High therapeutic potential of positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: Proof-of-concept.
High therapeutic potential of positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: Proof-of-concept. Brain Res Bull. 2015 Jan 31; Authors: Gatson JW, Simpkins JW, Uteshev VV Abstract There are currently no clinically-efficacious drug therapies to treat brain damage secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this proof-of-concept study, we used a controlled cortical impact model of TBI in young adult rats to explore a novel promising approach that utilizes PNU-120596, a previously-reported highly selective Type-II positive allosteric modulator (α7-PAM) of...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Gatson JW, Simpkins JW, Uteshev VV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Quantitative orientation preference and susceptibility to space motion sickness simulated in a virtual reality environment.
Abstract Orientation preference should appear when variable weightings of spatial orientation cues are used between individuals. It is possible that astronauts' orientation preferences could be a potential predictor for susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). The present study was conducted to confirm this relationship on Earth by quantifying orientation preferences and simulating SMS in a virtual reality environment. Two tests were carried out. The first was to quantitatively determine one's orientation preference. Thirty-two participants' vision and body cue preferences were determined by measuring percep...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen W, Chao JG, Chen XW, Wang JK, Tan C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Improved Clinical Behavior of Established Relapsing-Remitting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis following Treatment with Endogenous Opioids: Implications for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.
This study examined the therapeutic efficacy of an endogenous peptide (opioid growth factor, OGF) known to inhibit cell replication in a receptor-mediated manner, utilizing a mouse model of relapse-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RR-EAE). RR-EAE was induced by immunization of SJL/J mice with proteolipid protein. Two days following establishment of clinical disease, treatment with OGF (10mg/kg) or saline was initiated and mice were observed on a daily basis. OGF treated mice had markedly reduced clinical signs of disease over the course of 40 days. OGF treatment increased the incidence and lengthened th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hammer LA, Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intrinsic exercise capacity is related to differential monoaminergic activity in the rat forebrain.
es DD Abstract Monoamines levels in central nervous system have been associated with exercise performance and fatigue. The present study investigated whether intrinsic exercise capacity is associated with differential activity of monoamines in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and accumbens (ACC) nucleus. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a progressive testing protocol. Based on the maximal time of exercise in the progressive testing protocol (TEPmax), the animals were divided into low-performance (LP), high-performance (HP), and standard-performance (SP) groups. After classification, eight animals in each group were cho...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rabelo PC, Almeida TF, Guimarães JB, Barcellos LA, Cordeiro LM, Moraes MM, Coimbra CC, Szawka RE, Soares DD Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cells engrafted in a fibrin scaffold stimulates Schwann cell reactivity and axonal regeneration following sciatic nerve tubulization.
ra AL Abstract The present study investigated the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) associated with a fibrin scaffold (FS) for the peripheral regenerative process after nerve tubulization. Adult female Lewis rats received a unilateral sciatic nerve transection followed by repair with a polycaprolactone (PCL) - based tubular prosthesis. Sixty days after injury, the regenerated nerves were studied by immunohistochemistry. Anti-p75NTR immunostaining was used to investigate the reactivity of the MSCs. Basal labeling, which was upregulated during the regenerative process, was detected in uninjured nerves a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Cartarozzi LP, Spejo AB, Junior RS, Barraviera B, Duek E, Carvalho JL, Góes AM, Oliveira AL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of DPTP, a novel synthetic Clovamide derivative in In vitro and In vivo model of Neuroinflammation.
The objective of the current study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of novel synthetic clovamide derivative on the suppression of microglial activation in an in vitro and in vivo model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an inflammatory response in murine BV-2 microglial cells. Molecular tools like immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting were used to study the activity of novel synthetic clovamide derivative to inhibit inflammation induced by LPS in microglial cells. In in vivo experiments, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mouse model of neuroinflam...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lim HW, In PJ, More SV, Park JY, Kim BW, Jeon SB, Yosep Y, Park EJ, Yoon SH, Choi DK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Enteric plexuses of two choline-acetyltransferase transgenic mouse lines: chemical neuroanatomy of the fluorescent protein-expressing nerve cells.
In conclusion, the neurochemical coding of ENS neurons in these mouse lines is consistent with many observations in non-transgenic animals. Thus, they provide useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies on distinct neurochemical subtypes of ENS neurons. PMID: 25592616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Wilhelm M, Lawrence JJ, Gábriel R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prenatal Nicotine Changes the Response to Postnatal Chlorpyrifos: Interactions Targeting Serotonergic Synaptic Function and Cognition.
