Female rats exhibit less avoidance than male rats of a cocaine-, but not a morphine-paired, saccharin cue.
Abstract Rats avoid intake of an otherwise palatable taste cue when paired with drugs of abuse (Grigson and Twining, 2002). In male rats, avoidance of drug-paired taste cues is associated with conditioned blunting of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (Grigson and Hajnal, 2007), conditioned elevation in circulating corticosterone (Gomez et al., 2000), and greater avoidance of the drug-paired cue predicts greater drug-taking (Grigson and Twining, 2002; Twining et al., 2009). While female rats generally are more responsive to drug than male rats, in this self-administration model, female rats consume more of a cocain...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jenney CB, Dasalla J, Grigson PS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

MicroRNA-137 and its downstream target LSD1 inversely regulate anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion neurons.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-137-3p and its downstream target LSD1 are inversely associated to regulate anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity in DRGN. This signaling pathway may be a therapeutic candidate to reduce anesthetics-induced neurological damage in human patients. PMID: 28899795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen L, Wang X, Huang W, Ying T, Chen M, Cao J, Wang M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Once is too much: Early development of the opponent process in taste reactivity behavior is associated with later escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats.
Abstract Evidence suggests that the addiction process may begin immediately in some vulnerable subjects. Specifically, some rats have been shown to exhibit aversive taste reactivity (gapes) following the intraoral delivery of a cocaine-predictive taste cue after as few as 1 to 2 taste-drug pairings. After only 3 to 4 trials, the number of gapes becomes a reliable predictor of later cocaine self-administration. Given that escalation of drug-taking behavior over time is recognized as a key feature of substance use disorder (SUD) and addiction, the present study examined the relationship between early aversion to the...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Colechio EM, Alexander DN, Imperio CG, Jackson K, Grigson PS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Activity-dependent changes in transporter and potassium currents in hippocampal astrocytes.
Abstract Astrocytes are involved in maintenance of synaptic microenvironment by glutamate uptake and K(+) clearance. These processes are associated with net charge transfer across the membrane and therefore can be recorded as glutamate transporter (IGluT) and K(+) (IK) currents. It has been previously shown that the blockade of IK with BaCl2 enhances the IGluT. Here we show that activity-dependent facilitation (5 stimuli at 50Hz) of IGluT was not significantly different in BaCl2 compared to facilitation of IGluT isolated by post-hoc subtraction of IK. Nevertheless, BaCl2 abolished the activity-dependent prolongati...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lebedeva A, Plata A, Nosova O, Tyurikova O, Semyanov A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective effects of kinetin against aluminum chloride and D-galactose induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in mouse.
Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that aluminum exposure and oxidative stress play crucial roles in the initiation and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and D-galactose (D-gal) combined treatment of mice is considered as an easy and cheap way to obtain an animal model of AD. Kinetin is a plant cytokinin, which is also reported to exert neuro-protective effects in vivo and in vitro. Thus, in this study, neuro-protective effects of kinetin were investigated in an AD model of mice induced by AlCl3 and D-gal. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to directly evaluate neur...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wei Y, Liu D, Zheng Y, Li H, Hao C, Ouyang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Downregulations of TRPM8 expression and membrane trafficking in dorsal root ganglion mediate the attenuation of cold hyperalgesia in CCI rats induced by GFR α3 knockdown.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that GFRα3 knockdown specially inhibits cold hyperalgesia following CCI via decreasing the expression level and plasma membrane trafficking of TRPM8 in DRG. GFRα3 and its downstream mediator, TRPM8, represent a new analgesia axis which can be further exploited in sensitized cold reflex under the condition of chronic pain. PMID: 28867384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Su L, Shu R, Song C, Yu Y, Wang G, Li Y, Liu C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Attenuation of pCREB and Egr1 expression in the insular and anterior cingulate cortices associated with enhancement of CFA-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity after repeated forced swim stress.
Abstract The perception and response to pain are severely impacted by exposure to stressors. In some animal models, stress increases pain sensitivity, which is termed stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). The insular cortex (IC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which are typically activated by noxious stimuli, affect pain perception through the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study, we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and early growth response 1 (Egr1) in the IC and ACC at 3h (the acute phase of peripheral tissue inflammation) after complete Freund...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Imbe H, Kimura A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of rehabilitation training on apoptosis of nerve cells and the recovery of neural and motor functions in rats with ischemic stroke through the PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways.
