as they deal with many different aspects: Teaching and learning, case discussion, congresses coverage, peer to peer interaction, research are examples worth mentioning. The scientific societies considered more innovative, are promoting these tools between their members. These new con...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vidal-Perez R, Gómez de Diego JJ, Grapsa J, Fontes-Carvalho R, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Cellular models for human cardiomyopathy: What is the best option?
Abstract The genetic cardiomyopathies are a group of disorders related by abnormal myocardial structure and function. Although individually rare, these diseases collectively represent a significant health burden since they usually develop early in life and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst affected children. The heterogeneity and rarity of these disorders requires the use of an appropriate model system in order to characterize the mechanism of disease and develop useful therapeutics since standard drug trials are infeasible. A common approach to study human disease involves the use of animal mod...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jimenez-Tellez N, Greenway SC Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Differential effects of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides on human pulmonary artery: An in vitro study.
CONCLUSION: BNP could be acting as a partial agonist in small human pulmonary arteries, and inhibits relaxation to ANP. Elevated levels of circulating BNP could be responsible for the worsening of decompensated heart failure. This finding could also explain the disappointing results seen in clinical trials of ANP and BNP analogues for the treatment of heart failure. PMID: 31754411 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hussain A, Bennett RT, Tahir Z, Isaac E, Chaudhry MA, Qadri SS, Loubani M, Morice AH Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Evaluating the quality of evidence for diagnosing ischemic heart disease from verbal autopsy in Indonesia.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Mortality and cause of death data are fundamental to health policy development. Civil Registration and Vital Statistics systems are the ideal data source, but the system is still under development in Indonesia. A national Sample Registration System (SRS) has provided nationally representative mortality data from 128 sub-districts since 2014. Verbal autopsy (VA) is used in the SRS to obtain causes of death. The quality of VA data must be evaluated as part of the SRS data quality assessment. AIM: To assess the strength of evidence used in the assignment of Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD) as c...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zhang W, Usman Y, Iriawan RW, Lusiana M, Sha S, Kelly M, Rao C Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Takotsubo syndrome: The past, the present and the future.
Abstract Takotsubo syndrome is a wide spectrum disease with a dramatic clinical presentation mimicking acute coronary syndrome albeit without obstructive coronary disease and typically manifests in the backdrop of intense emotional or physical trigger. Pathophysiology is incompletely understood with multifactorial mechanistic pathways circling around a heart-brain-endocrine axis. Several anatomic and phenotypic variants exist with varied clinical manifestations. The aftermath of Takotsubo syndrome is not always benign and both short- and long-term complications can occur which may impact its prognosis. Several gap...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - September 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khalid N, Sareen P, Ahmad SA, Chhabra L Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Stressing the future.
Abstract Non-invasive cardiac stress imaging plays a central role in the assessment of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. The current guidelines suggest estimation of the myocardial ischaemic burden as a criterion for revascularisation on prognostic grounds despite the lack of standardised reporting of the magnitude of ischaemia on various non-invasive imaging methods. Future studies should aim to accurately describe the relationship between myocardial ischaemic burden as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and mortality. PMID: 31523397 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - August 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Merinopoulos I, Gunawardena T, Eccleshall SC, Vassiliou VS Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

One-year outcomes of a NeoHexa sirolimus-eluting coronary stent system with a biodegradable polymer in all-comers coronary artery disease patients: Results from NeoRegistry in India.
CONCLUSION: The relatively low rates of MACE and stent thrombosis in this study support safety and performance of NeoHexa stents, suggesting it to be an effective alternative to other contemporary stents for the treatment of de novo lesions in native coronary arteries. PMID: 31523398 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - August 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jambunathan R, Basavanna D, Vani P, Neuss M, Janbandhu P Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Successful minimal approach transcatheter aortic valve replacement in an allograft heart recipient 19 years post transplantation for severe aortic stenosis: A case report.
