Sexually Diergic Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Responses to Selective and Non-Selective Muscarinic Antagonists Prior to Cholinergic Stimulation by Physostigmine in Rats.
Abstract Central cholinergic systems regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis differentially in males and females (sexual diergism). We previously investigated the role of muscarinic receptors in this regulation by administering physostigmine (PHYSO), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, to male and female rats pretreated with scopolamine (SCOP), a nonselective muscarinic antagonist. SCOP pretreatment enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) responses in both sexes; males had greater ACTH responses while females had greater CORT responses. In the present study, we further e...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Smail MA, Soles JL, Karwoski TE, Rubin RT, Rhodes ME Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Blockade of platelet-activating factor receptor attenuates abnormal behaviors induced by phencyclidine in mice through down-regulation of NF- κB.
Blockade of platelet-activating factor receptor attenuates abnormal behaviors induced by phencyclidine in mice through down-regulation of NF-κB. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Nov 06;: Authors: Tran TV, Park SJ, Shin EJ, Tran HQ, Jeong JH, Jang CG, Lee YJ, Nah SY, Nabeshima T, Kim HC Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is one of the important etiologic factors of abusive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is potent proinflammatory lipid mediat1or and plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammatory disorders through the specific PAF receptor (PAF-R). Phenc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tran TV, Park SJ, Shin EJ, Tran HQ, Jeong JH, Jang CG, Lee YJ, Nah SY, Nabeshima T, Kim HC Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Vitamin A Improves the Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Decreases 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT): a Pilot Study.
This study suggested that VA supplementation may improve symptoms and reduce 5-HT levels in children with ASD, indicating that VA supplementation is a reasonable therapy at least for a subset of children with autism. PMID: 29122693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo M, Zhu J, Yang T, Lai X, Liu X, Liu J, Chen J, Li T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Evaluating the protective effect of etazolate on memory impairment, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by post traumatic stress disorder.
In conclusion, our data suggests that memory impairment, anxiety, and depression symptoms that are induced by PTSD can be prevented using etazolate. PMID: 29107895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alzoubi KH, Al Subeh ZY, Khabour OF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Goal-directed behavior elevates gamma oscillations in nidopallium caudolaterale of pigeon.
In this study, we recorded the LFP activity from the NCL of six pigeons when they performed a goal-directed decision-making task in a plus-maze. Spectral analysis revealed a significant LFP-power increase in the gamma-band (40-60 Hz) during the decision-making process. Moreover, the LFP activity in the gamma-band was modulated by the behavioral outcomes of pigeons. It could decode effectively the motion directions of animals. These results indicate that the gamma rhythm of LFP recorded from the NCL correlates with the goal-directed behavior of pigeons. PMID: 29102712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu X, Zhao K, Dongyun W, Ping Y, Wan H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The Anticonvulsant Activity and Cerebral Protection of Chronic Lithium Chloride via NMDA Receptor/Nitric Oxide and phospho-ERK.
Abstract The underlying mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of lithium chloride in neurodegenerative diseases such as seizures remain unknown. In present study the downstream signaling pathway of phospho-ERK/NMDA receptors/nitric oxide has been studied. For this purpose, acute and chronic effect of lithium in seizure animal model and the interaction of NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor (7-NI) with these neuroprotection has been studied. Acute lithium administration showed pro-convulsive properties in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model while chr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jafari RM, Ghahremani MH, Rahimi N, Shadboorestan A, Rashidian A, Esmaeili J, Ejtemaei Mehr S, Dehpour AR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intra-vermis H4 receptor agonist impairs performance in anxiety- and fear-mediated models.
Abstract The neural histaminergic system modulates cognitive performance in various animal models. However, little is known about the effects of the H4 histaminergic receptor in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of histaminergic H4 agonist VUF-8430 microinjection into the cerebellar vermis on the consolidation of emotional memory in mice subjected to the elevated plus maze (EPM) and inhibitory avoidance task (IAT). All experiments were performed on two consecutive days: exposure (T1 and D1) and 24h after, which we called re-exposure (T2 and D2). The animals receive...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fernandes CEM, Serafim KR, Gianlorenco ACL, Mattioli R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of articaine on [(3)H]noradrenaline release from cortical and spinal cord slices prepared from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and compared to lidocaine.