This study was designed in order to investigate the effects between rehabilitation training on the apoptosis of nerve cells and the recovery of neural and motor functions of rats with ischemic stroke by way of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathways. In total, 110 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected in order to take part in this study. Ninety SD rats were used in order to establish the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), among which 80 rats were randomly assigned as part of th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jin XF, Wang S, Shen M, Wen X, Han XR, Wu JC, Tang GZ, Wu DM, Lu J, Zheng YL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Aspirin resistance are associated with long-term recurrent stroke events after ischaemic stroke.
In this study, the median age was 68 years (IQR, 60-77 years), and 118 (55.1%) were men. A total of 43 of 214 enrolled patients (20.1%) were AR. ARU levels were significantly higher in patients with recurrence than those without (514[IQR: 466-592] vs. 454[IQR: 411-499]; P
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang N, Wang Z, Zhou L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Repetitive Unilateral Intra-amygdala Kainic Acid Injection Establishes A Rhesus Monkey Model of Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
CONCLUSIONS: Through a modified protocol of unilateral repetitive intra-amygdala KA injection, a rhesus monkey model with high similarity to chronic TLE was developed. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated that acute convulsive status epilepticus were not necessary for developing a chronic epilepsy condition in rhesus monkey. And after KA injection, animals showed a progressive nature characterized by secondary discharges. PMID: 28842304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chi Y, Wu B, Guan J, Xiao K, Lu Z, Li X, Xu Y, Xue S, Xu Q, Rao J, Guo Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside Rg2 in a chronic mild stress model of depression.
This study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of ginsenoside Rg2 in mice, and the possible mechanism was also determined. A single injection of both Rg2 (10 and 20mg/kg) and fluoxetine (positive control, 20mg/kg) induced notable antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and tail suspension test without affecting the locomotor activity of mice, and the tests were done 30min after the injection. Also, repeated daily treatment of Rg2 and fluoxetine for the last 2 weeks fully reversed the chronic mild stress (6 weeks)-induced depressive-like symptoms in mice. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that Rg2 ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ren Y, Wang JL, Zhang X, Wang H, Ye Y, Song L, Wang YJ, Tu MJ, Wang WW, Yang L, Jiang B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Berberine attenuates depressive-like behaviors by suppressing neuro-inflammation in stressed mice.
In conclusion, these findings suggest that administration of berberine could prevent depressive-like behaviors in CUMS mice by suppressing neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus. PMID: 28842306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu YM, Niu L, Wang LL, Bai L, Fang XY, Li YC, Yi LT Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

PERK as a hub of multiple pathogenic pathways leading to memory deficits and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Cell signaling in response to an array of diverse stress stimuli converges on the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). In the brain, eIF2α is a hub for controlling learning and memory function and for maintaining neuronal integrity in health and disease. Among four eIF2α kinases, PERK is emerging as a key regulator for memory impairments and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of PERK-eIF2α signaling have revealed that the overactivation of this pathway is not a mere consequence of the neurodegenerati...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ohno M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The different effects of lithium and tamoxifen on memory formation and the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of male and female rats.
In conclusion, it can be suggested that long-term treatments with TMX can lead to significant cognitive impairments by reducing the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of rats. PMID: 28802897 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Valvassori SS, Borges C, Varela RB, Bavaresco DV, Bianchini G, Mariot E, Arent CO, Resende WR, Budni J, Quevedo J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neurochemical evidence that Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) 55-102 peptide modulates the dopaminergic reward system by decreasing the dopamine release in the mouse nucleus accumbens.
Abstract CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system. Thus in the present study, we examined the eff...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rakovska A, Baranyi M, Windish K, Petkova-Kirova P, Gagov H, Kalfin R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A species dependent response to the pro-epileptic drug pentylentetrazole in birds.