We examined whether prenatal nicotine exposure alters the subsequent response to chlorpyrifos given postnatally. Pregnant rats received nicotine throughout gestation at 3mg/kg/day, a regimen designed to achieve plasma levels seen in smokers; chlorpyrifos was given to pups on postnatal days (PN) 1-4 at 1mg/kg, just above the detection threshold for brain cholinesterase inhibition. We assessed long-term effects from adolescence (PN30) through full adulthood (PN150), measuring the expression of serotonin receptors and serotonin turnover (index of presynaptic impulse activity) in cerebrocortical brain regions encompassing the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Levin ED, Seidler FJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The up-regulation of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 in rats with inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant.
Abstract Peripheral inflammation induces central sensitization that displays the features by the development of pain hypersensitivity to the stimuli. It has been shown that activation of glia contributes to the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after peripheral inflammation. It has been suggested that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) primarily expressed on microglia affects central pain response. The present study was designed to examine the expressions of TLR4 and microglia in the spinal cord in different time points of inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The results show that CFA i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao XH, Zhang T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of angiotensin type 2 receptor on secretion of the locus coeruleus in stress-induced hypertension rats.
g H Abstract Locus coeruleus (LC) has noradrenergic nerve terminals projecting to hypothalamus that modulating cardiovascular activity. To study the dynamic characteristics of norepinephrine (NE) release in hypothalamus followed by electrical stimulation in the locus coeruleus in the stress-induced hypertension (SIH) rats, we established the hypertension model rats by stimulations combining noise and foot-shock stress. After the end of modeling, NE release in the hypothalamus by electrical stimulation in LC was studied and NE signal was recorded by carbon fiber electrode. The peak value, the time to peak and half-...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Gong W, Lü J, Wang F, Wang B, Wang M, Huang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Impaired corticostriatal LTP and depotentiation following iPLA2 inhibition is restored following acute application of DHA.
Abstract Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a 22 carbon, six cis-double bonded (22:6, w3) omega-3 polyunsaturated acid (PUFA), found highly enriched with neuronal membranes, and believed to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity and cognitive correlates of learning and memory. DHA is released from the neuronal membrane via the action of the cytostolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) enzyme. Previous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of iPLA2 by bromoenol lactone (BEL), results in inhibition of CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), restored following acute application of DHA. In the present study, ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Mazzocchi-Jones D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Subacute administration of fluoxetine prevents short-term brain hypometabolism and reduces brain damage markers induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats.
acute;a-García L Abstract The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in epileptogenesis still remains controversial. In this regard, it has been reported that serotonergic drugs can alter epileptogenesis in opposite ways. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the selective 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine administered subacutely (10mg/kg/day×7 days) on the eventual metabolic impairment induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats. In vivo 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose ([(18)F] FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Shiha AA, de Cristóbal J, Delgado M, de la Rosa RF, Bascuñana P, Pozo MA, García-García L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Changes in the frequency of swallowing during electrical stimulation of superior laryngeal nerve in rats.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the adaptation of the swallowing reflex in terms of reduced swallowing reflex initiation following continuous superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Forty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. To identify swallowing, electromyographic activity of the left mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles was recorded. To evoke the swallowing response, the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), recurrent laryngeal nerve, or cortical swallowing area was electrically stimulated. Repetitive swallowing evoked by continuous SLN stimulation was gradually reduced, a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tsuji K, Tsujimura T, Magara J, Sakai S, Nakamura Y, Inoue M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of synaptic and nonsynaptic glutamate receptors in ischaemia induced neurotoxicity.
tos M Abstract In acute ischaemic brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration, the first step leading to excitotoxicity and cell death is the excessive release of Glu and the prolonged activation of Glu receptors, followed by intracellular calcium overload. There is apparent agreement that glutamatergic transmission via synaptic NMDA receptors (composed of GluN2A subunits) is neuroprotective, whereas transmission via non-synaptic NMDA receptors (composed of GluN2B subunits) is excitotoxic. Extrasynaptic NMDARs activate cell death pathways and may play a key role in Glu-induced excitotoxic neurodegeneration and apop...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Brassai A, Suvanjeiev R, Bán E, Lakatos M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The dynamic changes of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway markers GRP78 and CHOP in the hippocampus of diabetic mice.
