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GEC-ESTRO/ACROP recommendations for performing bladder-sparing treatment with brachytherapy for muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma.
Abstract The standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In selected cases a bladder sparing approach is possible, for example a limited surgical excision combined with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. To perform brachytherapy flexible catheters have to be implanted in the bladder wall. The implantation is done either by the open retropubic approach or the endoscopic surgical approach. The largest experience for brachytherapy is with low-dose rate and pulsed-dose rate, although some sho...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 31, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Pieters BR, van der Steen-Banasik E, Smits GA, De Brabandere M, Bossi A, Van Limbergen E Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Adaptation is mandatory for intensity modulated proton therapy of advanced lung cancer to ensure target coverage.
CONCLUSIONS: Proton therapy for loco-regional lung cancer demands daily imaging and therapy adaptation for a high proportion of patients. PMID: 28043645 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 31, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Hoffmann L, Alber M, Jensen MF, Holt MI, Møller DS Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Delineating biochemical failure with (68)Ga-PSMA-PET following definitive external beam radiation treatment for prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: PSMA was positive in all patients with BF. Site of failure following dose-escalated EBRT was generally distant. Isolated LR (on PSMA) occurred in only 8 of 419 patients post-EBRT. PMID: 28040309 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 28, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Hruby G, Eade T, Kneebone A, Emmett L, Guo L, Ho B, Hsiao E, Schembri G, Hunter J, Kwong C Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Risk-adapted simultaneous integrated boost-proton beam therapy (SIB-PBT) for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with tumour vascular thrombosis.
Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical effectiveness and safety of simultaneous integrated boost-proton beam therapy (SIB-PBT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with tumour vascular thrombosis (TVT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-one HCC patients with TVT underwent SIB-PBT using three dose-fractionation schemes: if gross tumour volume
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Kim DY, Park JW, Kim TH, Kim BH, Moon SH, Kim SS, Woo SM, Koh YH, Lee WJ, Kim CM Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Leukocytosis and neutrophilia predicts outcome in anal cancer.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Leukocytosis and neutrophilia could be the tip of the iceberg in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. We aimed to validate their prognostic significance in a cohort of patients treated with definitive chemoradiation for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). MATERIALS & METHODS: Clinical records from all consecutive patients treated in a single institution between 2006 and 2016 with curative-intent radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia, defined as leukocyte or neutrophil count over 10,000 and 7500/mm(3), respectively, were studied in terms of overal...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Schernberg A, Escande A, Rivin Del Campo E, Ducreux M, Nguyen F, Goere D, Chargari C, Deutsch E Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Double strand break induction and kinetics indicate preserved hypersensitivity in keratinocytes to subtherapeutic doses for 7weeks of radiotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: These results represented the first evidence of preserved HRS, assessed by γH2AX- and 53BP1-labelled DSB foci, throughout a 7-week treatment course with daily repeated subtherapeutic dose fractions. PMID: 28017476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Qvarnström F, Simonsson M, Nyman J, Hermansson I, Book M, Johansson KA, Turesson I Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Reply to Alongi et al.
PMID: 28012792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Nyman J, Hallqvist A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

PET imaging of zirconium-89 labelled cetuximab: A phase I trial in patients with head and neck and lung cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Both presented (89)Zr-cetuximab administration schedules are safe. The recommended dose for future trials is 60MBq, with a minimum time interval for scanning of 6days. PMID: 28012793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: van Loon J, Even AJ, Aerts HJ, Öllers M, Hoebers F, van Elmpt W, Dubois L, Dingemans AC, Lalisang RI, Kempers P, Brans B, Winnepenninckx V, Speel EJ, Thunnissen E, Smits KM, Boellaard R, Vugts DJ, De Ruysscher D, Lambin P Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Improved overall survival with adjuvant radiotherapy for high-intermediate and high risk Stage I endometrial cancer.
Abstract BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To perform a large analysis of Stage I endometrioid-type endometrial cancer patients to determine the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) on survival. MATERIAL/METHODS: 132,976 FIGO Stage I endometrioid-type endometrial cancer patients treated surgically were identified within the National Cancer Database (NCDB) comprising Commission on Cancer facilities in the United States. Patients were categorized as observation (OBS) or ART (vaginal brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, or both). Univariable generalized linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the odds of rece...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Harkenrider MM, Adams W, Block AM, Kliethermes S, Small W, Grover S Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Determining the need and utilization of radiotherapy in cancers of the breast, cervical, lung, prostate and rectum: A population level study.