CONCLUSION: With the improved survival of these patients, we think it is time to look into pathophysiology of valvular disease in transplant heart recipients. Some other unanswered questions include, underlying donor and recipient risk factors for valvular diseases in heart transplant recipients. PMID: 31523399 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - August 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Avula S, Mungee S, Barzallo MA Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Broken heart: A matter of the endoplasmic reticulum stress bad management?
Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. The induction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a result of a disruption in the ER homeostasis, was found to be highly associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases and heart failure. This review will discuss the latest literature on the different aspects of the involvement of the ER stress in cardiovascular complications and the potential of targeting the ER stress pathways as a new therapeutic approach for cardiovascular complications. ...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - June 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Belmadani S, Matrougui K Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Impact of gout on in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome-related hospitalizations and revascularizations: Insights from the national inpatient sample.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established a role of gout in predicting risk and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, large-scale data on the impact of gout on inpatient outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-related hospitalizations and post-revascularization is inadequate. AIM: To evaluate the impact of gout on in-hospital outcomes of ACS hospitalizations, subsequent healthcare burden and predictors of post-revascularization inpatient mortality. METHODS: We used the national inpatient sample (2010-2014) to identify the ACS and gout-related hospitalizations, relevant comorbiditi...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - May 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Desai R, Parekh T, Goyal H, Fong HK, Zalavadia D, Damarlapally N, Doshi R, Savani S, Kumar G, Sachdeva R Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Feasibility and safety of cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation in patients with congenital heart disease.
CONCLUSION: Cryoballoon ablation for AF is feasible and safe in patients with simple and moderate forms of CHD, with an excellent acute success rate and modest 1-year freedom from recurrent AF. PMID: 31171960 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - May 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Abadir S, Waldmann V, Dyrda K, Laredo M, Mondésert B, Dubuc M, Khairy P Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Who benefits from percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale vs medical therapy for stroke prevention? In-depth and updated meta-analysis of randomized trials.
Abstract BACKGROUND: A few randomized clinical trials (RCT) and their meta-analyses have found patent foramen ovale closure (PFOC) to be beneficial in prevention of stroke compared to medical therapy. Whether the benefit is extended across all groups of patients remains unclear. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PFOC vs medical therapy in different groups of patients presenting with stroke, we performed this meta-analysis of RCTs. METHODS: Electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, CINAHL and ProQuest Central and manual search were performed from inception through September 2018 for...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - April 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dahal K, Yousuf A, Watti H, Liang B, Sharma S, Rijal J, Katikaneni P, Modi K, Tandon N, Azrin M, Lee J Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Improved scoring system for the electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy.
CONCLUSIONS: This score had superior sensitivity for detection of LVH by ECG while making a modest sacrifice in specificity compared to conventional criteria. PMID: 31040932 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Braunstein ED, Croft LB, Halperin JL, Liao SL Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Risk factors for sudden cardiac death to determine high risk patients in specific patient populations that may benefit from a wearable defibrillator.
CONCLUSION: There is a very high risk of SCD post MI, in patients with LVSD, HCM and LQTS even in those who do not meet criteria for ICD implantation. These patients may be candidates for a WCD. The development of more sensitive risk calculators to predict SCD is necessary in these patients to help guide treatment. PMID: 31040933 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khan HM, Leslie SJ Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Utility of recognizing early electrocardiogram changes in bronchogenic Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: A case report.
CONCLUSION: This case exemplifies EKG changes noted in TCM patients who may aid in early detection and appropriate treatment of TCM. PMID: 31040934 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khan M, Watti H, Dahal K, Dominic P Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Not all arrestins are created equal: Therapeutic implications of the functional diversity of the β-arrestins in the heart.
