Purinergic signaling in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by three major histopathological markers: amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis in the central nervous system (CNS). It is now accepted that neuroinflammatory events in the CNS play a crucial role in the development of AD. This review focuses on neuroinflammatory signaling mediated by purinergic receptors (P1 adenosine receptors, P2X ATP-gated ion channels and G protein-coupled P2Y nucleotide receptors) and how therapeutic modulation of purinergic signaling influences disease progress...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Erb L, Woods LT, Khalafalla MG, Weisman GA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of dimethyl fumarate on neuroinflammation and apoptosis in PTZ kindling model in rats.
CONCLUSION: DMF demonstrated anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect in hippocampus, which might be regulated by increased level of antioxidant response elements. PMID: 30472152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Singh N, Saha L, Kumari P, Singh J, Bhatia A, Banerjee D, Chakrabarti A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Baseline Characterization of Epilepsy in an Onchocerciasis Endemic Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Abstract Increased epilepsy prevalence is reported in onchocerciasis (OC) endemic areas and is associated with the occurrence of distinct syndromes such as nodding disease and Nakalanga syndrome. To date, a causal relationship between OC and epilepsy is still a matter of controversy. We conducted a case-control study of participants with epilepsy and age- and gender-matched presumably healthy controls to elucidate the relationships between OC and epilepsy and explore the role of inflammation and growth factors in an OC endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Eighty-two participants with epilepsy (m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Burfeind KG, Kashama JK, Bora BK, Murchison CF, Ramos-Crawford AL, Nseka MT, Kunyu SB, Okitundu DL, Mashukano NL, Banea JM, Boivin Michael J, Mwanza JK, Mumba D, Tshala-Katumbay DD Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The role of adenosine in epilepsy.
Abstract Adenosine is a well-characterized endogenous anticonvulsant and seizure terminator of the brain. Through a combination of adenosine receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms, adenosine affects seizure generation (ictogenesis), as well as the development of epilepsy and its progression (epileptogenesis). Maladaptive changes in adenosine metabolism, in particular increased expression of the astroglial enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), play a major role in epileptogenesis. Increased expression of ADK has dual roles in both reducing the inhibitory tone of adenosine in the brain, which consequently reduces t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Weltha L, Reemmer J, Boison D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

P2X receptors and acupuncture analgesia.
Abstract Purinergic signaling has recently been suggested to constitute the cellular mechanism underlying acupuncture-induced analgesia (AA). By extending the original hypothesis on endogenous opioids being released during AA, Geoffrey Burnstock and Maiken Nedergaard supplied evidence for the involvement of purinoceptors (P2 and P1/A1 receptors) in the beneficial effects of AA. In view of certain pain states (e.g. neuropathic pain) which respond only poorly to therapy with standard analgesics, as well as with respect to the numerous unwanted effects of opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is of gr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang Y, Yin HY, Liu J, Rubini P, Illes P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Purinergic signaling in the retina: from development to disease.
Abstract Retinal injuries and diseases are major causes of human disability involving vision impairment by the progressive and permanent loss of retinal neurons. During development, assembly of this tissue entails a successive and overlapping, signal-regulated engagement of complex events that include proliferation of progenitors, neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical differentiation and synaptogenesis. During retinal damage, several of these events are re-activated with both protective and detrimental consequences. Purines and pyrimidines, along with their metabolites are emerging as important molecules regulat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Marques Ventura AL, Dos Santos-Rodrigues A, Mitchell CH, Faillace MP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neurological Manifestations in Onchocerca volvulus infection; a Review.
Abstract Human onchocerciasis, caused by infection by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a major neglected public health problem that affects millions of people in the endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Onchocerciasis is known to be associated with skin and eye disease and more recently, neurological features have been recognized as a major manifestation. Especially the latter poses a severe burden on affected individuals and their families. Although definite studies are awaited, preliminary evidence suggests that neurological disease may include the nodding syndrome, Nakalanga syn...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hotterbeekx A, Namale Ssonko V, Oyet W, Lakwo T, Idro R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment restores oxidative balance in animals chronically exposed to toluene: Comparison with melatonin.
