Brain Signalling Systems: A target for treating Type I Diabetes Mellitus.
Abstract From early to later stages of Type I Diabetes Mellitus (TIDM), signalling molecules including brain indolamines and protein kinases are altered significantly, and that has been implicated in the Metabolic Disorders (MD) as well as impairment of retinal, renal, neuronal and cardiovascular systems. Considerable attention has been focused to the effects of diabetes on these signalling systems. However, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of these signals are not completely understood in TIDM, but it is likely that hyperglycemia, acidosis, and insulin resistance play significant roles. Insulin maintains n...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramakrishnan R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Endogenous TRPV1 expression in the human cingulate- and medial frontal gyrus.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the human CG and MFG. As TRPV1 is predominantly expressed by glial cells, this may suggest an opportunity for non-neuronal network modulation. PMID: 31325598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Roet M, Jansen A, Hoogland G, Temel Y, Jahanshahi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Impaired hippocampal and thalamic acetylcholine release in P301L tau-transgenic mice.
Abstract We evaluated acetylcholine release by microdialysis in 10 month old control and JNPL3 mice which carry a mutant tau gene (P301 L). Three brain regions were compared: hippocampus and thalamus which receive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain, and the red nucleus which receives cholinergic projections from brain stem nuclei. Cognitive and motor functions of the mice were largely normal. In microdialysis experiments, we found significant reductions in basal ACh levels in hippocampus and thalamus, but not in the red nucleus. ACh release was impaired most strongly (by 50%) when a physiological st...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Stein C, Koch K, Hopfeld J, Lobentanzer S, Lau H, Klein J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Liposomes for drug delivery in stroke.
ni AR Abstract Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Due to its poor prognosis, there is a major negative impact on the patients and their family's life quality. However, despite the severity of this pathology tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA approved treatment for ischemic stroke. Moreover, there is no effective treatment for hemorrhagic stroke and only some palliative procedures are often performed to improve the patient's quality of life. Considering this, nanotechnology can offer some advantages for the development of new therapies for stroke. Among the var...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bruch GE, Fernandes LF, Bassi BLT, Alves MTR, Pereira IO, Frézard F, Massensini AR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neural Responses to Electrical Stimulation in 2D and 3D in vitro Environments.
Abstract Electrical stimulation (ES) to manipulate the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) has been explored for decades, recently gaining momentum as bioelectronic medicine advances. The application of ES in vitro to modulate a variety of cellular functions, including regenerative potential, migration, and stem cell fate, are being explored to aid neural degeneration, dysfunction, and injury. This review describes the materials and approaches for the application of ES to the PNS and CNS microenvironments, towards an improved understanding of how ES can be harnessed for beneficial clinical applicatio...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bertucci C, Koppes R, Dumont C, Koppes A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Engineering Biomaterial Microenvironments to Promote Myelination in the Central Nervous System.
Abstract Promoting remyelination and/or minimizing demyelination are key therapeutic strategies under investigation for diseases and injuries from multiple sclerosis (MS) to spinal cord injury, stroke, and virus-induced encephalopathy. Myelination is essential for efficacious neuronal signaling. This process is originated by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the central nervous system (CNS). Resident OPCs are capable of both proliferation and differentiation, and also migration to demyelinated injury sites. OPCs can then engage with these demyelinated axons and differentiate into myelin-forming oligodendr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Unal DB, Caliari SR, Lampe KJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Glycine transporter inhibitors: a new avenue for managing neuropathic pain.
ZS, Harsing LG Abstract Interneurons operating with glycine neurotransmitter are involved in the regulation of pain transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In addition to interneurons, glycine release also occurs from glial cells neighboring glutamatergic synapses in the spinal cord. Neuronal and glial release of glycine is controlled by glycine transporters (GlyTs). Inhibitors of the two isoforms of GlyTs, the astrocytic type-1 (GlyT-1) and the neuronal type-2 (GlyT-2), decrease pain sensation evoked by injuries of peripheral sensory neurons or inflammation. The function of dorsal horn glycinergic in...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Al-Khrasani M, Mohammadzadeh A, Balogh M, Király K, Barsi S, Hajnal B, Köles L, Zádori ZS, Harsing LG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Differential effects of post-training scopolamine on spatial and non-spatial learning tasks in mice.