This study reports the comparison of the response of two species of birds, Australian Parrots (APs) and Sparrows (SPs), to a pro-epileptic drug, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). PTZ injections caused myoclonic jerks (MCJs) and tonic clonic seizures (TCSs) in both species. The frequency of MCJs in APs was greater at the dose of 75mg/kg compared to both 50mg/kg and 25mg/kg while it was not significantly different in SPs. The comparison of APs and SPs showed that the frequency of MCJs was greater in APs compared to SPs at 25mg/kg and 75mg/kg while its latency was reduced at 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg. Interestingly SPs had a reduced latenc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Amin F, Dar AH, Osama K, Khan F, Mitha R, Tharwani A, Haider G, Chand P, Arain FM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Adolescent chronic variable social stress influences exploratory behavior and nicotine responses in male, but not female, BALB/cJ mice.
Abstract Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress. Adolescent male and female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to either chronic variable social stress (C...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Caruso MJ, Reiss DE, Caulfield JI, Thomas JL, Baker AN, Cavigelli SA, Kamens HM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy on alcohol consumption and preferences in dietary obese rats and mice: A plausible role for altered ghrelin signaling.
Abstract Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the most common surgical options for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorder. Whereas RYGB may result in greater and more durable weight loss, recent clinical and pre-clinical studies in rats have raised concerns that RYGB surgery may increase risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In contrast, recent clinical reports suggest a lesser risk for AUD following VSG, although no preclinical studies have been done to confirm that. Therefore, the present study sought to determine the effects of VSG on ethanol intake and preferences i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Orellana ER, Jamis C, Horvath N, Hajnal A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The protective effects of electro-acupuncture in thoracic surgery on trauma stressed rats involve the rostral ventrolateral medulla and supraoptic nucleus.
Abstract The present study was designed to explore whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) were involved in the protective effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on cardiac function in thoracic surgery on trauma-stressed rats. The rats were randomly divided into a non-stressed group (Control), surgical trauma-stressed group (Trauma), and Neiguan EA applied on the surgical trauma-stressed group (Trauma+EA-PC 6). RVLM neuron discharge was observed by using an in vivo electrophysiological method, and micro-dialysis combining high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric d...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang HH, Tao YN, Jiang MY, Wang J, Chen J, Xia CM, Shen LL, Wang MY, Zhu DN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of hippocampus in rats indicated that TLR/NLR signaling pathway was involved in the pathogenisis of depressive disorder induced by chronic restraint stress.
Abstract Data from clinical investigations and laboratory fundings have provided preliminary evidence for the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture therapy in depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response of acupuncture are not fully elucidated. To elucidate the potential effects of acupuncture for depression on the hippocampal genome-wide transcriptome at the molecular level, we evaluated the transcriptomic profile of depression rats under treatment of acupuncture, and fluoxetine. We identified a very significant effect of acupucture intervention, with 107 genes differentially expre...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Y, Jiang H, Meng H, Lu J, Li J, Zhang X, Yang X, Zhao B, Sun Y, Bao T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Increased ethanol drinking in "humanized" mice expressing the mu opioid receptor A118G polymorphism are mediated through sex-specific mechanisms.
Increased ethanol drinking in "humanized" mice expressing the mu opioid receptor A118G polymorphism are mediated through sex-specific mechanisms. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Aug 02;: Authors: Henderson-Redmond AN, Lowe TE, Tian XB, Morgan DJ Abstract The A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the mu-opioid receptor gene (Oprm1) has been implicated in mediating the rewarding effects of alcohol. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that the G allele may confer a genetic vulnerability to alcohol dependence, though it remains unknown whether these effects are sex-specific. We used male and f...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Henderson-Redmond AN, Lowe TE, Tian XB, Morgan DJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Varenicline modulates ethanol and saccharin consumption in adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice.
Abstract Adolescence is a critical period in brain development that coincides with the initiation of alcohol use. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) have been shown to modulate ethanol behaviors in adult humans and in animal models; however, the role of these receptors in adolescent ethanol behaviors has not been explored. Throughout adolescence, nAChR expression undergoes large-scale developmental changes which may alter behavioral responses to ethanol. Here we examined the effect of varenicline, a nAChR partial agonist, on ethanol consumption, ataxia, sedation, and metabolism in adolescent male and female...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kamens HM, Silva C, Peck C, Miller CN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acute Ethanol Modulation of Neurocircuit Function in the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius.