Not all arrestins are created equal: Therapeutic implications of the functional diversity of the β-arrestins in the heart. World J Cardiol. 2019 Feb 26;11(2):47-56 Authors: Lymperopoulos A, Wertz SL, Pollard CM, Desimine VL, Maning J, McCrink KA Abstract The two ubiquitous, outside the retina, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) adapter proteins, β-arrestin-1 and -2 (also known as arrestin-2 and -3, respectively), have three major functions in cells: GPCR desensitization, i.e., receptor decoupling from G-proteins; GPCR internalization via clathrin-coated pits; and signal transduction independe...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - February 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lymperopoulos A, Wertz SL, Pollard CM, Desimine VL, Maning J, McCrink KA Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Percutaneous devices for left atrial appendage occlusion: A contemporary review.
Abstract Patient with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at risk of developing stroke with the left atrial appendage (LAA) being the most common site for thrombus formation. If left untreated, AF is associated with 4 to 5 folds increase in the risk of ischemic stroke in all age groups. About 5% to 15% of AF patients have atrial thrombi on transesophageal echocardiography, and 91% of those thrombi are located in the LAA in patient with nonrheumatic AF. Although oral anticoagulants are the gold-standard treatment for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular AF, some patients are at high risk of bleeding and deemed ...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - February 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Moussa Pacha H, Al-Khadra Y, Soud M, Darmoch F, Moussa Pacha A, Alraies MC Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Heart valve disease in elderly.
Abstract The incidence of heart valve disease increases significantly with age. Degenerative abnormalities associated with severe aortic stenosis and mitral and tricuspid regurgitation are found in not less than 10% of the population aged ≥ 75 years. Surgical treatment has been considered for years to be the treatment of choice. However, it was not uncommonly associated with high perioperative morbidity and mortality due to frequent comorbidities and overall frailty conditions of these patients. Conventional risk scores such as Society of Thoracic Surgeons and European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluati...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - February 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rostagno C Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical characteristics associated with left atrial thrombus detection: Apixaban.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus detection by transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) anticoagulated with apixaban is not well defined and identification of additional risk factors may help guide the selection process for pre-procedural TEE. The purpose of our study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of LAA thrombus detection by TEE in patients continuously anticoagulated with apixaban for ≥ 4 wk and evaluate for any cardiac risk factors or echocardiographic characteristics which may serve as predictors of ...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - February 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Whiteside HL, Nagabandi A, Brown K, Ayyala DN, Sharma GK Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Heart disease in Friedreich's ataxia.
Abstract Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), which occurs in 1/50000 live births, is the most prevalent inherited neuromuscular disorder. Nearly all FRDA patients develop cardiomyopathy at some point in their lives. The clinical manifestations of FRDA include ataxia of the limbs and trunk, dysarthria, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac diseases. However, the broad clinical spectrum makes FRDA difficult to identify. The diagnosis of FRDA is based on the presence of suspicious clinical factors, the use of the Harding criteria and, more recently, the use of genetic testing for identifying the expansion of a triplet nucleotide se...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - January 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hanson E, Sheldon M, Pacheco B, Alkubeysi M, Raizada V Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Current evidence of drug-elution therapy for infrapopliteal arterial disease.
Abstract New and sophisticated endovascular devices, such as drug-eluting stents (DES) and drug-coated balloons (DCB), provide targeted drug delivery to affected vessels. The invention of these devices has made it possible to address the reparative cascade of arterial wall injury following balloon angioplasty that results in restenosis. DESs were first used for the treatment of infrapopliteal lesions almost 20 years ago. More recently, however, DCB technology is being investigated to improve outcomes of endovascular below-the-knee arterial procedures, avoiding the need for a metallic scaffold. Today, level IA evid...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - January 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Spiliopoulos S, Vasiniotis Kamarinos N, Brountzos E Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis predicts all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in obese patients with negative exercise echocardiography.