Abstract Muscarinic antagonist scopolamine has been extensively used to model amnesia in lab rodents, but most studies have focused on the effects of pre-training scopolamine administration. Here, we examined post-training scopolamine administration in C57BL/6JRj mice. Learning was assessed in three different procedures: odour discrimination in a digging paradigm, visual discrimination in a touchscreen-based setup, and spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Scopolamine administration affected performance in the odour discrimination task. More specifically, scopolamine decreased perseverance, which facilitated ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Thonnard D, Callaerts-Vegh Z, D'Hooge R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Altered serotonin innervation in the rat epileptic brain.
Abstract Studies in animal models of epilepsy revealed compromised serotonin (5-HT) transmission between the raphe nuclei and the brain limbic system. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of epilepsy on the structural integrity of the dorsal (DR) and median (MnR) raphe nuclei and on the morphology of serotonergic fiber terminals in the dentate gyrus (DG), infralimbic cortex (IL) and medial septum (MS). The study was performed in adult Wistar rats using the kainate (9.5 mg/kg) status epilepticus (SE) model. Four months post-SE, the brainstem sections of the animals were immunostained for...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Maia GH, Soares JI, Almeida SG, Leite JM, Baptista HX, Lukoyanova AN, Brazete CS, Lukoyanov NV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

AIM2 deletion promotes neuroplasticity and spatial memory of mice.
Abstract Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) senses damaged-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and recruits apoptosis speck-like protein (ASC) and caspase-1 to form a molecular platform for cerebral inflammation and neuronal pyroptosis. Here, we found that AIM2 was up-regulated in the hippocampus of 6-months-old APP/PS1 mice and further investigated the role of AIM2 in spatial memory, long term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic morphology. Our study demonstrated that AIM2 deletion remarkably promoted spatial memory of mice using Morris Water Maze test and Y-Maze test. In addition, AIM2 was found to be widely expressed in...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen J, Shu S, Chen Y, Liu Z, Yu L, Yang L, Xu Y, Zhang M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Structural and functional defects of the respiratory neural system in the medulla and spinal cord of Pax6 mutant rats.
Abstract Pax6 is an important transcription factor expressed in several discrete domains of the developing central nervous system. It has been reported that Pax6 is involved in the specification of subtypes of hindbrain motor neurons. Pax6 homozygous mutant (rSey2/rSey2) rats die soon after birth, probably due to impaired respiratory movement. To determine whether the respiratory center in the medulla functions normally, we analyzed the histological and neurophysiological properties of the medulla and spinal cord in fetal rats with this mutation. First, the medulla of rSey2/rSey2 at embryonic (E) 21.5-E22.5 tended...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ikeda K, Onimaru H, Inada H, Tien Lin S, Arata S, Osumi N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Changes in blood-brain barrier permeability and ultrastructure, and protein expression in a rat model of cerebral hypoperfusion.
Abstract Cerebral hypoperfusion involved a reduction in cerebral blood flow, leading to neuronal dysfunction, microglial activation and white matter degeneration. The effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) however, have not been well-documented. Here, two-vessel occlusion model was adopted to mimic the condition of cerebral hypoperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. The BBB permeability to high and low molecular weight exogenous tracers i.e. Evans blue dye and sodium fluorescein respectively, showed marked extravasation of the Evans blue dye in the frontal cortex, posterior cortex and thalamus-midbrain at day 1 follo...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sekaran H, Gan CY, Latiff AA, Harvey TM, Nazri LM, Hanapi NA, Azizi J, Yusof SR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The Stat3 inhibitor, S3I-201, downregulates lymphocyte activation markers, chemokine receptors, and inflammatory cytokines in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mouse model of autism.