i ES, Hermann P Abstract Since a significant proportion of diabetic patients have clinical or subclinical neuropathy, there may be concerns about the use of local anaesthetics. The present study was designed to determine and compare the effects of articaine, a widely used anaesthetic in dental practice, and lidocaine on the resting and axonal stimulation-evoked release of [(3)H]noradrenaline ([(3)H]NA) in prefrontal cortex slices and the release of [(3)H]NA in spinal cord slices prepared from non-diabetic and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (glucose level=22.03±2.31mmol/l) rats. The peak of allodynia wa...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Végh D, Somogyi A, Bányai D, Lakatos M, Balogh M, Al-Khrasani M, Fürst S, Vizi ES, Hermann P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A Novel Method for Oxygen Glucose Deprivation Model in Organotypic Spinal Cord Slices.
This study aimed to establish a model to closely mimic spinal cord hypoxic-ischemic injury with high production and high reproducibility. Fourteen-day cultured organotypic spinal cord slices were divided into 4 groups: control (Ctrl), oxygen glucose deprived for 30min (OGD 30min), OGD 60min, and OGD 120min. The Ctrl slices were incubated with 1ml propidium iodide (PI) solution (5μg/ml) for 30minutes. The OGD groups were incubated with 1ml glucose-free DMEM/F12 medium and 5μl PI solution (1mg/ml) for 30min, 60min and 120min, respectively. Positive control slice was fixed by 4% paraformaldehyde for 20minutes. The cultu...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu JJ, Ding XY, Xiang L, Zhao F, Huang SL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Chemokine CCL8 and its Receptor CCR5 in the Spinal Cord are Involved in Visceral Pain Induced by Experimental Colitis in Mice.
Abstract Visceral hypersensitivity induced by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a clinical challenge since the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Chemokines and their receptors have been suggested to modulate inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. However, the exact chemokines involved in visceral pain remain to be determined. Here, we investigated the effects of spinal chemokine CCL8 and its major receptor CCR5 on the development of visceral hyperalgesia. We showed that intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice produced significant colonic inflammation and visceral hyperse...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu Y, Jiang BC, Cao DL, Zhao LX, Zhang YL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Involvement of integrin β1/FAK signaling in the analgesic effects induced by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in neuropathic pain.
Involvement of integrin β1/FAK signaling in the analgesic effects induced by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in neuropathic pain. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Oct 12;: Authors: Wang HJ, Song G, Liang J, Gao YY, Wang CJ Abstract Treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) continues to be a clinical challenge and the underlying mechanisms of NP remain elusive. More evidence suggests that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent anti-nociceptive effects on NP, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Recent data have shown that integrin β1 plays an important part...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang HJ, Song G, Liang J, Gao YY, Wang CJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mice model via inhibition of apoptotic pathways of dopaminergic neurons.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. The neuroprotective effects of an ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (BM) were evaluated in a Parkinsonian mice model induced by the MPTP. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by BM, an herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic extract of BM was co-treated with the MPTP induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue the motor behaviour (Rotarod, Grip Strength and Foot Printing test). Furt...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Singh B, Pandey S, Yadav SK, Verma R, Singh SP, Mahdi AA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

ATP released from astrocytes modulates action potential threshold and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the neonatal rat prefrontal cortex.
aacute;gh B Abstract Maternal immune activation during pregnancy is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia; however, a full mechanistic understanding has yet to be established. The activity of a transient cell population, the subplate neurons, is critical for the development of cortical inhibition and functional thalamocortical connections. Sensitivity of these cells to factors released during inflammation, therefore, may offer a link between maternal immune activation and the aberrant cortical development underlying some neuropsychiatric disorders. An elevated extracellular ATP conc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Beamer E, Kovács G, Sperlágh B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effects of the 5-HT7 receptor on hippocampal long-term potentiation and apoptosis in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder involving synaptic loss and impairments in learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic function is a model of learning- and memory-related neural plasticity, of which serotonin (5-HT) is a key modulator in the hippocampus. As the 5-HT7 receptor subtype is implicated in hippocampal neuronal function, dendritic rearrangement, and neurogenesis, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 5-HT7 receptor activation on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and apoptosis in a rat model of AD. AD was induced via intracerebrov...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hashemi-Firouzi N, Komaki A, Soleimani Asl S, Shahidi S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Antidepressants promote formation of heterocomplexes of dopamine D2 and somatostatin subtype 5 receptors in the mouse striatum.