Abstract The nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) is a brain stem region critical to many physiologic processes and has been implicated in addiction to multiple classes of abused drugs, including alcohol (EtOH). That said, the mechanism by which EtOH modulates NTS neurocircuit activity is not well characterized and has yet to be examined utilizing electrophysiologic methods in mouse models of alcohol use disorders. To begin to address this gap in knowledge, we sought to use whole-cell and cell-attached recordings to determine the mechanism of acute EtOH action on GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Aimino MA, Coker C, Silberman Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Duration of isoflurane-based surgical anesthesia determines severity of brain injury and neurological deficits after a transient focal ischemia in young adult rats.
Abstract Tremendous efforts and funds invested in discovery of novel drug treatments for ischemic stroke have so far failed to deliver clinically efficacious therapies. The reasons for these failures are not fully understood. An indiscriminate use of isoflurane-based surgical anesthesia with or without nitrous oxide may act as an unconstrained, untraceable source of data variability, potentially causing false-positive or false-negative results. To test this hypothesis, a common transient suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model of ischemic stroke in young adult male rats was used to determine the impa...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gaidhani N, Sun F, Schreihofer D, Uteshev VV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Genetic variation is associated with RTN4R expression and working memory processing in healthy humans.
Abstract The Nogo receptor (NgR) is implicated in neurodevelopmental processes and it participates in inhibiting axonal growth. Consistent with its high levels of expression in the prefrontal cortex, animal studies indicate that NgR is relevant for prefrontal-related cognitive processing. Given that genetic variation may alter mechanisms of gene expression impacting molecular and systems-level phenotypes, we investigated the association of genetic variation with the expression of the NgR coding gene (RTN4R), as well as with prefrontal correlates at progressively greater biological distance from gene effects. First...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lo Bianco L, Attrotto MT, Torretta S, Masellis R, Rampino A, D'Ambrosio E, Giorgio AD, Ferranti L, Fazio L, Gelao B, Blasi G, Bertolino A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of tramadol in the mouse forced swimming test.
Abstract Tramadol is an analgesic agent that is mainly used to treat moderate to severe pain. There is evidence that tramadol may have antidepressant property. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of tramadol have not been elucidated yet. Considering that fact that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling may play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of NMDA receptor signaling in the possible antidepressant-like effects of tramadol in the mouse forced swimming test (mFST). We found that tramadol exerted antid...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ostadhadi S, Norouzi-Javidan A, Chamanara M, Akbarian R, Imran-Khan M, Ghasemi M, Dehpour AR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acute action of rotenone on excitability of catecholaminergic neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla.
Abstract The degeneration of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) catecholaminergic neurons was responsible for some cardiovascular symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous study had observed the impairment of these neurons in the early stage of PD in the rotenone-induced PD rat model, but the related mechanisms remain unclear. Rotenone is a mitochondrial inhibitor, influencing the neuronal electrophysiological activity through activation of K-ATP channels that potentially participate in cell death processes. In the present study, effects of rotenone on electrophysiological properties of RVLM catecho...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Shi L, Du X, Jiao Q, Jiang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The antidepressant effect of melatonin and fluoxetine in diabetic rats is associated with a reduction of the oxidative stress in the prefrontal and hippocampal cortices.
Abstract In the past few years possible mechanisms that link diabetes and depression have been found. One of these mechanisms is the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity in the hippocampal and prefrontal cortices, which are brain areas involved in mood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an antidepressant and of an antioxidant on behavior and oxidative activity in brains of diabetic rats. Rats rendered diabetic after a treatment with streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg) were treated with fluoxetine (15mg/kg), melatonin (10mg/kg), or vehicle for 4 weeks. All animals...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebai R, Jasmin L, Boudah A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The protective effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced memory deficits in rats.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI), as an expanding public health epidemic, is a common cause of death among youth. TBI is associated with cognitive deficits and memory impairment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous mediator, has been recognized as an important neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. In the present study the potential neuroprotective role of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor on TBI induced memory deficit in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury was investigated. CCI model was used to induce TBI. Male rats were randomly assigned into t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Karimi SA, Hosseinmardi N, Janahmadi M, Sayyah M, Hajisoltani R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The olfactory bulbectomized rat model is not an appropriate model for studying depression based on morphological/stereological studies of the hippocampus.
Abstract Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) has been used as an animal model for major depression that results in behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroendocrinological changes were reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressants, including fluoxetine. However, both etiological and construct validities are lacking in OBX for rats. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes in the hippocampi of rats undergoing OBX that were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 4 and 12 weeks) using stereological techniques. Our results revealed that OBX caused a reduction in the volumes of t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yurttas C, Schmitz C, Turgut M, Strekalova T, Steinbusch HWM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Identifying novel members of the Wntless interactome through genetic and candidate gene approaches.