The objective of the present study was to further explore the role of S3I-201 in BTBR mice, and this was performed by investigating the effects of S3I-201 treatment on lymphocyte activation markers (CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD69+), chemokine receptors (CD4+CCR6+, CD4+CCR7+, CD4+CXCR4+, and CD4+CXCR5+), and proinflammatory cytokines (CD4+IL-6+ and CD4+TNF-α+) in the spleen cells of BTBR and C57BL/6 (C57) mice. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CD69, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR4, CXCR5, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were examined in the brain tissues, and in BTBR mice, a significant decrease in CD25, CD69, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR4,...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmad SF, Ansari MA, Nadeem A, Bakheet SA, Alanazi AZ, Alsanea S, As Sobeai HM, Almutairi MM, Mahmood HM, Attia SM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Clozapine increased c-Fos protein expression in the several brain subregions of socially isolated rats.
Abstract Chronic social stress and/or pharmacological treatments differentially modulate the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activity, in subregions of the rat brain. Here, we examined the effect of the atypical antipsychotic Clozapine (Clz) (20 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks) on the neuronal activation pattern of c-Fos protein expression in stress-relevant brain subregions of adult male Wistar rats exposed to chronic social isolation (CSIS: 3 weeks), an animal model of depression and schizophrenia, and controls. The protein expression of c-Fos was also used to map neuronal populations in brain subregions ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Stanisavljević A, Perić I, Bernardi RE, Gass P, Filipović D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 is involved in the upregulation of connexin expression following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice.
Abstract Epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous seizures. Changes in the expression of the connexins (Cxs) have been reported to be involved in epileptogenesis. It has previously been shown that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) plays an important role in the modulation of neuronal excitability, and that application of a TRPV4 antagonist blocks hyperthermia-induced seizures. Accordingly, in the present study, we sought to explore whether TRPV4 is involved in the regulation of Cx expression following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE) in mice. We observed that TRPV4 protein levels in...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Men C, Wang Z, Zhou L, Qi M, An D, Xu W, Zhan Y, Chen L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Destroyed non-dopaminergic pathways in the early stage of Parkinson's disease assessed by posturography.
lly J Abstract BACKGROUND: The early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) (Hoehn-Yahr (HY) I-II stages) is characterized by a negative pull test, which clinically excludes postural instability. Previous studies with dynamic posturography detected balance disturbances even at the onset of the disease but the age dependency or prediction of dyskinesia with dynamic posturography are not known. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the postural instability evoked by dynamic posturography was part of the early stage of PD. Furthermore, we studied how we can provoke dyskinesia. METHODS: Postural instability ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Halmi Z, Dinya E, Málly J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A novel designer drug, 25N-NBOMe, exhibits abuse potential via the dopaminergic system in rodents.
Abstract New psychoactive substances that have been modified and developed to mimic the effects of already prohibited drugs are an increasingly global problem. Among them, 2-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25N-NBOMe) belonging to the N-methoxybenzyl-phenethylamines (NBOMes) class has recently emerged as a new psychoactive substance. However, the rewarding effects of 25N-NBOMe have not yet been studied. Here, we investigated the addictive potential of 25N-NBOMe using conditioned place preference and self-administration in rodents. We also evaluated the effects of 25N-NBOMe on the dopami...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Seo JY, Hur KH, Ko YH, Kim K, Lee BR, Kim YJ, Kim SK, Kim SE, Lee YS, Kim HC, Lee SY, Jang CG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Spatial Exploration Induced Expression of Immediate Early Genes Fos and Zif268 in Adult-Born Neurons Is Reduced After Pentylenetetrazole Kindling.
