Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5: A novel avenue for alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequently encountered diseases in adults with progressive loss of memory and behavioural changes. Inspite of there being an intense research in the field of AD, only a few chemical entities exhibiting anti-AD activity make it through the clinical trials and it is thus need of an hour to develop new drugs or repurpose the existing ones for better management of Alzheimer's disease. Novel therapeutic targets can influence drug discovery in the field of AD. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5) which is a serine/threonine kinase can prove to be an upcoming beneficial ta...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bhounsule AS, Bhatt LK, Prabhavalkar KS, Oza M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Control of astrocyte morphology by Rho GTPases.
r C Abstract Astrocytes modulate and support neuronal and synapse function via numerous mechanisms that often rely on diffusion of signalling molecules, ions or metabolites through extracellular space. As a consequence, the spatial arrangement and the distance between astrocyte processes and neuronal structures is of functional importance. Likewise, changes of astrocyte structure will affect the ability of astrocytes to interact with neurons. In contrast to neurons, where rapid morphology changes are critically involved in many aspects of physiological brain function, a role of astrocyte restructuring in brain phy...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeug A, Müller FE, Anders S, Herde MK, Minge D, Ponimaskin E, Henneberger C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

AMPK activates FOXO3a and promotes neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat brain during the early phase after hypoxia-ischemia.
In this study, we generated hypoxia-ischemia brain damage (HIBD) model using postnatal day 7 rats. We found that activation of AMPK was accompanied by the decrease of p-mTOR, p-Akt and p-FOXO3a, which induced FOXO3a translocation into the nucleus and up-regulated the expression of Bim and cleaved caspase 3 (CC3). Furthermore, we discovered that AMPK inhibition by Compound C, a selective inhibitor for AMPK activity, significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of mTOR, Akt and FOXO3a, attenuated the nuclear translocation of FOXO3a, and inhibited Bim and CC3 expression after HI. Moreover, AMPK inhibition reduced cellul...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li D, Luo L, Xu M, Wu J, Chen L, Li J, Liu Z, Lu G, Wang Y, Qiao L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Establishment and Characterization of Primary Astrocyte Culture from Adult Mouse Brain.
Abstract As a major class of glial cells, astrocytes have been indicated to play multi-roles in physiological and pathological brain. Astrocyte cultures derived from postnatal mouse brains have been extensively used to characterize their biological properties. However, the inability to culture adult mouse primary astrocytes has long stymied studies of function in adult brain. Here, we developed a protocol to successfully establish highly enriched astrocyte cultures from the brains of adult mouse. Cortical tissues were collected to prepare cell suspension by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation, and then...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun X, Hu X, Wang D, Yuan Y, Qin S, Tan Z, Gu Y, Huang X, He C, Su Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The protective effect of astaxanthin on learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress in a mouse model of repeated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.
Abstract Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The present study was performed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant astaxanthin (ATX) in a mouse model of VCI. VCI was induced in male ICR mice by repeated occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery, leading to repeated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. After surgery, the mice received ATX or an equal volume of vehicle by daily intragastric administration for 28 days. The results showed that ATX treatment ameliorated learnin...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xue Y, Qu Z, Fu J, Zhen J, Wang W, Cai Y, Wang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Local injection to sciatic nerve of DEX reduces pain behaviors, SGCs activation, NGF expression and sympathetic sprouting in CCI rats.
Abstract Neuropathic pain has become an intractable health threat, with its profound effect on quality of life. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is evidenced to play a crucial role in neuropathic pain. The peripheral nociceptive afferents seem to be essential not only to initiate the process of neuropathic pain, but also to maintain and modulate it. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a highly selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR), has provided significant analgesia in neuropathic pain. In the present study, we found that local injection to sciatic nerve of DEX alleviated heat hypersensitivity induced by chr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu JR, Chen H, Zhang DX, Jiang K, Yao YY, Zhang MM, Zhou B, Wang J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

OXIDATIVE STRESS and NEURODEGENERATION.
