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Inter-institutional analysis demonstrates the importance of lower than previously anticipated dose regions to prevent late rectal bleeding following prostate radiotherapy.
V, Deasy JO Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate whether inter-institutional cohort analysis uncovers more reliable dose-response relationships exemplified for late rectal bleeding (LRB) following prostate radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from five institutions were used. Rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for 989 patients treated with 3DCRT or IMRT to 70-86.4 Gy@1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction were obtained, and corrected for fractionation effects (α/β = 3 Gy). Cohorts with best-fit Lyman-Kutcher-Burman volume-effect parameter a were pooled after calibration adjustments of the available LRB de...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 9, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Thor M, Jackson A, Zelefsky MJ, Steineck G, Karlsdòttir A, Høyer M, Liu M, Nasser NJ, Petersen SE, Moiseenko V, Deasy JO Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Fast and robust adaptation of organs-at-risk delineations from planning scans to match daily anatomy in pre-treatment scans for online-adaptive radiotherapy of abdominal tumors.
CONCLUSION: The validated DIR showed potential for online-adaptive radiotherapy of abdominal tumors as it achieved considerably high geometric and dosimetric correspondences with the expert-drawn OAR delineations, albeit in a fraction of time required by experts. PMID: 29526492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 8, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Gupta V, Wang Y, Méndez Romero A, Myronenko A, Jordan P, Maurer C, Heijmen B, Hoogeman M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Intensity modulated radiotherapy in locally advanced thyroid cancer: Outcomes of a sequential phase I dose-escalation study.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the safety and tolerability of dose-escalation using modestly accelerated IMRT in high-risk locally advanced thyroid cancer requiring post-operative radiotherapy, and to report preliminary data on efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sequential Phase I dose-escalation design was used. Dose level one (DL1) received 58.8 Gy/28F to the post-operative bed and 50 Gy/28F to elective nodes. DL2 received 66.6 Gy/30F to the thyroid bed, 60 Gy/30F to post-operative nodal levels and 54 Gy/30F to elective nodal levels. Acute (NCICTCv.2.0) and late toxicities (RTOG and...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Rooney KP, Miah AB, Bhide SA, Guerrero-Urbano MT, Sharabiani MT, Newbold KL, Grove L, Harrington KJ, Nutting CM Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

DAHANCA 10 - Effect of darbepoetin alfa and radiotherapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial by the Danish head and neck cancer group.
CONCLUSION: Correction of the Hb level with darbepoetin alfa during radiotherapy of patients with HNSCC resulted in a significantly poorer tumor control and survival. PMID: 29523409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Overgaard J, Hoff CM, Hansen HS, Specht L, Overgaard M, Lassen P, Andersen E, Johansen J, Andersen LJ, Evensen JF, Alsner J, Grau C Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

An atlas to aid delineation of para-aortic lymph node region in cervical cancer: Design and validation of contouring guidelines.
CONCLUSION: We propose the following PAN CTV; expansion from aorta of 10 mm circumferentially except 15 mm laterally, expansion from the IVC of 8 mm anteromedial and 6 mm posterolaterally. The suggested CTV includes 97% (28/29) PAN in a validated patient cohort. A detailed guide and accompanying visual atlas is provided to aid delineation of the PAN CTV in patients with cervical cancer. PMID: 29523410 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Keenan LG, Rock K, Azmi A, Salib O, Gillham C, McArdle O Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Applying Lean-Six-Sigma Methodology in radiotherapy: Lessons learned by the breast daily repositioning case.
CONCLUSIONS: LSSM was implemented in a RT department, allowing to redesign the breast repositioning matching procedure. PMID: 29523411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Mancosu P, Nicolini G, Goretti G, De Rose F, Franceschini D, Ferrari C, Reggiori G, Tomatis S, Scorsetti M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of SKLB-163, a novel benzothiazole-2-thiol derivative, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma by affecting the RhoGDI/JNK-1 signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: SKLB-163 shows strong anti-tumor activities against NPC and sensitizes NPC to irradiation by affecting the RhoGDI/JNK-1 pathway. PMID: 29519627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: He J, Cai L, Chen Y, He Y, Wang M, Tang J, Guan H, Wang J, Peng X Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

4 π plan optimization for cortical-sparing brain radiotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: 4π radiotherapy significantly improved cortical sparing and reduced doses to standard brain OARs, white matter, and the hippocampus. This was achieved with superior PTV dose homogeneity. Such sparing could reduce the probability of cortical atrophy that may lead to cognitive decline. PMID: 29519628 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Murzin VL, Woods K, Moiseenko V, Karunamuni R, Tringale KR, Seibert TM, Connor MJ, Simpson DR, Sheng K, Hattangadi-Gluth JA Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for multiple pulmonary oligometastases: Analysis of number and timing of repeat SBRT as impact factors on treatment safety and efficacy.