In this study, we investigated whether adult-born neurons generated immediately before and during chronic seizures were capable of integration into behaviorally relevant hippocampal networks. Adult rats underwent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling for either 1 or 2 weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with BrdU immediately before kindling commenced. Twenty-four hours after receiving their last kindling treatment, rats were placed in a novel environment and allowed to freely explore for 30 minutes. The rats were euthanized 90 minutes later to examine for behaviourally-induced immediate early gene expression ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kalinina A, Maletta T, Carr J, Lehmann H, Fournier NM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Mitochondrial signaling in inflammation-induced depressive behavior in female and male rats: The role of glucocorticoid receptor.
Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction can result from the interplay between elevated inflammatory markers and alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and can contribute to pathogenesis of major depression. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) could be associated with alterations in mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in the prefrontal cortex of male and female Wistar rats with depressive-like behavior. To that end, we measured LPS-induced alterations in the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in mitochondria and...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Brkic Z, Milosavljevic M, Glavonic E, Adzic M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intranasal interferon beta improves memory and modulates inflammatory responses in a mutant APP-overexpressing rat model of Alzheimer's disease.
This study aimed to answer if the intranasal (IN) administration of IFNβ with high CNS accessibility can alleviate memory impairments in a mutant APP-overexpressing rat model of AD through modulating inflammatory responses. To address this question, the lentiviruses carrying human amyloid protein precursor (APP) with the Swedish and Indiana mutations (LV-APPSw/Ind) were bilaterally injected in the hippocampus of adult rats. Memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance task on days 49 and 50 after injection. Moreover, the expression of glial markers (GFAP and Iba1) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1&bet...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chavoshinezhad S, Mohseni Kouchesfahani H, Saied Salehi M, Pandamooz S, Ahmadiani A, Dargahi L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Differential impairment of short working and spatial memories in a rat model of progressive Parkinson's disease onset: a focus on the prodromal stage.
Abstract Studying the non-motor disorders of the prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD) is of great importance because of their negative impact on patient's quality of life. Classical neurotoxic animal models of PD generally unable the exploration of the progression of the non-motor phase of the prodromal stage of the disease. The aim of this study is to assess the evolution of two types of memory alteration namely; short working and spatial memories at different stages of the prodromal phase of a rat model of PD, using repetitive reserpine administration at low dose. The study was carried out in rat with rep...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Draoui A, El Hiba O, Khiat AEL, Abbaoui A, El Fari R, Gamrani H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Parkinson's Disease and Light: The Bright and the Dark Sides.
Abstract Light exerts a major influence on human behaviour and health, mainly owing to the importance of sight in our lives, but also due to its entrainment of daily rhythms via the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master pacemaker. Light may also be a useful clinical medium, as in lumino-therapy for the improvement of depressed mood. Further, as discussed herein, local application of near infrared light to the substantia nigra exerts neuroprotective properties in models of Parkinson's disease. However, light also has a darker side. In general, as regards the growing problem to human health - and the natural world - o...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Maggio R, Vaglini F, Rossi M, Fasciani I, Pietrantoni I, Marampon F, Corsini GU, Scarselli M, Millan MJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Anxiolytic and panicolytic-like effects of environmental enrichment seem to be modulated by serotonin neurons located in the dorsal subnucleus of the dorsal raphe.
na MB Abstract In a previous study, we showed that exposure of rats to a one-week environmental enrichment (EE) protocol decreases elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses, an anxiolytic-like effect, without altering escape reactions, in clinical terms related to panic disorder. These anxiolytic-like effects were followed by decreased delta FosB-immunoreactivity (delta FosB-ir) in the cingulate cortex, dorsolateral and intermediate lateral septum, hippocampus (cornus of Ammon), anterior and dorsomedial hypothalamus, medial and basolateral amygdala and ventral region of the dorsal raphe nucleus. The purpose of the...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lopes DA, Souza TMO, de Andrade JS, Silva MFS, Antunes HKM, Le Sueur Maluf L, Céspedes IC, Viana MB Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Calcitriol protects the Blood-Brain Barrier integrity against ischemic stroke and reduces vasogenic brain edema via antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions in rats.