PMID: 28473190 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang J, Butterfield DA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

APOE ε4 allele elevates the expressions of inflammatory factors and promotes Alzheimer's disease progression: a comparative study based on Han and She populations in the Wenzhou area.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of apolipoprotein E 4 (APOE4) gene polymorphisms on the expressions of inflammatory factors and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 185 AD patients (the case group, 130 cases from the Han ethnic group and 55 cases from the She ethnic group) and 190 healthy individuals (the control group, 130 cases from the Han ethnic group and 60 cases from the She ethnic group) were recruited for our study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to detect APOE4 genotype and allele frequency. Enzyme-linked immun...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan YY, Cai QL, Gao ZY, Lin X, Huang Q, Tang W, Liu JH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 attenuated β-amyloid25-35-induced inflammatory responses in PC12 cells through regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.
In this study, we aim to examine the effects of CoQ10 on Aβ25-35-induced inflammatory in PC12 cells and the underlying molecular mechanism of its neuroprotective action. CoQ10 suppressed the protein expression of COX-2 and the level of PGE2 in Aβ25-35-injured PC12 cells. These inhibitions appeared to correlate with the suppression of NF-κB activation by CoQ10, as pretreating PC12 cells with CoQ10 blocked the translocation of NF-κB into the nuclear compartment and degradation of the inhibitory subunit IκB. Overall, these results implied that CoQ10 attenuated neuroinflammatory responses through th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Xu D, Lin J, Zhang D, Wang G, Sui L, Ding H, Du J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Glucocorticoids/Glucocorticoid Receptors Effect on Dopaminergic Neurotransmitters in ADHD Rats.
In conclusion, by regulation of glucocorticoid receptor, GR agonist can decrease DAT expression, resulting in the increase of DA and NE levels in brain that ameliorate hyperactivity and attention deficit in ADHD rats. Our results suggest that the effects of glucocorticoid receptor on dopaminergic neurotransmitter in the central nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. PMID: 28458039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Zheng X, Xie L, Huang L, Ke Z, Zheng J, Lu H, Hu J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Peripheral Afferent-Evoked Activity in the Dorsal Horn Recorded in Rat Spinal Cord Slices.
Abstract In the present study, multi-electrode array recording was used to examine dorsal horn activity following stimulation of primary afferents in a rat dorsal root attached-spinal cord slice preparation. The multi-electrode array probe was placed under the dorsal horn slice and local field potentials evoked by stimulation on the dorsal root were analyzed. Three kinds of dorsal root-evoked responses were identified. In lamina IIo, local field potentials exhibited P1 (peak latency 1.46±0.08ms), N1 (2.77±0.18ms, n=12), N2 (7.31±0.48ms), N3 (12.12±0.73ms) and P2(18.30±0.80ms) wav...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yu F, Zhao ZY, He T, Yu YQ, Li Z, Chen J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The neuroprotective effect of focused ultrasound: new perspectives on an old tool.
CONCLUSION: Future well-conducted human studies are emergently needed to assess the neuroprotective effects of FUS. PMID: 28458041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yulug B, Hanoglu L, Kilic E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of minocycline on cognitive impairments induced by transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in male rat.
Abstract Memory deficit is the most visible symptom of cerebral ischemia that is associated with loss of pyramidal cells in CA1 region of the hippocampus. Oxidative stress and inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage. Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline derived antibiotic, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We evaluated the neuroprotective effect of minocycline on memory deficit induced by cerebral I/R in rat. I/R was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 20min. Minocycline (40mg/kg, i.p.) was administered once daily for 7days after I...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Naderi Y, Sabetkasaei M, Parvardeh S, Zanjani TM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Local energy on demand: are 'spontaneous' astrocytic Ca(2+)-microdomains the regulatory unit for astrocyte-neuron metabolic cooperation?
Abstract Astrocytes are a neural cell type critically involved in maintaining brain energy homeostasis as well as signaling. Like neurons, astrocytes are a heterogeneous cell population. Cortical astrocytes show a complex morphology with a highly branched aborization and numerous fine processes ensheathing the synapses of neighboring neurons, and typically extend one process connecting to blood vessels. Recent studies employing genetically encoded fluorescent calcium (Ca(2+)) indicators have described 'spontaneous' localized Ca(2+)-transients in the astrocyte periphery that occur asynchronously, independently of s...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Oheim M, Schmidt E, Hirrlinger J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The interactive role of CB1 receptors and L-type calcium channels in hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats.
