Neuroprotective effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of PHC on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and evaluate whether the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) pathway is involved in the protective effects of PHC. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to Sham group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, I/R+PHC (0.1mg/kg) group, and I/R+PHC (1mg/kg) group. Mice were subjected to 2h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 24h of reperfusion except the mice in the sham group. Neurological deficits, infarct volume, brain water content, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrit...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Shu Y, Yang Y, Zhang P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Music exposure improves spatial cognition by enhancing the BDNF level of dorsal hippocampal subregions in the developing rats.
Abstract Previous research has shown that dorsal hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory process. Music exposure can enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level in dorsal hippocampus (DH) and thus enhance spatial cognition ability. But whether music experience may affect different subregions of DH in the same degree remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of exposure to Mozart K.448 on learning behavior in developing rats using the classical Morris water maze task. The results showed that early music exposure could enhance significantly learning performance of the rats in ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Xing Y, Chen W, Wang Y, Jing W, Gao S, Guo D, Xia Y, Yao D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of hypothalamic cannabinoid receptors in post-stroke depression in rats.
Abstract One of the most common psychological consequences of stroke is post-stroke depression (PSD). While more than 30 percent of stroke patients eventually develop PSD, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying such a phenomenon have not been well investigated. Given the critical involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endocannabinoid system in response to stressful stimuli, we evaluated the hypothesis that cannabinoid receptors in the hypothalamus are critical for modulation of post-stroke depression-like behaviors in rats. To this end, rats were treated with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MC...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang S, Sun H, Liu S, Wang T, Guan J, Jia J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Serotonin receptor antagonists increase fast ripple activity in rats treated with kainic acid.
eja L Abstract Fast ripples (FR, 250-600Hz) are field potentials that occur only in those areas capable of generating seizures, such as the hippocampus, and modulation of FR by serotonin has been reported. Therefore, we hypothesized that the receptor antagonists 5HT1A and 5HT2A, B, C will increase FR in rats treated with kainic acid (KA, 0.8μg/0.5μl). For this purpose, the intracranial EEG recordings of the hippocampus from animals treated with KA and the serotonin antagonists WAY100135 and ritanserin (dose 0.2mg/Kg, i.p) were analyzed. In addition, morphologic parameters were analyzed after staining samples...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: García-Barba C, Medina-Ceja L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Involvement of BDNF/ERK signaling in spontaneous recovery from trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity in mice.
Abstract Trimethyltin (TMT) toxicity causes histopathological damage in the hippocampus and induces seizure behaviors in mice. The lesions and symptoms recover spontaneously over time; however, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying this recovery from TMT toxicity. We investigated changes in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (BDNF/ERK) signaling pathways in the mouse hippocampus following TMT toxicity. Mice (7 weeks old, C57BL/6) administered TMT (2.6mg/kg intraperitoneally) showed acute and severe neurodegeneration with increased TUNEL-positive cells in ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee S, Yang M, Kim J, Son Y, Kim J, Kang S, Ahn W, Kim SH, Kim JC, Shin T, Wang H, Moona C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Preconditioning of H2S inhalation protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by induction of HSP70 through PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway.
Abstract It is of great importance to protect the brain against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, which leads to excitotoxicity, redox imbalance, inflammation and apoptosis; however, there is currently no effective treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of H2S preconditioning on cerebral I/R injury and its underlying mechanism. The results demonstrated that H2S preconditioning significantly prevented the development of neurological function abnormality, inflammation and oxidative injury in mice as well as cognitive impairment caused by cerebral I/R. H2S preconditioning also supp...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ji K, Xue L, Cheng J, Bai Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective effects of aloin on oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury in PC12 cells.
Abstract The present study aims to determine whether aloin could protect cells from ischemic and reperfusion injury in vitro and to elucidate the related mechanisms. Oxygen and glucose deprivation model in PC12 cells was used in the present study. 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining were used to evaluate the protective effects of aloin, at concentrations of 10, 20, or 40μg/ml in PC12 cells. PCR was applied to detect fluorescence caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA expression in PC12 cells. The contents of malondialdeh...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Chang R, Zhou R, Qi X, Wang J, Wu F, Yang W, Zhang W, Sun T, Li Y, Yu J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Galanin microinjection into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter produces paradigm-dependent anxiolytic effects.