ska M Abstract The interaction between the dopaminergic and somatostatinergic systems is considered to play a potential role in mood regulation. Chronic administration of antidepressants influences release of both neurotransmitters. The molecular basis of the functional cooperation may stem from the physical interaction of somatostatin receptor subtypes and dopamine D2 receptors since they colocalize in striatal interneurons and were shown to undergo ligand-dependent heterodimerization in heterologous expression systems. In present study we adapted in situ proximity ligation assay to investigate the occurrence of ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Szafran-Pilch K, Faron-Górecka A, Kolasa M, Żurawek D, Szlachta M, Solich J, Kuśmider M, Dziedzicka-Wasylewska M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Follow up Study: The Influence of rTMS with High and Low Frequency Stimulation on Motor and Executive Function in Parkinson's disease.
This study draws attention to the importance of stimulation intensity and age as a predictor of the effect of rTMS. PMID: 28987283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Málly J, Geisz N, Dinya E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of endogenous melatoninergic system in development of hyperalgesia and tolerance induced by chronic morphine administration in rats.
In this study, we established a rat model of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. We determined the serum level of melatonin and expression of μ-opioid receptor (MOR), melatonin receptor (MT1, MT2) and protein kinase C γ(PKCγ)in the spinal dorsal horn of the rats with morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. Comparing with control group (n=6), the group (n=6) of rats with morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance exhibited a significant lower serum melatonin level, reduction in expression of the MT1, but up-regulation of the PKCγ in the spinal dorsal horn. These results may facilitate rev...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan Y, Liang X, Wang R, Song L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Lentivirus carrying the NeuroD1 gene promotes the conversion from glial cells into neurons in a spinal cord injury model.
In this study, we aimed to reprogram reactive glial cells into neural stem cells and neurons in vivo, by up-regulating NeuroD1. 60 rats were randomly divided into three groups with equal numbers. All rats received a spinal cord injury. Group A received only normal saline injection. Group B received unloaded lentivirus injection. Group C received NeuroD1 recombinant lentivirus injection. The BBB scores of the animals were documented at 3, 7, 14, 21days after SCI. 5 random rats of each group were removed at those timings after SCI and sacrificed. In the spinal cord slices, the numbers and morphology of neural stem cells, imm...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen W, Zhang B, Xu S, Lin R, Wang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Crassifoside H Improve the Depressive-Like Behavior of Rats under Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Possible Involved Mechanisms.
This study aimed to explore the antidepressant-like effect of CH and involved mechanisms. A rat depression model was established using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) paradigm. Behavioral tests including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of CH. The levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT) and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in hypothalamus were measured to determine the activity of hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Protein expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor, brain-derived neurotro...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Y, Ge JF, Wang FF, Liu F, Shi C, Li N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of gut microbiota disturbance induced in early life on the expression of extrasynaptic GABA-A receptor α5 and δ subunits in the hippocampus of adult rat.
This study used juvenile rats fed with amplin-Na in order to result in degree III of dysbiosis of intestinal flora and examined their emotional change using tail suspension test, forced swim test and Morris water maze. And our study investigated the expression of GABA-A receptor α5 and δ subunits in the hippocampus in the adulthood using q-pcr and immunohistochemistry. We aimed to observe the role of GABA-A receptor α5 and δ subunits changes induced by juvenile gut microbiota disturbance in the pathogenesis of emotional disorders in adulthood. In addition, we investigated the protective effects of p...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liang L, Yuan J, Zhang S, Wu H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Delayed 2-hour post-stroke administration of R18 and NA-1 (TAT-NR2B9c) peptides after permanent and/or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.
Abstract Following positive results with the poly-arginine peptide R18 when administered intravenously 30 or 60minutes after permanent and/or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; 90min) in the rat, we examined the effectiveness of the peptide when administered 2hours after MCAO. R18 was administered intravenously (1000nmol/kg via jugular vein) after permanent MCAO or a transient 3-hour MCAO or when administered intra-arterially (100nmol/kg via internal carotid artery) immediately after reperfusion following a transient 2-hour MCAO. In the transient MCAO studies, the neuroprotective NA-1 peptide was us...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Milani D, Cross JL, Anderton RS, Blacker DJ, Knuckey NW, Meloni BP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Influence of physical activity on addiction parameters of rats exposed to amphetamine which were previously supplemented with hydrogenated vegetable fat.
