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A multi-institutional assessment of COVID-19-related risk in radiation oncology.
CONCLUSIONS: COVID-related risks are similar across oncology practices in this study. While control measures can reducerisk, their use varied. The effectiveness ofcontrol measures on risk may guide selection of the highest-impact workflow adaptions to ensure safe care in oncology. PMID: 33096163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Vscariello I, Evans S, Parker S, Schofield D, Miller B, Gardner S, Fong de Los Santos L, Hallemeier C, Jordan L, Kim E, Ford E Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Differential transcriptome response to proton versus X-ray radiation reveals novel candidate targets for combinatorial PT therapy in lymphoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Proton vs X-ray led to the transcriptional deregulation of a specific subset of genes that is functionally in line with diminished protein translation, UPR activation and increased oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that radiation types trigger distinct molecular responses in lymphoma cells and identifies PPARgamma inhibition as a potential strategy for sensitization of lymphoma to PT. PMID: 33096164 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Sertorio M, Nowrouzi A, Akbarpour M, Chetal K, Salomonis N, Brons S, Mascia A, Ionascu D, Shelby McCauley, Kupneski T, Köthe A, Debus J, Perentesis JP, Abdollahi A, Zheng Y, Wells SI Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer in norway 2006-2015: Temporal trends, performance and survival.
Myklebust TA Abstract BACKGROUND: More studies are needed to document nation-wide use and effectiveness of curative definitive radiotherapy (Def-RT) in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). PATIENTS AND METHODS: For 38,960 men diagnosed with PCa without distant metastases from 2006 to 2015 data from the Norwegian Prostate Cancer Registry and a national radiotherapy database (NoRadBase) was analyzed. Overall survival and PCa-specific mortality were described comparing EQD-2
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Fosså SD, Aas K, Müller C, Jerm MB, Tandstad T, Lilleby W, Kvåle R, Gulbrandsen J, Haug E, Myklebust TA Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Multivariate normal tissue complication probability models for rectal and bladder morbidity in prostate cancer patients treated with proton therapy.
CONCLUSION: Anticoagulant use and age were the most prominent predictors in the NTCP models. V75Gy of the rectal wall and the bladder was a predictor in the DVH-based models of the rectum and bladder respectively. PMID: 33096166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Pedersen J, Liang X, Casares-Magaz O, Bryant C, Mendenhall N, Li Z, Muren LP Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic value of radiomics based models in non-small cell lung cancer treated with curative radiotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on this review, radiomics based models for lung cancer have to date demonstrated modest prognostic capabilities. Future research should consider using standardised radiomics features, robust feature selection and model development, and deep learning techniques, absolving the need for pre-defined features, to improve imaging-based models. PMID: 33096167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kothari G, Korte J, Lehrer EJ, Zaorsky NG, Lazarakis S, Kron T, Hardcastle N, Siva S Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
This study aimed to examine the risk factors that predict RP and explore dosimetric tolerance for safe practice in a large institutional series of NSCLC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with early-stage and locally recurrent NSCLC who received lung SBRT between 2002 and 2015 formed the study population. The primary endpoint was grade 2 or above radiation pneumonitis (RP2). Lungs were re-contoured consistently by one radiation oncologist according to the RTOG atlas for organs at risk. Dosimetric factors were computed consistently with exclusion of gross tumor volume of either ipsilateral, contralateral, or tot...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu Y, Wang W, Shiue K, Yao H, Cerra-Franco A, Shapiro RH, Colin Huang K, Vile D, Langer M, Watson G, Bartlett G, Ai H, Sheski F, Jin JY, Zellars R, Fu P, Lautenschlaeger T, Kong FS Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Patient-reported functional outcomes following external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer with and without a high-dose rate brachytherapy boost: a national population-based study.
CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to suggest that EBRT-BB results in any clinically important detriment in functional outcomes or HRQoL compared to men receiving EBRT only. Whilst statistically significantly worse urinary irritation/obstruction outcomes were reported in the EBRT-BB cohort, the threshold for a clinically significant difference was not exceeded and further research is required for confirmation. PMID: 33075390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Parry MG, Nossiter J, Cowling TE, Sujenthiran A, Berry B, Cathcart P, Clarke NW, Payne H, van der Meulen J, Aggarwal A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Salvage low dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer recurrence following definitive external beam radiation therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Salvage LDR brachytherapy is safe and efficacious, with acceptable grade 3+ toxicity and good biochemical control on long-term follow-up. Patients with higher grade group and higher PSA at initial diagnosis may be at increased risk for biochemical failure. PMID: 33075391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Smith WH, Cesaretti J, Peng Chin C, Terk M, Stock RG Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Development and Validation of an Age-Scalable Cardiac Model with Substructures for Dosimetry in Late-Effects Studies of Childhood Cancer Survivors.
PMID: 33075392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Shrestha S, Gupta AC, Bates JE, Lee C, Owens CA, Hoppe BS, Constine LS, Smith SA, Qiao Y, Weathers RE, Yasui Y, Court LE, Paulino AC, Pinnix CC, Kry SF, Followill DS, Armstrong GT, Howell RM Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Identification of the mutation signature of the cancer genome caused by irradiation.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the signature and underlying mechanism of radiation on the cancer genome. PMID: 33075393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kageyama SI, Du J, Kaneko S, Hamamoto R, Yamaguchi S, Yamashita R, Okumura M, Motegi A, Hojo H, Nakamura M, Tsuchihara K, Akimoto T Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A deep learning approach to generate synthetic CT in low tesla MR-guided adaptive radiotherapy for abdominal and pelvic cases.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that sCT generation using a DL approach is feasible for low field MR images in pelvis and abdomen, allowing a reliable calculation of IMRT plans in MRgRT. PMID: 33075394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Cusumano D, Lenkowicz J, Votta C, Boldrini L, Placidi L, Catucci F, Dinapoli N, Valerio Antonelli M, Romano A, De Luca V, Chiloiro G, Indovina L, Valentini V Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

CT and FDG-PET radiologic biomarkers in p16+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.
zwa ML Abstract PURPOSE: To assess associations between imaging biomarkers from standard of care pre-treatment CT and FDG-PET scans and loco-regional (LR) and distant metastatic (DM) recurrences in patients with p16+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: An institutional database from a single NCI-designated cancer center identified 266 patients with p16+ OPSCC treated with definitive CRT in our department from 2005-2016 with evaluable pre-treatment FDG-PET scans. Quantitative SUV metrics and qualitative imaging metrics were determined from FDG...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Rosen BS, Wilkie JR, Sun Y, Ibrahim M, Casper KA, Miller JE, Chotchutipan T, Stucken CL, Bradford C, E P Prince M, Rosko AJ, Malloy KM, McLean SA, Chinn SB, Shuman AG, Spector ME, Swiecicki PL, Worden FP, Shah J, Schonewolf CA, Chapman CH, Eisbruch A, Mie Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Ureteral Stenosis after 3D MRI-based Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer - Have We Identified All the Risk Factors?
ser SM, Beriwal S Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ureteral stenosis (US) is a known complication from image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT); however, no dosimetric parameter has been associated with ureteral toxicity. We aimed to report the rate of late grade ≥3 US after MRI-based IGBT, and to identify clinical factors and dosimetric parameters predictive for US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all cervical cancer patients treated with MRI-based IGBT between 2007-2017. Late grade ≥3 US was recorded according to CTCAE 4.03. The minimum dose to the maximally irradiated 0.1 cm3 ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Rodríguez-López JL, Ling DC, Keller A, Kim H, Mojica-Márquez AE, Glaser SM, Beriwal S Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Deep learning for elective neck delineation: more consistent and time efficient.
Abstract BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Delineation of the lymph node levels of the neck for irradiation of the elective clinical target volume in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients is time consuming and prone to interobserver variability (IOV), although international consensus guidelines exist. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) for semi-automated delineation of all nodal neck levels, focussing on delineation accuracy, efficiency and consistency compared to manual delineation. MATERIAL/METHODS: The CNN was trained on a clinical dataset of 69 HNC patients. For vali...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Van der Veen J, Willems S, Bollen H, Maes F, Nuyts S Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Importance of the ICRU Bladder point dose on incidence and persistence of urinary frequency and incontinence in locally advanced cervical cancer: an EMBRACE analysis.