We examined the effects of galanin microinjections in the dorsal PAG (dPAG) on the performance of rats in different models of anxiety. Male Wistar rats (n=7-12) were implanted with guide cannulae in the dPAG. They received microinjections of either galanin (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0nmol) or vehicle and were tested in the Vogel conflict test (VCT), elevated plus maze (EPM), and elevated T-maze (ETM). Rats that were tested in the ETM were further evaluated for exploratory activity in the open field test (OFT). Galanin microinjections had no effects on anxiety-like behavior in the EPM or VCT or exploratory activity in the EPM or OFT....
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Soares FR, Silote GP, Almeida-Santos AF, Aguiar DC, Schenberg LC, Beijamini V Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Assessment of individual differences in the rat nucleus accumbens transcriptome following taste-heroin extended access.
We examined the individual differences in mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats that were behaviorally stratified by addiction-like behavior using next-generation sequencing. We hypothesized that based on the avoidance of the drug-paired cue there will be a unique mRNA profile in the NAc. Analysis of strand-specific whole genome RNA-Seq data revealed a number of genes differentially regulated in NAc based on the suppression of the natural saccharine reward. Large Suppressors exhibited a unique mRNA prolife compared to Saline controls and Small Suppressors. Genes related to immunity, neuronal activity, and ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Imperio CG, McFalls AJ, Colechio EM, Masser DR, Vrana KE, Grigson PS, Freeman WM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Evidence of Anhedonia and Differential Reward Processing in Prefrontal Cortex Among Post-Withdrawal Patients with Prescription Opiate Dependence.
This study evaluated the presence of anhedonia among recently withdrawn prescription opiate dependent patients (PODP) in residential treatment compared to control subjects. Anhedonia was assessed using self-report, affect-modulated startle response (AMSR), and a cue reactivity task during which participant's rostral prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) was monitored with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The cue reactivity task included three distinct categories of natural reward stimuli: highly palatable food, positive social situations, and intimate (non-erotic) interactions. ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Huhn AS, Meyer RE, Harris JD, Ayaz H, Deneke E, Stankoski DM, Bunce SC Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Toward more predictive genetic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Genetic mouse models for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely used to understand aspects of the biology of the disease, but have had limited success in translating these findings to the clinic. In this review, we discuss the benefits and limitations of existing genetic models and recent advances in technologies (including high throughput sequencing and genome editing) that promise more predictive models. We summarize widely used biomarkers and behavioral tests for mouse models of AD and highlight best practices that will maximize translatability of preclinical findings. PMID: 26708939 [PubMed - ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Onos KD, Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Howell GR, Sasner M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Alterations in the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of Purkinje neurons in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy: Relative preventing effect of PPARγ agonist.
Alterations in the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of Purkinje neurons in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy: Relative preventing effect of PPARγ agonist. Brain Res Bull. 2015 Dec 15; Authors: Aghaei I, Hajali V, Dehpour A, Haghani M, Sheibani V, Shabani M Abstract Patients suffering from Hepatic Cirrhosis (HC) have been shown to have motor and cognitive impairments. The cerebellum, which controls coordinated and rapid movements, is a potential target for the deleterious effects of hyperammonemia induced by bile duct ligation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the me...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Aghaei I, Hajali V, Dehpour A, Haghani M, Sheibani V, Shabani M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cognitive Stimulation of the Default-Mode Network Modulates Functional Connectivity in Healthy Ageing.
Abstract A cognitive-stimulation tool was created to regulate functional connectivity within the brain Default-Mode Network (DMN). Computerised exercises were designed based on the hypothesis that repeated task-dependent coactivation of multiple DMN regions would translate into regulation of resting-state network connectivity. Forty seniors (mean age: 65.90 years; SD: 8.53) were recruited and assigned either to an experimental group (n=21) who received one month of intensive cognitive stimulation, or to a control group (n=19) who maintained a regime of daily-life activities explicitly focused on activities based o...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 10, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Marco M, Meneghello F, Duzzi D, Rigon J, Pilosio C, Venneri A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Possible involvement of nitrergic and opioidergic systems in the modulatory effect of acute chloroquine treatment on pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.
