Deletion of asparagine endopeptidase reduces anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors and improves abilities of spatial cognition in mice.
Abstract Mammalian asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) is a lysosomal cysteine protease that cleaves protein substrates on the C-terminal side of asparagine. The expression and activity of AEP are closely related to many pathological conditions that include cancer, atherosclerosis and inflammation. It has been validated that the level of AEP is elevated in aged human and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mood disorder is one of the most emotional symptoms that can be seen in AD patients, which leads us to assume that AEP can modulate affective behaviors. AEP knockout (AEP KO) and wildtype (WT) m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao J, Li K, Du L, Yin H, Tan X, Yang Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Electrophysiological responses of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter neurons towards peripheral bladder stimulation.
CONCLUSIONS: The change in firing rate may point to an overall inhibitory influence of bladder stimulation on vlPAG neurons. These data suggest an inhibitory relay station at the vlPAG, before sensory bladder signals would affect pontine micturition center. The lack of the inhibitory effect on PSTH may be due to a longer interval between neuronal response and the stimulation. PMID: 30016723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zare A, Schipper S, Stein W, Temel Y, van Koeveringe GA, Jahanshahi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen inhalation in an experimental rat intracerebral hemorrhage model.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen inhalation has been found to be neuroprotective and anti-oxidative in several brain injury models. Building on these studies, we investigated potential neuroprotective effects of hydrogen inhalation in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), focusing on apoptosis and inflammation. METHODS: Forty-five 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per each group): a sham group, ICH group, and ICH + hydrogen group. Induction of ICH was performed via injection of 0.23 U of bacterial collagenase type IV into the l...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Choi KS, Kim HJ, Do SH, Hwang SJ, Yi HJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Caudate nucleus neurons participate in methylphenidate function: Behavioral and neuronal recordings from freely behaving adolescent rats.
The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic dose response effects of MPD on CN neurons in freely behaving adolescent rats. Semi-microelectrodes were implanted into the CN of one hundred and sixty-three adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats. On experimental day one (ED1), each rat was injected with 0.8 mL saline followed by an injection of MPD (0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg). Behavioral and neuronal recordings of 60 minutes followed each injection. Throughout ED2-6, each rat remained in its home cage and received daily injections of a specific dose of MPD. ED7-9 consisted of a three-day washout period...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Karim TJ, Aksel C, Kharas N, Dafny N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Sleep and brain infections.
Abstract Sleep is frequently altered in systemic infections as a component of sickness behavior in response to inflammation. Sleepiness in sickness behavior has been extensively investigated. Much less attention has instead been devoted to sleep and wake alterations in brain infections. Most of these, as other neuroinfections, are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The present overview highlights the importance of this topic from both the clinical and pathogenetic points of view. Vigilance states and their regulation are first summarized, emphasizing that key nodes in this distributed brain system can be targeted by...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tesoriero C, Del Gallo F, Bentivoglio M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

cPKC γ alleviates ischemic injury through modulating synapsin Ia/b phosphorylation in neurons of mice.
cPKCγ alleviates ischemic injury through modulating synapsin Ia/b phosphorylation in neurons of mice. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Jul 14;: Authors: Zhang N, Zhu H, Han S, Sui L, Li J Abstract Conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ and synapsin Ia/b have been implicated in the development of ischemic stroke, but their relationships and functions are unclear. In the present study, the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced ischemic insult in primary cultured cortical neurons in vitro and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke model in vivo were used to elucidate the functi...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang N, Zhu H, Han S, Sui L, Li J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Aspirin Resistance Predicts Unfavorable Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of aspirin reaction units (ARU) in a 3-month follow-up study in a cohort of Chinese patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. METHODS: Prospective single-center survey of acute ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy. Two hundred and seventy-five Chinese patients with first-ever ischemic stroke who previously received aspirin therapy were enrolled. ARU was measured using the VerifyNow system. A cutoff of 550 ARU was used to determine the presence of aspirin resistance (AR). RESULTS: Median age at study entry was 67 years (IQR: 59-75) and ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang CW, Su LL, Hua QJ, He Y, Fan YN, Xi TT, Yuan B, Liu YX, Ji SB Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Catestatin is involved in neuropathic pain mediated by purinergic receptor P2X4 in the spinal microglia of rats.