Abstract Amphetamine (AMPH) and its derivatives are addictive drugs used to promote and enhance alertness, motivation, willingness, courage and wellbeing. However, their chronic use is related to memory loss, emotional instability, insomnia, psychosis and paranoia. In the last decades, modern society has included processed foods, rich in trans fatty acids (TFA), in their diet, what has been related to several health problems including increased AMPH preference and self-administration. In this scenario, physical activity appears to be useful to attenuate rewarding symptoms related to addictive drugs mainly by affec...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Segat HJ, Barcelos RCS, Metz VG, Rosa HZ, Roversi K, Antoniazzi CTD, Vey LT, Kronbauer M, Veit JC, Piccolo JC, Emanueli T, Burger ME Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on HIV-gp120-associated neuropathic pain induced by the P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglia.
In this study, we sought to explore the effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (nano curcumin) on HIV-gp120-induced neuropathic pain mediated by the P2X3 receptor in DRG neurons. The results showed that mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats treated with gp120 were increased compared to those in the control group. The expression levels of P2X3 mRNA and protein in rats treated with gp120 were higher than those in the control group. Nano curcumin treatment decreased mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia and upregulated the expression levels of P2X3 mRNA and protein in rats treated with gp120. Nano curc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao S, Yang J, Han X, Gong Y, Rao S, Wu B, Yi Z, Zou L, Jia T, Li L, Yuan H, Shi L, Zhang C, Gao Y, Li G, Liu S, Xu H, Liu H, Liang S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Proanthocyanidin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice via neuroinflammatory pathway.
Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated neuroinflammation and increased cytokine levels are associated with depression. Aware of the efficacy the potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of proanthocyanidin, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of proanthocyanidin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. In depressive behavior tests, the immobility time of forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) was increased when mice were administrated a single dose of LPS (0.83mg/kg, i.p.), whereas these alterations were reversed by proanthocyan...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang X, Liu J, Lin Q, Mao K, Tian F, Jing C, Wang C, Ding L, Pang C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Enriched Environment combined with Fluoxetine ameliorates depression-like behaviors and hippocampal SYP expression in a rat CUS model.
Abstract Effects of enriched environment (EE) combined with fluoxetine in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) rat model were examined in our study. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, CUS group, CUS+EE group, CUS+fluoxetine group, and CUS+EE+fluoxetine group (n=six per group). Rats in the CUS group were bred under conditions of CUS and separation for 6 weeks; Control group animals were bred in group cages (three rats per cage) under standard laboratory conditions for 6 weeks; Rats in CUS+EE group, CUS+fluoxetine group, and CUS+EE+fluoxetine groups were bred under the conditio...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu C, Gu JY, Han JH, Yan FL, Li Y, Lv TT, Zhao LQ, Shao QJ, Feng YY, Zhang XY, Wang CH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Heroin-induced suppression of saccharin intake in OPRM1 A118G mice.
Abstract The single nucleotide polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor, OPRM1 A118G, has been associated with greater drug and alcohol use, increased sensitivity to pain, and reduced sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of opiates. In the present studies, we employed a 'humanized' mouse model containing the wild-type (118AA) or variant (118GG) allele to examine behavior in a model of heroin-induced devaluation of an otherwise palatable saccharin cue when repeated saccharin-heroin pairings occurred every 24h (Experiment 1) or every 48h (Experiment 2). The results showed that, while both the 118AA and 118GG m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Freet CS, Alexander DN, Imperio CG, Ruiz-Velasco V, Grigson PS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Investigating the transition from recent to remote memory using advanced tools.
Abstract Remote memories, weeks to decades long, are usually the ones most important to the organism, as the longevity of a memory is tightly connected to its significance. Retrograde amnesia studies in human patients as well as lesions and immediate early gene expression investigation in animal models, suggested that the hippocampus has a time dependent role in memory consolidation. Namely, that as a memory matures it becomes independent of the hippocampus and instead depends on extra-hippocampal areas. However, accumulating evidence implies that this temporal segregation is not as rigid as originally proposed. I...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Doron A, Goshen I Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The flavonoid Baicalein attenuates cuprizone-induced demyelination via suppression of neuroinflammation.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent and progressive demyelination/remyelination cycles, neuroinflammation, oligodendrocyte loss, and axonal pathology. Baicalein isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. The cuprizone model is an established mouse model of MS and causes demyelination and motor dysfunction to induce neuroinflammation such as glial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To determine whether Baicalein attenuates cuprizone-in...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hashimoto M, Yamamoto S, Iwasa K, Yamashina K, Ishikawa M, Maruyama K, Bosetti F, Yoshikawa K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The P2X7 receptor in dorsal root ganglia is involved in HIV gp120-associated neuropathic pain.