ez A, Testa-Fernández AM, González-Juanatey C Abstract BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem due to its high prevalence. The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease is unclear. Some studies agree that certain conditions associated with obesity, such as physical inactivity or cardiovascular risk factors, are responsible for cardiovascular risk excess among obese people. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques (CP) have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events in healthy populations, and recent data suggest a higher prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosc...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - January 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vidal-Perez R, Franco-Gutiérrez R, Pérez-Pérez AJ, Franco-Gutiérrez V, Gascón-Vázquez A, López-López A, Testa-Fernández AM, González-Juanatey C Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Contemporary characteristics and outcomes of adults with familial dilated cardiomyopathy listed for heart transplantation.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDCM) account for 20%-30% of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM). Previous published data showed that some patients with FDCM tend to have rapidly progressive disease; however, five-year mortality was not significantly different in the familial and non-familial forms of NICM with optimal medical therapy. AIM: To better define the characteristics and clinical outcomes of FDCM patients listed for heart transplantation (HT). METHODS: We queried the United Network for Organ Sharing Registry to identify FDCM patients listed for HT between January 2008 and...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - January 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khayata M, Al-Kindi SG, Oliveira GH Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Risk of sudden cardiac death: Are coronary chronic total occlusions an additional risk factor?
Abstract Sudden arrhythmic cardiac death remains a significant, potentially reversible, cardiological challenge in terms of creating accurate risk prediction models. The current guidelines for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy are mainly based on left ventricular ejection fraction despite its low sensitivity and specificity in predicting sudden cardiac death (SCD). Chronic total occlusions have been associated with increased mortality but further research is required to clarify if they should be incorporated in a risk model predicting SCD aiming to identify patients that would benefit from ICD t...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - December 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Merinopoulos I, Corballis N, Eccleshall SC, Vassiliou VS Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Cardiac implications of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Abstract Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a multisystem disorder that essentially can affect any organ in the human body. The hallmark of the pathogenesis in TTP is the large von Willebrand factor multimers on platelet-mediated micro-thrombi formation, leading to microvascular thrombosis. Autopsy studies showed that cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction are the most common immediate causes of death in these patients. Clinical manifestations of cardiac involvement in TTP vary dramatically, from asymptomatic elevation of cardiac biomarkers, to heart failure, MI and sudden cardiac death. There is limit...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - December 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wiernek SL, Jiang B, Gustafson GM, Dai X Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR ®) to determine hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis: A comprehensive review.
Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR®) to determine hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis: A comprehensive review. World J Cardiol. 2018 Dec 26;10(12):267-277 Authors: Baumann S, Chandra L, Skarga E, Renker M, Borggrefe M, Akin I, Lossnitzer D Abstract Coronary angiography is considered to be the gold standard in the morphological evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. The morphological assessment of the severity of a coronary lesion is very subjective. Thus, the invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement represents the current standard for estimation of the hemodynamic significance...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - December 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Baumann S, Chandra L, Skarga E, Renker M, Borggrefe M, Akin I, Lossnitzer D Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Thin and crush: The new mantra in left main stenting?
Abstract Complex bifurcations have been suggested to be better approached by a planned double stent technique; however, recent randomized trials have shown better outcomes of provisional compared to planned two-stent strategy, in terms of both short-term efficacy and safety. In left main (LM) bifurcations, double kissing (DK)-Crush has demonstrated its superiority over Culotte and provisional-T in terms of restenosis and stent thrombosis, gaining respect as one of the most performant techniques for bifurcations stenting. On the other hand, the Nano-Crush technique has recently become part of the repertoire of doub...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rigatelli G, Zuin M, Dash D Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Revisiting endovascular treatment in below-the-knee disease. Are drug-eluting stents the best option?
Abstract Patients with below-the-knee arterial disease are primarily individuals suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI), while a large percentage of these patients are also suffering from diabetes or chronic renal failure or both. Available data from randomized controlled trials and their meta-analysis demonstrated that the use of infrapopliteal drug-eluting stents (DES), in short- to medium- length lesions, obtains significantly better results compared to plain balloon angioplasty and bare metal stenting with regards to vascular restenosis, target lesion revascularization, wound healing and amputations. None...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Spiliopoulos S, Kitrou PM, Brountzos EN Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Coronary spasm: It's common, but it's still unsolved.