CONCLUSIONS: RT shortfalls exist in the utilization of RT in AB, Canada despite centralized cancer care and a publically funded health care system. Decisions to address shortfalls need to be mindful of how model selection can impact on findings. PMID: 28012795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Shack L, Lu S, Weeks LA, Craighead P, Kerba M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Stereotactic precision and conventional radiotherapy evaluation (SPACE)-Trial for medically inoperable Stage I NSCLC: A lost opportunity?
PMID: 28010932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 20, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Alongi F, Tebano U, Mazzola R Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Phase I study of stereotactic body radiation therapy for peripheral T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (JCOG0702): Results for the group with PTV ⩾100cc.
CONCLUSIONS: The RD was determined to be 50Gy in 4 fractions in this population. PMID: 27993416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Onimaru R, Onishi H, Shibata T, Hiraoka M, Ishikura S, Karasawa K, Matsuo Y, Kokubo M, Shioyama Y, Matsushita H, Ito Y, Shirato H Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Dynamic CT imaging of volumetric changes in pulmonary nodules correlates with physical measurements of stiffness.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated proof of concept that PN volume changes measured non-invasively correlate with direct physical measurements of stiffness. These results may translate clinically into a means of improving the specificity of CT screening for lung cancer and/or improving individual prognostic assessments based on lung tumor stiffness. PMID: 27989402 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Lartey FM, Rafat M, Negahdar M, Malkovskiy AV, Dong X, Sun X, Li M, Doyle T, Rajadas J, Graves EE, Loo BW, Maxim PG Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The relative biological effectiveness of antiprotons.
CONCLUSIONS: This paper reports the final results of the experiment AD-4/ACE at CERN on the first-ever direct measurement of RBE of antiprotons and constitutes the first step toward developing treatment plans. PMID: 27988058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Holzscheiter MH, Alsner J, Bassler N, Boll R, Caccia M, Knudsen H, Maggiore C, Petersen JB, Sellner S, Straße T, Singers Sørensen B, Overgaard J Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Regional variability in radiation-induced lung damage can be predicted by baseline CT numbers.
CONCLUSIONS: Limited amount of damage was observed in LD subvolumes, while the relative density increase of all subvolumes was well predictable. This could allow dose redistribution preferentially targeting low-density lung regions. PMID: 27979369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Defraene G, van Elmpt W, Crijns W, De Ruysscher D Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Optimal design and patient selection for interventional trials using radiogenomic biomarkers: A REQUITE and Radiogenomics consortium statement.
Abstract The optimal design and patient selection for interventional trials in radiogenomics seem trivial at first sight. However, radiogenomics do not give binary information like in e.g. targetable mutation biomarkers. Here, the risk to develop severe side effects is continuous, with increasing incidences of side effects with higher doses and/or volumes. In addition, a multi-SNP assay will produce a predicted probability of developing side effects and will require one or more cut-off thresholds for classifying risk into discrete categories. A classical biomarker trial design is therefore not optimal, whereas a r...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: De Ruysscher D, Defraene G, Ramaekers BL, Lambin P, Briers E, Stobart H, Ward T, Bentzen SM, Van Staa T, Azria D, Rosenstein B, Kerns S, West C Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Cardiac atlas development and validation for automatic segmentation of cardiac substructures.
CONCLUSIONS: A set of cardiac atlases was created for auto-contouring from noncontrast CT images. The accuracy of auto-contouring for the heart, chambers, and great vessels was validated for potential clinical use. PMID: 27939201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhou R, Liao Z, Pan T, Milgrom SA, Pinnix CC, Shi A, Tang L, Yang J, Liu Y, Gomez D, Nguyen QN, Dabaja BS, Court L, Yang J Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

G2-checkpoint targeting and radiosensitization of HPV/p16-positive HNSCC cells through the inhibition of Chk1 and Wee1.
CONCLUSIONS: Specific Chk1 inhibitors as well as the combined inhibition of Chk1 and Wee1 radiosensitize HPV-positive HNSCC cells. PMID: 27939202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Busch CJ, Kröger MS, Jensen J, Kriegs M, Gatzemeier F, Petersen C, Münscher A, Rothkamm K, Rieckmann T Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Using the Malthus programme to predict the recruitment of patients to MR-linac research trials in prostate and lung cancer.