Abstract Neuropathic pain is defined as a type of chronic pathological pain that often results from nerve damage or disease. The purinergic receptor P2X4 is mainly expressed on the cell surface of spinal dorsal horn microglia and is known to be involved in neuropathic pain. Catestatin (CST) is an endogenous peptide derived from chromogranin A. Here, we attempted to identify how CST function in neuropathic pain. Rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) was used and experimental results indicated that mechanical and thermal pain sensitivities were significantly increased in CCI rats. The group of CCI rats that...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Deng Z, Congcong L, Chenglong L, Errong D, Changshui X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

α- (phenylselanyl) acetophenone mitigates reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad: Behavioral, biochemical and molecular docking evidences.
α- (phenylselanyl) acetophenone mitigates reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad: Behavioral, biochemical and molecular docking evidences. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Jul 14;: Authors: Sousa FSS, Birmann PT, Baldinotti R, Fronza MG, Balaguez R, Alves D, Brüning CA, Savegnago L Abstract Chronic pain and depressive disorders have been estimated to co-occur in up to 80% of patients and traditional antidepressants and analgesics have shown limited clinical efficacy. α- (phenylselanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) is an organic selenium compound which has already demonstrated antioxidant, antidepressant a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sousa FSS, Birmann PT, Baldinotti R, Fronza MG, Balaguez R, Alves D, Brüning CA, Savegnago L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Konzo: a distinct neurological disease associated with food (cassava) cyanogenic poisoning.
KONZO: A DISTINCT NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD (CASSAVA) CYANOGENIC POISONING. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Jul 05;: Authors: Kashala-Abotnes E, Okitundu D, Mumba D, Boivin MJ, Tylleskär T, Tshala-Katumbay D Abstract Epidemics of neurodegenerative diseases putatively caused by food toxins have been reported in the tropics with no clear understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. These diseases include the disease named Konzo that has been well documented in sub-Sahara Africa, mostly among children and women of childbearing age. Outbreaks of Konzo have occurred in the Democratic Republic ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kashala-Abotnes E, Okitundu D, Mumba D, Boivin MJ, Tylleskär T, Tshala-Katumbay D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long-term Effects of Curcumin in the Non-human Primate Brain.
Abstract Curcumin has recently been shown to be a potential treatment for slowing or ameloriating cognitive decline during aging in our nonhuman primate model of normal aging. In these same monkeys, we studied for the first time the neurological impacts of long-term curcumin treatments using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen rhesus monkeys received curcumin or a vehicle control for 14-18 months. We applied a combination of structural and diffusion MRI to determine whether the curcumin resulted in structural or functional changes in focal regions of the brain. The longitudinal imaging revealed ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Koo BB, Calderazzo S, Bowley BGE, Kolli A, Moss MB, Rosene DL, Moore TL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neural Circuitry Among Connecting the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala in a Mouse Depression Model: Associations Correlations Between BDNF Levels and BOLD - fMRI Signals.
CONCLUSION: We surmised that critical neural circuitry connects the hippocampus, PFC and BLA in mice, which was regulated by BDNF to protect against depression. These findings suggested a potential central role of BDNF expression in functional changes in the brain. PMID: 29969645 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang P, Gao T, Dong Z, Zhou C, Lai Y, Pan T, Liu Y, Zhao X, Sun X, Hua H, Wen G, Gao L, Lv Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Mitophagy is activated in brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion via the PINK1/Parkin/p62 signalling pathway.
This study examined the course of mitophagy following cerebral ischemia with reperfusion and the role of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin/p62 signalling pathway. The middle cerebral artery of male Sprague-Dawley rats was occluded for 90 min and was followed by different time-points of reperfusion. Cerebral infarct areas were detected by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, while brain damage was observed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of LC3, Beclin1 and LAMP-1 were estimated by western blots. LC3B location was observed in various cells in the neurovascular unit. In addition, PINK1 accumulat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lan R, Wu JT, Wu T, Ma YZ, Wang BQ, Zheng HZ, Li YN, Wang Y, Gu CQ, Zhang Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors in the CA1 region of hippocampus in the forced swim stress- and food deprivation-induced reinstatement of morphine seeking behaviors in rats.