CONCLUSION: Calcitriol may reduce brain injury and attenuate vasogenic edema by upregulating antioxidant enzymes activities, reducing cell apoptosis and increasing BDNF protein in the brain tissue in a rat model of ischemic stroke. PMID: 31220552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sadeghian N, Shadman J, Moradi A, Ghasem Golmohammadi M, Panahpour H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

FGF9 Alters The Wallerian Degeneration Process by Inhibiting Schwann Cell Transformation and Accelerating Macrophage Infiltration.
Conclusion was that FGF9 inhibited the dedifferentiation of SCs and accelerated the accumulation of macrophages in WD, and exogenous FGF9 took effects partially by ERK1/2. PMID: 31220553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wenjing L, Binbin D, Weisong D, Yi L, Xueqin S, Yingxiao J, Zhongyao L, Yakun L, Xiaoxiao W, Chunyan L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Reversal of Neurobehavioral Teratogenicity in animal models and human: Three Decades of Progress.
Abstract Early studies of behavioral teratology were mostly descriptive, fulfilling the necessary first requirement in a new field. The next obvious stage was put forward in the 80's as mechanism driven science enabled reversal of the teratology induced deficits. Three decades later a plethora of studies have been published demonstrating the success of the new direction. Complete and long-term (ostensibly permanent) reversal has been demonstrated in numerous animal models representing the realization of the ultimate goal of the field. Perhaps less sought after but still significant are the studies on recovery whic...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yanai J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Lithium Potentiated, Pyridoxine Abolished and Fluoxetine Attenuated the Anxiolytic Effect of Diazepam in Mice.
Abstract In the present study, the anxiolytic effect of diazepam (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) was determined alone and in combination with lithium (50 mg/kg, i.p.), pyridoxine (90 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) using elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark box (LDB) tests in experimental mice. The effect of various treatments on the brain GABA levels and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expression were also determined. The results obtained suggested that the diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) exerted anxiolytic effect and significantly increased the brain GABA levels and GAD expres...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Walia V, Garg C, Garg M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long-lasting changes in hippocampal GABAB-receptor mediated inhibition following early-life seizures in kindling-prone but not kindling-resistant rats.
Abstract The hypotheses that hippocampal GABAB receptor dysfunction is a long-lasting consequence of early-life seizures, and its dependence on genetic background, were tested. Two strains of rats bred to be prone (FAST) or resistant (SLOW) to amygdala kindling were used. On postnatal day (PND) 10, control rats were injected with saline, and seizure rats with kainic acid to induce status epilepticus (SE) for 2 hours. A significantly lower dose of kainic acid was found to induce SE in FAST as compared to SLOW rats. Population excitatory postsynaptic potentials (pEPSPs) and population spikes (PSs) were record...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Leung LS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of anisomycin infusions into the dorsal striatum on memory consolidation of intense training and neurotransmitter activity.
; RA, Quirarte GL Abstract The most influential hypothesis about the neurobiological basis of memory consolidation posits that this process is dependent upon de novo protein synthesis. Strong support for this proposition has been provided by a multitude of experiments showing that protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) interfere with consolidation. However, this hypothesis has been challenged by the results of studies showing that PSIs also produce a host of side effects that, by themselves, could account for their amnestic effects. It has been demonstrated that amnestic treatments become innocuous when administered ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: González-Franco DA, Bello-Medina PC, Serafín N, Prado-Alcalá RA, Quirarte GL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

3D bioprinting models of neural tissues: the current state of the field and future directions.
Abstract 3D bioprinting can potentially revolutionize the field of neural tissue engineering by increasing its throughput and reproducibility. However, many obstacles must be overcome to realize this immense potential. This review first discusses how 3D hydrogels can serve as powerful tools for engineering neural tissue, especially when combined with different types of cells. These tools enable us to gain a better understanding of neural tissue development and its associated disease states. Next, we define 3D bioprinting and detail the necessary tools for using this technique to produce neural tissue, along with r...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: de la Vega L, Lee C, Sharma R, Amereh M, Willerth SM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 sponges microRNA-429 to regulate apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage by regulating WNT1.
