Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on the morphology and viability of primary cultured neurons and astrocytes.
CONCLUSION: A [DMSO]≥0.5% markedly disrupts neuronal morphology and reduces viability, even after brief exposure. In astrocytes, 0.50% and 1.00% DMSO appear to induce reactive gliosis. For treatment of neural cells, [DMSO] should be ≤0.25% to obviate spurious vehicle effects. PMID: 27836802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang C, Deng Y, Dai H, Zhou W, Tian J, Bing G, Zhao L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of co-administration of memantine and sertraline on the antidepressant-like activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the rat brain.
abi M Abstract A developing body of data has drawn attention to the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists as potential drugs for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the possibility of synergistic interactions between the antidepressant sertraline with the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine. The present study was aimed to evaluate behavioural and molecular effects of the chronic treatment with memantine and sertraline alone or in combination in rats. To this aim, rats were chronically treated with memantine (2.5 and 5mg/kg) and sertraline (5mg/kg) for 14days o...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Amidfar M, Réus GZ, Quevedo J, Kim YK, Arbabi M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of amitriptyline treatment on neurofilament-H protein in an experimental model of depression.
Abstract It has been proposed that depression is associated with dysfunction of hippocampal plasticity. Novel hypotheses suggest that antidepressants induce neuronal structural plasticity, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of amitriptyline on levels of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (NF-H) in the hippocampus of mice exposed to acute and chronic behavioral despair paradigms. Immunoblotting experiments showed that animals exposed to the tail suspension test (TST) displayed diminished levels of pNF-H 24h after testing. ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanna MD, Ghelardini C, Galeotti N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Oxaloacetate and Adipose stromal cells-conditional medium synergistically protected potassium/serum deprivation-induced neuronal apoptosis.
In this study, we found that ASC-CM contained glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and its substrate, oxaloacetate (OAA) directly protected cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) from apoptosis induced by serum and potassium deprivation. Additionally, OAA inhibited serum and potassium deprivation-induced caspase 3 activation. ASC-CM and OAA in combination had a synergistic neuroprotective effect. Clearly, different from ASC-CM-induced neuroprotection, OAA-induced neuroprotection was Akt- independent but JNK-dependent. These data establish a mechanistic basis supporting that the application of ASC-CM for neuroprotective treatments...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Q, Zhao G, Zhou C, Farlow MR, Du Y, Xu G, Gu H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine against amyloid β-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampus.
Neuroprotective effects of N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine against amyloid β-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampus. Brain Res Bull. 2016 Nov 2;: Authors: Kim J, Cho CH, Hahn HG, Choi SY, Cho SW Abstract We previously reported that N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine (KHG26693) suppresses amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neuronal oxidative damage in cortical neurons. Here we investigated the mechanism and antioxidative function of KHG26693 in the hippocampus of Aβ-treated mice. KHG26693 significantly attenuated Aβ-induced TNF-α and IL-1β enhancements. KHG26693 decrea...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim J, Cho CH, Hahn HG, Choi SY, Cho SW Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture pretreatment with different waveforms prevents brain injury in rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture via inhibiting microglial activation, and attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EA pretreatment with three waveforms alleviates sepsis-induced brain injury by inhibition of microglial activation and attenuation of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that EA pretreatment with dilatational wave at Baihui and Tsusanli acupoints might be a promising therapeutic strategy for relieving septic brain injury. PMID: 27771396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Lei Y, Mo LQ, Li J, Wang MH, Wei JC, Zhou J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Preventive effects of blueberry extract on behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions in rats submitted to a model of manic behavior induced by ketamine.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of blueberry extract on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Male rats were pretreated with blueberry extract (200mg/kg, once a day for 14 days) lithium chloride (45mg/kg, mood stabilizer used as a positive control, twice a day for 14 days), or vehicle. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received an injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) or vehicle. In the 15th day, thirty minutes after ketamine administration the hyperlocomotion of the animals was assessed in the open...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Debom G, Gazal M, Soares MS, do Couto CA, Mattos B, Lencina C, Kaster MP, Ghisleni GC, Tavares R, Braganhol E, Chaves VC, Reginatto FH, Stefanello F, Spanevello RM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Methylprednisolone sodium succinate reduces BBB disruption and inflammation in a model mouse of intracranial haemorrhage.