Abstract Hippocampus (HIP) is an essential brain site to study reward-related learning tasks, such as conditioning place preference (CPP) that can measure the preference for environmental stimuli related to reward. Furthermore, orexin neurons, situated exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and link the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse in the LH and the CA1 region of the HIP. Therefore, in this study adult male rats were conditioned with morphine using a CPP paradigm. After the eighth day of the extinction period, on the reinstatement day, orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists were administered bilat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Edalat P, Kavianpour M, Zarrabian S, Haghparast A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The role of the GLP-1/GLP-1R signaling pathway in regulating seizure susceptibility in rats.
CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that inhibition of GLP-1R signaling promotes seizure activity, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of FS. PMID: 29959973 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Y, Fang J, Feng W, Sun Q, Xu J, Xia Q Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long Term Follow-Up Study of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) (rTMS and tDCS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Strong Age-Dependency in the Effect of NBS.
N, Dinya E Abstract BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may influence the progression of PD compared with levodopa. The long term mind modification effect of repeated rTMS and tDCS is not known, nor are the predictors for the effect of NBS. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the regularly repeated rTMS would decrease the development of PD. Later, the treatment protocol was completed with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), supposing that there is an add-on effect. NBS may differently influence motor and mental aspects of the disease. METHODS: Thirty patients with PD ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Málly J, Stone TW, Sinkó G, Geisz N, Dinya E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Brain endocannabinoid signaling exhibits remarkable complexity.
Abstract The endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling system is one of the most extensive of the mammalian brain. Despite the involvement of only few specific ligands and receptors, the system encompasses a vast diversity of triggered mechanisms and driven effects. It mediates a wide range of phenomena, including the regulation of transmitter release, neural excitability, synaptic plasticity, impulse spread, long-term neuronal potentiation, neurogenesis, cell death, lineage segregation, cell migration, inflammation, oxidative stress, nociception and the sleep cycle. It is also known to be involved in the processes of learn...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gorzkiewicz A, Szemraj J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Concurrent exposure to heavy metals and cognition in school-age children in congo-kinshasa: a complex overdue research agenda.
CONCURRENT EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS AND COGNITION IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN CONGO-KINSHASA: A COMPLEX OVERDUE RESEARCH AGENDA. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Jun 23;: Authors: Bora BK, Ramos-Crawford AL, Sikorskii A, Boivin MJ, Lez DM, Ngoyi DM, Mukalay Wa Mukalay A, Luwa DO, Tshala-Katumbay D Abstract The impact of concurrent exposure to neurotoxic metals is a significant threat to brain function, mostly in contexts of multiple exposures as seen in the developing world. Ninety-five children (46 boys and 49 girls, 6 to 11-year old) from Congo-Kinshasa were assessed for cognition using the Kaufman Assessment Bat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bora BK, Ramos-Crawford AL, Sikorskii A, Boivin MJ, Lez DM, Ngoyi DM, Mukalay Wa Mukalay A, Luwa DO, Tshala-Katumbay D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Median preoptic nucleus excitatory neurotransmitters in the maintenance of hypertensive state.
no GR Abstract The crucial role of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) in the maintenance of hydroelectrolytic balance and autonomic regulation have been highlighted. Recently, the participation of the MnPO in the control of sympathetic nerve activity was demonstrated in essential hypertension model. However, peculiarities on the neurochemical changes underlying the differential role of MnPO during hypertension remain to be clarified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the main excitatory pathways that modulate MnPO neurons in hypertensive rats. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and rats submitted previ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mourão AA, de Mello ABS, Dos Santos Moreira MC, Rodrigues KL, Xavier CH, Gomes RM, Freiria-Oliveira AH, Blanch GT, Pedrino GR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Treatment with corn oil improves neurogenesis and cognitive performance in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.
This study shows for the first time that fatty acids have a positive impact on the brain of the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. These results suggest that a diet that is rich in fatty acids may exert beneficial effects on cognitive performance in individuals with DS without causing adverse effects. PMID: 29935232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Giacomini A, Stagni F, Emili M, Guidi S, Salvalai ME, Grilli M, Vidal-Sanchez V, Martinez-Cué C, Bartesaghi R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Adenoviral Vector-Induced Silencing of RGMa Attenuates Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction in a Rat Model of MCAO/Reperfusion.