In this study we tried to ascertain whether lncRNA MALAT1, with the involvement of miR-429 and WNT1, affects HIBD. Initially, a HIBD mouse model was established. Then, we treated HIBD mice with dexmedetomidine (DEX) and then up- or down-regulated the expression of MALAT1, miR-429 and WNT1 in HIBD mice and neurons. Meanwhile, brain injury and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis were evaluated. Moreover, the interaction among MALAT1, miR-429 and WNT1 in HIBD was investigated. MALAT1 and WNT1 were high-expressed in brain tissues of HIBD mice while miR-429 was low-expressed in brain tissues from HIBD mice. Interestingly, MALAT1 sil...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fang H, Li HF, He MH, Yan JY, Yang M, Zhang FX, Wang RR, Wang QY, Zhang JP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Constraint induced movement therapy promotes contralesional-oriented structural and bihemispheric functional neuroplasticity after stroke.
In conclusion, the contralesional motor cortex and red nucleus might play more important roles than corresponding ipsilesional regions in structural reorganization during CIMT-induced motor recovery after stroke. However, CIMT promotes bilateral motor cortex activity without a side preference. PMID: 31181321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu P, Li C, Zhang B, Zhang Z, Gao B, Liu Y, Wang Y, Hua Y, Hu J, Qiu X, Bai Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long lasting behavioral and electrophysiological action of early administration of guanosine: analysis in the adult rat brain.
Abstract Guanosine (GUO) is a guanine-based purine that has been extensively described in the literature as an endogenous nucleoside with participation in brain cell signalling pathways. Here, we evaluated whether chronic treatment with exogenous guanosine during brain development altered behavioral and electrophysiological parameters in adulthood. Rat pups received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 10, 50 or 100 mg/ kg/day GUO, or saline solution or no treatment (naive group) from postnatal (P) day 7 to P27. At P60-65 the animals were behaviorally tested in the Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM). On P90-100, the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: da Silva JM, Abadie-Guedes R, Lopes-de-Morais AAC, Gondim-Silva KR, Guedes RCA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Oxidative stress markers in cognitively intact patients with diabetic neuropathy.
A, Lima LM Abstract Various forms of vascular injury are frequently associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Macro-angiopathy has alarming signs and symptoms such as those seen with stroke or heart attack, however the presentation of small vessel disease is generally more subtle and therefore usually unnoticed for a long period of time. While it may affect any organ, complications involving the nervous system such as diabetic poly-neuropathy (DPN) are especially debilitating, and it may also be a risk factor for other brain disorders such as dementia. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be multi-facete...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Etienne I, Magalhães LVB, Cardoso SA, de Freitas RB, de Oliveira GP, Palotás A, Lima LM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Crocin attenuation of neurological deficits in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage.
Abstract Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating subtype of stroke that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, up to now, there are no effective prevention methods or specific therapies to improve its clinical outcomes. Herein, we explore preliminarily the efficacy of crocin, a carotenoid extracted from the stigma of saffron known for its anti-oxidation and free radical scavenging activities, in a mouse ICH model induced with collagenase infusion. Crocin or saline was administrated 6 hours after ICH and then every 12 hours for up to 7 days. Neurological scores were examined...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Duan Z, Li H, Qi X, Wei Y, Guo X, Li Y, Wu D, Tian M, Ma L, You C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Challenges of Gene Delivery to the Central Nervous System and the Growing use of Biomaterial Vectors.
Abstract Gene therapy is a promising form of treatment for those suffering from neurological disorders or central nervous system (CNS) injury, however, obstacles remain that limit its translational potential. The CNS is protected by the blood brain barrier, and this barrier blocks genes from traversing into the CNS if administered outside of the CNS. Viral and non-viral gene delivery vehicles, commonly referred to as vectors, are modified to enhance delivery efficiency to target locations in the CNS. Still, there are few gene therapy approaches approved by the FDA for CNS disease or injury treatment. The lack of v...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Puhl DL, D'Amato AR, Gilbert RJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Purinergic signaling as a target for emerging neurotherapeutics.