CONCLUSION: ICRU-BP dose, in addition to clinical parameters, is a risk factor for urinary incontinence and shows a dose-effect after radio(chemo)therapy and IGABT. ICRU-BP dose should be monitored during treatment planning alongside volumetric parameters. Frequency seems associated with larger irradiated volumes. PMID: 33065183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Spampinato S, Fokdal LU, Pötter R, Haie-Meder C, Lindegaard JC, Schmid MP, Sturdza A, Jürgenliemk-Schulz IM, Mahantshetty U, Segedin B, Bruheim K, Hoskin P, Rai B, Huang F, Cooper R, van der Steen-Banasik E, Van Limbergen E, Sundset M, Westerveld H, Nou Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Low dose radiation therapy for covid-19: effective dose and estimation of cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: The organs that mainly contribute to risk are lung and breast. Risk for out-of-field organs is low, less than 0.06 cases per 10000. Female LAR is on average 2.2 times that of a male of the same age. Effective doses are of the same order of magnitude than higher dose interventional radiology techniques. For a 60 year-old male, LAR is 8 times that from a cardiac CT, when prescription dose is 50 cGy. PMID: 33065184 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: García-Hernández T, Romero-Expósito M, Sánchez Nieto B Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

COVID-19 safe and fully operational radiotherapy: an AIRO survey depicting the Italian landscape at the dawn of phase 2.
, Pacelli R, Pergolizzi S, Tombolini V, Trovò M, Cristina Leonardi M, Ricardi U, Maria Magrini S, Corvò R, Donato V PMID: 33065185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Alicja Jereczek-Fossa B, Pepa M, Zaffaroni M, Marvaso G, Bruni A, Buglione di Monale E Bastia M, Catalano G, Riccardo Filippi A, Franco P, Antonietta Gambacorta M, Genovesi D, Iatì G, Magli A, Marafioti L, Meattini I, Merlotti A, Mignogna M, Musio D, Pac Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Results of Phase II Trial of Intensified Neoadjuvant Treatment with Interdigitating Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy with Oxaliplatin, 5-Fluorouracil and Folinic Acid in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer (PROARCT trial).
CONCLUSIONS: Delivery of intensified neoadjuvant treatment with interdigitating chemotherapy and radiotherapy is feasible with no increase in acute perioperative complications. A larger prospective study is required to further evaluate the potential survival benefit of this design. PMID: 33065186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ping Ng S, Chu J, Chander S, Bressel M, McKendrick J, Wong R, Steel M, Murray WK, Leong T, Heriot A, Michael M, Ngan SY Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer: preferences amongst radiation oncologists in europe - results from an international survey.
CONCLUSION: Although HFRT is recognised as a new standard, its implementation in routine RT clinical practice across Europe varies for numerous reasons. Better dissemination of evidence-based recommendations is advised to improve the level of awareness about this clinical indication. PMID: 33065187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ratosa I, Chirilă ME, Steinacher M, Kozma E, Vojtíšek R, Franco P, Poortmans PP Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

From multisource data to clinical decision aids in radiation oncology: the need for a clinical data science community.
Abstract Big data are no longer an obstacle; now, by using artificial intelligence (AI), previously undiscovered knowledge can be found in massive data collections. The radiation oncology clinic daily produces a large amount of multisource data and metadata during its routine clinical and research activities. These data involve multiple stakeholders and users. Because of a lack of interoperability, most of these data remain unused, and powerful insights that could improve patient care are lost. Changing the paradigm by introducing powerful AI analytics and a common vision for empowering big data in radiation oncol...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kazmierska J, Hope A, Spezi E, Beddar S, Nailon WH, Osong B, Ankolekar A, Choudhury A, Dekker A, Redalen KR, Traverso A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

A qualitative classification signature for post-surgery 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in gastric cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The signature can accurately classify GC patients who may benefit from 5-FU-based ACRT, which could aid clinicians in tailoring more effective GC treatments. PMID: 33065189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Li M, Chen H, He J, Xie J, Xia J, Liu H, Shi Y, Guo Z, Yan H Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Patient-reported outcomes after external beam radiotherapy versus brachytherapy for palliation of dysphagia in esophageal cancer: a matched comparison of two prospective trials.