CONCLUSIONS: In appropriately selected patients, synchronous SBRT for multiple pulmonary oligometastases and repeat SBRT may have a comparable safety and efficacy profile compared to SBRT for one single oligometastasis. PMID: 29510865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - March 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Klement RJ, Hoerner-Rieber J, Adebahr S, Andratschke N, Blanck O, Boda-Heggemann J, Duma M, Eble MJ, Eich HC, Flentje M, Gerum S, Hass P, Henkenberens C, Hildebrandt G, Imhoff D, Kahl KH, Klass ND, Krempien R, Lohaus F, Petersen C, Schrade E, Wendt TG, Wi Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Optimal image guided radiation therapy strategy for organs at risk sparing in radiotherapy of the prostate including pelvic lymph nodes.
CONCLUSION: Although the total PTV volume is higher when applying an online correction on the prostate, this strategy leads to the most optimal sparing of relevant OARs, at the cost of a slightly higher dose to the femoral heads and small bowel bag. PMID: 29501209 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 28, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: van Nunen A, van der Toorn PPG, Budiharto TCG, Schuring D Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Imaging biomarkers of outcome after radiotherapy for pediatric ependymoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative FLAIR hyperintensities are a negative prognostic factor for intracranial ependymoma and may be a surrogate for residual disease. They could therefore prove helpful in patients' surgical and radiotherapeutic management. PMID: 29500084 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Tensaouti F, Ducassou A, Chaltiel L, Sevely A, Bolle S, Padovani L, Jouin A, Alapetite C, Supiot S, Huchet A, Bernier V, Claude L, Kerr C, Le Prisé E, Bertozzi-Salamon AI, Liceaga S, Lotterie JA, Péran P, Laprie A, French Society for Childhood Cancer (S Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

ESTRO ACROP consensus guideline on CT- and MRI-based target volume delineation for primary radiation therapy of localized prostate cancer.
CONCLUSION: The ESTRO consensus on CT/MRI based CTV delineation for primary RT of localized prostate cancer, endorsed by a broad base of the radiation oncology community, is presented to improve consistency and reliability. PMID: 29496279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Salembier C, Villeirs G, De Bari B, Hoskin P, Pieters BR, Van Vulpen M, Khoo V, Henry A, Bossi A, De Meerleer G, Fonteyne V Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Two decades of high dose rate brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
We report the outcome after HDR-BT and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after 20 years of experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study includes 623 patients, median age of 66 years, treated from 1995 to 2008 and a median follow up of 11 years (range 2-266 months). Androgen deprivation therapy was given to 429 patients (69%). The HDR-BT was given with two 10 Gy fractions and the EBRT with 2 Gy fractions to 50 Gy. RESULTS: The 10-year PC-specific survival was 100%, 92%, 91%, and 75% for low-, intermediate-, high- and very high-risk patients respectively, and the 10-year probability of PSA relapse was ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Åström L, Grusell E, Sandin F, Turesson I, Holmberg L Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A model combining age, equivalent uniform dose and IL-8 may predict radiation esophagitis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study whether cytokine markers may improve predictive accuracy of radiation esophagitis (RE) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 129 patients with stage I-III NSCLC treated with radiotherapy (RT) from prospective studies were included. Thirty inflammatory cytokines were measured in platelet-poor plasma samples. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the risk factors of RE. Stepwise Akaike information criterion (AIC) and likelihood ratio test were used to assess model predictions. RESULTS: Forty-nine of 129 patients (...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang S, Campbell J, Stenmark MH, Stanton P, Zhao J, Matuszak MM, Ten Haken RK, Kong FM Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The arrival of axilla conserving therapy (ACT). Is this the second revolution in locoregional management of breast cancer care?
PMID: 29482843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Munshi A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Do radiation oncology outreach clinics affect the use of radiotherapy?
CONCLUSIONS: RO outreach clinics were associated with a small but significant increase in RT utilization. There is opportunity to improve access to RT by optimizing the effectiveness of RO outreach. PMID: 29478762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: McLaughlin PY, Kong W, de Metz C, Hanna TP, Brundage M, Warde P, Gutierrez E, Mackillop WJ Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Esophagus toxicity after stereotactic and hypofractionated radiotherapy for central lung tumors: Normal tissue complication probability modeling.