Abstract Diabetic encephalopathy has recently been recognized late complication of diabetes resulting in progressive cognitive deficits. Emerging evidence has indicated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic eye and kidney as well as non-diabetic neurodegeneration. However, there was little direct evidence for the involvement of ER stress in diabetic encephalopathy up to now. In the present work, we investigated the role of ER stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. Our results have demonstrated the existence of ER stress in the hippocam...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao Y, Yan Y, Zhao Z, Li S, Yin J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Differential regulation of perineuronal nets in the brain and spinal cord with exercise training.
RM Abstract Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice like structures which encapsulate the cell body and proximal dendrites of many neurons and are thought to be involved in regulating synaptic plasticity. It is believed that exercise can enhance the plasticity of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in healthy and dysfunctional states by shifting the balance between plasticity promoting and plasticity inhibiting factors in favor of the former. Recent work has focused on exercise effects on trophic factors but its effect on other plasticity regulators is poorly understood. In the present study we investigated how exercis...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Smith C, Mauricio R, Nobre L, Marsh B, Wüst RC, Rossiter HB, Ichiyama RM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nociceptive spinal cord neurons of laminae I-III exhibit oxidative stress damage during diabetic neuropathy which is prevented by early antioxidant treatment with epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG).
Abstract Spinal cord neurons located in laminae I-III respond to nociceptive stimuli and participate in the transmission of painful information to the brain. In the present study we evaluated if nociceptive laminae I-III neurons are affected by oxidative stress damage in a model of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ rat). Additionally, we evaluated the effects of a preventive antioxidant treatment with epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) in nociceptive neuronal activation and behavioural signs of DNP. Three days after diabetes induction, a treatment protocol of STZ rats with ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Raposo D, Morgado C, Pereira-Terra P, Tavares I Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Aging alters visual processing of objects and shapes in inferotemporal cortex in monkeys.
P, Sáry G Abstract Visual perception declines with age. Perceptual deficits may originate not only in the optical system serving vision but also in the neural machinery processing visual information. Since homologies between monkey and human vision permit extrapolation from monkeys to humans, data from young, middle aged and old monkeys were analyzed to show age-related changes in the neuronal activity in the inferotemporal cortex, which is critical for object and shape vision. We found an increased neuronal response latency, and a decrease in the stimulus selectivity in the older animals and suggest that ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Csete G, Bognár A, Csibri P, Kaposvári P, Sáry G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

l-Ornithine intake affects sympathetic nerve outflows and reduces body weight and food intake in rats.
Abstract Ingesting the amino acid l-ornithine effectively improves lipid metabolism in humans, although it is unknown whether it affects the activities of autonomic nerves that supply the peripheral organs related to lipid metabolism, such as adipose tissues. Thus, we investigated the effects of l-ornithine ingestion on autonomic nerves that innervate adipose tissues and the feeding behaviors of rats. Intragastric injection of l-ornithine (2.5%) in urethane-anesthetized rats activated sympathetic nerve activity to white adipose tissue (WAT-SNA), and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BA...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Konishi Y, Koosaka Y, Maruyama R, Imanishi K, Kasahara K, Matsuda A, Akiduki S, Hishida Y, Kurata Y, Shibamoto T, Satomi J, Tanida M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prenatal Nicotine Alters the Developmental Neurotoxicity of Postnatal Chlorpyrifos Directed Toward Cholinergic Systems: Better, Worse, or Just "Different?"
This study examines whether prenatal nicotine exposure sensitizes the developing brain to subsequent developmental neurotoxicity evoked by chlorpyrifos, a commonly-used insecticide. We gave nicotine to pregnant rats throughout gestation at a dose (3mg/kg/day) producing plasma levels typical of smokers; offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1mg/kg) that produces minimally-detectable inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. We evaluated indices for acetylcholine (ACh) synaptic function throughout adolescence, young adulthood and later adulthood, in brain regions possessing the majority ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Estradiol Regulation of Hypothalamic Astrocyte Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Activity: Role of Hindbrain Catecholamine Signaling.