In this study, we used evidence-based mathematical modelling to predict the patient cohort for MR-linac to assess its feasibility in a time of austerity. We discuss our results and the implications of evidence-based radiotherapy demand modelling tools such as Malthus on the implementation of new technology and value-based healthcare. PMID: 27939554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Sanderson B, McWilliam A, Faivre-Finn C, Kirkby NF, Jena R, Mee T, Choudhury A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Dosimetric feasibility of ablative dose escalated focal monotherapy with MRI-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
CONCLUSION: Focal ablative dose-escalated radiation is feasible with the proposed protocol. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the clinical outcomes. PMID: 27916416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - December 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Hosni A, Carlone M, Rink A, Ménard C, Chung P, Berlin A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Comparison of toxicity and outcome in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated (chemo-)radiotherapy using IMRT or VMAT.
Abstract Retrospective evaluation of 188 advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with IMRT or VMAT revealed a limited increase of moderate to severe acute esophageal toxicity after VMAT. Acute pulmonary toxicity and severe late toxicity were low. Overall survival did not differ between the IMRT and VMAT groups. PMID: 27914680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Wijsman R, Dankers F, Troost EG, Hoffmann AL, van der Heijden EH, de Geus-Oei LF, Bussink J Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Prophylactic treatment with a potent corticosteroid cream ameliorates radiodermatitis, independent of radiation schedule: A randomized double blinded study.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study will test the hypothesis that preventive topical steroid treatment instituted from start of radiotherapy can ameliorate acute radiation dermatitis. Subgroups of increased risk of dermatitis are included. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A double blinded randomized trial in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after surgery. In total, 202 patients were randomized to betamethasone-17-valerate cream or Essex® cream, a moisturizer. Treatment was assessed by RTOG clinical scoring. Patients' symptoms were recorded. The analyses were stratified for RT s...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 29, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Ulff E, Maroti M, Serup J, Nilsson M, Falkmer U Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Volumetric modulated arc therapy with dynamic collimator rotation for improved multileaf collimator tracking of the prostate.
CONCLUSION: Prostate VMAT plans with rotating collimator were of similar quality as fixed collimator plans, but more suitable for MLC tracking with significantly better agreement between planned and delivered dose distributions. MLC tracking for prostate cancer patients can therefore be improved without the requirement of additional efforts or hardware changes. PMID: 27908453 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 28, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Murtaza G, Toftegaard J, Khan EU, Poulsen PR Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Reply letter to "Texture analysis of parotid gland as a predictive factor of radiation induced xerostomia: A subset analysis".
Reply letter to "Texture analysis of parotid gland as a predictive factor of radiation induced xerostomia: A subset analysis". Radiother Oncol. 2016 Nov 25;: Authors: van Dijk LV, Langendijk JA, Sijtsema NM, Steenbakkers RJ PMID: 27894600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: van Dijk LV, Langendijk JA, Sijtsema NM, Steenbakkers RJ Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The changing landscape in radiotherapy for breast cancer: Lessons from long term follow-up in some European breast cancer trials.
Abstract This review describes the developments in the radiation treatment of breast cancer based on some randomized European trials during the past decades. It will focus on the relevance of long term follow-up in breast cancer patients, starting with the surprising and important change in treatment results during follow-up shown in a locally advanced breast cancer trial. Breast conserving therapy (BCT) in stage I and II breast cancer was explored and tested in a randomized trial to prove equivalence between BCT and mastectomy. The positive outcome led to trials in breast conserving therapy with lower doses and p...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Bartelink H Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Patient-reported quality of life after stereotactic body radiation therapy versus moderate hypofractionation for clinically localized prostate cancer.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluate changes in bowel, urinary and sexual patient-reported quality of life following treatment with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy (
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Johnson SB, Soulos PR, Shafman TD, Mantz CA, Dosoretz AP, Ross R, Finkelstein SE, Collins SP, Suy S, Brower JV, Ritter MA, King CR, Kupelian PA, Horwitz EM, Pollack A, Abramowitz MC, Hallman MA, Faria S, Gross CP, Yu JB Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Internal and external generalizability of temporal dose-response relationships for xerostomia following IMRT for head and neck cancer.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study internal and external generalizability of temporal dose-response relationships for xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer, and to investigate potential amendments of the QUANTEC guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Objective xerostomia was assessed in 121 patients (nCohort1=55; nCohort2=66) treated to 70Gy@2Gy in 2006-2015. Univariate and multivariate analyses (UVA, MVA with 1000 bootstrap populations) were conducted in Cohort1, and generalizability of the best-performing MVA model was investigated in Cohort2 (performance: AUC, ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Thor M, Owosho AA, Clark HD, Oh JH, Riaz N, Hovan A, Tsai J, Thomas SD, Yom SH, Wu JS, Huryn JM, Moiseenko V, Lee NY, Estilo CL, Deasy JO Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

GEC-ESTRO ACROP recommendations for head & neck brachytherapy in squamous cell carcinomas: 1st update - Improvement by cross sectional imaging based treatment planning and stepping source technology.