CONCLUSION: As no grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity was observed in our cohort, a Dmax of 56 Gy EQD210 and a D5cc of 35.5 Gy EQD210 could be delivered without high risks of severe toxicity. The NTCP models of this study might be used as practical guidelines for the treatment of central lung tumors with stereotactic radiotherapy. PMID: 29478763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Duijm M, Tekatli H, Oomen-de Hoop E, Verbakel W, Schillemans W, Slotman BJ, Senan S, Nuyttens JJ Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Location-allocation model for external beam radiotherapy as an example of an evidence-based management tool implemented in healthcare sector in Poland.
CONCLUSIONS: The results were incorporated into Healthcare Needs Maps for Poland. The plan based on the results of this study, implemented by 2025, should deal with the most pressing concerns of Polish EBRT. PMID: 29477562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Czerwiński AM, Więckowska B Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The accuracy and precision of Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring (KIM) six degree-of-freedom prostate motion measurements during patient treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that KIM is capable of providing the real-time 6DoF prostate target motion during patient treatments with an accuracy ± precision of within 0.2 ± 1.3° and 0.1 ± 0.5 mm for rotation and translation, respectively. As KIM only requires a single X-ray imager, which is available on most modern cancer radiotherapy devices, there is potential for widespread adoption of this technology. PMID: 29471970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kim JH, Nguyen DT, Booth JT, Huang CY, Fuangrod T, Poulsen P, O'Brien R, Caillet V, Eade T, Kneebone A, Keall P Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Carbon-ion radiotherapy for locoregional recurrence after primary surgery for pancreatic cancer.
Abstract The efficacy and safety of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for locoregional recurrence after surgery for pancreatic cancer were retrospectively evaluated. The results for 30 patients showed that C-ion RT was performed safely with relatively long overall survival, good local control, and minimal toxicity. PMID: 29463433 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kawashiro S, Yamada S, Isozaki Y, Nemoto K, Tsuji H, Kamada T Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Dose-response curves for MRI-detected radiation-induced temporal lobe reactions in patients after proton and carbon ion therapy: Does the same RBE-weighted dose lead to the same biological effect?
CONCLUSIONS: The RBE-weighted dose prescription for protons leads to the same RBE-weighted dose-response curve for TLR as the one for LEM I-based carbon ions, while LEM IV predicts clinically significant higher tolerance doses. PMID: 29459152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Gillmann C, Lomax AJ, Weber DC, Jäkel O, Karger CP Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A statistical comparison of motion mitigation performances and robustness of various pencil beam scanned proton systems for liver tumour treatments.
CONCLUSION: Independently of PBS scanning dynamics, re-gating is sufficient to achieve acceptable 4D plan quality close to those of the static references. PMID: 29459153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhang Y, Huth I, Weber DC, Lomax AJ Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

GEC-ESTRO ACROP recommendations in skin brachytherapy.
CONCLUSION: Skin cancer incidence is rising worldwide. BT offers an effective non-invasive or minimally invasive and relative short treatment that particularly appeals to elder and frail population. PMID: 29455924 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Guinot JL, Rembielak A, Perez-Calatayud J, Rodríguez-Villalba S, Skowronek J, Tagliaferri L, Guix B, Gonzalez-Perez V, Valentini V, Kovacs G, GEC ESTRO Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Improved cost-effectiveness of short-course radiotherapy in elderly and/or frail patients with glioblastoma.
CONCLUSION: The ICER of -$3062 per life-year gained and -$17,693 per PFS gained indicates that the short-course RT is less costly compared to the longer RT regimen. PMID: 29452901 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ghosh S, Baker S, de Castro DG, Kepka L, Kumar N, Sinaika V, Matiello J, Lomidze D, Dyttus-Cebulok K, Rosenblatt E, Fidarova E, Roa W Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Retina dose as a predictor for visual acuity loss in 106Ru eye plaque brachytherapy of uveal melanomas.