In this study, we investigated the effect of MPSS on inflammation and disruption of the BBB in a model mouse of ICH. ICH was induced by injecting collagenase into the right striatum of male C57/BL mice. Permeability of BBB was measured with Evans Blue assay and brain oedema was detected by measurement of brain water content. Expressions of NF-κB, TLR4, occludin, ZO-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, Bax, and Bcl-2 were determined by Western Blot. Neutrophils, microglia were measured by immunohistochemistry staining, neuronal apoptosis was measured by TUNEL and NeuN co-stained. Administration of MPSS post-ICH significantly r...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Cheng S, Gao W, Xu X, Fan H, Wu Y, Li F, Zhang J, Zhu X, Zhang Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Distortion of the normal function of synaptic cell adhesion molecules by genetic variants as a risk for autism spectrum disorders.
Abstract Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SCAMs) are a functional category of cell adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynapses by the protein-protein interaction via their extracellular cell adhesion domains. Countless numbers of common genetic variants and rare mutations in SCAMs have been identified in the patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these, NRXN and NLGN family proteins cooperatively function at synaptic terminals both of which genes are strongly implicated as risk genes for ASDs. Knock-in mice carrying a single rare point mutation of NLGN3 (NLGN3 R451C) discovered in the pat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Baig DN, Yanagawa T, Tabuchi K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Scopolamine-induced greater alterations in neurochemical profile and increased oxidative stress demonstrated a better model of dementia: A comparative study.
Abstract Cognitive decline is found to be a common feature of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to recapitulate AD associated cognitive deficits and to plan therapeutic strategies researchers have developed various preclinical dementia models to recapitulate different aspects of cognitive domains affected in AD brain. So, the present study was aimed to compare alterations in previously reported dementia models i.e. pharmacological (Scopolamine-induced and corticosterone-induced), Environmental (Aluminium-induced and noise-stress) and physiological (natural aging) models in rats...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Haider S, Tabassum S, Perveen T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Regional c-Fos expression induced by peripheral oxytocin administration is prevented by the vasopressin 1A receptor antagonist SR49059.
Abstract Peripherally administered oxytocin induces a wide range of behavioural and physiological effects that are thought to be mediated by the oxytocin receptor (OTR). However, oxytocin also has considerable affinity for the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1AR), such that various oxytocinergic effects may in fact be mediated by the V1AR rather than the OTR. Here we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to determine the extent to which the regional pattern of neuronal activation produced by peripheral oxytocin involves the V1AR. Male Wistar rats were administered oxytocin (1mg/kg, IP) alone, or following pre-treatment with t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hicks C, Ramos L, Dampney B, Baracz SJ, McGregor IS, Hunt GE Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Synapse engineering: A new level of brain modulation.
Abstract Brain modulation is a powerful approach to study brain function in vivo. Tremendous progress had been made by controlling brain activity with different brain modulation tools. Synapse is the more fundamental functional unit of brain. In theory, synapse engineering could modulate brain function more precisely. However this had not been possible until recently. Our review provides a brief introduction of various brain modulation methods, and elaborates on a recently developed synapse-engineering tool. This technique allows modulation of specific synapses in vivo for the first time and has been used to clari...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Geng Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The Purkinje cell as a model of synaptogenesis and synaptic specificity.
izi A Abstract Since the groundbreaking work of Ramon y Cajal, the cerebellar Purkinje cell has always represented an ideal model for studying the organization, development and function of synaptic circuits. Purkinje cells receive distinct types of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses, each characterized by exquisite sub-cellular and molecular specificity. The formation and refinement of these connections results from a temporally-regulated sequence of events that involves molecular interactions between distinct sets of secreted and surface proteins, as well as activity-dependent competition between converging inp...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Sassoè-Pognetto M, Patrizi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Contribution of amygdala to the pressor response elicited by microinjection of angiotensin II into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
In conclusion, microinjection of AngII into the BST produces a short excitatory single unit response in the CeA, resulting in contribution of amygdala to the resulted pressor response. Taken together, our study and previous studies suggest a plausible hypothesis that these two nuclei perform their cardiovascular functions in cooperation with each other. PMID: 27720813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kafami M, Nasimi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Live imaging of inhibitory axons: Synapse formation as a dynamic trial-and-error process.