CONCLUSIONS: RGMa may be involved in I/R injury associated with BBB dysfunction via the CDC-42/PAK-1 signal pathway and may be a promising therapeutic target for I/R injury. PMID: 29935233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li M, Wen Y, Zhang R, Xie F, Zhang G, Qin X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of vortioxetine and fluoxetine on the level of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factors (BDNF) in the hippocampus of chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rats.
In conclusion, vortioxetine, but not fluoxetine, increased hippocampal BDNF levels in rats subject to CUMS. PMID: 29933036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu Y, Ho CS, McIntyre RS, Wang W, Ho RC Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective potential of glibenclamide is mediated by antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pathways in intracerebral hemorrhage.
In this study, we primarily explored the antioxidative effects of GLI in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We found that GLI could scavenge free radicals, reduce activated-caspase-3 expression, increase the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, inhibit apoptosis, and improve functional neurological outcomes in a rat model of ICH. PMID: 29933037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou F, Liu Y, Yang B, Hu Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Amygdala stimulation promotes recovery of behavioral performance in a spatial memory task and increases GAP-43 and MAP-2 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of male rats.
Bergado JA Abstract The relationships between affective and cognitive processes are an important issue of present neuroscience. The amygdala, the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex appear as main players in these mechanisms. We have shown that post-training electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) speeds the acquisition of a motor skill, and produces a recovery in behavioral performance related to spatial memory in fimbria-fornix (FF) lesioned animals. BLA electrical stimulation rises bdnf RNA expression, BDNF protein levels, and arc RNA expression in the hippocampus. In the present paper we ha...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mercerón-Martínez D, Almaguer-Melian W, Alberti-Amador E, Bergado JA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

MicroRNA-499a decelerates glioma cell proliferation while accelerating apoptosis through the suppression of Notch1 and the MAPK signaling pathway.
Abstract As the most common and lethal of intracranial tumors, glioma accounts for 81% of all malignant brain tumors. Research data has identified the role of microRNAs (miRs) as functional suppressers in the progression of Glioma. The present study aimed to, ascertain as to whether microRNA-499a (miR-499a) influences cell proliferation and apoptosis through the MAPK signaling pathway by targeting Notch1 in glioma. Both glioma and adjacent tissues between 2012~2016, were obtained from People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University (Henan Provincial People's Hospital). The collected glioma cells were treated with miR-44...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang BQ, Yang B, Yang HC, Wang JY, Hu S, Gao YS, Bu XY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Impaired histone acetylation in the Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex following Immediate extinction may result in deficit of extinction memory.
In conclusion, the observed deficits in the immediate extinction group may be the result of compromised activation of IL, which in turn may be associated with changes in histone acetylation. PMID: 29908895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Singh S, Siddiqui SA, Tripathy S, Kumar S, Saha S, Ugale R, Modi DR, Prakash A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Repeated olanzapine treatment mitigates PTSD like symptoms in rats with changes in cell signaling factors.
In this study, we report the preclinical potential of olanzapine (OLZ) in the treatment of PTSD. Since the atypical antipsychotics have modulating effects on cell protective and destructive factors, we tested the effects of OLZ in PTSD regarding these cell modulating factors. Rats, when subjected to stress-restress (SRS) model of PTSD, showed a derangement in cell protective factors like the decline in BDNF, ERK, and CREB. While the adversarial factors like caspase-3 were enhanced. Four weeks treatment with OLZ at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg significantly mitigated the SRS-induced derangement related to PTSD. OLZ at doses of...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Reddy NR, Krishnamurthy S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prion-like Propagation of α-synuclein in the gut-brain axis.
Prion-like Propagation of α-synuclein in the gut-brain axis. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Jun 09;: Authors: Chen Y, Shao Q, Yuan YH, Chen NH Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system, which is characterized by movement disorders, such as static tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia in advanced patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as gastric dysmotility, constipation, and anorectic dysfunction, is common non-motor symptom in the early stage of PD. The progression of PD includes the degenerative loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and aggregation...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Shao Q, Yuan YH, Chen NH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Unilateral right and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment post-traumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled study.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that bilateral and unilateral right rTMS are superior to sham rTMS but does not support the hypothesis that bilateral rTMS is more effective than unilateral high-frequency right-sided rTMS. PMID: 29883597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmadizadeh MJ, Rezaei M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Central fractalkine stimulates central prostaglandin E2 production and induces systemic inflammatory responses.