CONCLUSION: The study showed that retina dose (D2% and Dmean) is a suitable predictor for VA loss. PMID: 29452902 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Heilemann G, Fetty L, Blaickner M, Nesvacil N, Zehetmayer M, Georg D, Dunavoelgyi R Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Independent validation of a new reirradiation risk score (RRRS) for glioma patients predicting post-recurrence survival: A multicenter DKTK/ROG analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The RRRS has been successfully validated in an independent patient cohort. This linear combination of three easily determined clinicopathological factors allows for a reliable classification of patients and may be used as stratification factor for future trials. PMID: 29433917 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 9, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Niyazi M, Adeberg S, Kaul D, Boulesteix AL, Bougatf N, Fleischmann DF, Grün A, Krämer A, Rödel C, Eckert F, Paulsen F, Kessel KA, Combs SE, Oehlke O, Grosu AL, Seidlitz A, Lattermann A, Krause M, Baumann M, Guberina M, Stuschke M, Budach V, Belka C, De Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The first clinical implementation of real-time image-guided adaptive radiotherapy using a standard linear accelerator.
CONCLUSION: The clinical implementation of real-time image-guided adaptive radiotherapy on a standard linear accelerator using KIM and MLC tracking is feasible. This achievement paves the way for real-time IGART to be a mainstream treatment option. PMID: 29428258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Keall PJ, Nguyen DT, O'Brien R, Caillet V, Hewson E, Poulsen PR, Bromley R, Bell L, Eade T, Kneebone A, Martin J, Booth JT Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The influence of tissue composition uncertainty on dose distributions in brachytherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Updated elemental compositions are needed to optimize MBDCA-based dosimetry. Until then, tissue compositions based on gross simplifications in early studies will dominate the uncertainties in tissue heterogeneity. PMID: 29428259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Mann-Krzisnik D, Verhaegen F, Enger SA Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Comparison of dosimetric parameters derived from whole organ and wall contours for bladder and rectum in cervical cancer patients treated with intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy.
Abstract For volumes up to 2 cm3 of the bladder and possibly up to 5 cm3 of the rectum, doses computed from the whole organ were good estimates of the doses in the wall in cervix brachytherapy, and there were no significant differences between patients treated with or without interstitial needles. PMID: 29426638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Gerber R, Rink A, Croke J, Borg J, Beiki-Ardakani A, Fyles A, Milosevic M, Xie J, Keller H, Han K Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced four-dimensional dual-energy computed tomography for target delineation of pancreatic cancer.
This study demonstrates the application of contrast-enhanced four-dimensional dual-energy computed tomography (CE-4D-DECT) for tumor delineation and assesses the objective and subjective image quality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve patients underwent CE-4D-DECT, and quantitative spectral analysis was performed on the resulting virtual monochromatic images (VMI) to determine the optimal VMI (O-VMI) with the highest contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The objective value of the CNR between pancreatic parenchyma and tumor, and the subjective measurement with five-point scale were compared between O-VMI, standard VMI (S-VMI, 77...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ohira S, Wada K, Hirata T, Kanayama N, Ikawa T, Karino T, Nitta Y, Isono M, Ueda Y, Miyazaki M, Koizumi M, Teshima T Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A qualitative signature for predicting pathological response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: The signature consisting of 27 gene pairs can robustly predict clinical response of LARCs to nCRT. PMID: 29402470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Guo Y, Jiang W, Ao L, Song K, Chen H, Guan Q, Gao Q, Cheng J, Liu H, Wang X, Guan G, Guo Z Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of pretreatment total lymphocyte count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.
Abstract BACKGROUND: We evaluated pretreatment total lymphocyte count (TLC, marker of immunosuppression), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, marker of inflammation), and overall survival (OS) in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). METHODS: Pretreatment blood characteristics, age, sex, performance status, race, stage (M1a vs. M1b), number and location of metastases, weight loss, smoking status, chemotherapy cycles (
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Suzuki R, Lin SH, Wei X, Allen PK, Welsh JW, Byers LA, Komaki R Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Radiotherapy for prostate cancer - Does daily image guidance with tighter margins improve patient reported outcomes compared to weekly orthogonal verified irradiation? Results from a randomized controlled trial.
, Kaasa S, Solberg A Abstract BACKGROUND: Novel cancer drugs are subject to strict scientific evaluation of safety and efficacy and usually undergo a cost effectiveness analysis before approval for use in clinical practice. For new techniques in radiotherapy (RT) such as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), this is often not the case. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare daily cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) IGRT with reduced planning target volume (PTV) margins vs weekly orthogonal portal imaging with conventional PTV margins. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of two di...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Tøndel H, Lund JÅ, Lydersen S, Wanderås AD, Aksnessæther B, Jensen CA, Kaasa S, Solberg A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Impact of pemetrexed on intracranial disease control and radiation necrosis in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer receiving stereotactic radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving pemetrexed after brain-directed stereotactic radiation appear to benefit from improved intracranial disease control at the possible expense of radiation-related radiographic necrosis. Whether symptomatic radiation injury occurs more frequently in patients receiving pemetrexed requires further study. PMID: 29398153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Cagney DN, Martin AM, Catalano PJ, Reitman ZJ, Mezochow GA, Lee EQ, Wen PY, Weiss SE, Brown PD, Ahluwalia MS, Arvold ND, Tanguturi SK, Haas-Kogan DA, Alexander BM, Redig AJ, Aizer AA Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Evaluation of clinical and endoscopic toxicity after external beam radiotherapy and endorectal brachytherapy in elderly patients with rectal cancer treated in the HERBERT study.