PMID: 31163189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Engel T, Sperlagh B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Melatonin attenuates white matter damage after focal brain ischemia in rats by regulating the TLR4/NF- κB pathway.
Melatonin attenuates white matter damage after focal brain ischemia in rats by regulating the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Brain Res Bull. 2019 May 31;: Authors: Zhao Y, Wang H, Chen W, Chen L, Liu D, Wang X, Wang X Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible neuroprotective effects of melatonin against brain white matter damage via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/ nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in focal cerebral ischemic rats. METHODS: Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the Sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and melatonin groups. The success...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao Y, Wang H, Chen W, Chen L, Liu D, Wang X, Wang X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Influence of the CB1 cannabinoid receptors on the activity of the monoaminergic system in the behavioural tests in mice.
Abstract Antidepressants that target the monoaminergic system are prescribed most frequently in the psychiatric practice. However, not all patients benefit from their use. It is generally known that co-administration of agents aiming distinct targets may increase the therapeutic effect and at the same time permit dose reduction. A number of studies have suggested a CB1 receptor-mediated interplay between the endocannabinoid system and the monoaminergic signalling in the brain. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether the CB1 receptor ligands (oleamide and AM251) affect the activity of the common antidepressant dr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Poleszak E, Wośko S, Sławińska K, Wyska E, Szopa A, Doboszewska U, Wlaź P, Wlaź A, Dudka J, Szponar J, Serefko A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of chemokines in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with an increasing incidence year by year, particularly as the population ages. The most common neuropathologic manifestation in patients with Parkinson's disease is dopamine neurons degeneration and loss in substantia nigra of middle brain. The main neurochemistry problem is the lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Clinically, PD patients may also have higher levels of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters. At present, many data have shown that some chemokines are involved in regulating ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu JQ, Chu SF, Zhou X, Zhang DY, Chen NH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Functional characterization of a novel adenosine A2B receptor agonist on short-term plasticity and synaptic inhibition during oxygen and glucose deprivation in the rat CA1 hippocampus.
In this study we provide the first functional characterization of the newly synthesized non-nucleoside like A2BR agonist P453, belonging to the amino-3,5-dicyanopyridine series. By extracellular electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrated that P453 mimicked the effect of the prototypical A2BR agonist BAY60-6583 in decreasing PPF at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in rat acute hippocampal slices. This effect was prevented by two different A2BR antagonists, PSB603 and MRS1754, and by the A1R antagonist DPCPX. We also investigated the functional role of A2BR during a 2 minutes of oxygen and glucose deprivation (O...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fusco I, Cherchi F, Catarzi D, Colotta V, Varano F, Pedata F, Pugliese AM, Coppi E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A novel compound AB-38b improves diabetes-associated cognitive decline in mice via activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway.
CONCLUSION: AB-38b improved the cognitive performances of diabetic mice, which was achieved via up-regulation of Glo-1 and activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway. PMID: 31132419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen YJ, Tang ZZ, Du L, Liu Y, Lu Q, Ma TF, Liu YW Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Activation of Adenosine A2a receptor accelerates and A2a receptor antagonist reduces intermittent hypoxia induced PC12 cell injury via PKC-KATP pathway.
In conclusion, our findings indicate that A2a receptor induced KATP expression by PKC activation and plays a role in accelerating PC12 cells injury induced by intermittent hypoxia exposure via A2a-PKC-KATP signal pathway mediated apoptosis. PMID: 31129168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Singh BL, Chen L, Cai H, Shi H, Wang Y, Yu C, Chen X, Han X, Cai X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory treatment with β-asarone improves impairments in social interaction and cognition in MK-801 treated mice.