In this study, we examined the effects of an acute administration of the cannabinoid antagonist AM251 following a chronic administration of the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil on LTP induction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus(DG) of rats. Male Wistar rats were administered verapamil(10,25,50mg/kg) or saline intraperitoneally(IP) daily for 13 days(n=10/group). After this treatment period, animals were anesthetized with an IP injection of urethane; the recording and stimulating electrodes were positioned in the DG and the perforant pathway. After obtaining a steady state baseline response, a single IP injection of saline or...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Komaki H, Saadat F, Shahidi S, Sarihi A, Hasanein P, Komaki A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effects of Chinese medicines on cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in central nervous system dysfunction.
Abstract Neuropathological injury in adult mammal central nervous system (CNS) may cause axon disruption, neuronal death and produce lasting neurological deficits. Failure of axon regeneration is one of the major challenges for CNS function recovery. Recently, cAMP/PKA signaling pathway has been proven to be a critical regulator for neuronal regeneration, neuroplasticity and learning and memory ability. And previous studies have revealed the effects of Chinese medicines on prevention and treatment of CNS dysfunction medicated by cAMP/PKA signaling pathway partially. In this review, the authors discussed the curren...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Fan X, Zhang XT, Yue SQ, Sun ZY, Zhu JQ, Zhang JH, Gao XM, Zhang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of rat spinal cord injury (hemisection) on the ex vivo uptake and release of [(3)h]noradrenaline from a slice preparation.
EFFECT OF RAT SPINAL CORD INJURY (HEMISECTION) ON THE EX VIVO UPTAKE AND RELEASE OF [(3)H]NORADRENALINE FROM A SLICE PREPARATION. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Apr 20;: Authors: Borbély Z, Csomó BK, Kittel Á, Gerber G, Varga G, Vizi ES Abstract We measured the ex vivo uptake and release of [(3)H]noradrenaline ([(3)H]NA) from perfused rat spinal cord slice preparations at 1, 3 and 14 days after unilateral hemisection-induced spinal cord injury (SCI) compared with control slice preparations. After surgical hemisection under anaesthesia, the rats showed characteristic signs of hemipleg...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Borbély Z, Csomó BK, Kittel Á, Gerber G, Varga G, Vizi ES Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Transient upregulation of Nav1.6 expression in the genu of corpus callosum following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rats.
Abstract Focal ischemic stroke can lead to brain damage and cause human disability and death. Increased excitatory transmission and reduced neuronal inhibition are important pathological alterations in the cerebral ischemia, which can induce abnormal brain excitability. Nav1.6 is a key determinant of neuronal excitability in the nervous system. Here we investigate the expression of Nav1.6 at protein and mRNA levels in the rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Nav1.6 expression at mRNA levels in the ischemic and contralateral hemispheres of MCAO rats were persistently decreased at 6h, 12h and 24...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu H, Lin W, Zhao Y, Wang Z, Lao W, Kuang P, Zhou H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

L-carnitine Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic REM-Sleep Deprivation.
In conclusion, chronic REM-sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with L-carnitine prevented this impairment through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. PMID: 28433816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alzoubi KH, Rababah AM, Owaisi A, Khabour OF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Functional reorganization after hemispherectomy in humans and animal models: what can we learn about the brain's resilience to extensive unilateral lesions?
Abstract Hemispherectomy (HS) is an effective surgical procedure aimed at managing otherwise intractable epilepsy in cases of diffuse unihemispheric pathologies. Neurological recovery in subjects treated with HS is not limited to seizure reduction, rather, sensory-motor and behavioral improvement is often observed. This outcome highlights the considerable capability of the brain to react to such an extensive lesion, by functionally reorganizing and rewiring the cerebral cortex, especially early in life. In this narrative review, we summarize the animal studies as well as the human neurophysiological and neuroimagi...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sebastianelli L, Versace V, Taylor A, Brigo F, Nothdurfter W, Saltuari L, Trinka E, Nardone R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Influence of N-acetyl cysteine on beta-amyloid-induced Alzheimer's disease in a rat model: A behavioral and electrophysiological study.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function due to the extracellular accumulation and deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on learning and memory in an Aβ-induced Alzheimer's disease model in adult male rats, using behavioral and electrophysiological methods Thirty-five rats were divided into five groups: control, sham-operated, Aβ, Aβ+NAC (1-14 days), and Aβ+NAC (14-28 days). Learning and memory were evalu...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shahidi S, Zargooshnia S, Asl SS, Komaki A, Sarihi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Methyl jasmonate attenuates memory dysfunction and decreases brain levels of biomarkers of neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.