CONCLUSION: For elderly patients with rectal cancer, definitive radiotherapy can provide good tumour response but has a substantial risk of toxicity. The potential benefit and risks of a HDREBT boost above EBRT alone must be further evaluated. PMID: 29398154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Rijkmans EC, van Triest B, Nout RA, Kerkhof EM, Buijsen J, Rozema T, Franssen JH, Velema LA, Laman MS, Cats A, Marijnen CAM Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Differentiation between radiation-induced brain injury and glioma recurrence using 3D pCASL and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging.
This study was performed to validate the efficacy of three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) compared with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) in distinguishing radiation-induced brain injury from glioma recurrence in patients with glioma. METHODS: Both 3D pCASL and DSC-PWI were performed using a 3.0 Tesla scanner in 69 patients with previously resected and irradiated glioma who displayed newly developed abnormal contrast-enhanced lesions. The included patients were classified into a radiation-induced brain injury group (n = 34) and a glioma rec...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang YL, Chen S, Xiao HF, Li Y, Wang Y, Liu G, Lou X, Ma L Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Update of the systematic review of palliative radiation therapy fractionation for bone metastases.
Abstract PURPOSE: Radiation therapy is an effective modality for pain management of symptomatic bone metastases. We update the previous meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing single fraction to multiple fractions of radiation therapy in patients with uncomplicated bone metastases. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in Ovid Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register. Ten new randomized trials were identified since 2010, five with adequate and appropriate data for inclusion, resulting in a total of 29 trials that were analyzed. Forest plots based on each study's odds ratios were computed using...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Rich SE, Chow R, Raman S, Liang Zeng K, Lutz S, Lam H, Silva MF, Chow E Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Development and validation of an MRI-based model to predict response to chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: An MRI-based prediction model of (near-)complete pathological response following CRT in rectal cancer patients, shows a high predictive performance in an external validation cohort. The clinically relevant features in the model make it an interesting tool for implementation of organ-preserving strategies in rectal cancer. PMID: 29395287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Bulens P, Couwenberg A, Haustermans K, Debucquoy A, Vandecaveye V, Philippens M, Zhou M, Gevaert O, Intven M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Review of the patient positioning reproducibility in head-and-neck radiotherapy using Statistical Process Control.
CONCLUSION: SPC is able to track changes in the reproducibility of patient positioning in head-and-neck radiation oncology, and distinguish between systematic and random process changes. Identification of process changes underlying these trends requires additional statistical analysis and seems only possible when the changes do not overlap in time. PMID: 29395288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Moore SJ, Herst PM, Louwe RJW Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Palliative radiotherapy for locally advanced non-metastatic head and neck cancer: A survey of UK national practice.