In conclusion, NO signaling probably through neuronal NOS, but not inducible NOS could be involved in the opioid-dependent anticonvulsant effects of chloroquine in this model of seizures in mice. It seems that nitric oxide and opioid systems are involved in modulatory effect of chloroquine on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol. PMID: 26655695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hassanipour M, Shirzadian A, Boojar MM, Abkhoo A, Abkhoo A, Delazar S, Amiri S, Rahimi N, Ostadhadi S, Dehpour A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Reward devaluation and heroin escalation is associated with differential expression of CRF signaling genes.
Abstract One of the most damaging aspects of drug addiction is the degree to which natural rewards (family, friends, employment) are devalued in favor of seeking, obtaining and taking drugs. We have utilized an animal model of reward devaluation and heroin self-administration to explore the role of the coricotropin releasing factor (CRF) pathway. Given access to a saccharin cue followed by the opportunity to self-administer heroin, animals will parse into distinct phenotypes that suppress their saccharin intake (in favor of escalating heroin self-administration) or vice versa. We find that large saccharin suppress...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: McFalls AJ, Imperio CG, Bixler G, Freeman WM, Grigson PS, Vrana KE Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Curcumin pretreatment attenuates inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental stroke: the possible role of Sirt1 signaling.
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CCM treatment attenuates ischemic stroke-induced brain injury via activation of SIRT1. PMID: 26639783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Miao Y, Zhao S, Gao Y, Wang R, Wu Q, Wu H, Luo T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Corticosterone enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling to promote isolated ventral tegmental area activity in a reconstituted mesolimbic dopamine pathway.
Abstract Elevations in circulating corticosteroids during periods of stress may influence activity of the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway by increasing glutamatergic N- methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression and/or function in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner. The current study employed organotypic co-cultures of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to examine the effects of corticosterone exposure on NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal viability. Co-cultures were pre-exposed to vehicle or corticosterone (CORT; 1μM) for 5 days prior to a 24hour co-exposure to NMDA (200&m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Berry JN, Saunders MA, Sharrett-Field LJ, Reynolds AR, Bardo MT, Pauly JR, Prendergast MA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Tempol prevents chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.
Abstract Sleep deprivation is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. Tempol is a nitroxide compound that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of tempol can overcome oxidative stress and prevent learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using multiple platform model. Tempol was administered to rats via oral gavages. Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 23, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Alzoubi KH, Khabour OF, Albawaana AS, Alhashimi FH, Athamneh RY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Flumazenil decreases surface expression of α4β2δ GABAA receptors by increasing the rate of receptor internalization.
Flumazenil decreases surface expression of α4β2δ GABAA receptors by increasing the rate of receptor internalization. Brain Res Bull. 2015 Nov 21; Authors: Kuver A, Smith SS Abstract Increases in expression of α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs), triggered by fluctuations in the neurosteroid THP (3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one), are associated with changes in mood and cognition. We tested whether α4βδ trafficking and surface expression would be altered by in vitro exposure to flumazenil, a benzodiazepine ligand which reduces α4β&delta...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuver A, Smith SS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Evaluation of adaptogenic-like property of methyl jasmonate in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic-like activity of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Male Swiss mice were treated with MJ (25-100mg/kg, i.p.) 30min before exposure to UCMS daily for 14 days prior to testing for memory and anxiety. Thereafter, the blood glucose and serum corticosterone levels were estimated using glucometer and ELISA. The brain concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated using spectrophotometer. Brain histology and the population of healthy neurons in the hippocampal regions were also assessed. MJ reversed ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Umukoro S, Aluko OM, Eduviere AT, Owoeye O Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.
Abstract The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomole...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Salemme A, Togna AR, Mastrofrancesco A, Cammisotto V, Ottaviani M, Bianco A, Venditti A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Systemic administration of resveratrol suppress the nociceptive neuronal activity of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.
Abstract Although a modulatory role has been reported for the red wine polyphenol resveratrol on several types of ion channels and excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system, the acute effects of resveratrol in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission of the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute intravenous resveratrol administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo. Extrac...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Takehana S, Sekiguchi K, Inoue M, Kubota Y, Ito Y, Yui K, Shimazu Y, Takeda M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Rhythmic activity in EEG and sleep in rats with absence epilepsy.