In this study, we further examine its effects on the brain levels of biomarkers of neuroinflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory deficits in mice. Mice (n=6) were pretreated intraperitoneally with MJ (10-40mg/kg), donepezil (DP) (1mg/kg) or vehicle (10mL/kg) for 30min prior to injection of LPS (250μg/kg, i.p) daily for 7 days. Thirty minutes after LPS administration on day 7, memory function was assessed using Y-maze test. After Y-maze test, the levels of biomarkers of neuroinflammation: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β (IL1β) were estimated ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Solomon U, Taghogho EA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture improves neurobehavioral function and brain injury in rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage.
Abstract Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for a long time. Recently, studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) can accelerate intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced angiogenesis in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EA on neurobehavioral function and brain injury in ICH rats. ICH was induced by stereotactic injection of collagenase type I and heparin into the right caudate putamen. Adult ICH rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: model control group (MC), EA at non-acupoint points group (non-acupoint EA) and EA at Baihui an...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu Y, Deng L, Tang H, Gao X, Wang Y, Guo K, Kong J, Yang C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Netrin-1 improves the amyloid- β-mediated suppression of memory and synaptic plasticity.
Netrin-1 improves the amyloid-β-mediated suppression of memory and synaptic plasticity. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Apr 04;: Authors: Shabani M, Haghani M, Tazangi PE, Bayat M, Shid Moosavi SM, Ranjbar H Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of netrin-1 (NT-1) on amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced impairments in learning-memory and synaptic plasticity. The NT-1 or its vehicle was administered four times into the Aβ+NT or Aβ+V groups, respectively. The Aβ+SNT group received a single dose of NT-1. The Aβ+HNT group received heat-inactivated NT-1. For the learning-mem...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shabani M, Haghani M, Tazangi PE, Bayat M, Shid Moosavi SM, Ranjbar H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of the amygdala GABA-A receptors in ACPA-induced deficits during conditioned fear learning.
This study used context and tone fear conditioning paradigms to assess fear-related memory in male NMRI mice. Our results showed that the pre-training intraperitoneal administration of ACPA (0.5mg/kg) or (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) decreased the percentage of freezing time in the contextual and tone fear conditioning, respectively. This indicated an impaired context- or tone-dependent fear memory acquisition. Moreover, the pre-training intra-BLA microinjection of GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol, at 0.05 and 0.5μg/mouse impaired context-dependent fear memory, while the same doses of GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, impaired tone...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nasehi M, Roghani F, Ebrahimi-Ghiri M, Zarrindast MR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Immune system activation in the pathogenesis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.
Abstract Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome characterized by a variable combination of headaches, seizures, altered mental status, visual impairment, focal neurological signs and symmetric vasogenic edema in bilateral posterior cerebral circulation territory. The pathogenesis of PRES is still controversial. Most of the clinical conditions associated with PRES involve a systemic toxicity response in the entire organism with activation of the cells of the immune system and cytokines. These PRES related conditions induce T cell activation, cytokine release, and sub...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Z, Shen GQ, Lerner A, Gao B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Involvement of Autophagy in Connexin 40 Reduction in the Late Phase of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.
Abstract Brain trauma can activate an attenuation of connexin gap junction that is implicated in neuronal injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to study whether autophagy, a stress-response process for recycling of intracellular proteins and organelles, is involved in the reduction of connexin 40 (Cx40) during the late phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In a rat model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI), we found that Cx40 protein in the brain started to decline at post-surgery day 2 and the decrease continued for up to day 6. Such a relati...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Che W, Guo Y, Yang W, Zheng P, Zeng J, Tong W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles in a rat model of experimental diabetic neuropathy.