Abstract Wnt signaling is an important pathway that regulates several aspects of embryogenesis, stem cell maintenance, and neural connectivity. We have recently determined that opioids decrease Wnt secretion, presumably by inhibiting the recycling of the Wnt trafficking protein Wntless (Wls). This effect appears to be mediated by protein-protein interaction between Wls and the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), the primary cellular target of opioid drugs. The goal of this study was to identify novel protein interactors of Wls that are expressed in the brain and may also play a role in reward or addiction. Using genetic and...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Petko J, Tranchina T, Patel G, Levenson R, Justice-Bitner S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Serotonin depletion increases seizure susceptibility and worsens neuropathological outcomes in kainate model of epilepsy.
Abstract Serotonin is implicated in the regulation of seizures, but whether or not it can potentiate the effects of epileptogenic factors is not fully established. Using the kainic acid model of epilepsy in rats, we tested the effects of serotonin depletion on (1) susceptibility to acute seizures, (2) development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and (3) behavioral and neuroanatomical sequelae of kainic acid treatment. Serotonin was depleted by pretreating rats with p-chlorophenylalanine. In different groups, kainic acid was injected at 3 different doses: 6.5mg/kg, 9.0mg/kg or 12.5mg/kg. A single dose of 6.5mg/kg ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Maia GH, Brazete CS, Soares JI, Luz LL, Lukoyanov NV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prelimbic α1-adrenoceptors are involved in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors in the hemiparkinsonian rats.
Prelimbic α1-adrenoceptors are involved in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors in the hemiparkinsonian rats. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jul 14;: Authors: Wu ZH, Zhang QJ, Du CX, Xi Y, Li WJ, Guo FY, Yu SQ, Yang YX, Liu J Abstract At present, it is not clear whether α1-adrenoceptors in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) are involved in Parkinson's disease-related depression. Here we examined effects of PrL α1-adrenoceptors on depressive-like behaviors in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced depressive-like responses as measured by...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu ZH, Zhang QJ, Du CX, Xi Y, Li WJ, Guo FY, Yu SQ, Yang YX, Liu J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Taxifolin reduces the cholesterol oxidation product-induced neuronal apoptosis by suppressing the Akt and NF- κB activation-mediated cell death.
Taxifolin reduces the cholesterol oxidation product-induced neuronal apoptosis by suppressing the Akt and NF-κB activation-mediated cell death. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jul 11;: Authors: Kim A, Nam YJ, Lee CS Abstract The taxifolin effect on the cholesterol oxidation product-induced neuronal apoptosis was investigated using differentiated PC12 cells and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 7-ketocholesterol induced phosphorylation of Akt, and increase in the levels of cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB p65, cytosolic NF-κB p50 and cytosolic phosphorylated-IκB-α levels in PC12 cells. T...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim A, Nam YJ, Lee CS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Transient brain hypothermia reduces the reperfusion injury of delayed tissue plasminogen activator and extends its therapeutic time window in a focal embolic stroke model.
We examined whether short-term and mild local brain cooling can prevent hyperemia and/or adverse effects of delayed tPA in rat embolic stroke model. Male animals were subjected to embolic stroke and then randomly classified into control (saline), tPA (1mg/kg; i.v.), local hypothermia (LH), and tPA+LH. The drug was injected at 6h after ischemia. LH was conducted by direct ipsilateral (injured) hemisphere cooling at 6.5h after stroke and maintained for approximately 30minutes. Cerebral blood flow was monitored in a duration of 60minute after tPA administration and hyperemic response was measured. Infarct volume, blood-brain ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zarisfi M, Allahtavakoli F, Hassanipour M, Khaksari M, Rezazadeh H, Allahtavakoli M, Taghavi MM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intranasal nerve growth factor attenuating the seizure onset via p75R/Caspase pathway in the experimental epilepsy.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) shows neuroprotection while it is hard to cross the blood-brain barrier due to its large molecular weight. Our study used intranasal delivery of NGF to treat the experimental epilepsy. METHODS: The seizure was induced by injection of pentylenetetrazol (40mg/kg) into the rat. Based on the behavior performance, the successful models were randomized into control and NGF groups, given medium or NGF intranasally, respectively. The onset and duration of seizure were recorded. The neuron loss was assessed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. The expressions of Ca...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lei J, Feng F, Duan Y, Xu F, Liu Z, Lian L, Liang Q, Zhang N, Wang F Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inhibitory effects of tetramethylpyrazine on pain transmission of trigeminal neuralgia in CCI-ION rats.