GEC-ESTRO ACROP recommendations for head & neck brachytherapy in squamous cell carcinomas: 1st update - Improvement by cross sectional imaging based treatment planning and stepping source technology. Radiother Oncol. 2016 Nov 23;: Authors: Kovács G, Martinez-Monge R, Budrukkar A, Guinot JL, Johansson B, Strnad V, Skowronek J, Rovirosa A, Siebert FA, GEC-ESTRO Head & Neck Working Group Abstract The Head and Neck Working Group of the GEC-ESTRO (Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie - European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology) published in 2009 the consensus recommen...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Kovács G, Martinez-Monge R, Budrukkar A, Guinot JL, Johansson B, Strnad V, Skowronek J, Rovirosa A, Siebert FA, GEC-ESTRO Head & Neck Working Group Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Two countries - Two treatment strategies for rectal cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Two entirely different approaches to preoperative therapy resulted in similar survival with initially higher local recurrence rates in Norway, but similarly low rates in later years. This raises questions about optimal RT rates and regimens. PMID: 27887734 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Glimelius B, Myklebust TÅ, Lundqvist K, Wibe A, Guren MG Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Is selective nodal irradiation in non-small cell lung cancer still safe when using IMRT? Results of a prospective cohort study.
DISCUSSION: Selective nodal irradiation using IMRT in stage III NSCLC patients results in a low in-field incidence of INF (2.2%), similar to 3D-CRT, and may thus be considered safe. PMID: 27884510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Martinussen HM, Reymen B, Wanders R, Troost EG, Dingemans AC, Öllers M, Houben R, De Ruysscher D, Lambin P, van Baardwijk A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Tumor control probability modeling for stereotactic body radiation therapy of early-stage lung cancer using multiple bio-physical models.
In conclusion, this systematic analysis of a large set of published clinical data using different radiobiological models shows that local TCP for SBRT of early-stage NSCLC has strong dependence on BED with large α/β ratios of about 20Gy. The six models predict that a BED (calculated with α/β of 20) of 90Gy is sufficient to achieve TCP⩾95%. Among the models considered, the regrowth model leads to a better fit to the clinical data. PMID: 27871671 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu F, Tai A, Lee P, Biswas T, Ding GX, El Naqa I, Grimm J, Jackson A, Kong FS, LaCouture T, Loo B, Miften M, Solberg T, Li XA Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Analysis of GTV reduction during radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: Implications for adaptive radiotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: We showed that adapting to primary tumor GTV shrinkage on MRI mid-treatment is potentially not safe since at least part of the GTV is likely to be dissolving. Adjustment to clear anatomical boundaries, however, may be done safely. PMID: 27866848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Hamming-Vrieze O, van Kranen SR, Heemsbergen WD, Lange CA, van den Brekel MW, Verheij M, Rasch CR, Sonke JJ Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Inter-observer variation in delineating the coronary arteries as organs at risk.
CONCLUSION: The coronary arteries can be reliably identified and delineated as OARs in BC RT. The spatial variance is limited and the total variation in radiation dose is almost completely determined by the between patient variation. PMID: 27866849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Wennstig AK, Garmo H, Hållström P, Nyström PW, Edlund P, Blomqvist C, Sund M, Nilsson G Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Understanding the impact of pelvic organ motion on dose delivered to target volumes during IMRT for cervical cancer.
CONCLUSION: Organ position variation detrimentally affected dose delivered to CTV including cervix. Large planning bladder volumes (>300cc) led to more variation. We recommend bladder volumes of 150-300cc at planning and a range of 50cc below to 150cc above planning for treatment. PMID: 27863962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Eminowicz G, Rompokos V, Stacey C, Hall L, McCormack M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Clinical evidence of variable proton biological effectiveness in pediatric patients treated for ependymoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our correlation of changes on MR images after proton therapy with increased LET constitutes the first clinical evidence of variable proton biological effectiveness. PMID: 27863964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Peeler CR, Mirkovic D, Titt U, Blanchard P, Gunther JR, Mahajan A, Mohan R, Grosshans DR Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Patterns of care and survival outcomes in patients with pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation: An individual patient data analysis.