PMID: 29366519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Iqbal MS, Kelly C, Kovarik J, Goranov B, Shaikh G, Morgan D, Dobrowsky W, Paleri V Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Clinical significance of soluble programmed cell death ligand-1 (sPD-L1) in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: The level of sPD-L1 was associated with tumor aggressiveness and outcomes, suggesting its role as a possible predictive biomarker. The increases in sPD-L1 after RT suggests that combined treatment with RT and immune checkpoint inhibitors may be a promising therapeutic strategy in HCC. PMID: 29366520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kim HJ, Park S, Kim KJ, Seong J Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A prospective study of the safety and efficacy of liver stereotactic body radiotherapy in patients with and without prior liver-directed therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Liver SBRT is a safe and effective treatment even in the setting of prior liver-directed surgical and ablative therapies. PMID: 29366521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Moon DH, Wang AZ, Tepper JE Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Photon vs. proton radiochemotherapy: Effects on brain tissue volume and perfusion.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the structural and hemodynamic changes of healthy brain tissue in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the tumor following photon and proton radiochemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients (54.9 ±14.0 years) diagnosed with glioblastoma undergoing adjuvant photon (n = 47) or proton (n = 19) radiochemotherapy with temozolomide after tumor resection underwent T1-weighted and arterial spin labeling MRI. Changes in volume and perfusion before and 3 to 6 months after were compared between therapies. RESULTS: A decrease in gray ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Petr J, Platzek I, Hofheinz F, Mutsaerts HJMM, Asllani I, van Osch MJP, Seidlitz A, Krukowski P, Gommlich A, Beuthien-Baumann B, Jentsch C, Maus J, Troost EGC, Baumann M, Krause M, van den Hoff J Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Skin CanceR Brachytherapy vs External beam radiation therapy (SCRiBE) meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare cosmesis and local recurrence (LR) of definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) vs brachytherapy (BT) for indolent basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies including patients with T1-2 N0 SCCs/BCCs treated with definitive EBRT/BT and ≥10 months follow-up were analyzed. The primary endpoint was post-treatment cosmesis, categorized as "good," "fair," or "poor." The secondary endpoint was LR. Mixed effects regression models were used to estimate weighted linear ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Zaorsky NG, Lee CT, Zhang E, Galloway TJ Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Palliative radiotherapy for locally advanced non-metastatic head and neck cancer: A systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: The choice of palliative radiotherapy varies significantly. This is in contrast to regimens of curative radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer, which are well standardised. Given the reported relatively short overall survival of this patient group, an ideal treatment should be of the shortest possible duration whilst ensuring effective palliation and minimal side effects. Future well designed trials are needed to evaluate quality of life and duration of side effects in addition to survival and severity of toxicities in this group of patients. PMID: 29370986 [PubMed - as supplied by publish...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Shahid Iqbal M, Kelly C, Kovarik J, Goranov B, Shaikh G, Morgan D, Dobrowsky W, Paleri V Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Optimization of combined proton-photon treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: A limited number of proton fractions can best be used if protons hypofractionate parts of the GTV while maintaining near-uniform fractionation in dose-limiting normal tissues. PMID: 29370987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Unkelbach J, Bangert M, De Amorim Bernstein K, Andratschke N, Guckenberger M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A simple clinical method for predicting the benefit of prone vs. supine positioning in reducing heart exposure during left breast radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION: We consider this simple clinical tool appropriate for assisting individual positioning aiming at maximum heart protection during left breast irradiation. PMID: 29373194 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kahán Z, Rárosi F, Gaál S, Cserháti A, Boda K, Darázs B, Kószó R, Lakosi F, Gulybán Á, Coucke PA, Varga Z Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Ototoxicity and cochlear sparing in children with medulloblastoma: Proton vs. photon radiotherapy.
Abstract PURPOSE: To compare ototoxicity rates between medulloblastoma patients treated with protons vs. photons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 84 children diagnosed with medulloblastoma treated with either passively scattered protons (n = 38) or photons (n = 46). Patients underwent maximal safe resection followed by craniospinal irradiation, posterior fossa and/or tumor bed boost and chemotherapy according to one of 3 multi-institutional trials. Median audiogram follow-up was 56 months for protons and 66 months for photons. RESULTS: Mean cochlear dose (Dmc) was lower in patients ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Paulino AC, Mahajan A, Ye R, Grosshans DR, Fatih Okcu M, Su J, McAleer MF, McGovern S, Mangona VA, Chintagumpala M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Treatment outcome and prognostic factors for adult patients with medulloblastoma: The Rare Cancer Network (RCN) experience.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high KPS who received CSI had better rates of disease-free and overall survival. Chemotherapy was associated with better local control. These results may serve as a benchmark for future studies designed to improve outcomes for adults with medulloblastoma. PMID: 29373196 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Atalar B, Ozsahin M, Call J, Napieralska A, Kamer S, Villa S, Erpolat P, Negretti L, Lassen-Ramshad Y, Onal C, Akyurek S, Ugurluer G, Baumert BG, Servagi-Vernat S, Miller RC, Ozyar E, Sio TT Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Differences in lung injury after IMRT or proton therapy assessed by 18FDG PET imaging.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite significantly different dose distributions for IMRT and for protons, the slope of the SUV-dose linear regression line previously shown to be associated with RP did not differ between IMRT and protons. Patients who developed radiation pneumonitis had statistically significantly higher MLD and higher slope regardless of treatment modality. PMID: 29352608 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - January 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Shusharina N, Liao Z, Mohan R, Liu A, Niemierko A, Choi N, Bortfeld T Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research