Anti-inflammatory treatment with β-asarone improves impairments in social interaction and cognition in MK-801 treated mice. Brain Res Bull. 2019 May 23;: Authors: Xiao X, Xu X, Li F, Xie G, Zhang T Abstract The aim of this study investigates whether β-asarone can improve cognition deficits in dizocilpine (MK-801) treated mice. Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control group (CON), MK-801-treated group (MK-801), MK-801 plus β-asarone group (MK-801+β-asa) and β-asarone group (β-asa). Behavioral tests, including sociability test, open field test (...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiao X, Xu X, Li F, Xie G, Zhang T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Interleukin-33 reduces neuronal damage and white matter injury via selective microglia M2 polarization after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.
In this study, we tried to explore the role of IL-33 in neuronal damage and WMI after ICH and the underlying mechanisms. The in vivo ICH model was performed by autologous whole blood injection into the right basal ganglia in rats. Immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, brain water content measurement, FJB staining, and TUNEL staining were applied in this study. IL-33 expression was increased in whole brain tissues post-ICH, mainly rapidly increased in ipsilateral astrocyte and microglia, but stayed at a low level in neurons. Intracerebroventricular infusion of IL-33 after ICH attenuated short-term and long-term neurological d...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Z, Xu N, Dai X, Zhao C, Wu X, Shankar S, Huang H, Wang Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A roadmap for promoting endogenous in situ tissue restoration using inductive bioscaffolds after acute brain injury.
Abstract The regeneration of brain tissue remains one of the greatest unsolved challenges in medicine and by many is considered unfeasible. Indeed, the adult mammalian brain does not regenerate tissue, but there is ongoing endogenous neurogenesis, which is upregulated after injury and contributes to tissue repair. This endogenous repair response is a conditio sine que non for tissue regeneration. However, scarring around the lesion core and cavitation provide unfavorable conditions for tissue regeneration in the brain. Based on the success of using extracellular matrix (ECM)-based bioscaffolds in peripheral soft t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Modo M, Badylak SF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The rs-fMRI study of effects of Fornix and Hippocampus-related Brain Function after the Transcallosal Interforniceal Approach.
CONCLUSIONS: The short-term effects of Reho, ALFF and fALFF in brain regions of children patients can recover to preoperative state with time. The operation did not interrupt the connections between DMN and hippocampus related brain areas. The effects of surgery can restore to the preoperative state in 3 months after operation. PMID: 31128251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu J, Zhao YP, Zhang YQ, Li YJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Predicting transgenic markers of a neuron by electrophysiological properties using machine learning.
Abstract The task of classifying and identifying neurons, the essential components of the nervous system, has been undertaken in a variety of ways. The transcriptomic approach has become more accessible with the development of genetic engineering techniques. Considering the information processing function of the brain, however, it is necessary to consider the physiological characteristics of neurons. Recently, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has published the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons which were tagged with a transgenic reporter. We used these electrophysiological features to predict th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Seo I, Lee H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Regulation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 during consolidation and extinction of fear memory.
Abstract Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression epigenetically through synchronized removal of acetyl groups from histones required towards memory consolidation. Moreover, dysregulated epigenetic machinery during fear or extinction learning may result in altered expression of some of these genes and result in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In the present study, region-specific expression of Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) was correlated to the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and the resultant conditioned response, in rats undergone fear and extinction learni...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Siddiqui SA, Singh S, Ugale R, Ranjan V, Kanojia R, Saha S, Tripathy S, Kumar S, Mehrotra S, Modi DR, Prakash A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Engineering Biomaterials to Control the Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells.
Abstract Stem cells with the potential for neural differentiation are a promising therapeutic avenue both for treating neurological disease and as a system to advance our fundamental understanding of disease biology in vitro. Precisely controlled extracellular environments that recapitulate critical aspects of embryonic development or the adult stem cell niche are necessary to ensure effective differentiation into the desired cell type. Biomaterials in particular have enabled new avenues for directing stem cell differentiation through the precise presentation of biochemical and biophysical cues. Furthermore, as tr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zimmermann JA, Schaffer DV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research