acute;nez N Abstract Inhalants are widely used as recreational drugs, and toluene is the main chemical compound present in most inhalants used for these purposes. Previous studies have shown that repeated toluene exposure produces cellular death and memory impairment, while environmental enrichment (EE) rescues from those effects. However, the mechanisms involved in those responses are unclear. Previous studies have shown that toluene induces a redox imbalance at the neuronal level; although, details on the mechanism of action of environmental enrichment enhancing antioxidant capacity remain to be explored. It is ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Montes S, Yee-Rios Y, Páez-Martínez N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

New progress in the approaches for blood-brain barrier protection in acute ischemic stroke.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is a disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide, which often places an additional strain on families and society due to the poor prognosis. Blood brain-barrier (BBB) damage is the critical pathological process, which contributes to hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and poor prognosis in cerebral ischemia. Thus, there is a pressing need to seek an approach to ameliorate BBB damage and reduce the HT that can be induced by fibrinolytic therapy involving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in clinical practice. This review provides an overview of the recent scientific report...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Zhong W, Jiang Z, Tang X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Analysis of the neuronal network of the medullary respiratory center in transgenic rats expressing archaerhodopsin-3 in Phox2b-expressing cells.
Abstract Preinspiratory (Pre-I) neurons in the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) comprise one of the respiratory rhythm generators in the medulla of the neonatal rat. A subgroup of pFRG/Pre-I neurons expresses the transcription factor Phox2b. To further analyze detailed neuronal mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation in the neonatal rat, we developed a transgenic (Tg) rat line in which Phox2b-positive cells expressed archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch). Brainstem-spinal cord preparations were isolated from 0-2-day-old Tg newborn rats and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ikeda K, Kaneko R, Yanagawa Y, Ogawa M, Kobayashi K, Arata S, Kawakami K, Onimaru H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and motor behavior in healthy adults: a study review.
Abstract The influence of individual differences in cognition and behavior may be partly explained by the different genetic polymorphisms. Among the genetic polymorphisms capable of altering cognitive and behavioral functions, the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism regulates the availability of dopamine (DA) in the prefrontal cortex and has a trimodal distribution in the population. The Met allele has higher DA availability in the synaptic clefts and can be associated with cognitive stability. Val homozygous individuals exhibit lower DA concentrations in the synaptic clefts, which can be as...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: de Holanda Marinho Nogueira NG, Bacelar MFB, de Paula Ferreira B, Parma JO, Lage GM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of matrix metalloproteinases in cerebral ischemic rats by promoting activation and migration of astrocytes and microglia.
This study was designed to investigate whether early MMPs inhibition could promote the recovery of cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h and reperfusion. The rats were divided into three groups: sham + vehicle (S + V) group, MCAO + vehicle (M + V) group, and MCAO + GM6001 (M + G) group. Infarct volume was assessed by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and the expression of GFAP, IBA1, p-ERK, ERK, and MMP9 were evaluated by Western blot and immuno...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Zhao HH, Li D, Li HP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A Cynomolgus monkey model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
In this study, we developed and tested a Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model of TLE. A total of 5 Cynomolgus monkeys received3-4 weekly unilateral hippocampal injections of kainic acid (KA) to induce repetitive acute seizures. Animals were monitored via video and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess KA-induced acute seizures and subsequent spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SREDs). During acute seizures, EEG recording showed bursts of generalized spike discharges arising from the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the KA injection. Three months later, we detected abundant interictal epileptiform discharge...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen T, Deng Y, Sha L, Shen Y, Xu Q Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The role of insulin-like growth factor 1 in ALS cell and mouse models: a mitochondrial protector.
In this study, scAAV9-hIGF-1 was intramuscularly injected into transgenic SOD1G93A mice and administered to cell lines expressing the ~25-kDa C-terminal fragment of transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-25). The mitochondrial electrical transmembrane potential was hyperpolarized, and electron microscopy findings revealed that the abnormal mitochondria were transformed. Moreover, the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic process was modified through the upregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)), the downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2-associa...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wen D, Cui C, Duan W, Wang W, Wang Y, Liu Y, Li Z, Li C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Adiponectin confers neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through activating the cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling.