CONCLUSION: Short course EBRT results in similar or better PROs at 3 months after treatment compared to single-dose brachytherapy for the palliation of malignant dysphagia. These findings further support its use and inclusion in clinical practice guidelines. PMID: 33065190 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: van Rossum PSN, Jeene PM, Rozema T, Braam PM, Lips IM, Muller K, van Kampen D, Vermeulen BD, Homs MYV, Oppedijk V, Berbée M, C C M Hulshof M, Siersema PD, El Sharouni SY Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Heart substructural dosimetric parameters and risk of cardiac events after definitive chemoradiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: A high LV radiation dose could increase ACS events in patients with stage III NSCLC and high cardiovascular risk. Pre-treatment cardiac risk evaluation and individualized surveillance may help prevent cardiac events after chemoradiotherapy. PMID: 33058951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Jang BS, Cha MJ, Kim HJ, Oh S, Wu HG, Kim E, Kim BH, Kim JS, Chang JH Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Effect of radiotherapy interruption due to COVID-19 outbreak.
PMID: 33053379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yu D, Hu W, Chen L, Fu Z, Song Q, Li X Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The radiotherapy utilization rate in pediatric tumors: an analysis of 13,305 patients.
CONCLUSION: This is the first analysis to provide valuable insights into the RUR for childhood tumors. Together with population-based pediatric cancer registries, this will help decipher pediatric RT needs and deficits. Additionally, the underutilization of palliative RT calls for multidisciplinary palliative care provision for pediatric cancer patients. PMID: 33039421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Bishr MK, Zaghloul MS, Elmaraghi C, Galalc Mohamed S Abdelaziz A, Elghazawy HI, Shaheen H, Ramzy ES, Mesbah A, Eissa SK, Hegazy R, Hamza AM, Elkhateeb N, Mousa AG Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Early Alteration in Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Tumor Volume in Cervical Cancer Treated with Chemoradiotherapy or Radiotherapy: Incremental Prognostic Value over Pretreatment Assessments.
Abstract PURPOSE: Our study aimed to evaluate a prognostic value of early changes in apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and tumor volume during treatment in patients with cervical cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy, and to assess whether the early changes provided an incremental value to pre-treatment ADC and tumor volume in predicting disease recurrences. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 103 patients with stage IB-IVA cervical cancer including 76 (74%) patients with stage ≥ IIIA who underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and during (25±4.6 days after start) the treatment...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Watanabe Y, Nakamura S, Ichikawa Y, Ii N, Kawamura T, Kondo E, Ikeda T, Nomoto Y, Sakuma H Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Combining tumor response and personalized risk assessment: potential for adaptation of concurrent chemotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy era.
CONCLUSIONS: For LANPC patients with unfavorable response to IC, subsequent CCRT seems inadequate, rendering intensification necessary. For favorable responders with low risk, IC + IMRT represents a reasonable de-intensification approach, although confirmation by prospective data is needed. PMID: 33039423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Luo WJ, Zou WQ, Liang SB, Chen L, Zhou GQ, Peng H, Li WF, Liu X, Sun Y, Lin AH, Ma J, Mao YP Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Development and Validation of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Auto-delineation of Clinical Target Volume and Organs at Risk in Cervical Cancer Radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION: The experimental results demonstrate that the CTV and OARs delineated for cervical cancer by DpnUNet was in close agreement with the ground truth. DpnUNet could significantly reduce the radiation oncologists' contouring time. PMID: 33039424 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu Z, Liu X, Guan H, Zhen H, Sun Y, Chen Q, Chen Y, Wang S, Qiu J Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Grand challenges for medical physics in radiation oncology.
Abstract Medical physics has made considerable contributions to recent advances in radiation oncology. Medical physicists are key players in the clinical and scientific radiation oncology context due to their unique skill sets, flexibility, clinical involvement and intrinsic translational character. The continuing development and widespread adoption of "high-tech" radiotherapy has led to an increased need for medical physics involvement. More recently, our field is rapidly changing towards an era of "precision oncology". These changes have opened new challenges for the definition of the profess...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Fiorino C, Jeraj R, Clark CH, Garibaldi C, Georg D, Muren L, van Elmpt W, Bortfeld T, Jornet N Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

RealDRR - rendering of realistic digitally reconstructed radiographs using locally trained image-to-image translation.