CONCLUSION: Our study concluded the CeO2 nanoparticles have a protective effect against the development of DN. PMID: 28373151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Najafi R, Hosseini A, Ghaznavi H, Mehrzadi S, Sharifi AM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Enteric glia regulate gut motility in health and disease.
ura V Abstract The enteric nervous system, often referred to as the second brain, is the largest assembly of neurons and glia outside the central nervous system. The enteric nervous system resides within the wall of the digestive tract and regulates local gut reflexes involved in gastrointestinal motility, blood flow and fluid transport; all these functions can be accomplished in the absence of the extrinsic innervation from the central nervous system. It is neurons and their circuitry within the enteric nervous system that govern the gut reflexes. However, it is becoming clear that enteric glial cells are also ac...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Grubišić V, Verkhratsky A, Zorec R, Parpura V Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNAs in Brain Development, Synaptic Biology, and Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are long transcripts without apparent protein-coding roles, interfere with gene expression and signaling events at various stages. Increasing evidence has suggested that lncRNAs function in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and under pathophysiologic conditions. In the nervous system, the expression of lncRNAs has been detected and characterized under normal physiologic conditions and in disease states. Some lncRNAs regulate brain development and synaptic plasticity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), several lncRNAs have been demonstrated to regulate β-amyloid prod...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shi C, Zhang L, Qin C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Metabolic Disorder Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Bioenergetics, Redox Homeostasis and Central Carbon Metabolism.
Abstract The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic process in dopaminergic cells s...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Anandhan A, Jacome MS, Lei S, Hernandez-Franco P, Pappa A, Panayiotidis MI, Powers R, Franco R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Short-term green tea supplementation prevents recognition memory deficits and ameliorates hippocampal oxidative stress induced by different stroke models in rats.
This study investigate the effect of green tea (GT) on short and long term declarative memory and oxidative damage induced by transient ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 10 according the stroke type induced were used: Sham IR, Sham IR+GT, IR, IR+GT, Sham ICH, Sham ICH+GT, ICH, ICH+GT. Supplementation with GT was initiated 10days before stroke surgery and continuous for 6days after (GT dose 400mg/kg). Short (STM) and long term memory (LTM) we evaluated with object recognition task (OR) and hippocampus were used to evaluate parameters related ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Altermann CD, Souza MA, Schimidt HL, Izaguirry AP, Martins A, Garcia A, Santos FW, Mello-Carpes PB Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

High-gamma oscillations in the motor cortex during visuo-motor coordination: a tACS interferential study.
CONCLUSIONS: our findings posit a role for high-frequency motor cortex gamma oscillations during complex visuo-motor tasks involving the sudden rearrangement of motor plan/execution. Such a "prokinetic" effect of high-gamma stimulation might be worth to be tested in motor disorders, like Parkinson's disease, where the switching between different motor programs is impaired. PMID: 28322886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Santarnecchi E, Biasella A, Tatti E, Rossi A, Prattichizzo D, Rossi S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Crosstalk between glia, extracellular matrix and neurons.
Abstract Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in the central nervous system form highly organized ECM structures around cell somata, axon initial segments, and synapses and play prominent roles in early development by guiding cell migration, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, and by regulating closure of the critical period of development, synaptic plasticity and stability, cognitive flexibility, and axonal regeneration in adults. Major components of neural ECM, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), tenascin-R and hyaluronic acid, are synthesized by both neurons and glial cells. The expression of...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Song I, Dityatev A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The application and neuroprotective mechanisms of cerebral ischemic post-conditioning: a review.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is a serious cerebrovascular disease that leads to death and/or severe disability, and extensive research has been directed in search of appropriate treatment measures. One such potential treatment is the use of cerebral ischemic post-conditioning (IPostC), and its neuroprotective effects and controllability have been widely confirmed and validated. Numerous studies have indicated that cerebral IPostC can suppress the inflammatory reaction in ischemia reperfusion injury, improve cerebral circulation, reduce infarct volume, and promote both neurogenesis and angiogenesis. The neuroprotective...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Z, Chen H, Lv J, Zhao R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Possible role of endothelin receptor against hyperhomocysteinemia and β-amyloid induced AD type of vascular dementia in rats.
Possible role of endothelin receptor against hyperhomocysteinemia and β-amyloid induced AD type of vascular dementia in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Mar 05;: Authors: Singh M, Prakash A Abstract Vascular dementia (VaD) is considered as the second commonest form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study was designed to investigate the effect of endothelin receptor against β-amyloid induced AD type of vascular dementia. This disease was induced by combine administration of single ICV (intracerebroventricle) infusion of β-amyloid (Aβ) once and chronic oral administration of ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Singh M, Prakash A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The role of aquaporin-4 in synaptic plasticity, memory and disease.