In conclusion, our findings further suggest that APN exerts protective effect against cerebral I/R injury might through the cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway. APN is a novel candidate in the treatment of I/R diseases in the future. PMID: 30395885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bai H, Zhao L, Liu H, Guo H, Guo W, Zheng L, Liu X, Wu X, Luo J, Li X, Gao L, Feng D, Qu Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of simvastatin and insulin in memory protection in a rat model of diabetes mellitus and dementia.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with insulin and simvastatin could provide a promising memory protective effect in diabetics. PMID: 30395886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fawzy Fahim V, Wadie W, Shafik AN, Ishak Attallah M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Central muscarinic and LPBN mechanisms on sodium intake.
Abstract Central cholinergic activation stimulates water intake, but also NaCl intake when the inhibitory mechanisms are blocked with injections of moxonidine (α2 adrenergic/imidazoline agonist) into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, we investigated the involvement of central M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors on NaCl intake induced by pilocarpine (non-selective muscarinic agonist) intraperitoneally combined with moxonidine into the LPBN or by muscimol (GABAA agonist) into the LPBN. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN and in the lateral ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Anesio A, Barbosa SP, de Luca LA, de Paula PM, Colombari DSA, Colombari E, Andrade CAF, Menani JV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Near-Infrared Photobiomodulation Combined with Coenzyme Q10 for Depression in a Mouse Model of Restraint Stress: Reduction in Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation, and Apoptosis.
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) combined with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on depressive-like behavior, cerebral oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis markers in mice. To induce a depressive-like model, mice were subjected to sub-chronic restraint stress for 5 consecutive days. NIR PBM (810 nm laser, 33.3 J/cm2) and/or CoQ10 (500 mg/kg/day, gavage) were administered for five days concomitantly with immobilization. Behavior was evaluated by the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open field test (OFT). Mitochondrial membran...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Salehpour F, Farajdokht F, Cassano P, Sadigh-Eteghad S, Erfani M, Hamblin MR, Moghadam Salimi M, Karimi P, Rasta SH, Mahmoudi J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

TRA2A Promotes proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition of glioma cells.
In this study, our results demonstrated that the expression of TRA2A was higher in the glioma tissue than that of normal tissue. Overexpression of TRA2A in glioma SHG44 cell lines promoted the tumor cells proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), while, knockdown of TRA2A showed the opposite effect. Thus, our findings provide new insights into the role of TRA2A in the progression of glioma, and implicate the potential application of TRA2A in glioma therapy. PMID: 30367895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang J, Hu X, Deng Y, Yuan P, Xie Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Promoting axonal regeneration through exosomes: an update of recent findings on exosomal PTEN and mTOR modifiers.
Abstract Exosomes, in the mix with other extracellular microvesicles (EVs), are very broadly implicated in a multitude of neuronal physiological and pathological processes. However, their roles in axonal regeneration upon injury, which is potentially useful from a therapeutics perspective, are less well-defined. Exosomes from both neuronal and non-neuronal sources have been shown to promote neurite growth or enhance axon regeneration of injured neurons. How these beneficial effects are actually achieved has not been very clear. In some cases the effects have been directly or indirectly attributed to specific exoso...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang BL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cerebral inoculation of human A53T α-synuclein reduces spatial memory decline and amyloid-β aggregation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease.
Cerebral inoculation of human A53T α-synuclein reduces spatial memory decline and amyloid-β aggregation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Oct 23;: Authors: Hao YN, Lu QX, Zhai YH, Wang HY, Wu MN, Hu MM, Yang B, Wang ZJ, Wu ZW, Qi JS Abstract Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and α-synuclein (α-syn) are major components of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively. Co-occurrence of Aβ and α-syn in the senile brains of AD and LB diseases suggests interactions between the two ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hao YN, Lu QX, Zhai YH, Wang HY, Wu MN, Hu MM, Yang B, Wang ZJ, Wu ZW, Qi JS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nonlinear reactions of limbic structure electrical activity in response to rhythmical photostimulation in guinea pigs.