In this study, we aimed to explore the role of the P2X7 receptor in gp120-induced neuropathic pain using a rat model specific for this type of pain. The results showed that mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and P2X7 expression levels were increased in rats treated with gp120. The P2X7 antagonist, brilliant blue G (BBG), decreased hyperalgesia and P2X7 expression levels in rats treated with gp120. BBG also decreased IL-1β and TNF-α receptor expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels and increased IL-10 expression in the gp120-treated rat DRG. In addition, P2X7 agonist (BzATP)-activated currents in D...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu B, Peng L, Xie J, Zou L, Zhu Q, Jiang H, Yi Z, Wang S, Xue Y, Gao Y, Li G, Liu S, Zhang C, Li G, Liang S, Xiong H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Molecular and Synaptic Mechanisms Regulating Drug-Associated Memories: Towards a Bidirectional Treatment Strategy.
Abstract The successful treatment of substance use disorders is dependent on the establishment of a long-term abstinent state. Relapse can be suppressed by interfering with memories of drug use that are evoked by re-exposure to drug-associated contexts and cues. Two strategies for accomplishing this goal are either to prevent drug-memory reconsolidation or to induce the formation of a competing, extinction memory. However, clinical attempts to prolong abstinence by behavioral modification of drug-related memories have had limited success. One approach to improve behavioral treatments strategies is to identify the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rich MT, Torregrossa MM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Female rats exhibit less avoidance than male rats of a cocaine-, but not a morphine-paired, saccharin cue.
Abstract Rats avoid intake of an otherwise palatable taste cue when paired with drugs of abuse (Grigson and Twining, 2002). In male rats, avoidance of drug-paired taste cues is associated with conditioned blunting of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (Grigson and Hajnal, 2007), conditioned elevation in circulating corticosterone (Gomez et al., 2000), and greater avoidance of the drug-paired cue predicts greater drug-taking (Grigson and Twining, 2002; Twining et al., 2009). While female rats generally are more responsive to drug than male rats, in this self-administration model, female rats consume more of a cocain...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jenney CB, Dasalla J, Grigson PS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

MicroRNA-137 and its downstream target LSD1 inversely regulate anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion neurons.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-137-3p and its downstream target LSD1 are inversely associated to regulate anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity in DRGN. This signaling pathway may be a therapeutic candidate to reduce anesthetics-induced neurological damage in human patients. PMID: 28899795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen L, Wang X, Huang W, Ying T, Chen M, Cao J, Wang M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Once is too much: Early development of the opponent process in taste reactivity behavior is associated with later escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats.
Abstract Evidence suggests that the addiction process may begin immediately in some vulnerable subjects. Specifically, some rats have been shown to exhibit aversive taste reactivity (gapes) following the intraoral delivery of a cocaine-predictive taste cue after as few as 1 to 2 taste-drug pairings. After only 3 to 4 trials, the number of gapes becomes a reliable predictor of later cocaine self-administration. Given that escalation of drug-taking behavior over time is recognized as a key feature of substance use disorder (SUD) and addiction, the present study examined the relationship between early aversion to the...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Colechio EM, Alexander DN, Imperio CG, Jackson K, Grigson PS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Activity-dependent changes in transporter and potassium currents in hippocampal astrocytes.
Abstract Astrocytes are involved in maintenance of synaptic microenvironment by glutamate uptake and K(+) clearance. These processes are associated with net charge transfer across the membrane and therefore can be recorded as glutamate transporter (IGluT) and K(+) (IK) currents. It has been previously shown that the blockade of IK with BaCl2 enhances the IGluT. Here we show that activity-dependent facilitation (5 stimuli at 50Hz) of IGluT was not significantly different in BaCl2 compared to facilitation of IGluT isolated by post-hoc subtraction of IK. Nevertheless, BaCl2 abolished the activity-dependent prolongati...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lebedeva A, Plata A, Nosova O, Tyurikova O, Semyanov A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective effects of kinetin against aluminum chloride and D-galactose induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in mouse.
Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that aluminum exposure and oxidative stress play crucial roles in the initiation and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and D-galactose (D-gal) combined treatment of mice is considered as an easy and cheap way to obtain an animal model of AD. Kinetin is a plant cytokinin, which is also reported to exert neuro-protective effects in vivo and in vitro. Thus, in this study, neuro-protective effects of kinetin were investigated in an AD model of mice induced by AlCl3 and D-gal. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to directly evaluate neur...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wei Y, Liu D, Zheng Y, Li H, Hao C, Ouyang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Downregulations of TRPM8 expression and membrane trafficking in dorsal root ganglion mediate the attenuation of cold hyperalgesia in CCI rats induced by GFR α3 knockdown.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that GFRα3 knockdown specially inhibits cold hyperalgesia following CCI via decreasing the expression level and plasma membrane trafficking of TRPM8 in DRG. GFRα3 and its downstream mediator, TRPM8, represent a new analgesia axis which can be further exploited in sensitized cold reflex under the condition of chronic pain. PMID: 28867384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Su L, Shu R, Song C, Yu Y, Wang G, Li Y, Liu C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Attenuation of pCREB and Egr1 expression in the insular and anterior cingulate cortices associated with enhancement of CFA-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity after repeated forced swim stress.
Abstract The perception and response to pain are severely impacted by exposure to stressors. In some animal models, stress increases pain sensitivity, which is termed stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). The insular cortex (IC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which are typically activated by noxious stimuli, affect pain perception through the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study, we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and early growth response 1 (Egr1) in the IC and ACC at 3h (the acute phase of peripheral tissue inflammation) after complete Freund...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Imbe H, Kimura A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of rehabilitation training on apoptosis of nerve cells and the recovery of neural and motor functions in rats with ischemic stroke through the PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways.
This study was designed in order to investigate the effects between rehabilitation training on the apoptosis of nerve cells and the recovery of neural and motor functions of rats with ischemic stroke by way of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathways. In total, 110 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected in order to take part in this study. Ninety SD rats were used in order to establish the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), among which 80 rats were randomly assigned as part of th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jin XF, Wang S, Shen M, Wen X, Han XR, Wu JC, Tang GZ, Wu DM, Lu J, Zheng YL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Aspirin resistance are associated with long-term recurrent stroke events after ischaemic stroke.
In this study, the median age was 68 years (IQR, 60-77 years), and 118 (55.1%) were men. A total of 43 of 214 enrolled patients (20.1%) were AR. ARU levels were significantly higher in patients with recurrence than those without (514[IQR: 466-592] vs. 454[IQR: 411-499]; P
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang N, Wang Z, Zhou L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Repetitive Unilateral Intra-amygdala Kainic Acid Injection Establishes A Rhesus Monkey Model of Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
CONCLUSIONS: Through a modified protocol of unilateral repetitive intra-amygdala KA injection, a rhesus monkey model with high similarity to chronic TLE was developed. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated that acute convulsive status epilepticus were not necessary for developing a chronic epilepsy condition in rhesus monkey. And after KA injection, animals showed a progressive nature characterized by secondary discharges. PMID: 28842304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chi Y, Wu B, Guan J, Xiao K, Lu Z, Li X, Xu Y, Xue S, Xu Q, Rao J, Guo Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside Rg2 in a chronic mild stress model of depression.
This study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of ginsenoside Rg2 in mice, and the possible mechanism was also determined. A single injection of both Rg2 (10 and 20mg/kg) and fluoxetine (positive control, 20mg/kg) induced notable antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and tail suspension test without affecting the locomotor activity of mice, and the tests were done 30min after the injection. Also, repeated daily treatment of Rg2 and fluoxetine for the last 2 weeks fully reversed the chronic mild stress (6 weeks)-induced depressive-like symptoms in mice. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that Rg2 ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ren Y, Wang JL, Zhang X, Wang H, Ye Y, Song L, Wang YJ, Tu MJ, Wang WW, Yang L, Jiang B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Berberine attenuates depressive-like behaviors by suppressing neuro-inflammation in stressed mice.