CONCLUSION: PPTIDs are associated with a moderate outcome with a median progression free survival of 5.17years and median overall survival of 14years. Patients with a sub total resection should be treated with adjuvant radiotherapy as addition of radiation is associated with better survival outcomes. PMID: 27865543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Mallick S, Benson R, Rath GK Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Central liver toxicity after SBRT: An expanded analysis and predictive nomogram.
Abstract PURPOSE: To further explore the correlation of central biliary tract (cHBT) radiation doses with hepatobiliary toxicity (HBT) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a larger patient dataset. METHODS: We reviewed the treatment and outcomes of all patients who received SBRT for primary liver cancer (PLC) and metastatic liver tumors between July 2004 and November 2015 at our institution. The cHBT was defined as isotropic expansions (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mm) from the portal vein (PV). Doses were converted to biologically effective doses by using the standard linear quadratic model with &alpha...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Toesca DA, Osmundson EC, Eyben RV, Shaffer JL, Koong AC, Chang DT Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The dose-response of salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides level 2a evidence for dose-escalated SRT>70Gy. The presence of an SRT dose-response for microscopic disease supports the hypothesis that prostate cancer is inherently radio-resistant. PMID: 27863963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: King CR Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Preclinical testing of an Atr inhibitor demonstrates improved response to standard therapies for esophageal cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: VX-970 is an effective chemo/radiosensitizer which could be readily integrated in the current treatment paradigm to improve the treatment response in esophageal cancer and we plan to test it prospectively in the forthcoming phase I dose escalation safety study combining the ATR inhibitor VX-970 with chemoradiotherapy in esophageal cancer (EudraCT number: 2015-003965-27). PMID: 27839769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Leszczynska KB, Dobrynin G, Leslie RE, Ient J, Boumelha AJ, Senra JM, Hawkins MA, Maughan T, Mukherjee S, Hammond EM Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Consensus opinion on MRI simulation for external beam radiation treatment planning.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate variability in MRI simulation approaches that are largely explained by the use of MRI in combination with CT. PMID: 27838146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Paulson ES, Crijns SP, Keller BM, Wang J, Schmidt MA, Coutts G, van der Heide UA Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of a phase II trial of moderate hypofractionated image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for localized prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Moderate hypofractionation with IG-IMRT to 60Gy was associated with favorable late toxicity although late urinary toxicity and biochemical failures were observed beyond 5years. Dose escalation to 66Gy was associated with significantly worse late toxicity. PMID: 27838147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Lieng H, Pintilie M, Bayley A, Berlin A, Bristow R, Chung P, Gospodarowicz M, Huang R, Ménard C, Warde P, Catton C Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) predicts the early response of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate the predictive value of serial diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) on tumor response of the concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to determine the optimal time point of DWI measurements. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From June 2010 to October 2011, 38 ESCC patients were consecutively enrolled into this prospective cohort study. During their treatment, the longitudinal DWIs were acquired at beginning and every week during the course of CCRT. ADC maps were generated from there DWIs. The tumor responses were evaluated according to the RECIST. ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang L, Liu L, Han C, Liu S, Tian H, Li Z, Ren X, Shi G, Wang Q, Wang G Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Radiosensitization of non-small-cell lung cancer cells and xenografts by the interactive effects of pemetrexed and methoxyamine.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The anti-folate pemetrexed is a radiosensitizer. In pre-clinical models, pemetrexed is more effective along with the base-excision-repair inhibitor methoxyamine. We tested whether methoxyamine enhances pemetrexed-mediated radiosensitization of lung adenocarcinoma cells and xenografts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A549 and H1299 cells were evaluated for cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry, radiosensitization by clonogenic assay, and DNA repair by neutral comet assay and repair protein activation. H460 cells were included in some studies. Xenografts in nude mice received drug(s)...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Oleinick NL, Biswas T, Patel R, Tao M, Patel R, Weeks L, Sharma N, Dowlati A, Gerson SL, Fu P, Zhang J, Machtay M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Three-dimensional analysis of patterns of locoregional recurrence after treatment in breast cancer patients: Validation of the ESTRO consensus guideline on target volume.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore the validity of the ESTRO-clinical target volume (CTV), we conducted three-dimensional analyses of locoregional recurrence (LRR) patterns according to the ESTRO- and RTOG-CTVs. Moreover, we explored which factors contribute to metastasis development outside the recommended CTV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with post-treatment LRR explicitly exhibited on computed tomography (CT) images. All recurrences on CT were overlaid on representative CT images at the equivalent location, based on reference anatomic structures. RESULTS: A total of 235 recur...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Chang JS, Byun HK, Kim JW, Kim KH, Lee J, Cho Y, Lee IJ, Keum KC, Suh CO, Kim YB Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A multi-institutional analysis of prospective studies of carbon ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer: A report from the Japan Carbon ion Radiation Oncology Study Group (J-CROS).