This study examines the hypothesis that absence epilepsy is accompanied by disturbances of rhythmic activity in EEG during sleep. Sleep-wake architecture and time-frequency parameters of EEG were analyzed during drowsiness and sleep in WAG/Rij rats with genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy. The incidence of seizures varied in a group of 10 rats, in which 5 individuals did not develop epileptic discharges in their EEG (asymptomatic rats). In contrast to asymptomatic, symptomatic subjects (1) displayed less percentage of wakefulness EEG pattern and more non-REM sleep, (2) showed higher beta and less delta EEG power in ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Sitnikova E, Hramov AE, Grubov V, Koronovsky AA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Targeting glutamate homeostasis for potential treatment of nicotine dependence.
Abstract Several studies demonstrated that impairment in glutamatergic neurotransmission is linked to drug dependence and drug-seeking behavior. Increased extracellular glutamate concentration in mesocorticolimbic regions has been observed in animals developing nicotine dependence. Changes in glutamate release might be associated with stimulatory effect of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) via nicotine exposure. We and others have shown increased extracellular glutamate concentration, which was associated with downregulation of the major glutamate transporter, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), in brain rew...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Alasmari F, Al-Rejaie SS, AlSharari SD, Saria Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective mechanisms of CA074-me (other than cathepsin-B inhibition) against programmed necrosis induced by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
Abstract Many studies have demonstrated the key role of lysosomes in ischemic cell death in the brain and have led to the "lysosomocentric" hypothesis. In this hypothesis, the release of cathepsin-B due to a change of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) or rupture is critical, and this can be prevented by its inhibitors CA074 and CA074-me. However, the role of CA074-me in neuronal death and its effect on the change of lysosomal membrane integrity after global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is not clear, so we investigated this here. Rat hippocampal CA1 neuronal death was evaluated after...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu Y, Wang J, Song X, Wei R, He F, Peng G, Luo B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Transplantation of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Nucleus Accumbens of cocaine self-administering rats provides protection from reinstatement.
In this study we show that bilateral transplants of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPECs), a cell mediated dopaminergic and trophic neuromodulator, into the medial shell of the NAc, rescue rats with a history of high rates of cocaine self-administration from drug-seeking when returned, after 2 weeks of abstinence, to the drug-associated chamber under extinction conditions (i.e., with no drug available). Excellent survival was noted for the transplant of RPECs in the shell and/or the core of the NAc bilaterally in all rats that showed behavioral recovery from cocaine seeking. Design based unbiased stereology of tyr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Venkiteswaran K, Alexander DN, Puhl MD, Rao A, Piquet AL, Nyland JE, Subramanian MP, Iyer P, Boisvert MM, Handly E, Subramanian T, Grigson PS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Willed-movement training reduces brain damage and enhances synaptic plasticity related proteins synthesis after focal ischemia.
Abstract It has been wildly accepted that willed movement(WM) training promotes neurological rehabilitation in patients with stroke. However, it was not clear whether the effect of WM is better than other forms of exercise. The purpose of this study is to assess different effects of WM and other forms of exercise on rats with focal ischemia. The subjects are all had right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery and randomly allocated to three groups of training and one control group with no training. Infarct volume by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) dye, expression of PICK1 and synaptophysin in c...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nie J, Yang X, Tang Q, Shen Q, Li S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Calmodulin inhibition regulates morphological and functional changes related to the actin cytoskeleton in pure microglial cells.
Abstract The roles of calmodulin (CaM), a multifunctional intracellular calcium receptor protein, as concerns selected morphological and functional characteristics of pure microglial cells derived from mixed primary cultures from embryonal forebrains of rats, were investigated through use of the CaM antagonists calmidazolium (CALMID) and trifluoperazine (TFP). The intracellular localization of the CaM protein relative to phalloidin, a bicyclic heptapeptide that binds only to filamentous actin, and the ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), a microglia-specific actin-binding protein, was determined by i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Szabo M, Dulka K, Gulya K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Evidence for the protective effects of curcumin against oxyhemoglobin-induced injury in rat cortical neurons.