Abstract Photostimulation of the visual analyzer with a periodic signal is widely used in research and clinical practice, as well as in brain-computer interface technologies. In most studies of rhythmic photostimulation in structures of visual system at all its levels, the nonlinear nature of the response reactions is noted. However, the mechanism of formation of the induced electrophysiological reactions remains unclear. In addition, there is no literature data on the nature of response reactions of "non-visual" brain structures. The goal of the present study was to investigate the peculiarities and dyn...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bondar A, Shubina L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Iontophoretic microlesions with kainate or 6-hydroxidopamine in ventromedial prefrontal cortex result in deficit in conditioned taste avoidance to palatable tastants.
te;cz O, Gálosi R, Karádi Z, Lénárd L Abstract Effects of kainate or 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA) lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) on taste-related learning and memory processes were examined. Neurotoxins were applied by iontophoretic method to minimize the extent of lesion and the side effects. Acquisition and retention of conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) was tested to different taste stimuli (0.05 M NaCl, 0.01 M saccharin, 0.01 M citrate and 0.00025 M quinine). In the first experiment, palatability index of taste solutions with these con...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Berta B, Péczely L, Kertes E, Petykó Z, Ollmann T, László K, Kállai V, Kovács A, Zagorácz O, Gálosi R, Karádi Z, Lénárd L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Deletion of aquaporin-4 aggravates brain pathology after blocking of the meningeal lymphatic drainage.
Abstract The glymphatic pathway and meningeal lymphatic vessels are involved in clearance of metabolic macromolecules from the brain. However, the functional interaction between the two systems in the maintenance of brain homeostasis remains unclear. Here we reported that deletion of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a functional regulator of glymphatic clearance, aggravated brain pathology of 3 month-old mice after blocking of the meningeal lymphatic drainage for 2 weeks via ligation of the deep cervical lymphatic nodes (LdcLNs). LdcLNs increased total and phosphorylated Tau protein levels in the hippocampus of both genotype m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cao X, Xu H, Feng W, Su D, Xiao M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Social defeat-induced Cingulate gyrus immediate-early gene expression and anxiolytic-like effect depend upon social rank.
Abstract Social hierarchy is considered to impart an adaptive advantage to the species by reducing long-term conflict between conspecifics. While social stratification is frequently established via stress-inducing stimuli, the subsequent integration of individuals into the hierarchy may attenuate anxiety. Presently, we hypothesized that repeated reinforcement of murine social hierarchy in the dominant-submissive relationship (DSR) food-competition test would engender divergent neuroplastic changes mediating both social and anxiety-like behavior among selectively-bred Dominant (Dom) and Submissive (Sub) mice. Two w...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Basil AH, Gross M, Rajkumar R, Kirby M, Pinhasov A, Gs D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Essential roles of neuropeptide VGF regulated TrkB/mTOR/BICC1 signaling and phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 in the rapid antidepressant-like actions of ketamine in mice.
Abstract Previous studies have suggested that rapid reductions in depression-like behaviors are observed in response to sub-anesthetic-doses of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. Neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic) is a critical effector of depression-like behaviors and is thought to be involved in the antidepressant actions of ketamine that have been demonstrated. However, the mechanism underlying the involvement of VGF in the anti-depressant action of ketamine remains unclear. We found that single dose ketamine treatment reversed CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors and decrease of VGF...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen M, Lv D, Liu X, Li S, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Wang C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Short term exposure to oxycodone alters the survival, proliferation and differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem cell in vitro.
Abstract As one of several opioids, oxycodone has been widely used, particularly in postoperative analgesia in children and cesarean section. However, the effect of oxycodone on developing brain still remains to be seen. Since there is a link between anesthetics exposure and long-term behavioral or cognitive dysfunction in young children, in the current study, the direct effect of oxycodone on neural stem cells (NSCs) biological behaviors was investigated. After exposed to a high dose of oxycodone (10 μg/mL) for 48 hrs, NSCs survival and proliferation were significantly reduced, while NSCs apoptos...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu G, Zhao X, Wang F, Tan R, Wang J, Li X, Chen C, An J, Lu H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Effects of Xiao Yao San on interferon- α-induced depression in mice" [Brain Res. Bull. 139 (2018) 197-202].
Corrigendum to "Effects of Xiao Yao San on interferon-α-induced depression in mice" [Brain Res. Bull. 139 (2018) 197-202]. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Sep 29;: Authors: Wang M, Huang W, Gao T, Zhao X, Lv Z PMID: 30279022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang M, Huang W, Gao T, Zhao X, Lv Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of Melatonin on Attenuating the Isoflurane-Induced Oxidative Damage is Related to PKC α/Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Developing Rats.