CONCLUSIONS: Favorable overall outcomes of CIRT for prostate cancer were suggested by the analysis of the first multi-institutional data. PMID: 27836119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Nomiya T, Tsuji H, Kawamura H, Ohno T, Toyama S, Shioyama Y, Nakayama Y, Nemoto K, Tsujii H, Kamada T Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

An MRI-based mid-ventilation approach for radiotherapy of the liver.
Abstract MRI is increasingly being used in radiotherapy of the liver. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a strategy to acquire MR images for treatment planning and image guidance in the presence of respiratory motion. By interleaving two navigator triggered MRI sequences, a fast but low-resolution image in mid-ventilation (midV) and a high-resolution image in exhale were acquired efficiently. Deformable registration was applied to map the exhale image to the midV anatomy. Cine-MRI scans were acquired for motion quantification. The method was validated with a motion phantom, 10 volunteers and 1 p...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: van de Lindt TN, Schubert G, van der Heide UA, Sonke JJ Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute skin toxicity in breast radiotherapy with a new quantitative approach.
We describe a non-invasive method of assessing skin microcirculation in breast cancer patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy and correlate them with the CTCAE scale. METHODS: Prospective study of 63 patients where blood flow was measured with real-time laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at baseline, weekly, and 3-months post-radiotherapy. Skin toxicity was assessed with the microcirculation index (MCI), a novel index based on blood flow parameters obtained via LDF. RESULTS: MCI was positively correlated (R=0.647; p
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: González Sanchis A, Brualla González L, Sánchez Carazo JL, Gordo Partearroyo JC, Esteve Martínez A, Vicedo González A, López Torrecilla JL Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Prostate high dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer: Early toxicity and quality-of life results from a randomized phase II clinical trial of one fraction of 19Gy or two fractions of 13.5Gy.
CONCLUSIONS: Single 19Gy and 13.5Gy×2 are both well tolerated. During the first 12months, urinary symptoms and erectile dysfunction are more common in the 2-fraction arm. PMID: 27823821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Morton G, Chung HT, McGuffin M, Helou J, D'Alimonte L, Ravi A, Cheung P, Szumacher E, Liu S, Al-Hanaqta M, Zhang L, Mamedov A, Loblaw A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Respiratory motion-management in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer - A dosimetric comparison in an anthropomorphic lung phantom (LuCa).
The objective of this study was to compare the latest respiratory motion-management strategies, namely the internal-target-volume (ITV) concept, the mid-ventilation (MidV) principle, respiratory gating and dynamic couch tracking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anthropomorphic, deformable and dynamic lung phantom was used for the dosimetric validation of these techniques. Stereotactic treatments were adapted to match the techniques and five distinct respiration patterns, and delivered to the phantom while radiographic film measurements were taken inside the tumor. To report on tumor coverage, these dose distributions were u...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Ehrbar S, Perrin R, Peroni M, Bernatowicz K, Parkel T, Pytko I, Klöck S, Guckenberger M, Tanadini-Lang S, Weber DC, Lomax A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Assessment of organs-at-risk contouring practices in radiosurgery institutions around the world - The first initiative of the OAR Standardization Working Group.
CONCLUSION: The results quantify the large variability in OAR contouring in clinical practice across Gamma Knife radiosurgery centers with respect to the choice of OARs to be contoured, nomenclature and size and shape of OARs. This motivates future effort to standardize practices to enable more effective collaboration. PMID: 27816408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - November 2, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Sandström H, Chung C, Jokura H, Torrens M, Jaffray D, Toma-Dasu I Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research