This study investigated the hypothesis that hypothalamic astrocytes express the ultra-sensitive energy gauge adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and that the ovarian hormone estradiol (E) controls activation of this sensor by insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). E- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pretreated by caudal fourth ventricular administration of the catecholamine neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) prior to sc insulin or vehicle injection. Individual astrocytes identified in situ by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunolabeling were laser-microdissected from the ventrom...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tamrakar P, Briski KP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inhibition of DOR prevents remifentanil induced postoperative hyperalgesia through regulating the trafficking and function of spinal NMDA receptors in vivo and in vitro.
CONCLUSION: The above results indicate that inhibition of DOR could significantly inhibit remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia via modulating the total protein level, membrane trafficking and function of NMDA receptors in the dorsal horn of spinal cord, suggesting that naltrindole could be a potential anti-hyperalgesic agent for treating OIH. PMID: 25498394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang C, Li Y, Wang H, Xie K, Shu R, Zhang L, Hu N, Yu Y, Wang G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Lateral habenula as a link between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems contributes to depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.
In this study, we screened rats with depressive-like behaviors from PD model animals and found that cytochrome c oxidase activity in the LHb of these rats was twice that seen in the control rats. In the forced swim test, LHb lesions caused a decrease in depressive-like behavior of PD rats as indexed by decreased immobility times and increased climbing times. Additionally, LHb lesions caused an enhance in 5-HT levels in the raphe nuclei. These results suggest that LHb lesions may improve depressive-like behavior in PD rats by increasing 5-HT levels in the raphe nuclei. Thus, LHb contributes to the depressive-like behavior i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Luo XF, Zhang BL, Li JC, Yang YY, Sun YF, Zhao H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

c-Fos induction in mesotelencephalic dopamine pathway projection targets and dorsal striatum following oral intake of sugars and fats in rats.
Abstract Overconsumption of nutrients high in fats and sugars can lead to obesity. Previous studies indicate that sugar or fat consumption activate individual brain sites using Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI). Sugars and fats also elicit conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) that are differentially mediated by flavor-flavor (orosensory: f/f) and flavor-nutrient (post-ingestive: f/n) processes. Dopamine (DA) signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the amygdala (AMY) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), has been implicated in acquisition and expression of fat- and sugar-CFP. The present study examined the effec...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Dela Cruz JA, Coke T, Karagiorgis T, Sampson C, Icaza-Cukali D, Kest K, Ranaldi R, Bodnar RJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Medical genetics-based drug repurposing for Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease that threatens the elderly. No efficient therapeutic method is currently available to combat AD. Drug repurposing has provided a new route for AD drug discovery, and medical genetics has shown potential in target-based drug repurposing. We compared AD-associated genes with approved drug targets and found that three are targeted by 23 approved drugs. Thus, these drugs may be used to treat AD according to the medical genetic information of the targets. In vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that four drugs, all of which are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibit...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang XZ, Quan Y, Tang GY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Different action of a specific NR2B/NMDA antagonist Ro 25-6981 on cortical evoked potentials and epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats.
In conclusion, our results indicate that Ro 25-6981 as a selective antagonist of NR2B/NMDARs exhibit age- and activation-dependent anticonvulsant action at early postnatal development. In contrast, the influence of Ro 25-6981 on physiological excitability induced by single pulse stimulation of sensorimotor cortex does not depend on age. This compound may thus represent a useful antiepileptic agent in immature brain since its action against ADs prolongation can be observed even 110min after the single administration of the drug. PMID: 25446739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Szczurowska E, Mareš P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Desvenlafaxine reduces apoptosis in amygdala after myocardial infarction.
This study was designed to determine if desvenlafaxine (DV), a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, can attenuate apoptosis observed in the limbic system after myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in rats by occlusion of the left descending artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Another group of sham (control) rats was similarly manipulated, but without occlusion. Half of the full cohort received DV (3mg/kg/day intraperitoneal), starting 5min after the onset of reperfusion; the other half received the vehicle (0.5ml of 0.9% saline). Rats were sacrificed after 3 days for biochemical analyses and MI size mea...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Malick M, Gilbert K, Barry M, Godbout R, Rousseau G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Optogenetic control of astrocytes: Is it possible to treat astrocyte-related epilepsy?
Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects around 1% of the population worldwide. The two main therapies, pharmacology and the electrical stimulation, both have some shortcomings. For instance, pharmacological therapy is frequently accompanied by side effects, and current anticonvulsive drugs fail to be effective to around a third of patients. These patients could suffer astrocyte-related epilepsy, as increasing evidence indicates that dysfunctions of astrocytes can result in epilepsy. However, epilepsy drugs that affect astrocytes are not available currently. Although electrical stimulation has ben...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ji ZG, Wang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Molecular pathways of mitochondrial dysfunctions: Possible cause of cell death in anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity.