Abstract Since the discovery of aquaporins, it has become clear that the various mammalian aquaporins play critical physiological roles in water and ion balance in multiple tissues. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the principal aquaporin expressed in the central nervous system (CNS, brain and spinal cord), has been shown to mediate CNS water homeostasis. In this review, we summarize new and exciting studies indicating that AQP4 also plays critical and unanticipated roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Next, we consider the role of AQP4 in Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hubbard JA, Szu JI, Binder DK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture improves gait locomotion, H-reflex and ventral root potentials of spinal compression injured rats.
This study explored the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation (EA) on alterations in the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) response and gait locomotion provoked by spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat. A compression lesion of the spinal cord was evoked by insufflating a Fogarty balloon located in the epidural space at the T8-9 spinal level of adult Wistar male rats (200-250 gr; n=60). In different groups of SCI rats, EA (frequencies: 2, 50 and 100Hz) was applied simultaneously to Huantiao (GB30), Yinmen (BL37), Jizhong (GV6) and Zhiyang (GV9) acupoints from the third post-injury day until the experimental session. At 1, 2, 3 and...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Escobar-Corona C, Torres-Castillo S, Rodríguez-Torres EE, Segura-Alegría B, Jiménez-Estrada I, Quiroz-González S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neurogenic bladder dysfunction does not correlate with astrocyte and microglia activation produced by graded force in a contusion-induced spinal cord injury.
Abstract Rodent models for the study of neurogenic bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI) are difficult to standardize, particularly when evaluating the specific contribution of the SCI to end-organ function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of bladder dysfunction associated with a highly reproducible, contusion-induced SCI in female rats. An infinite horizon impactor was used to create a contusion SCI with a magnitude of either 100 or 150 kDyne at the T8/T9 thoracic region of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Locomotor function, and the presence of astrocytes (positive regions for Glial ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Munoz A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Pharmacological and antihyperalgesic properties of the novel α2/3 preferring GABAA receptor ligand MP-III-024.
Pharmacological and antihyperalgesic properties of the novel α2/3 preferring GABAA receptor ligand MP-III-024. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Mar 03;: Authors: Fischer BD, Schlitt RJ, Hamade BZ, Rehman S, Ernst M, Poe MM, Li G, Kodali R, Arnold LA, Cook JM Abstract γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are located in spinal nociceptive circuits where they modulate the transmission of pain sensory signals from the periphery to higher centers. Benzodiazepine-type drugs bind GABAA, receptors containing α1, α2, α3, and α5 subunits (α1GABAA, α2GABAA, α3GAB...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fischer BD, Schlitt RJ, Hamade BZ, Rehman S, Ernst M, Poe MM, Li G, Kodali R, Arnold LA, Cook JM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption was less under Isoflurane than Pentobarbital Anesthesia via a PI3K/Akt Pathway in Early Cerebral Ischemia.
This study was performed to compare the degree of BBB disruption in focal cerebral ischemia under isoflurane vs pentobarbital anesthesia and to determine whether inhibition of PI3K/Akt would affect the disruption in the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia. Permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was performed in rats under 1.4% isoflurane or pentobarbital (50mg/kg i.p.) anesthesia with controlled ventilation. In half of each group LY294002, which is a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, was applied on the ischemic cortex immediately after MCA occlusion. After one hour of MCA occlusion, the transfer coefficient (Ki) of (14)C-&a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chi OZ, Mellender SJ, Kiss GK, Liu X, Weiss HR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Overexpression of phosphodiesterase-4 subtypes involved in surgery-induced neuroinflammatory cognitive dysfunction in mice.
Abstract Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is characterized by cognitive impairments in patients after surgery. Hippocampal neuroinflammation induced by surgery has been recognized as a pathogenesis of POCD. Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) is an enzyme that specifically hydrolyses cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which plays an important role during neuroinflammation and the process of learning and memory. However, the role of PDE4 in the development of POCD remains unclear. Male 14-month-old C57BL/6 mice received carotid artery exposure to mimic POCD. First, we evaluated the cognitive performance by a M...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang W, Fu Q, Zhang XY, Feng ZG, Zhang H, Sui B, Zhang YY, Zhao WX, Xu ZP, Mi WD Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Diazinon And Parathion Diverge In Their Effects On Development Of Noradrenergic Systems.