Abstract Coronary spasm is caused by a transient coronary narrowing due to the constriction of epicardial coronary artery, which leads to myocardial ischemia. More than 50 years have passed since the first recognition of coronary spasm, and many findings on coronary spasm have been reported. Coronary spasm has been considered as having pivotal roles in the cause of not only rest angina but also exertional angina, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure. In addition, several new findings of the mechanism of coronary spasm have emerged recently. The diagnosis based mainly on coronary angiography and spasm provoca...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Teragawa H, Oshita C, Ueda T Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Clinical applications of feature-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Abstract Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the western world. Assessment of cardiac function is pivotal for early diagnosis of primitive myocardial disorders, identification of cardiac involvement in systemic diseases, detection of drug-related cardiac toxicity as well as risk stratification and monitor of treatment effects in patients with heart failure of various etiology. Determination of ejection fraction with different imaging modalities currently represents the gold standard for evaluation of cardiac function. However, in the last few years, cardiovascular magn...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Muser D, Castro SA, Santangeli P, Nucifora G Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of frequency-domain optical coherence tomography in evaluating and treating intermediate coronary lesions.
CONCLUSION: FD-OCT is safe and effective in the evaluation and treatment of ICL. Larger studies are needed to firmly establish the efficacy and safety of FD-OCT in treating ICL across all coronary artery disease population subgroups. PMID: 30510639 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khurwolah MR, Meng HY, Wang YS, Wang LS, Kong XQ Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Incidence and risk factors for potentially suboptimal serum concentrations of vancomycin during cardiac surgery.
Abstract AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors for vancomycin concentrations less than 10 mg/L during cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this prospective study, patients undergoing cardiac surgery received a single dose of 1000 mg of vancomycin. Multiple arterial samples were drawn during surgery. Exclusion criteria were hepatic dysfunction; renal dysfunction; ongoing infectious diseases; solid or hematologic tumors; severe insulin-dependent diabetes; body mass index of 40 kg/m2; pregnancy or lactation; antibiotic, corticosteroid, or other immunosuppressive therapy; vancomycin or nonsteroidal anti-infl...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Cotogni P, Barbero C, Rinaldi M Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Surgical left atrial appendage occlusion during cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgical left atrial appendage occlusion (s-LAAO) during concomitant cardiac surgery. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search through May 31st 2018 for all eligible studies comparing s-LAAO vs no occlusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Clinical outcomes during follow-up included: embolic events, stroke, all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation (AF), reoperation for bleeding and postoperative complications. We further stratified the analysis based on propensity matched studies and AF predominance. RESULTS: Twelve studies (n = 4...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Atti V, Anantha-Narayanan M, Turagam MK, Koerber S, Rao S, Viles-Gonzalez JF, Suri RM, Velagapudi P, Lakkireddy D, Benditt DG Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

T-cells in myocardial infarction: Culprit instigators or mere effectors?
Abstract Immune system activation and dysfunction characterize the early phase of reperfusion after a myocardial infarction (MI). Despite initially neglected, adaptive immunity has been recently showed to play an important role in this setting. In fact, the immune system can recognize sequestered antigens released by the necrotic tissue, initiating a deleterious autoimmune vicious circle leading to worse outcome. In their recent work, Angelini et al shed the light on a new feature of post-MI which involves two "old players" of post-ischemic myocardial injury: CD31 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Sp...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Liberale L, Bonaventura A, Montecucco F Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Overview of coronary artery variants, aberrations and anomalies.
Abstract Coronary artery anomalies and variants are relatively uncommon congenital disorders of the coronary artery anatomy and constitute the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes. The rapid advancement of imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography, have provided us with a wealth of new information on the subject. Anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the contralateral sinus is the anomaly most frequently associated with sudden cardiac death, in particular if the anomalous co...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kastellanos S, Aznaouridis K, Vlachopoulos C, Tsiamis E, Oikonomou E, Tousoulis D Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Chronic ischemic mitral valve regurgitation and surgical perspectives.