Abstract The effect of anesthesia on the developing brain has attracted more attention and arguments. This review summarizes various studies on developmental neurotoxicity induced by anesthesia, particularly focuses on the function of the mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental results present evidence that general anesthesia can cause mitochondrial dysfunction via complex pathways, including oxidative stress, electron transport chain dysfunction, mitochondrial dynamics, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway. Hence, the molecular processes of mitochondrial dysfunction should be underst...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Yu Q, Liang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Dihydromyricetin ameliorates the oxidative stress response induced by methylglyoxal via the AMPK/GLUT4 signaling pathway in PC12 cells.
Abstract Dihydromyricetin (DMY), the major bioactive flavonoid ingredient extracted from the leaves of Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz) W.T. Wang, displays multiple pharmacological activities, including oxidation resistance, antitumor properties and free radical scavenging capacities. However, the role of DMY in methylglyoxal (MG)-induced diabetes-associated cognitive decline and its underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of DMY on oxidative stress and glucose transport activity in a MG-induced PC12 cell line and to explore the related mechanisms....
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang B, Le L, Pan H, Hu K, Xu L, Xiao P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Overexpression of NMDAR2B in an inflammatory model of Alzheimer's disease: Modulation by NOS inhibitors.
CONCLUSION: NMDAR2B subunits are overexpressed in an inflammatory model of AD and NO inhibitors ameliorate this expression. PMID: 25454121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Maher A, El-Sayed NS, Breitinger HG, Gad MZ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Anisomycin administered in the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus impaired social recognition memory consolidation in different time-points.
This study may help shedding light on the specific roles of the OB and dorsal hippocampus in social recognition memory. PMID: 25451454 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Pena RR, Pereira-Caixeta AR, Moraes MF, Pereira GS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Rasgrf2 controls dopaminergic adaptations to alcohol in mice.
Müller CP Abstract Alcohol abuse leads to serious health problems with no effective treatment available. Recent evidence suggests a role for ras-specific guanine-nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) in alcoholism. Rasgrf2 is a calcium sensor and MAPK/ERK activating protein, which has been linked to neurotransmitter release and monoaminergic receptor adaptations. Rasgrf2 knock out (KO) mice do not develop a dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens after an alcohol challenge and show a reduced consumption of alcohol. The present study aims to further characterise the role of Rasgrf2 in dopaminergic activa...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Easton AC, Rotter A, Lourdusamy A, Desrivières S, Fernández-Medarde A, Biermann T, Fernandes C, Santos E, Kornhuber J, Schumann G, Müller CP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Altered behavioral development in Nrf2 knockout mice following early postnatal exposure to valproic acid.
Abstract Early exposure to valproic acid results in autism-like neural and behavioral deficits in humans and other animals through oxidative stress-induced neural damage. In the present study, valproic acid was administered to genetically altered mice lacking the Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2) gene on postnatal day 14 (P14). Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces genes that protect against oxidative stress. It was found that valproic acid-treated Nrf2 knockout mice were less active in open field activity chambers, less successful on the rotorod, and had deficits in learning and memory in t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 20, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Furnari MA, Saw CL, Kong AN, Wagner GC Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acetylcholine, GABA and neuronal networks: A working hypothesis for compensations in the dystrophic brain.
We present a working hypothesis, demonstrated as an integrated neuronal network model, according to which within the cascade of events leading to cognitive impairments there are compensatory mechanisms aimed to maintain functional stability via perpetual adjustments of excitatory and inhibitory components. Such ongoing compensatory response creates continuous perturbations that disrupt neuronal functionality in terms of network efficiency. We have theorized that in this process acetylcholine and network oscillations play a central role. A better understating of these mechanisms could provide a useful diagnostic index of th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Cohen EJ, Quarta E, Fulgenzi G, Minciacchi D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effects of d-allose on transient ischemic neuronal death and analysis of its mechanism.