Abstract Fractalkine (FKN; CX3CL1) belongs to gamma-chemokine family and binds to CX3CR1 receptors. Currently, the mechanisms involving FKN-induced inflammatory mediators are research targets in an attempt to study immune diseases mechanisms. Besides, FKN seems to modulate inflammation in the nervous system by inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 is a classic and important mediator of fever that activates warm-responsive neurons in the anteroventral preoptic region of the hypothalamus (AVPO). Here, we tested the hypothesis that central FKN modulates febrigenic ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mota CMD, Antunes-Rodrigues J, Branco LGS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Locomotor activity, emotionality, sensori-motor gating, learning and memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse (line 85) is a double transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with familial amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutations. These mice develop age-related behavioral changes reflective of the neuro-psychiatric symptoms (altered anxiety-like behaviour, hyperactivity) and cognitive dysfunction (impaired learning and memory) observed in AD. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse has been used to examine the efficacy of therapeutic interventions on behaviour, despite previous difficulties in replicating behavioural phenotypes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the relia...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Leary TP, Hussin AT, Gunn RK, Brown RE Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Human African trypanosomiasis: How do the parasites enter and cause dysfunctions of the nervous system in murine models?
Abstract In this review we describe how Trypanosoma brucei brucei, a rodent pathogenic strain of African trypanosomes, can invade the nervous system, first by localization to the choroid plexus, the circumventricular organs (CVOs) and peripheral ganglia, which have fenestrated vessels, followed by crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the white matter, hypothalamus, thalamus and basal ganglia. White blood cells (WBCs) pave the way for the trypanosome neuroinvasion. Experiments with immune deficient mice show that the invasion of WBCs is initiated by the toll-like receptor 9, followed by an augmentation ph...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Masocha W, Kristensson K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Driven to Decay: Excitability and Synaptic Abnormalities in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron (MN) disease and is clinically characterised by the death of corticospinal motor neurons (CSMNs), spinal and brainstem MNs and the degeneration of the corticospinal tract. Degeneration of CSMNs and MNs leads inexorably to muscle wastage and weakness, progressing to eventual death within 3-5 years of diagnosis. The CSMNs, located within layer V of the primary motor cortex, project axons constituting the corticospinal tract, forming synaptic connections with brainstem and spinal cord interneurons and MNs. Clinical ALS may be divided into fa...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fogarty MJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of autophagy in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in neonatal rat hippocampal cells.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that sevoflurane may induce hippocampal neuron autophagy in primary cultured hippocampal neuronal cell and that Beclin-1 and Atg5 are involved in the process of sevoflurane-induced autophagy. Exposure of sevoflurane may not only induce autophagy of hippocampal neurons but also activate the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Autophagy may play an important role in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured hippocampal neuronal cells. PMID: 29857124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu L, Shen J, Yu L, Sun J, McQuillan PM, Hu Z, Yan M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

α-Lipoic acid attenuates oxidative stress and neurotoxicity via the ERK/Akt-dependent pathway in the mutant hSOD1 related Drosophila model and the NSC34 cell line of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of LA in ALS cell and Drosophila models with mutant G85R and G93A hSOD1 genes. The biological effects of LA and the protein levels of several antioxidant factors were examined, as were those of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways were used to analyze their effects on LA-induced antioxidant expression in vivo and in vitro. Evidences showed that the mutant hSOD1 resulted in the increased oxidative stress, abnormal antioxidant signaling and pathological behaviors in motor performanc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang T, Cheng J, Wang S, Wang X, Jiang H, Yang Y, Wang Y, Zhang C, Liang W, Feng H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Isosteviol Sodium through Increasing CYLD by the Downregulation miRNA-181b.
In this study, we found that miR-181b expression was significantly decreased in N2A neuroblastoma cells after CoCl2-induced hypoxic injury in vitro. We further found, via western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, that altering miR-181b expression could induce changes in one of its target proteins, cylindromatosis (CYLD). Specifically, upregulation and downregulation of miR-181b (through transfection of either pre- or small interfering miR-181b, respectively) could negatively regulate CYLD protein levels as well as N2A cell survival rate and apoptosis following CoCl2-induced injury. Furthermore...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang H, Zan J, Zhong K, Lu M, Sun X, Tan W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Raloxifene, a promising estrogen replacement, limits TDP-25 cell death by enhancing autophagy and suppressing apoptosis.
Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, and at present, therapies for ALS are limited. Estrogen is a potential therapeutic agent for ALS but has undesirable effects that might increase the risk of breast and uterine cancers or stroke. Raloxifene (Ral) has estrogenic properties but does not exhibit these adverse effects. However, the mechanism of Ral in ALS has not been studied. We thus investigated the effects of Ral in an NSC34 model of ALS that stably expresses the 25-kDa C-terminal fragment of TDP-43 (i.e., TDP-25 cells) and found that GPR30 (G protein-coup...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou F, Dong H, Liu Y, Yan L, Sun C, Hao P, Liu Y, Zhai J, Liu Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Stroke, Cerebrovascular Diseases and Vascular Cognitive Impairment in Africa.
Abstract With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa. Hypertension is the strongest m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Akinyemi RO, Owolabi MO, Ihara M, Damasceno A, Ogunniyi A, Dotchin C, Paddick SM, Ogeng'o J, Walker R, Kalaria RN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Autophagy is involved in sevoflurane-induced developmental neurotoxicity in the developing rat brain.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, autophagy may be involved in sevoflurane-induced developmental neurotoxicity and promoting protective autophagy may be a potential way of preventing developmental sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. PMID: 29803872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu L, Shen J, Yu L, Sun J, Yan M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in myoclonus of different aetiologies.
In conclusion, different TMS study protocols have provided new insights into sensorimotor plasticity and cortical excitability of the different forms of myoclonus, and have shed some light on the pathophysiology of this movement disorder. Well-defined motor cortical excitability patterns can be identified in the different disorders characterized by myoclonus, even if preliminary findings should be confirmed in future studies in larger cohorts of patients. Repetitive TMS might have therapeutic potential at least in some patients with myoclonus, similar to that reported in other neurological and psychiatric disorders. P...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nardone R, Versace V, Höller Y, Sebastianelli L, Brigo F, Lochner P, Golaszewski S, Saltuari L, Trinka E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Analgesic effect of intrathecal baclofen bolus on neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury patients.
CONCLUSION: An ITB bolus exerted a significant analgesic effect on all subtypes of neuropathic pain in SCI patients. SIGNIFICANCE: ITB has analgesic effects on all subtypes of neuropathic pain and can improve interference of neuropathic pain with activities of daily living. ITB might be a promising analgesic treatment to control neuropathic pain. PMID: 29782907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kumru H, Benito-Penalva J, Kofler M, Vidal J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Deficits in temporal order memory induced by interferon-alpha (IFN- α) treatment are rescued by aerobic exercise.
Deficits in temporal order memory induced by interferon-alpha (IFN-α) treatment are rescued by aerobic exercise. Brain Res Bull. 2018 May 18;: Authors: Barlow S, Fahey B, Smith KJ, Passecker J, Della-Chiesa A, Hok V, Day JS, Callaghan CK, O'Mara SM Abstract Patients receiving cytokine immunotherapy with IFN-α frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments, including a profound depressive-like symptomatology. While the neurobiological substrates of the dysfunction that leads to adverse events in IFN-α-treated patients remains ill-defined, dysfunctions ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Barlow S, Fahey B, Smith KJ, Passecker J, Della-Chiesa A, Hok V, Day JS, Callaghan CK, O'Mara SM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Protects Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation Injury: Involvement of Inhibiting Autophagy via Class I PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway.
Abstract The present study aimed to test whether Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) protects the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR autophagy signaling pathway. Primary rat BMECs were cultured and identified by the expression of factor VIII-related antigen before being exposed to OGD/R to imitate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage in vitro. The protective effect of HSYA was evaluated by assessing (1) cellular morphologic and ultrastructural changes; (2) cell viability and cytotoxicity; (3) transendothelial electrical res...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang G, Wang N, Seto SW, Chang D, Liang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

α2 receptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus generates the pressor response of the cardiovascular chemoreflex, effects of GABAA receptor.