Abstract In this review I discuss recent live imaging studies that demonstrate that synapses, and in particular inhibitory synapses, are highly dynamic structures. The ongoing changes of presynaptic boutons within axons emphasize the stochastic aspect of inhibitory synapse formation and paint a picture of a dynamic trial-and-error process. Furthermore, I discuss recent and previous insights in the molecular and mechanistic pathways that underlie synapse formation, with a specific focus on the formation of inhibitory presynaptic boutons. PMID: 27720814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wierenga CJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Direct effects of ethanol on neuronal differentiation: An in vitro analysis of viability and morphology.
Abstract The deleterious effects of ethanol (EtOH) on the brain have been widely described, but its effects on the neuronal cytoskeleton during differentiation have not yet been firmly established. In this context, our aim was to investigate the direct effect of EtOH on cortical neurons during the period of differentiation. Primary cultures of cortical neurons obtained from 1-day-old rats were exposed to EtOH after 7days of culture, and viability and morphology were analyzed at structural and ultrastructural levels after 24-h EtOH exposure. EtOH caused a significant reduction of 73±7% in the viability of cu...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Guadagnoli T, Caltana L, Vacotto M, Gironacci MM, Brusco A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective effects of batroxobin on a nigrostriatal pathway injury in mice.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury triggers a series of damaged processes, such as neuronal death and apoptosis, inflammation and scar formation, which contribute to evolution of brain injury. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of batroxobin, a drug widely used clinically for ischemia, in a nigrostriatal pathway injury model. Mice subjected to the nigrostriatal pathway injury were injected with batroxobin (30 BU/kg) or vehicle immediately after injury. The behavioral studies showed that batroxobin could improve the motor function in injured mice in long term. Batroxobin also reduced neuronal a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Li D, Tong L, Kawano H, Liu N, Liu L, Li HP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Classifying amygdala kindling stages using quantitative assessments of extracellular recording of EEG in rats.
CONCLUSION: Our results showed that reduced high beta and gamma and increased delta oscillations power are associated with behavioral seizure progression. PMID: 27659238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Jalilifar M, Yadollahpour A, Moazedi AA, Ghotbeddin Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) contributes to encephalitis in a model of Herpes infection in mice.
Abstract The most severe manifestation of Herpes Simplex Type 1 virus (HSV-1) infection is encephalitis characterized by arousal impairment and seizures that can evolve to coma and death. Previous studies reported the involvement of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, specifically SOCS1 and SOCS3, in HSV-1 infection, suggesting that other members of this family could be involved in the immune response against HSV-1. No previous study has reported the role of SOCS2 in HSV-1 infection. In the current study, C57BL/6 wild-type mice (WT) and mice deficient in SOCS2 gene (SOCS2(-/-)) were subjected to intr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Sousa LF, Rachid MA, Lima GK, Miranda AS, Vilela MC, Lacerda Queiroz N, Rodrigues DH, Campos MA, Kroon EG, Machado FS, Teixeira AL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cordycepin attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced impairments of blood-brain barrier integrity in rats.
Abstract Loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is a downstream event caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). BBB integrity is affected by certain physiological conditions, including inflammation and oxidative stress. Cordycepin is a susbtance with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate whether cordycepin affects TBI-induced impairments of BBB integrity. Using TBI rats as the in vivo model and applying multiple techniques, including stroke severity evaluation, Evans blue assessment, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and ELISA, we investigated the dos...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuan J, Wang A, He Y, Si Z, Xu S, Zhang S, Wang K, Wang D, Liu Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Evidence that activation of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) modulates sleep homeostasis in rats.
We report that after 6h of TSD activation of PPARα by pharmacological systemic administration of OEA (10, 20 or 30mg/Kg, i.p.) promoted alertness by blocking the sleep rebound after TSD. Besides, wake-linked compounds such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, or adenosine collected from nucleus accumbens were enhanced after TSD in OEA-treated animals. These sleep and neurochemical results were mimicked after injection of PPARα agonist Wy14643 (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). However, similar findings from the sham of vehicle groups were observed if PPARα antagonist MK-886 was administered to rats (10, 20, 30mg...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Murillo-Rodríguez E, Guzmán K, Arankowsky-Sandoval G, Salas-Crisóstomo M, Jiménez-Moreno R, Arias-Carrión O Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Modulation of nociception by medial pre-optic area orexin a receptors and its relation with morphine in male rats.
CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that MPOA OrexinA receptors play an important role in the modulation of pain in normal and morphine treated male rats. PMID: 27641968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Emam AH, Hajesfandiari N, Shahidi S, Komaki A, Ganji M, Sarihi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Clustered structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines.
Abstract The configuration of synaptic circuits underlies their ability to process and store information. Research on dendritic spines has revealed that their structural and functional alterations are clustered along the parent dendrite. Here we review the evidence supporting such notion of clustered synaptic plasticity, discuss its functional implications and possible contributing factors, and suggest potential strategies to deal with open challenges. PMID: 27637453 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu J, Zuo Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Satiation and re-intake after partial withdrawal of gastric food contents: a dissociation effect in external lateral parabrachial lesioned rats.
The objective of the present study was to examine the relevance of this subnucleus in satiation and food reintake after gastrointestinal food removal. LPBe-lesioned animals were subjected to a re-intake task following the partial withdrawal of gastric food contents shortly after satiation. Lesioned and control animals ingested a similar amount of the initial liquid meal. However, after withdrawal of one-third of the food consumed, LPBe-lesioned rats were not able to compensate for the deficit created, and their re-intake of food was significantly lower than the amount withdrawn after the satiating meal. In contrast, the fo...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zafra MA, Agüera AD, Simón MJ, Molina F, Puerto A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Tau and Tauopathies.
Abstract Most neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by intracellular aggregates of insoluble proteins. As for the majority of these disorders, etiology and pathogenesis are only poorly understood; current nosological concepts are largely based on these molecular signatures of protein aggregates which also provide valuable tools for neuropathological differential diagnosis. The microtubule associated protein tau is one of these proteins that form intracellular fibrillary deposits in neurons and glial cells of a large variety of disorders today collectively referred to as tauopathies. While dysfunction of tau...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Arendt T, Stieler J, Holzer M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of chlorogenic acid on voltage-gated potassium channels of trigeminal ganglion neurons in an inflammatory environment.
In this study, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on two main subtypes (IK,A and IK,V channels) of voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels in small-diameter(
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu F, Lu XW, Zhang YJ, Kou L, Song N, Wu MK, Wang M, Wang H, Shen JF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Morroniside promotes angiogenesis and further improves microvascular circulation after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.
Abstract Preservation of cerebral microvascular functional integrity is crucial for protecting and repairing the brain after stroke. Our previous study demonstrated that morroniside promoted angiogenesis 7days after stroke. The current study aimed to further evaluate the long-term effects of morroniside on angiogenesis and to examine whether angiogenesis induced by morroniside could improve blood flow velocity. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and morroniside was then administered once per day at a dose of 270mg/kg. New vessel formation and the expression of ephrinB2/V...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu T, Xiang B, Guo D, Sun F, Wei R, Zhang G, Ai H, Tian X, Zhu Z, Zheng W, Wang Y, Wang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Gephyrin and the regulation of synaptic strength and dynamics at glycinergic inhibitory synapses.
Abstract Glycinergic synapses predominate in brainstem and spinal cord where they modulate motor and sensory processing. Their postsynaptic mechanisms have been considered rather simple because they lack a large variety of glycine receptor isoforms and have relatively simple postsynaptic densities at the ultrastructural level. However, this simplicity is misleading being their postsynaptic regions regulated by a variety of complex mechanisms controlling the efficacy of synaptic inhibition. Early studies suggested that glycinergic inhibitory strength and dynamics depend largely on structural features rather than on...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Alvarez FJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Specialized Roles of Neurofilament Proteins in Synapses: Relevance to Neuropsychiatric Disorders.