Abstract The present study investigates the neuroprotective effects of d-allose, a rare sugar, against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a gerbil model. Transient forebrain ischemia was induced by occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 5min. d-Allose was intravenously injected before and after ischemia (200mg/kg). Extracellular glutamate and lactate release from the gerbil brain, and PO2 profiles were monitored during ischemia and reperfusion. We also examined neuronal death and oxidative damage in the hippocampus one week after ischemia reperfusion, and investigated functional outcome. d-Allose admin...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 14, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Y, Nakamura T, Toyoshima T, Shinomiya A, Tamiya T, Tokuda M, Keep RF, Itano T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Impairment of the Anterior Thalamic Head Direction Cell Network Following Administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801.
Abstract Head direction (HD) cells, found in the rodent Papez circuit, are thought to form the neural circuitry responsible for directional orientation. Because NMDA transmission has been implicated in spatial tasks requiring directional orientation, we sought to determine if the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) would disrupt the directional signal carried by the HD network. Anterior thalamic HD cells were isolated in female Long-Evans rats and initially monitored for baseline directional activity while the animals foraged in a familiar enclosure. The animals were then administered MK-801 at a dose of .05mg/kg...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Housh AA, Berkowitz LE, Ybarra I, Kim EU, Lee BR, Calton JL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Ligustilide inhibits microglia-mediated proinflammatory cytokines production and inflammatory pain.
Abstract Ligustilide is the main component of Danggui essential oil, and recently reported to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect. Increasing evidence suggests that glia-mediated neuroinflammation in the spinal cord plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effect of ligustilide both in vitro and in vivo. In microglial cell line BV2 cells, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) time-dependently increased the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), which was decreased by pretreatm...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu MD, Zhao LX, Wang XT, Gao YJ, Zhang ZJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Antioxidant effects of JM-20 on rat brain mitochondria and synaptosomes: Mitoprotection against Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial impairment.
ller AP, Portela LV, Souza DO Abstract Because mitochondrial oxidative stress and impairment are important mediators of neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases and in brain ischemia/reperfusion, in the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and mitoprotective effect of a new promising neuroprotective molecule, JM-20, in mitochondria and synaptosomes isolated from rat brains. JM-20 inhibited succinate-mediated H2O2 generation in both mitochondria and synaptosomes incubated in depolarized (highK(+)) medium at extremely low micromolar concentration and with identical IC50 values of 0.91μM. JM-20 also re...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Nuñez-Figueredo Y, Pardo-Andreu GL, Ramírez-Sánchez J, Delgado-Hernández R, Ochoa-Rodríguez E, Verdecia-Reyes Y, Naal Z, Muller AP, Portela LV, Souza DO Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

BDNF mediated activity dependent maturation of visual Wulst following prenatal repetitive auditory stimulation at a critical developmental period in domestic chicks (Gallus domesticus).
Abstract The developing visual circuitry attains its mature adult pattern through the process of activity-dependent refinement in which photic stimulation plays the major role. However, auditory stimulation can also facilitate the developing visual Wulst synaptic plasticity and postnatal perceptual behavior, though the underlying mechanism is unclear. We exposed the fertilized eggs of white Leghorn chickens during incubation to either species-specific calls or no sound for varying time periods depending on the functional development of the auditory and/or visual systems. The visual evoked potential (VEP) from the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Roy S, Sharma HP, Nag TC, Velpandian T, Upadhyay AD, Mathur R, Jain S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Paeonol pretreatment attenuates cerebral ischemic injury via upregulating expression of pAkt, Nrf2, HO-1 and ameliorating BBB permeability in mice.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic stroke and may represent a target for treatment. Our previous studies have proved that nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream genes served as a key mechanism for protection against oxidative stress. Paeonol (PN) is reputed to possess a broad range of therapeutic properties probably by virtue of its antioxidative ability. However little is elucidated regarding the underlying mechanisms in ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to explore PNs effect in ischemic injury and the role of the pAkt...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao Y, Fu B, Zhang X, Zhao T, Chen L, Zhang J, Wang X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Dorsomedial hypothalamus serotonin 1A receptors mediate a panic-related response in the elevated T-maze.
In this study we further explore the relationship of the DMH with defense by investigating the effects of 5-HT1A activation on escape behavior generated in male Wistar rats by an ethologically-based aversive stimuli, exposure to one of the open arms of the elevated T-maze (ETM). Aside from escape, the ETM also allows the measurement of inhibitory avoidance, a defensive response associated with generalized anxiety disorder. To evaluate locomotor activity, after ETM measurements animals were submitted to an open field. Results showed that intra-DMH administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT inhibited escape expr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Nascimento JO, Kikuchi LS, Bortoli VC, Jr HZ, Viana MB Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective effects of perindopril on D-galactose and aluminium trichloride induced neurotoxicity via the apoptosis of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway in the hippocampus of mice.