In conclusion, CCM inhibits neuronal apoptosis, and alleviates oxidative stress and inflammation in neurons subjected to OxyHb, suggesting that it may be beneficial in the treatment of brain damage following SAH. PMID: 26551062 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Li X, Zhao L, Yue L, Liu H, Yang X, Wang X, Lin Y, Qu Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intracellular mechanisms involved in copper-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Cu-GnRH) complex-induced cAMP/PKA signaling in female rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro.
Abstract The copper-gonadotropin-releasing hormone molecule (Cu-GnRH) is a GnRH analog, which preserves its amino acid sequence, but which contains a Cu(2+) ion stably bound to the nitrogen atoms including that of the imidazole ring of Histidine(2). A previous report indicated that Cu-GnRH was able to activate cAMP/PKA signaling in anterior pituitary cells in vitro, but raised the question of which intracellular mechanism(s) mediated the Cu-GnRH-induced cAMP synthesis in gonadotropes. To investigate this mechanism, in the present study, female rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro were pretreated with 0.1μM ant...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Gajewska A, Zielinska-Gorska M, Wolinska-Witort E, Siawrys G, Baran M, Kotarba G, Biernacka K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neurotrophic Effects of Amyloid Precursor Protein Peptide 165 in vitro.
Abstract Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Our previous findings indicated that animals with diabetic encephalopathy exhibit learning and memory impairment in addition to hippocampal neurodegeneration, both of which are ameliorated with amyloid precursor protein (APP) 17-mer (APP17) peptide treatment. Although APP17 is neuroprotective, it is susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Derived from the active sequence structure of APP17, we have previously structurally transformed and modified several APP5-mer peptides (APP328-332 [RERMS], APP 5). We have developed seven differen...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Yao J, Ma L, Wang R, Sheng S, Ji Z, Zhang J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The behavioral profile of spice and synthetic cannabinoids in humans.
g W Abstract The use of synthetic cannabinoids (spice) is increasing. The number of descriptions of (new) clinical side effects is also increasing. We screened relevant publications for articles about spice with a focus on the clinical manifestations of the use of this drug. Spice creates diffuse psychiatric and somatic effects that are only partially similar to those of natural cannabinoids. Most of the observed effects are related to sympathomimetic-cardiac effects and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Clinical treatment is primarily based on intensive apparative and laboratory monitoring and supportive therapy. ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 5, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Müller HH, Kornhuber J, Sperling W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.
This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 5, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Batool Z, Sadir S, Liaquat L, Tabassum S, Madiha S, Rafiq S, Tariq S, Batool TS, Saleem S, Naqvi F, Perveen T, Haider S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neonatal BCG Vaccination of Mice Improves Neurogenesis and Behavior in Early Life.
Abstract Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is administered to neonates worldwide, but it is still unknown whether this neonatal vaccination affects brain development during early postnatal life, despite the close association of the immune system with the brain. Newborn C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously with BCG or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and their mood status and spatial cognition were observed at four and eight weeks (w) old. The mice were also subjected to tests at 2 and 6 w to examine BCG's effects on neurogenesis, the hippocampal microglia phenotype and number, and the expression of hippoca...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang J, Qi F, Gu H, Zou J, Yang Y, Yuan Q, Yao Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Stress activates the nucleus incertus and modulates plasticity in the hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortical pathway.
Abstract The nucleus incertus (NI) is a small brainstem cluster of neurons presumed to play a role in stress responses. We show that swim stress (normal water: 30min and cold water: 20min) and elevation stress robustly induced c-Fos expression in the NI and significantly suppressed long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortical (HP-mPFC) pathway. To examine whether activation of CRF1 receptors in the NI plays a role in the suppression of HP-mPFC LTP, antalarmin, a specific CRF1 receptor antagonist, was infused directly into the NI either before presentation of (1) elevation stress or (2)...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rajkumar R, Wu Y, Farooq U, Tan WH, Dawe GS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Electro-acupuncture at LI 11 and ST 36 acupoints exerts neuroprotective effects via reactive astrocyte proliferation after ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats.