Abstract Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat cerebral ischemic injury, but the mechanism of TMP on neural protection is not clear. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a facial pain syndrome that is characterized by paroxysmal, shock-like pain attacks located in the somatosensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. P2X3 receptor plays a crucial role in facilitating pain transmission. The present study investigates the effects of TMP on trigeminal neuralgia transmission mediated by P2X3 receptor of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). Chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital branch...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiong W, Tan M, He L, Ou X, Jin Y, Yang G, Huang L, Shen Y, Guan S, Xu C, Li G, Liu S, Xu H, Liang S, Gao Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat striatum.
to CA Abstract Striatum and the cerebral cortex are regions susceptible to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and glial cells in tissue adjacent to the hematoma may modulate cellular vulnerability after brain damage. Nonetheless, while the glial- associated changes occurring in the cerebral cortex after ICH may be important in maximizing brain recovery, they are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal profile of glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after ICH. First, the motor consequences of ICH and its relation to the lesion volume were analyzed. Seco...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Neves JD, Aristimunha D, Vizuete AF, Nicola F, Vanzela C, Petenuzzo L, Mestriner RG, Sanches EF, Gonçalves CA, Netto CA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effect of CXCR2 inhibition on seizure activity in the pilocarpine epilepsy mouse model.
This study suggests that CXCR2 plays a critical role in modifying epileptic seizure activity and that CXCR2 blockade could be a potential molecular therapeutic target for epilepsy. PMID: 28705496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu T, Yu X, Wang T, Liu Y, Liu X, Ou S, Chen Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Connexin43, but not connexin30, contributes to adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.
r P Abstract The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus represents a niche in which radial glia (RG)-like cells generate new neurons throughout postnatal life in the mammalian brain. Previous data showed that RG-like cells are coupled through gap junction channels, primarily formed by connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx30, and that the expression of these proteins is required for adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, their individual function and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that Cx43, but not Cx30, is crucial for adult neurogenesis. To assess whether Cx43-dependent intercellular couplin...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang J, Griemsmann S, Wu Z, Dobrowolski R, Willecke K, Theis M, Steinhäuser C, Bedner P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β reduces reactive glia and scar formation after traumatic brain injury in mice.
Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β reduces reactive glia and scar formation after traumatic brain injury in mice. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jul 03;: Authors: Pei D, Liu N, Li D, Yan H, Wang QB, Fang Y, Xie L, Li HP Abstract Brain injury leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions within the central nervous system. As the glial scar was a mechanical barrier to regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Here we investigated the role...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pei D, Liu N, Li D, Yan H, Wang QB, Fang Y, Xie L, Li HP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Alterations in nociception and morphine antinociception in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Abstract Currently, more than 78.6 million adults in the United States are obese. A majority of the patient population receiving treatment for pain symptoms is derived from this subpopulation. Environmental factors, including the increased availability of food high in fat and sugar, contribute to the continued rise in the rates of obesity. The focus of this study was to investigate whether long-term exposure to a high-fat, energy-dense diet enhances baseline thermal and inflammatory nociception while reducing sensitivity to morphine-induced antinociception. Antinociceptive and hypothermic responses to morphine wer...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nealon CM, Patel C, Worley BL, Henderson-Redmond AN, Morgan DJ, Czyzyk TA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cellular Mechanisms of Peroxynitrite-Induced Neuronal Death.
Abstract Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a strong biological oxidant formed by the diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide (NO(-)) and superoxide anion (O2(-)). It has long been theorized that peroxynitrite generation could be the cause in a number of pathological conditions ranging from atherosclerosis to inflammatory, autoimmune, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. Its relatively long biological half-life and high reactivity allows peroxynitrite to oxidize a number of different targets in the cell. In physiologically relevant conditions peroxynitrite can directly react with thiols, or the radical products of per...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramdial K, Franco MC, Estevez AG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effect of monascin on hematoma clearance and edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the high dosage of monascin played a neuroprotective role in ICH through reducing BBB permeability, edema and hematoma volume. PMID: 28655601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang J, Wang G, Yi J, Xu Y, Duan S, Li T, Sun XG, Dong L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Influence of social interaction on nociceptive-induced changes in locomotor activity in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain: use of novel thermal assays.