This study aims to determine whether the effect of melatonin on isoflurane-induced oxidative stress is related to activation of the PKCα/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Rat pups at postnatal day 7 were treated with control or 1.5% isoflurane for 4 h after pretreatment for 15 min with either melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) or 1% ethanol. The hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopic examination were used for observation of histopathology. The Oxidative stress-related indicators were detected by using assay kits. The western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were us...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li B, Feng X, Hu X, Chen Y, Sha J, Zhang H, Fan HG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like Effects of Insulin and IGF-1 are Mediated by IGF-1 Receptors in the Brain.
Abstract Depression is associated with uncontrolled diabetes, which indicates a lack of insulin effect, yet the role of the insulin receptor in mediating depression is not clearly established because insulin receptors are not required for glucose entry into the brain. However, insulin receptors are important for brain function since insulin receptor knockout mice have depressive-like activity. Depression and cognitive problems are also associated with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the elderly. Rodent studies showed chronic IGF administration had antidepressant-like (AD) activity. We asked if insulin ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mueller PL, Pritchett CE, Wiechman TN, Zharikov A, Hajnal A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

S100A8/A9 induces microglia activation and promotes the apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells by activating the NF- κB signaling pathway.
This study indicates that S100A8/A9 induces the activation of BV-2 microglial cells and promotes the production of pro-inflammatory factors by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway, which further exacerbates OPC damage. PMID: 30266587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu M, Xu L, Wang Y, Zhou N, Zhen F, Zhang Y, Qu X, Fan H, Liu S, Chen Y, Yao R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cab45s Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats.
Abstract Recent studies have shown that Cab45 s, belonging to the CREC family, can fight against apoptosis in the cancer cell lines. Here, we report that Cab45 s may involve in neuronal apoptosis at the early stage of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in pathophysiology. We found that expression of Cab45 s was enhanced in areas contiguous to hematoma following ICH in adult rats, and that so were the expressions of Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and active caspase-3. In vitro, coimmunoprecipitation analysis indicated the interaction between Cab...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen J, Zhou T, Li H, Li W, Wang S, Song Y, Ke K, Cao M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Hydrogen ameliorates chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced neurocognitive impairment via inhibiting oxidative stress.
In conclusion, these results suggest that inhalation of H2 could attenuate the CIH-induced neurocognitive functions impairment via anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis effect. Additional, our findings may provide a potential therapeutic for neurocognitive diseases in patients with OSA. PMID: 30243887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li W, Yang S, Yu FY, Zhao Y, Sun ZM, An JR, Ji E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Astaxanthin attenuates neuroinflammation contributed to the neuropathic pain and motor dysfunction following compression spinal cord injury.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition in which inflammatory responses in the secondary phase of injury leads to long lasting sensory-motor dysfunction. The medicinal therapy of SCI complications is still a clinical challenge. Understanding the molecular pathways underlying the progress of damage will help to find new therapeutic candidates. Astaxanthin (AST) is a ketocarotenoid which has shown anti-inflammatory effects in models of traumatic brain injury. In the present study, we examined its potential in the elimination of SCI damage through glutamatergic-phospo p38 mitogen-activated prote...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fakhri S, Dargahi L, Abbaszadeh F, Jorjani M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cognition-related white matter integrity dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease with diffusion tensor image.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a worldwide progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. Previous research has indicated that Alzheimer's disease impairs white matter (WM) tracts. Anatomical and neuroimaging studies have indicated that WM tracts are associated with cognitive function. Whether the abnormal WM integrity in AD is associated with cognitive impairments and the clinical symptoms is still not clear. To this end, we investigated the relationship between the impairments in WM tracts and the decline of cognitive ability in AD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were collected from 38 AD pati...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Feng F, Lin P, Huang Z, Liu T, Zhou B, Yao H, Zheng L, Li C, Wang P, Zhang Z, Guo Y, Wang L, An N, Zhu X, Zhang X, Wang J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

MicroRNA-410 inhibition of the TIMP2-dependent MAPK pathway confers neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis after ischemic stroke in mice.