In conclusion, the LPBN is essential for the chemoreflex responses. The pressor response of the chemoreflex, at least partly, is produced by α2- adenoreceptors. GABA in the LPBN inhibits the cardiovascular system. Finally, there is no interaction between GABAergic and adrenergic neurons of the LPBN in producing the cardiovascular chemoreflex. PMID: 29775659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Damabi NM, Namvar GR, Yeganeh F, Hatam M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

GDNF family receptor α-1 in the catfish: Possible implication to brain dopaminergic activity.
GDNF family receptor α-1 in the catfish: Possible implication to brain dopaminergic activity. Brain Res Bull. 2018 May 11;: Authors: Mamta SK, Senthilkumaran B Abstract Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent trophic factor that preferentially binds to GDNF family receptor α-1 (GFRα-1) by regulating dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain. Present study aimed to evaluate the significance of GFRα-1 expression during early brain development in catfish. Initially, the full-length cDNA of GFRα-1 was cloned from adult brain which showed high homology wi...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mamta SK, Senthilkumaran B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cerebrolysin attenuates hyperalgesia, photophobia, and neuroinflammation in a nitroglycerin-induced migraine model in rats.
This study examined the effect of chronic cerebrolysin (CBL) treatment on the migraine-associated symptoms in a rat model of migraine. Experiments were carried out on 8 weeks, male Wistar rats. Chronic migraine was modeled by injection (10 mg/kg, i.p) of nitroglycerin (NTG) on days 3, 5, 7, and 9. CBL (2.5 and 5 ml/kg, i.p.) was injected every day for 10 days. Mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds of the hind paw were examined by von Frey hairs and hot plate, respectively. Head grooming behavior was evaluated one hour following injection of NTG. Light-aversive behaviors were determined in the modified elevated...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mahmoudi J, Mohaddes G, Erfani M, Sadigh-Eteghad S, Karimi P, Rajabi M, Reyhani-Rad S, Farajdokht F Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Radiosurgery reduces plasma levels of angiogenic factors in brain arteriovenous malformation patients.
Abstract PURPOSE: Aberrant expression of angiogenic factors has been anecdotally documented in brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) nidus vessels; however, no data is available on the effect of radiosurgery on the levels of angiogenic factors in AVM patients. We sought to determine the plasma contents of VEGF, TGF-β, Ang-2 and bFGF in 28 brain AVM patients at baseline and post radiosurgery and further analyzed the relationship between plasma contents of these angiogenic factors with clinicopathologic variables of these patients. METHODS: We enrolled brain AVM patients who underwent Cyberknife radiosurg...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu M, Liu X, Mei G, Zhang J, Wang W, Xu H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

scAAV9-VEGF-165 inhibits neuroinflammatory response and invasion of macrophages into the peripheral nervous system of ALS transgenic mice.
Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to paralysis and death within 3-5 years. Although the vast majority studies focus on the vulnerable neurons, growing evidences showed that the non-neuronal cells contribute to pathogenesis and disease progression. Here, we showed that intrathecal injection of scAAV9-VEGF at 60 days of age could prolong the lifespan of ALS mice. VEGF treatment significantly reduced the number of microglia and inhibited the neuroinflammatory response in CNS. Meanwhile, we found that administration of VEGF inhibited the invasion of macr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Y, Liu Y, Zhai J, Duan W, Sun S, Cui H, Chen X, Ji J, Liu Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Some technical issues of vagal nerve stimulation. An approach using a hippocampal formation theta rhythm.
Abstract Previously, we have demonstrated that hippocampal (HPC) theta rhythm can be produced, depending on current intensity, directly during vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) or with a time delay following stimulation. This suggests that theta EEG pattern can also be used as a bio-indicator of the efficiency of VNS. In the present study, we focused on three specific, technical issues related to the stimulation procedure of the vagal nerve: i/does the type of the electrode used for VNS and the technique of its implantation affect the parameters of the HPC theta rhythm? ii/does the type of electrode used determine the...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Broncel A, Bocian R, Kłos-Wojtczak P, Konopacki J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging relaxation time in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation time constants, T1 and T2, are sensitive to changes in brain tissue microstructure integrity. Quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation times have been proposed to serve as non-invasive biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which alterations are believed to not only reflect AD-related neuropathology but also cognitive impairment. In this review, we summarize the applications and key findings of MRI techniques in the context of both AD subjects and AD transgenic mouse models. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of relaxation time alterations in AD will be discu...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang X, Cai F, Ding DX, Zhang LL, Cai XY, Fang Q Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research