Abstract Most acute and chronic animal models of pain rely heavily on reflexive assays for evaluating levels of nociception, which involves removing the animal from its normal social environment. Here, we examine and characterize the influence of social interactions on inflammatory pain-evoked changes in movement in two different mouse strains. To produce inflammatory nociception, we injected CFA bilaterally into the hind paws of Balb/c and C3H mice and then recorded exploratory locomotor activity using an automated detector system to first evaluate the effects of social behavior on nociception. Secondly, we deter...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Smeester BA, Lee JH, Beitz AJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Modulation of gap junction-associated Cx43 in neural stem/progenitor cells following traumatic brain injury.
Abstract Restoration of learning and memory deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is attributed, in part, to enhanced neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPCs) function. Recent findings suggest gap junction (GJ)-associated connexin 43 (Cx43) plays a key role in the cell cycle regulation and function of NSPCs and is modulated following TBI. Here, we demonstrate that Cx43 is up-regulated in the dentate gyrus following TBI and is expressed on vimentin-positive cells in the subgranular zone. To test the role of Cx43 on NSPCs, we exposed primary cultures to the α-connexin Carboxyl Terminal (αCT1) peptid...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Greer K, Chen J, Brickler T, Gourdie R, Theus MH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Age-dependent changes in autophosphorylation of alpha calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II in hippocampus and amygdala after contextual fear conditioning.
Abstract The hippocampus and amygdala are essential brain regions responsible for contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The autophosphorylation of alpha calcium-calmodulin kinase II (αCaMKII) at threonine-286 (T286) is a critical step implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the changes in αCaMKII levels with aging and training in associated brain regions are not fully understood. Here, we studied how aging and training affect the levels of phosphorylated (T286) and proportion of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala. Young and aged mice, na&i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fang T, Kasbi K, Rothe S, Aziz W, Giese KP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Elevated serum [Met(5)]-enkephalin levels correlate with improved clinical and behavioral outcomes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Abstract Methionine enkephalin ([Met(5)]-enkephalin, Opioid growth factor (OGF)) is a small neuropeptide with growth-related as well as immunomodulatory properties. OGF is distributed widely throughout the body, is both autocrine and paracrine produced, and has a very short half-life in serum. In addition to its neurotransmitter functions, OGF inhibits cell replication of a wide variety of cells involved in the autoimmune process. In this preclinical study, mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocytic glycoprotein (MOG35-55) to establish a chronic progressive form of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and ser...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ludwig MD, Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective effect of Lycium Barbarum polysaccharides on dextromethorphan-induced mood impairment and neurogenesis suppression.
BW, Siu AM Abstract Dextromethorphan (DXM) is one of the common drugs abused by adolescents. It is the active ingredient found in cough medicine which is used for suppressing cough. High dosage of DXM can induce euphoria, dissociative effects and even hallucinations. Chronic use of DXM may also lead to depressive-related symptoms. Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. A recent study has shown the potential beneficial effect of Lycium barbarum to reduce depression-like behavior. In the present st...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Po KK, Leung JW, Chan JN, Fung TK, Sánchez-Vidaña DI, Sin EL, So KF, Lau BW, Siu AM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Heightened Sympathetic Arousal is demonstrated by Skin Conductance Responsivity to Auditory Stimuli in a Small Cohort of Neonates with Opiate Withdrawal.
Abstract To determine the effects of auditory stimulus on skin conductance (SC) in infants with severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) that required morphine treatment (MT) compared with NAS infants that did not require morphine treatment (non-MT). We prospectively enrolled opiate-exposed term infants without polysubstance exposure. Skin conductance responses to an auditory stimulus (ringing a bell for 3seconds) near the time of discharge were obtained. Skin conductance was measured before, during, and after the stimulus. Non-parametric tests were used to determine between group and within phase differences. In...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Oji-Mmuo CN, Gardner FC, Doheny KK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research