Abstract Ischemic stroke (IS) is an acute cerebral event characterized by a high incidence rate, high disability rate as well as a high mortality. More recently, accumulative literature has provided evidence highlighting the role played by microRNAs (miRs) in the development of neurons. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of miR-410 in IS. Microarray-based gene expression profiling of AMI was conducted in order to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the corresponding miRs regulating these genes. IS models were established to assess neurology on a scoring b...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu NN, Dong ZL, Han LL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Depression and adult neurogenesis: positive effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine and of physical exercise.
Abstract Of wide interest for health is the relation existing between depression, a very common psychological illness, accompanied by anxiety and reduced ability to concentrate, and adult neurogenesis. We will focus on two neurogenic stimuli, fluoxetine and physical exercise, both endowed with the ability to activate adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, known to be required for learning and memory, and both able to counteract depression. Fluoxetine belongs to the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, which represent the most used pharmacological therapy; phy...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Micheli L, Ceccarelli M, D'Andrea G, Tirone F Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Maternal Exposure to Fluoxetine during Gestation and Lactation Induces Long Lasting Changes in the DNA Methylation Profile of Offspring's Brain and Affects the Social Interaction of Rat.
si GG Abstract Fluoxetine (FLX) is an antidepressant from the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class that has largely been used for the treatment of depression in pregnancy. However, increasing evidences have indicated the potential of early maternal exposure to FLX to induce molecular and neuro functional effects on the offspring. In the present study we evaluated possible long lasting impacts of the maternal exposure to FLX during gestation and lactation. Female Wistar rats were gavaged with 5 mg/kg of FLX during the period that comprehends the first day of pregnancy (PD0) and the last day of lactat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Silva AS, Toffoli LV, Estrada VB, Veríssimo LF, Francis-Oliveira J, Moreira EG, Gomes MV, Pelosi GG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Pilocarpine/ascorbic acid interaction in the immature brain: electrophysiological and oxidative effects in well-nourished and malnourished rats.
es RC Abstract Ascorbic acid (AA) administration has been associated with neuroprotection against oxidative stress, although at high doses it can facilitate oxidation and acts like a proconvulsing drug. The pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model has been widely studied. However, less is known about the effects of sub-convulsive doses of pilocarpine on brain activity in immature animals under normal or deficient nutritional conditions. Herein, we investigated the effects of chronic pilocarpine administration in a sub-convulsive dose, with or without AA, on the excitability-related phenomenon denominated as cortical spr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mendes-da-Silva RF, da Silva Francisco E, Araújo Guedes RC Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Clinical and prognostic features of ALS/MND in different phenotypes-data from a hospital-based registry.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To explore the natural history, clinical features, and survival relevance of patients presenting with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) with different phenotypes. METHODS: All patients were prospectively enrolled in a hospital-based register from 2006 to 2015. Cases were classified according to established phenotypes: classic, bulbar, flail arm, flail leg, upper motor neuron dominate, respiratory, pure lower motor neuron and pure upper motor neuron. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1157 patient...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wei QQ, Chen Y, Chen X, Cao B, Ou R, Zhang L, Hou Y, Shang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Increase of histone acetylation in the GABAergic neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla associated with mechanical hypersensitivity after repeated restraint stress.
Abstract Psychophysical stresses frequently increase sensitivity and response to pain, which is termed stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). However, the mechanism remains unknown. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and locus coeruleus (LC) are core elements of the descending pain modulatory system, which modulate nociceptive transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. In the present study we examined the acetylation of histone H3 in the RVM and LC after repeated restraint stress for 3 weeks to clarify changes in the descending pain modulatory system in the rat with SIH. The repeated restraint stress induced mechanic...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Imbe H, Kimura A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Chronic asthma-induced behavioral and hippocampal neuronal morphological changes are concurrent with BDNF, cofilin1 and Cdc42/RhoA alterations in immature mice.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that response similar to nicotine withdrawal or/and hypoxia induced by childhood chronic asthma enhances the BDNF-Cdc42/RhoA signaling pathway and activates cofilin1, leading to the remodeling of actin, causing the loss of dendritic spines and atrophy of dendrites, eventually resulting in behavioral alterations. PMID: 30227235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhuang TT, Pan C, Chen JJ, Han F, Zhu XL, Xu H, Lu YP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Amyloidogenesis Induced by Diet Cholesterol and Copper in a Model Mouse for Alzheimer's Disease and Protection Effects of Zinc and Fluvastatin.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the severe chronic diseases characterized with amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation and formation of senile-plaque (SP) like structures. Numerous risk factors including trace metals and cholesterol in diet have been identified as potential players for the onset of Aβ aggregation. To further illustrate the effects of copper and cholesterol in AD pathology, we employed an AD model mouse strain (Tg2567) and examined the histological and biochemical changes in the mouse brains and blood. When supplied with 0.1 mg/L copper in drinking water and 2% cholesterol in the...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yao D, Jing T, Niu L, Huang X, Wang Y, Deng X, Wang M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

MicroRNA-96 is responsible for sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in neonatal rats via inhibiting IGF1R.