In conclusion, these findings suggest that administration of berberine could prevent depressive-like behaviors in CUMS mice by suppressing neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus. PMID: 28842306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu YM, Niu L, Wang LL, Bai L, Fang XY, Li YC, Yi LT Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

PERK as a hub of multiple pathogenic pathways leading to memory deficits and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Cell signaling in response to an array of diverse stress stimuli converges on the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). In the brain, eIF2α is a hub for controlling learning and memory function and for maintaining neuronal integrity in health and disease. Among four eIF2α kinases, PERK is emerging as a key regulator for memory impairments and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of PERK-eIF2α signaling have revealed that the overactivation of this pathway is not a mere consequence of the neurodegenerati...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ohno M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The different effects of lithium and tamoxifen on memory formation and the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of male and female rats.
In conclusion, it can be suggested that long-term treatments with TMX can lead to significant cognitive impairments by reducing the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of rats. PMID: 28802897 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Valvassori SS, Borges C, Varela RB, Bavaresco DV, Bianchini G, Mariot E, Arent CO, Resende WR, Budni J, Quevedo J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neurochemical evidence that Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) 55-102 peptide modulates the dopaminergic reward system by decreasing the dopamine release in the mouse nucleus accumbens.
Abstract CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system. Thus in the present study, we examined the eff...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rakovska A, Baranyi M, Windish K, Petkova-Kirova P, Gagov H, Kalfin R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A species dependent response to the pro-epileptic drug pentylentetrazole in birds.
This study reports the comparison of the response of two species of birds, Australian Parrots (APs) and Sparrows (SPs), to a pro-epileptic drug, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). PTZ injections caused myoclonic jerks (MCJs) and tonic clonic seizures (TCSs) in both species. The frequency of MCJs in APs was greater at the dose of 75mg/kg compared to both 50mg/kg and 25mg/kg while it was not significantly different in SPs. The comparison of APs and SPs showed that the frequency of MCJs was greater in APs compared to SPs at 25mg/kg and 75mg/kg while its latency was reduced at 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg. Interestingly SPs had a reduced latenc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Amin F, Dar AH, Osama K, Khan F, Mitha R, Tharwani A, Haider G, Chand P, Arain FM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Adolescent chronic variable social stress influences exploratory behavior and nicotine responses in male, but not female, BALB/cJ mice.
Abstract Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress. Adolescent male and female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to either chronic variable social stress (C...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Caruso MJ, Reiss DE, Caulfield JI, Thomas JL, Baker AN, Cavigelli SA, Kamens HM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy on alcohol consumption and preferences in dietary obese rats and mice: A plausible role for altered ghrelin signaling.
Abstract Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the most common surgical options for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorder. Whereas RYGB may result in greater and more durable weight loss, recent clinical and pre-clinical studies in rats have raised concerns that RYGB surgery may increase risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In contrast, recent clinical reports suggest a lesser risk for AUD following VSG, although no preclinical studies have been done to confirm that. Therefore, the present study sought to determine the effects of VSG on ethanol intake and preferences i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Orellana ER, Jamis C, Horvath N, Hajnal A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The protective effects of electro-acupuncture in thoracic surgery on trauma stressed rats involve the rostral ventrolateral medulla and supraoptic nucleus.
Abstract The present study was designed to explore whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) were involved in the protective effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on cardiac function in thoracic surgery on trauma-stressed rats. The rats were randomly divided into a non-stressed group (Control), surgical trauma-stressed group (Trauma), and Neiguan EA applied on the surgical trauma-stressed group (Trauma+EA-PC 6). RVLM neuron discharge was observed by using an in vivo electrophysiological method, and micro-dialysis combining high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric d...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang HH, Tao YN, Jiang MY, Wang J, Chen J, Xia CM, Shen LL, Wang MY, Zhu DN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of hippocampus in rats indicated that TLR/NLR signaling pathway was involved in the pathogenisis of depressive disorder induced by chronic restraint stress.
Abstract Data from clinical investigations and laboratory fundings have provided preliminary evidence for the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture therapy in depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response of acupuncture are not fully elucidated. To elucidate the potential effects of acupuncture for depression on the hippocampal genome-wide transcriptome at the molecular level, we evaluated the transcriptomic profile of depression rats under treatment of acupuncture, and fluoxetine. We identified a very significant effect of acupucture intervention, with 107 genes differentially expre...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Y, Jiang H, Meng H, Lu J, Li J, Zhang X, Yang X, Zhao B, Sun Y, Bao T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research