Abstract Neurofilaments are uniquely complex among classes of intermediate filaments in being composed of four subunits (NFL, NFM, NFH and alpha-internexin in the CNS) that differ in structure, regulation, and function. Although neurofilaments have been traditionally viewed as axonal structural components, recent evidence has revealed that distinctive assemblies of neurofilament subunits are integral components of synapses, especially at postsynaptic sites. Within the synaptic compartment, the individual subunits differentially modulate neurotransmission and behavior through interactions with specific neurotransmi...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuan A, Nixon RA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Reduced Local Field Potential Power in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex by Noxious Stimuli.
In this study, we investigated how nociceptive input from the periphery changes the local field potential (LFP) activity in the mPFC. Three different types of noxious stimuli were applied to the hind paw contralateral to the LFP recording site. They were transcutaneous electrical stimulations, mechanical stimuli and a chemical stimulus (formalin injection). High intensity transcutaneous stimulations (10V to 50V) and noxious mechanical stimulus (pinch) significantly reduced the LFP power during the stimulating period (p
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Li AL, Yang X, Chiao JC, Peng YB Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of neuron-glia interactions in developmental synapse elimination.
bet A Abstract During the embryonic development of the nervous system there is a massive formation of synapses. However, the exuberant connectivity present after birth must be pruned during postnatal growth to optimize the function of neuronal circuits. Whilst glial cells play a fundamental role in the formation of early synaptic contacts, their contribution to developmental modifications of established synapses is not well understood. The present review aims to highlight the various roles of glia in the developmental refinement of embryonic synaptic connectivity. We summarize recent evidences linking secretory ab...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Terni B, López-Murcia FJ, Llobet A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Maternal care affects EEG properties of spike-wave seizures (including pre- and post ictal periods) in adult WAG/Rij rats with genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy.
Abstract WAG/Rij rats have a genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy and develop spontaneous spike-wave discharges in EEG during late ontogenesis (SWD, EEG manifestation of absence epilepsy). Changes in environment during early postnatal ontogenesis can influence the genetically predetermined absence epilepsy. Here we examined the effect of maternal environment during weaning period on the EEG manifestation of absence epilepsy in adulthood. Experiments were performed in the offspring of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. The newborn pups were fostered to dams of the same (in-fostering) or another strain (cross-fostering)...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Sitnikova E, Rutskova EM, Raevsky VV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) contributes to neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion via NR2B receptors.
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the BDNF/TrkB-mediated signaling pathway in the rACC is involved in the development of neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion and that this process is dependent upon activation of NR2B receptors. These findings suggest that suppression of the BDNF-related signaling pathway in the rACC may provide a novel strategy to overcome pain-related aversion. PMID: 27575004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang L, Wang G, Ma J, Liu C, Liu X, Zhan Y, Zhang M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Morphological analysis of regenerated bulbar fibers in relation to neonatal olfaction.
Abstract It was revealed that regeneration of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) occurred in developing rats and the regenerated olfactory system was functional 4 weeks after transection. The aim of this study was to determine the earliest onset of functional recovery in LOT-injured rats and to quantify regenerated nerve components with functional correlation. Neonatal rats on postnatal day (P) 2 were subjected to unilateral transection of the left LOT and underwent unilateral removal of the right olfactory bulb on P11. Functional recovery of the tract injury was assessed by the suckling capability, which can be ac...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuroiwa M, Fukushima N, Yokouchi K, Kawagishi K, Moriizumi T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Human astrocytes are distinct contributors to the complexity of synaptic function.
Abstract Cellular components of synaptic circuits have been adjusted for increased human brain size, neural cell density, energy consumption and developmental duration. How does the human brain make these accommodations? There is evidence that astrocytes are one of the most divergent neural cell types in primate brain evolution and it is now becoming clear that they have critical roles in controlling synaptic development, function and plasticity. Yet, we still do not know how the precise developmental appearance of these cells and subsequent astrocyte-derived signals modulate diverse neuronal circuit subtypes. Her...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Krencik R, van Asperen JV, Ullian EM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Postnatal changes in glutamatergic inputs of jaw-closing motoneuron dendrites.