Abstract Sevoflurane is an experimental potent yet volatile anesthesia agent characterized by a low blood/gas partition coefficient. However, exposure to sevoflurane in neonatal mice has been speculated to result in learning deficits and abnormal social behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sevoflurane and miR-96, in an attempt to identify the means by which it mediates IGF1R to influence the cognitive dysfunction (CD) in neonatal rats. Relationship between differentially expressed miRNAs and sevoflurane concentration was identified. The potential underlying regulatory ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu C, Niu JJ, Zhou JF, Wei YS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Crocin, a natual product attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety and depressive-like behaviors through suppressing NF-kB and NLRP3 signaling pathway.
In conclusion, these results suggested that crocin as a potential therapeutic candidate for neuro-inflammation and depressive-like behaviors induced by LPS. The inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB promotes M1 to M2 phenotypic conversion of microglia. PMID: 30179677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang L, Previn R, Lu L, Liao RF, Jin Y, Wang RK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

miR-145 protects the function of neuronal stem cells through targeting MAPK pathway in the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke rat.
This study is designed to investigate the function of the miR-145 in the protection of neural stem cells (NSCs) through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke rat. In our study, rat NSCs were selected and cultured in complete medium. The light microscopy was used to observe the morphology of NSCs at different times. The quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the miR-145 and other related mRNAs of the MARK pathway. The Western blotting was used to detect the activation of MAPK pathway and neuronal spe...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xue WS, Wang N, Wang NY, Ying YF, Xu GH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Zebrafish models of epigenetic regulation of CNS functions.
Abstract Epigenetic regulation has become a key focus of neuroscience and biopsychiatry, implicating DNA methylation, histone modification and other epigenetic mechanisms in various CNS disorders. Animal (experimental) models are a useful tool for epigenetic studies. Although most such research has been performed in rodents, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as a new promising model organism in neuroscience. These fish are particularly suitable for epigenetic studies due to their fully sequenced genome, easiness of genetic analyses and high physiological and genetic homology with humans. Here, we dis...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lakstygal AM, de Abreu MS, Kalueff AV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotection by tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG126, through the suppression of IL-17A, ROR γt, and T-bet signaling, in the BTBR mouse model of autism.
Neuroprotection by tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG126, through the suppression of IL-17A, RORγt, and T-bet signaling, in the BTBR mouse model of autism. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Aug 30;: Authors: Ahmad SF, Ansari MA, Nadeem A, Bakheet SA, Alshammari MA, Attia SM Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an extremely predominant neurodevelopmental disorder expressed as impairment in reciprocal social interaction along with repetitive, restricted, and stereotyped behaviors. The protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG126 (AG126), regulates the expression of several genes that play an...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmad SF, Ansari MA, Nadeem A, Bakheet SA, Alshammari MA, Attia SM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Expression of magnesium transporter SLC41A1 in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonian rats.
CONCLUSION: The regulation of SLC41A1 expression is responsive to magnesium in a 6-OHDA- induced rat model, wherein 6-OHDA may alter magnesium transport in the brain. PMID: 30172737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin L, Yan M, Bin W, Lin R, Zheng Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Modulatory role of the intra-accumbal CB1 receptor in protein level of the c-fos and pCREB/CREB ratio in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area in extinction and morphine seeking in the rats.
In conclusion, the results presented here provide compelling evidence of the modulation and involvement of the c-fos and the CREB molecules in the cannabinoid-opioid interaction of the brain reward system in the CPP paradigm. PMID: 30170186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar H, Khodagholi F, Shaerzadeh F, Haghparast A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research