Abstract Perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, has been reported to improve learning and memory in a mouse or rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced by injection of beta-amyloid protein. However, the exact mechanism of perindopril on the cognitive deficits is not fully understood. Our previous data have indicated that perindopril improves learning and memory in a mouse model of AD induced by D-galactose (D-gal) and aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress. Whether perindopril also inhibit apoptosis to prevent cognitive decline rema...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang W, Shi L, Chen L, Zhang B, Ma K, Liu Y, Qian Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Bacterial enzymes effectively digest Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide.
Bacterial enzymes effectively digest Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide. Brain Res Bull. 2014 Sep 25; Authors: Danilova YV, Shagimardanova EI, Margulis AB, Toymenceva AA, Balaban NP, Rudakova NL, Rizvanov AA, Sharipova MR, Palotás A Abstract Aggregated β-amyloid peptides play key roles in the development of Alzheimer's disease, and recent evidence suggests that microbial particles, among others, can facilitate their polymerization. Bacterial enzymes, however, have been proved to be beneficial in degrading pathological fibrillar structures in clinical settings, such as strepto-kinases in re...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Danilova YV, Shagimardanova EI, Margulis AB, Toymenceva AA, Balaban NP, Rudakova NL, Rizvanov AA, Sharipova MR, Palotás A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Involvement of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in hypoxia-induced hypothermia.
Abstract Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in deep body temperature (Tb). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a signaling molecule that belongs to the gasotransmitter family, has been demonstrated to participate in several brain-mediated responses. Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a brainstem region involved in thermoregulation. Recently, it has been shown that exogenous H2S modulates RVLM activity. In the present study, we investigated whether endogenously produced H2S in the RVLM plays a role in the control of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Tb was measured before and after bilateral microinjection of aminooxyacetate ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Donatti AF, Soriano RN, Sabino JP, Branco LG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Orosomucoid1: involved in vascular endothelial growth factor-induced blood-brain barrier leakage after ischemic stroke in mouse.
In conclusion, this study demonstrated that decreasing the ORM1 expression via inhibition of the NF-κB pathway could be a possible mechanism involved in the aggravation of BBB disruption after stroke by VEGF. PMID: 25264156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu L, Jiang Y, Zhu J, Wen Z, Xu X, Xu X, Xie Y, Yang L, Xu L, Lan W, Xu G, Liu X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Physical Training Prevents Depressive Symptoms And A Decrease In Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Many studies have suggested that physical exercise can have an antidepressant effect by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and may also prevent neurodegenerative disease. However, different forms of training may promote different changes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of physical training on depressive-like behavior, and on the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB, in a mouse model of PD. C57BL/6 mice were su...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tuon T, Valvassori SS, Pont GC, Paganini CS, Pozzi BG, Luciano TF, Souza PS, Quevedo J, Souza CT, Pinho RA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prior regular exercise prevents synaptic plasticity impairment in sleep deprived female rats.
In conclusion, the synaptic plasticity deficit in sleep-deprived female rats was improved by regular physical exercise. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms. PMID: 25264158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Saadati H, Sheibani V, Esmaeili-Mahani S, Hajali V, Mazhari S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The interaction between microglia and neural stem/precursor cells.
Abstract In the adult mammalian brain, neurogenesis from neural stem/precursor cell occurs within two regions, the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles, The function of neural stem cell is enhanced by external stimuli, such as injury and inflammation. Microglia, as the main immune modulating cells, play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, select discoveries reported that microglia might influence the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural precursor cells (NPCs). Other studies revealed that NPCs mig...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Su P, Zhang J, Zhao F, Aschner M, Chen J, Luo W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Estrogen receptor agonists for attenuation of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
Abstract Recent results from laboratory investigations and clinical trials indicate important roles for estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from noxious consequences of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative processes in several CNS disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes, which drive the resident neuroinflammatory response. During neurodegenerative processes, activated microglia and astrocytes cause deleterio...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Chakrabarti M, Haque A, Banik NL, Nagarkatti P, Nagarkatti M, Ray SK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research