In this study we present RealDRR, a novel framework for highly realistic and computationally efficient DRR rendering. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RealDRR consists of two components applied sequentially to render a DRR. First, a raytracer is applied for forward projection from 3D CT data to a 2D image. Second, a conditional Generative Adverserial Network (cGAN) is applied to translate the 2D forward projection to a realistic 2D DRR. The planning CT and CBCT projections from a CIRS thorax phantom and 6 radiotherapy patients (3 prostate, 3 brain) were split in training and test sets for evaluating the intra-patient, inter-pat...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Dhont J, Verellen D, Mollaert I, Vanreusel V, Vandemeulebroucke J Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Beam data modeling of linear accelerators (linacs) through machine learning and its potential applications in fast and robust linac commissioning and quality assurance.
CONCLUSIONS: Through this novel machine learning-based method we have shown accurate and reproducible generation of beam data for linac commissioning for routine radiation therapy. This method has the potential to simplify the linac commissioning procedure, save time and manpower while increasing the accuracy of the commissioning process. PMID: 33039427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhao W, Patil I, Han B, Yang Y, Xing L, Schüler E Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

The role of computational methods for automating and improving clinical target volume definition.
o E Abstract Treatment planning in radiotherapy distinguishes three target volume concepts: the gross tumor volume (GTV), the clinical target volume (CTV), and the planning target volume (PTV). Over time, GTV definition and PTV margins have improved through the development of novel imaging techniques and better image guidance, respectively. CTV definition is sometimes considered the weakest element in the planning process. CTV definition is particularly complex since the extension of microscopic disease cannot be seen using currently available in-vivo imaging techniques. Instead, CTV definition has to incorporate ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Unkelbach J, Bortfeld T, Cardenas CE, Gregoire V, Hager W, Heijmen B, Jeraj R, Korreman SS, Ludwig R, Pouymayou B, Shusharina N, Söderberg J, Toma-Dasu I, Troost EGC, Vasquez Osorio E Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Accuracy of dwell-position detection with a combined electromagnetic tracking brachytherapy system for treatment verification in pelvic brachytherapy.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the accuracy of dwell position detection with a combined electromagnetic tracking (EMT) brachytherapy (BT) system for treatment verification, by quantifying positional errors due to EM field interference in typical pelvic BT clinical settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dedicated prostate and cervix BT phantoms were imaged with CT. For the cervix phantom, the Utrecht applicator + interstitial catheters were used. The implants were reconstructed and treatment plans were created with 270/65 dwell positions for the prostate/cervix phantom. Next, EMT experiments were pe...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: van Heerden L, Schiphof-Godart J, Christianen M, Mens JW, Franckena M, Maenhout M, Hoogeman M, Kolkman-Deurloo IK Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Dose-Response with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Prostate-Specific Antigen Kinetics and Biochemical Control.
This study evaluated the dose-response relationships for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decay and biochemical recurrence (BCR) among 4 SBRT dose regimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 1,908 men with low-risk (50.0%), favorable intermediate-risk (30.9%), and unfavorable intermediate-risk (19.1%) prostate cancer treated with prostate SBRT across 8 institutions from 2003-2018, we examined 4 regimens (35 Gy/5 fractions [35/5, n=265, 13.4%], 36.25 Gy/5 fractions [36.25/5, n=711, 37.3%], 40 Gy/5 fractions [40/5, n=684, 35.8%], and 38 Gy/4 fractions [38/4, n=257, 13.5%]). Between dose groups, we compared PSA decay slope, nadir...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Levin-Epstein RG, Jiang NY, Wang X, Upadhyaya SK, Collins SP, Suy S, Aghdam N, Mantz C, Katz AJ, Miszczyk L, Napieralska A, Namysl-Kaletka A, Prionas N, Bagshaw H, Buyyounouski MK, Cao M, Agazaryan N, Dang A, Yuan Y, Kupelian PA, Zaorsky NG, Spratt DE, Mo Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Deep learning-enabled MRI-only photon and proton therapy treatment planning for paediatric abdominal tumours.