Abstract Reactive astrogliosis is a common phenomenon in central nervous system (CNS) injuries such as ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to deeply investigate the relationships between the neuroprotective effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) and reactive astrocytes following cerebral ischemia. EA treatment at the Quchi (LI11) and Zusanli (ST36) acupoints at Day 3 attenuated neurological deficits and cerebral infarct volume in ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injured rats. Animal behavior assessments found that the speed of Catwalk gait, equilibrium and coordination of Rotarod test were improved. Furthermore, EA...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Tao J, Zheng Y, Liu W, Yang S, Huang J, Xue X, Shang G, Wang X, Lin R, Chen L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Morphine-induced anti-nociception and reward in "humanized" mice expressing the mu opioid receptor A118G polymorphism.
Morphine-induced anti-nociception and reward in "humanized" mice expressing the mu opioid receptor A118G polymorphism. Brain Res Bull. 2015 Oct 28; Authors: Henderson-Redmond AN, Yuill MB, Lowe TE, Kline AM, Zee ML, Guindon J, Morgan DJ Abstract The rewarding and anti-nociceptive effects of opioids are mediated through the mu-opioid receptor. The A118G single-nucleotide polymorphism in this receptor has been implicated in drug addiction and pain. Clinical and preclinical studies have found that the G allele is associated with increased heroin reward and self-administration, elevated post-ope...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Henderson-Redmond AN, Yuill MB, Lowe TE, Kline AM, Zee ML, Guindon J, Morgan DJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Developmental minocycline treatment reverses the effects of neonatal immune activation on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, hippocampal inflammation, and HPA axis activity in adult mice.
Abstract Neonatal infection is associated with increased lifetime risk for neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression, with evidence showing that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-(HPA)-axis system may be partly responsible. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that minocycline exhibits antidepressant effects through inhibition of microglial activation and anti-inflammatory actions, and of interest is that recent studies suggest that minocycline alleviates the behavioral abnormalities induced by early-life insults. The current study was designed to determine if developmen...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Majidi-Zolbanin J, Kosari-Nasab M, Salari AA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cytoarchitecture and Cortical Connections of the Anterior Insula and Adjacent Frontal Motor Fields in the Rhesus Monkey.
Abstract The cytoarchitecture and cortical connections of the ventral motor region are investigated using Nissl, and NeuN staining methods and the fluorescent retrograde tract tracing technique in the rhesus monkey. On the basis of gradual laminar differentiation, it is shown that the ventral motor region stems from the ventral proisocortical area (anterior insula and dorsal Sylvian opercular region). The cytoarchitecture of the ventral motor region is shown to progress in three lines, as we have recently shown for the dorsal motor region. Namely, root (anterior insular and dorsal Sylvian opercular area ProM), bel...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 20, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Morecraft RJ, Stilwell-Morecraft KS, Ge J, Cipolloni PB, Pandya DN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Early avoidance of a heroin-paired taste-cue and subsequent addiction-like behavior in rats.
Abstract The ability to predict individual vulnerability to substance abuse would allow for a better understanding of the progression of the disease and development of better methods for prevention and/or early intervention. Here we use drug-induced devaluation of a saccharin cue in an effort to predict later addiction-like behavior in a model akin to that used by Deroche-Gamonet et al. (2004) and seek to link such vulnerability to changes in expression of various mu opioid receptor and D2 receptor-interacting proteins in brain. The results show that the greatest heroin-induced suppression of intake of a saccharin...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Jenney CB, Petko J, Ebersole B, Njatcha CV, Uzamere TO, Alexander DN, Grigson PS, Levenson R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 26481043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Sernagor E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nampt is required for long-term depression and the function of GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors.
Abstract Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential coenzyme/cosubstrate for many biological processes in cellular metabolism. The rate-limiting step in the major pathway of mammalian NAD(+) biosynthesis is mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt). Previously, we showed that mice lacking Nampt in forebrain excitatory neurons (CamKIIαNampt(-/-) mice) exhibited hyperactivity, impaired learning and memory, and reduced anxiety-like behaviors. However, it remained unclear if these functional effects were accompanied by synaptic changes. Here, we show that CamKIIαNampt(-/-) ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Stein LR, Zorumski CF, Imai SI, Izumi Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cue-reactivity in experienced electronic cigarette users: Novel stimulus videos and a pilot fMRI study.