Abstract Dendrites of masseter (jaw-closing) motoneurons (MMNs) are well developed and ramify extensively throughout the trigeminal motor nucleus and often extend into the adjacent reticular formation. It is possible that the dendrites have active properties, which are altered with the development of the orofacial musculoskeletal system. Thus, we examined the changes in somatic voltage responses evoked by photostimulation of the MMN dendrites by laser photolysis of caged glutamate from postnatal day (P) 2-5 and 9-12 rats. We photostimulated 39 spots that were arranged around each recorded neuron in a concave shape...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Nagata S, Nakamura S, Nakayama K, Mochizuki A, Yamamoto M, Inoue T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Colocalization of neurotransmitter transporters on the plasma membrane of the same nerve terminal may reflect cotransmission.
Abstract There is increasing evidence for the neuronal coexistence of classical transmitters. Implications in favor of cotransmission have often been represented by the identification, in the same neuron, of the putative cotransmitters, their synthetic enzymes and/or their vesicular transporters. In contrast, coexpression of neurotransmitter transporters on the plasma membrane of the same nerve terminal, although a potentially important indication for cotransmission, has received poor attention. We here used preparations of isolated nerve endings to functionally identify transporters coexpressed on the plasma memb...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Romei C, Bonifacino T, Milanese M, Usai C, Raiteri L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are recruited by acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission within the locus coeruleus during the organisation of post-ictal antinociception.
Abstract Post-ictal antinociception is characterised by an increase in the nociceptive threshold that accompanies tonic and tonic-clonic seizures (TCS). The locus coeruleus (LC) receives profuse cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Different concentrations (1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL) of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor atropine and the nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine were microinjected into the LC of Wistar rats to investigate the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the severity of TCS and the post-ictal antinociceptive response. Five minutes later, TCS w...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: de Oliveira RC, de Oliveira R, Franceschi Biagioni A, Falconi-Sobrinho LL, Dos Anjos-Garcia TD, Cysne Coimbra N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing and Bioenergetics.
Abstract The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to amyloid beta (Aβ) is of great interest to the Alzheimer's disease (AD) field. Decades of research define how APP is altered to form Aβ, and how Aβ generates oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils. Numerous signaling pathways and changes in cell physiology are known to influence APP processing. Existing data additionally indicate a relationship exists between mitochondria, bioenergetics, and APP processing. Here, we review data that address whether mitochondrial function and bioenergetics modify APP processing and Aβ production. PM...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wilkins HM, Swerdlow RH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of Maternal Lead Exposure on RGMa and RGMb Expression in the Hippocampus and Cerebral cortex of mouse pups.
Abstract The present study focused on the RGM (repulsive guidance molecule)a and RGMb expression in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of newborn mice with maternal lead exposure. Lead exposure initiated from gestation to weaning. Lead acetate was dissolved in deionized water with concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% groups respectively. On the 21st postnatal day, lead in blood and tissue levels was examined by GFAAS. The protein expressions of RGMa and RGMb in hippocampus and cerebral cortex tissues were tested by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Comparing with the control group, the lead levels in blood,...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Li N, Qiao M, Zhao Q, Zhang P, Song L, Li L, Cui C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Impact of repeated asenapine treatment on FosB/ ΔFosB expression in the forebrain structures under normal conditions and mild stress preconditioning in the rat.
Impact of repeated asenapine treatment on FosB/ΔFosB expression in the forebrain structures under normal conditions and mild stress preconditioning in the rat. Brain Res Bull. 2016 Aug 16; Authors: Majercikova Z, Horvathova L, Osacka J, Pecenak J, Kiss A Abstract Long-term effect of asenapine (ASE), an atypical antipsychotic drug, on FosB/ΔFosB quantitative variations in the striatum, septum, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex, was light microscopically evaluated in normal rats and rats preconditioned with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS). CMS included restraint, social isolat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Majercikova Z, Horvathova L, Osacka J, Pecenak J, Kiss A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A conceptual view at microtubule plus end dynamics in neuronal axons.
kop A Abstract Axons are the cable-like protrusions of neurons which wire up the nervous system. Polar bundles of microtubules (MTs) constitute their structural backbones and are highways for life-sustaining transport between proximal cell bodies and distal synapses. Any morphogenetic changes of axons during development, plastic rearrangement, regeneration or degeneration depend on dynamic changes of these MT bundles. A key mechanism for implementing such changes is the coordinated polymerisation and depolymerisation at the plus ends of MTs within these bundles. To gain an understanding of how such regulation can ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Voelzmann A, Hahn I, Pearce SP, Sánchez-Soriano N, Prokop A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Repeated forced swim stress affects the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the rostral ventromedial medulla and locus coeruleus.