CONCLUSION: The deep learning-based model generated accurate sCT from planning T1w- and T2w-MR images. Most dosimetric differences were within clinically acceptable criteria for photon and proton radiotherapy, demonstrating the feasibility of an MRI-only workflow for paediatric patients with abdominal tumours. PMID: 33035623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Florkow MC, Guerreiro F, Zijlstra F, Seravalli E, Janssens GO, Maduro JH, Knopf AC, Castelein RM, van Stralen M, Raaymakers BW, Seevinck PR Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Inter/Intra-tumoral Dose Response Variations Assessed Using FDG-PET/CT Feedback Images: Impact on Tumor Control and Treatment Dose Prescription.
CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that tumor dose response assessed using FDG-PET/CT feedback images had a similar distribution to those assessed conventionally using in vitro tumor clonogenic assay. Inter-tumoral dose response variation seems larger for HPV- tumors, but intra-tumoral dose response variations are similar for both HPV groups. These variations cause very large variation on the individual tumor control probability and limit the efficacy of dose escalation and de-escalation in conventional clinical practice. On the other hand, heterogeneous dose prescription guided by metabolic imaging feedback has a potenti...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yan D, Chen S, Krauss DJ, Deraniyagala R, Chen P, Ye H, Wilson G Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

ADC measurements on the unity MR-linac - a recommendation on behalf of the elekta unity MR-linac consortium.
CONCLUSION: We provide Unity system specific recommendations for measuring the ADC. This will increase the consistency of ADC values acquired in different centers on the Unity system, enabling large cohort studies for biomarker discovery and treatment response monitoring. PMID: 33017604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kooreman ES, van Houdt PJ, Keesman R, Pos FJ, van Pelt VWJ, Nowee ME, Wetscherek A, Tijssen RHN, Philippens MEP, Thorwarth D, Wang J, Shukla-Dave A, Hall WA, Paulson ES, van der Heide UA Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Identification of treatment error types for lung cancer patients using convolutional neural networks and EPID dosimetry.
CONCLUSION: This simulation study indicates that deep learning is a promising powerful tool for identifying types and magnitude of treatment errors with EPID dosimetry, providing additional information not currently available from EPID dosimetry. This is a first step towards rapid, automated models for identification of treatment errors using EPID dosimetry. PMID: 33011206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Wolfs CJA, Canters RAM, Verhaegen F Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Randomised trial of external-beam radiotherapy alone or with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer: mature 12-year results.
CONCLUSION: At 12 years there remains a significant improvement in RFS after EBRT + HDR-BTb; both treatments were equitoxic for severe late urinary and bowel events and urethral strictures. PMID: 33011207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Hoskin PJ, Rojas AM, Ostler PJ, Bryant L, Lowe GJ Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Optimization and auto-segmentation of a high risk cardiac zone for heart sparing in breast cancer radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION: a 3.5 cm-wide HRCZ is a reliable LADCA surrogate for breast radiotherapy. Applying maximum dose constraints to the HRCZ could limit LADCA exposure. Auto-segmentation algorithms can reliably delineate HRCZ. PMID: 33007352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Loap P, Tkatchenko N, Nicolas E, Fourquet A, Kirova Y Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Low doses of ionizing radiation activate endothelial cells and induce angiogenesis in peritumoral tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: LDIR activate ECs in peritumoral tissues that are associated with increased MVD. Although the technological advances in radiotherapy have contributed to reduce the damage to healthy tissues over the past years, the anatomical regions receiving LDIR should be taken into account in the treatment plan report for patient follow-up and in future studies to correlate these doses with tumor dissemination. PMID: 33004178 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 27, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Gil Marques F, Poli E, Malaquias J, Carvalho T, Portêlo A, Ramires A, Aldeia F, Ribeiro RM, Vitorino E, Diegues I, Costa L, Coutinho J, Pina F, Mareel M, Constantino Rosa Santos S Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of atlas- and deep learning-based automatic segmentation of multiple organs and clinical target volumes for breast cancer.