Abstract Organophosphate pesticides elicit developmental neurotoxicity through mechanisms over and above their shared property as cholinesterase inhibitors. We compared the consequences of neonatal exposure (postnatal days PN1-4) to diazinon or parathion on development of norepinephrine systems in rat brain, using treatments designed to produce equivalent effects on cholinesterase, straddling the threshold for barely-detectable inhibition. Norepinephrine levels were measured throughout development from the immediate posttreatment period (PN5), to early adolescence (PN30), young adulthood (PN60) and full adulthood ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Seidler FJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Plastic changes at corticostriatal synapses predict improved motor function in a partial lesion model of Parkinson's disease.
Abstract In Parkinson's disease, striatal dopamine depletion leads to plastic changes at excitatory corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synapses. The functional consequences of these responses on the expression of behavioral deficits are incompletely understood. In addition, most of the information on striatal synaptic plasticity has been obtained in models with severe striatal dopamine depletion, and less is known regarding changes during early stages of striatal denervation. Using a partial model of nigral cell loss based on intranigral injection of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, we demonstrate ultrastruc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bentea E, Moore C, Deneyer L, Verbruggen L, Churchill MJ, Hood RL, Meshul CK, Massie A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cerebral small vessel disease predisposes to temporal lobe epilepsy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Abstract The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Russo E, Leo A, Scicchitano F, Donato A, Ferlazzo E, Gasparini S, Cianci V, Mignogna C, Donato G, Citraro R, Aguglia U, De Sarro G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide, endoplasmic reticulum stress and alcohol mediated neurotoxicity.
Abstract Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include to...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: George AK, Behera J, Kelly KE, Zhai Y, Tyagi N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Human astrocytes in the diseased brain.
Abstract Astrocytes are key active elements of the brain that contribute to information processing. They not only provide neurons with metabolic and structural support, but also regulate neurogenesis and brain wiring. Furthermore, astrocytes modulate synaptic activity and plasticity in part by controlling the extracellular space volume, as well as ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis. These findings, together with the discovery that human astrocytes display contrasting characteristics with their rodent counterparts, point to a role for astrocytes in higher cognitive functions. Dysfunction of astrocytes can thereby...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dossi E, Vasile F, Rouach N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Erythropoietin rescues primary rat cortical neurons from pyroptosis and apoptosis via Erk1/2-Nrf2/Bach1 signal pathway.
Abstract The most commonly used inhalation anesthetics, sevoflurane, is reported to be a risk for development of learning disability. Erythropoietin (EPO) administration might be involved an effective therapy for sevoflurane neurotoxicity. EPO-EPO receptor-extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) signal pathway plays a pivotal role in the neuroprotective effect. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) ratio altering by Erk1/2 could ameliorate oxidative stress occurred in human macrophages. Primary cortical neuron cultures exposed to sevoflurane were assessed for cle...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li R, Zhang LM, Sun WB Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

From in silico astrocyte cell models to neuron-astrocyte network models: A review.
Abstract The idea that astrocytes may be active partners in synaptic information processing has recently emerged from abundant experimental reports. Because of their spatial proximity to neurons and their bidirectional communication with them, astrocytes are now considered as an important third element of the synapse. Astrocytes integrate and process synaptic information and by doing so generate cytosolic calcium signals that are believed to reflect neuronal transmitter release. Moreover, they regulate neuronal information transmission by releasing gliotransmitters into the synaptic cleft affecting both pre- and p...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Oschmann F, Berry H, Obermayer K, Lenk K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

NMDA receptor adjusted co-administration of ecstasy and cannabinoid receptor-1 agonist in the amygdala via stimulation of BDNF/Trk-B/CREB pathway in adult male rats.
Abstract Consumption of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1) agonist such as cannabis is widely taken in 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy users; it has been hypothesized that co-consumption of CB-1 agonist might protect neurons against MDMA toxicity. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors regulate neuronal plasticity and firing rate in the brain through Tyrosine-kinase B (Trk-B) activation. The molecular and electrophysiological association among NMDA and MDMA/Arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA, a selective CB-1 receptor agonist) co-consumption was not well-known. Here, neuronal spontaneous activity, Br...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ashabi G, Sadat-Shirazi MS, Khalifeh S, Elhampour L, Zarrindast MR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research