Abstract Some individuals who try electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) continue to use long-term. Previous research has investigated the safety of e-cigarettes and their potential for use in smoking cessation, but comparatively little research has explored chronic or habitual e-cigarette use. In particular, the relationship between e-cigarette cues and craving is unknown. We sought to bridge this gap by developing a novel set of e-cigarette (salient) and electronic toothbrush (neutral) videos for use in cue-reactivity paradigms. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of this approach in a pilot fMRI study of 7 e...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nichols TT, Foulds J, Yingst J, Veldheer S, Hrabovsky S, Richie J, Eissenberg T, Wilson SJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Investigating brain functional evolution and plasticity using micro electrode array technology.
Abstract The aim of this work was to investigate long and short-term plasticity responsible for memory formation in dissociated neuronal networks. In order to address this issue, a set of experiments was designed and implemented in which the Micro Electrode Array electrode grid was divided into four quadrants, two of which were chronically stimulated, every two days for one hour with a stimulation paradigm that varied over time. Overall network and quadrant responses were then analyzed to quantify what level of plasticity took place in the network and how this was due to the stimulation interruption. The results d...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Napoli A, Obeid I Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Enriched environment improves synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficiency in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats.
Abstract Recent studies have indicated that environmental enrichment (EE) increases the sensorial and social stimulations and leads to strengthened plastic changes in the brain. In models of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, the ability of an EE to restore the cognition depends on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The mechanisms for this effect have not, however, been adequately studied. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanism of environmental enrichment by assessment of spatial memory tasks as well as parameters of synaptic plasticity in rats subjected ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Bayat M, Sharifi MD, Haghani M, Shabani M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Ten minutes of 1mA transcranial direct current stimulation was well tolerated by children and adolescents: Self-reports and resting state EEG analysis.
Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising and well-tolerated method of non-invasive brain stimulation, by which cortical excitability can be modulated. However, the effects of tDCS on the developing brain are still unknown, and knowledge about its tolerability in children and adolescents is still lacking. Safety and tolerability of tDCS was assessed in children and adolescents by self-reports and spectral characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings Nineteen typically developing children and adolescents aged 11 to 16 years participated in the study. Anodal and cathodal tDCS...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 5, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Moliadze V, Andreas S, Lyzhko E, Schmanke T, Gurashvili T, Freitag CM, Siniatchkin M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Changes in Serotonin (5-HT) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDFN) expression in frontal cortex and hippocampus of aged rat treated with high tryptophan diet.
Abstract Age-related cognitive decline is accompanied by an alteration in neurotransmitter synthesis and a dysregulation of neuroplasticity-related molecules such as Serotonin (5-HT) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDFN). It has been previously demonstrated that hyperserotonemia induced by L-Tryptophan (TrP) enriched diet protect against memory deficits during physiological aging. Since 5-HT is closely associated to BDNF, we aimed to investigate the effect of high TrP diet on 5-HT levels and BDNF expression in Frontal Cortex (FC) and Hippocampus (Hp) of aged rats. We found that the raising of systemic 5-HT ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 4, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Musumeci G, Castrogiovanni P, Castorina S, Imbesi R, Szychlinska MA, Scuderi S, Loreto C, Giunta S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Termination of trigeminal afferent fibers on facial motoneurons: Possible neural network mediating jaw opening during prey-catching behavior of the frog.
Abstract The prey-catching behavior of the frog is a complex, well-timed sequence of stimulus response chain of movements. After visual analysis of the prey, a size dependent program is selected in the motor pattern generator of the brainstem. Besides this predetermined feeding program, various direct and indirect sensory inputs provide flexible adjustment for the optimal contraction of the executive muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether trigeminal primary afferents establish direct contacts with the jaw opening motoneurons innervated by the facial nerve. The experiments were carried out...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 4, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kovalecz G, Kecskes S, Birinyi A, Matesz C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Reversal of the Sleep-wake Cycle by Heroin Self-Administration in Rats.
PMID: 26431774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Coffey AA, Guan Z, Grigson PS, Fang J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.
Abstract Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neur...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Locker AR, Marks MJ, Kamens HM, Klein LC Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research