This study used contrast-enhanced planning computed tomography scans from 62 patients with breast cancer who underwent breast-conservation surgery. Contours of target volumes (CTVs), organs, and heart substructures were generated using two commercial ABAS solutions and DLBAS using fully convolutional DenseNet. The accuracy of the segmentation was assessed using 14 test patients using the Dice Similarity Coefficient and Hausdorff Distance referencing the expert contours. A sensitivity analysis was performed using non-contrast planning CT from 14 additional patients. Compared to ABAS, the proposed DLBAS model yielded more co...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Choi MS, Choi BS, Chung SY, Kim N, Chun J, Kim YB, Chang JS, Kim JS Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Clinical paradigms and challenges in surface guided radiation therapy: Where do we go from here?
q H Abstract Surface guided radiotherapy (SGRT) is becoming a routine tool for patient positioning for specific clinical sites in many clinics. However, it has not yet gained its full potential in terms of widespread adoption. This vision paper first examines some of the difficulties in transitioning to SGRT before exploring the current and future role of SGRT alongside and in concert with other imaging techniques. Finally, future horizons and innovative ideas that may shape and impact the direction of SGRT going forward are reviewed. PMID: 32987044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy an...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Batista V, Meyer J, Kügele M, Al-Hallaq H Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

What is plan quality in radiotherapy? The importance of evaluating dose metrics, complexity, and robustness of treatment plans.
Vaniqui A, Jornet N Abstract Plan evaluation is a key step in the radiotherapy treatment workflow. Central to this step is the assessment of treatment plan quality. Hence, it is important to agree on what we mean by plan quality and to be fully aware of which parameters it depends on. We understand plan quality in radiotherapy as the clinical suitability of the delivered dose distribution that can be realistically expected from a treatment plan. Plan quality is commonly assessed by evaluating the dose distribution calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). Evaluating the 3D dose distribution is not easy, h...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Hernandez V, Rønn Hansen C, Widesott L, Bäck A, Canters R, Fusella M, Götstedt J, Jurado-Bruggeman D, Mukumoto N, Patricia Kaplan L, Koniarová I, Piotrowski T, Placidi L, Vaniqui A, Jornet N Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Comment on: Role of 68-Ga-PSMA-PET/CT in pelvic radiotherapy field definitions for lymph node coverage in prostate cancer patients, by Onal C, et al.
PMID: 32980380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Goyal S, Madan R Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

In response to: "Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for soft tissue sarcoma - ESTRO IORT Task Force / ACROP recommendations".
In response to: "Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for soft tissue sarcoma - ESTRO IORT Task Force / ACROP recommendations". Radiother Oncol. 2020 Sep 24;: Authors: Haas RL, Gronchi A PMID: 32980381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Haas RL, Gronchi A Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Radical radiotherapy for metachronous oligometastasis after initial treatment of esophageal cancer.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of radical radiotherapy and assess prognostic factors in metachronous oligometastatic esophageal cancer (MOEC) patients after initial treatment with curative-intent surgery and/or chemoradiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MOEC Patients during 2009-2018 in ××× Central Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient had ≤ 5 oligometastatic lesions, and the primary lesions were controlled in this study. Patients were devided into radiotherapy (RT) and non-radiotherapy (NRT) groups. The study endpoints were overall survival (OS) and treatment toxicities. ...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Li J, Wen Y, Xiang Z, Du H, Geng L, Yang X, Zhang Y, Bai J, Dai T, Feng G, Liu L, Du X Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

In response to Goyal et al.
PMID: 32980383 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Onal C Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Postoperative radiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in early breast cancer: A randomized clinical trial of KROG 15-03.
Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for early breast cancer compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in a prospective and randomized trial. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From March 2015 to February 2018, 693 patients with pT1-2N0M0 early breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were enrolled and randomly assigned into IMRT and 3D-CRT. The primary endpoint was 3-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS). The secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, overall survival, acute toxicity, target coverage i...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Hye Choi K, Ja Ahn S, Uk Jeong J, Yu M, Hee Kim J, Kwon Jeong B, Hwan Lee J, Hwan Kim S, Hoon Lee J Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Phase 1 trial of ralimetinib (LY2228820) with radiotherapy plus concomitant temozolomide in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
CONCLUSION: This phase 1 trial is the first trial to study the combination of a p38-MAPK inhibitor, ralimetinib, with radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (TMZ), in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) patients. The MTD of ralimetinib was 100 mg/12h. The most frequent dose-limiting toxicities were hepatic cytolysis and rash. PMID: 32976869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - September 21, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Biau J, Thivatx E, Chautard E, Stefan D, Boone M, Chauffert B, Bourgne C, Richard D, Molna I, Levesque S, Bellini R, Kwiatkowski F, Karayan-Tapon L, Verrelle P, Godfraind C, Durando X Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research