Abstract Chronic ischemic mitral valve regurgitation is a result of disturbed left ventricular geometry secondary to myocardial ischemia in the absence of intrinsic mitral valve pathology. It is a common complication after myocardial infarction, and patients who have ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) have a worse prognosis compared to patients who have ischemic heart disease alone, and this is directly related to the severity of IMR. Medical therapy has limited efficacy, and surgical options including various repair techniques and valve replacement had been tried with variable success. Still there is intense deb...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Altarabsheh SE, Deo SV, Rababa'h A, Obeidat YM, Haddad O Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Successful endovascular treatment in patients with acute thromboembolic ischemia of the lower limb including the crural arteries.
CONCLUSION: Mechanical debulking using the 6F Rotarex®S catheter system may be a safe and effective treatment option in case of thrombotic or thromboembolic occlusion of the proximal and mid-portion of crural arteries. PMID: 30386492 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giusca S, Raupp D, Dreyer D, Eisenbach C, Korosoglou G Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Incidental congenital coronary artery vascular fistulas in adults: Evaluation with adenosine-13N-ammonia PET-CT.
CONCLUSION: PET-CT may be helpful for assessing the functional status of congenital CAFs in selected patients regarding clinical decision-making. Studies with a larger patient series are warranted. PMID: 30386493 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Said SA, Agool A, Moons AH, Basalus MW, Wagenaar NR, Nijhuis RL, Schroeder-Tanka JM, Slart RH Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Undiscovered pathology of transient scaffolding t1remains a driver of failures in clinical trials.
CONCLUSION: The misunderstanding of the pathology of transient scaffolding drives the failures of the clinical trials. More bench studies of the vascular response are required. Several next-generation BVS including multifunctional electronic scaffold grant cardiology with a huge promise to make BVS technology great again. PMID: 30386494 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kharlamov AN Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Takotsubo syndrome - different presentations for a single disease: A case report and review of literature.
We report three cases of Takotsubo syndrome (TS) with atypical myocardial involvement. All three cases were triggered by physical or mental stress, resulting in transient myocardial compromise. However, the clinical presentation, localization and extent of myocardial damage varied in each case, ranging from low-risk acute chest pain to cardiogenic shock with low ejection fraction and dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. These cases outline the range of possible presentations of this rare entity and illustrate atypical forms of TS. PMID: 30386495 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fuensalida A, Cortés M, Gabrielli L, Méndez M, Martínez A, Martínez G Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Myocardial reperfusion injury and oxidative stress: Therapeutic opportunities.
igo R Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its associated mortality, morbidity and complications have significantly decreased with the development of interventional cardiology and percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCA) treatment, which quickly and effectively restore the blood flow to the area previously subjected to ischemia. Paradoxically, the restoration of blood flow to the ischemic zone leads to a massive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which generate rapid and severe damage to biomolecules, generating a phenomenon called myocardial reperfusion injur...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - September 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: González-Montero J, Brito R, Gajardo AI, Rodrigo R Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Established and novel pathophysiological mechanisms of pericardial injury and constrictive pericarditis.
Abstract This review article aims to: (1) discern from the literature the immune and inflammatory processes occurring in the pericardium following injury; and (2) to delve into the molecular mechanisms which may play a role in the progression to constrictive pericarditis. Pericarditis arises as a result of a wide spectrum of pathologies of both infectious and non-infectious aetiology, which lead to various degrees of fibrogenesis. Current understanding of the sequence of molecular events leading to pathological manifestations of constrictive pericarditis is poor. The identification of key mechanisms and pathways c...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - September 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ramasamy V, Mayosi BM, Sturrock ED, Ntsekhe M Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

NBCe1 Na+-HCO3- cotransporter ablation causes reduced apoptosis following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo.
CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that cardiac-specific loss of NBCe1 does not impair cardiovascular performance, causes only minimal changes in gene expression patterns, and protects against IR injury in vivo . PMID: 30344957 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - September 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vairamani K, Prasad V, Wang Y, Huang W, Chen Y, Medvedovic M, Lorenz JN, Shull GE Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research