Repeated forced swim stress affects the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the rostral ventromedial medulla and locus coeruleus. Brain Res Bull. 2016 Aug 12; Authors: Imbe H, Kimura A Abstract The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and locus coeruleus (LC) play crucial roles in descending pain modulation system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the RVM and LC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to cla...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Imbe H, Kimura A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation of the rostromedial tegmental nucleus: an unanticipated, selective effect on food intake.
Abstract The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) is a relatively newly described brainstem structure. The RMTg is extensively connected to both dopaminergic (DA) and serotoninergic key areas and it fulfills a pivotal role in the regulation of mesolimbic and nigrostriatal DA release. The RMTg may directly influence DA- and 5-HT associated motor and possibly also mood related behavior, the latter of which has not yet been well described. The current study explored the consequences of RMTg manipulation on DA- and 5-HT related behavior through the application of RMTg deep brain stimulation (DBS) with both high and l...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Melse M, Temel Y, Tan SK, Jahanshahi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Special Issue on 'Cytoskeletal proteins in health and neurodegenerative disease'.
z J PMID: 27506280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Brandt R, Götz J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

O-GlcNAcylation and neurodegeneration.
Abstract O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic form of protein glycosylation which involves the addition of β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) via an O-linkage to serine or threonine residues of nuclear, cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and transmembrane proteins. The two enzymes responsible for O-GlcNAc cycling are O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA); their expression and activities in brain are age dependent. More than 1000 O-GlcNAc protein targets have been identified which play critical roles in many cellular processes. In mammalian brain, O-GlcNAc modification of Tau decreases its phosphorylation and toxicit...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wani WY, Chatham JC, Darley-Usmar V, McMahon LL, Zhang J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Increasing the availability of l-arginine and nitric oxide increases sensitivity of nitrous oxide (N2O)-insensitive inbred mice to N2O-induced antinociception.
Abstract Nitrous oxide (N2O)-induced antinociception in mice is dependent on the neuromodulator nitric oxide (NO). In contrast to C57BL/6J (B6) mice, DBA/2J (D2) mice fail to respond to N2O with a robust antinociceptive response or with an increase in brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme activity, suggesting that failure of D2 mice to respond to N2O might result from a deficit of NO function. Therefore, it was of interest to determine whether increasing the availability of NO might increase sensitivity of D2 mice to N2O. Male D2 mice were pretreated with sub-antinociceptive intracerebroventricular doses of the...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Chung E, Ohgami Y, Quock RM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Large Animal Canine Endovascular Ischemic Stroke Models: A Review.
CONCLUSIONS: We extensively review the literature on endovascular technique of creating canine ischemic stroke models and their application in finding new therapies for ischemic stroke. PMID: 27496066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Atchaneeyasakul K, Guada L, Ramdas K, Watanabe M, Bhattacharya P, Raval AP, Yavagal DR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Actin filament-microtubule interactions in axon initiation and branching.
Abstract Neurons begin life as spherical cells. A major hallmark of neuronal development is the formation of elongating processes from the cell body which subsequently differentiate into dendrites and the axon. The formation and later development of neuronal processes is achieved through the concerted organization of actin filaments and microtubules. Here, we review the literature regarding recent advances in the understanding of cytoskeletal interactions in neurons focusing on the initiation of processes from neuronal cell bodies and the collateral branching of axons. The complex crosstalk between cytoskeletal el...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Pacheco A, Gallo G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Insights into age-old questions of new dendritic spines: From form to function.
Abstract Principal neurons in multiple brain regions receive a vast majority of excitatory synaptic contacts on the tiny dendritic appendages called dendritic spines. These structures are believed to be the locus of memory storage in the brain. Indeed, neurological diseases leading to impairment in memory and cognitive capabilities are often associated with structural alteration of dendritic spines. While several landmark studies in the past have provided a great deal of information on the structure, function and molecular composition of prototypical mature dendritic spines, we still have a limited knowledge of na...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Parajuli LK, Tanaka S, Okabe S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research