NMDA receptor adjusted co-administration of ecstasy and cannabinoid receptor-1 agonist in the amygdala via stimulation of BDNF/Trk-B/CREB pathway in adult male rats.
Abstract Consumption of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1) agonist such as cannabis is widely taken in 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy users; it has been hypothesized that co-consumption of CB-1 agonist might protect neurons against MDMA toxicity. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors regulate neuronal plasticity and firing rate in the brain through Tyrosine-kinase B (Trk-B) activation. The molecular and electrophysiological association among NMDA and MDMA/Arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA, a selective CB-1 receptor agonist) co-consumption was not well-known. Here, neuronal spontaneous activity, Br...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ashabi G, Sadat-Shirazi MS, Khalifeh S, Elhampour L, Zarrindast MR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

GABA and GABA receptors alterations in the primary visual cortex of concave lens-induced myopic model.
Abstract Until recently most researches on myopia mechanisms have mainly been focused on the eye ball and few investigations were explored on the upper visual pathway, such as the visual cortex. The roles of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the retinal and in the upper visual pathway are inter-correlated. As the retinal glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GABA, and the mRNA levels of GABA receptors increased during the concave lens induced myopia formation, however, whether GABA alterations also occurred in the visual cortex during the concave lens induction is still unknown. In the present study, using HPLC, Enzyme-L...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao W, Bi AL, Xu CL, Ye X, Chen MQ, Wang XT, Zhang XY, Guo JG, Jiang WJ, Zhang J, Bi HS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

EEG Based Zero-phase Phase-locking Value (PLV) and Effects of Spatial Filtering During Actual Movement.
Abstract Phase-locking value (PLV) is a well-known feature in sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) based BCI. Zero-phase PLV has not been explored because it is generally regarded as the result of volume conduction. Because spatial filters are often used to enhance the amplitude (square root of band power (BP)) feature and attenuate volume conduction, they are frequently applied as pre-processing methods when computing PLV. However, the effects of spatial filtering on PLV are ambiguous. Therefore, this article aims to explore whether zero-phase PLV is meaningful and how this is influenced by spatial filtering. Based on archi...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jian W, Chen M, McFarland DJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Preventive treatment of astaxanthin provides neuroprotection through suppression of reactive oxygen species and activation of antioxidant defense pathway after stroke in rats.
Abstract Astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant carotenoid, has been shown to reduce cerebral ischemic injury in rodents. However, there have not been any studies specifically addressing whether preventive administration of astaxanthin can protect against cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether pretreatment of astaxanthin can protect against ischemic injuries in the adult rats. The rats were pre-administered intragastrically with astaxanthin for seven days (once a day), and middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed at 1hour after the final administration. It was found that astaxanthin ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pan L, Qin DD, Zhou Y, Li XF, Wan QJ, Wang ZB, Hu XT, Yin Y, Yu LH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Bumetanide Reduce the Seizure Susceptibility Induced by Pentylenetetrazol via Inhibition of Aberrant Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Neonatal Rats after Hypoxia-Ischemia.
In this study, we studied the role of increased NKCC1 in regulating of HI-induced neurogenesis. HIBD model was established in 7days old Sprague-Dawley rat pup, and the expression of NKCC1 was detected by western blot and qPCR. Brain electrical activity in freely rats was monitored by electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. HI-induced neurogenesis was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Neurobehavioral test was to investigate the neuro-protective role of bumetanide, an inhibitor of NKCC1, on neonatal rats after HI. The results showed that bumetanide treatment significantly reduced brain electrical activity and the sei...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu JJ, Yang XL, Luo WD, Han S, Yin J, Liu WH, He XH, Peng BW Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel by iptakalim normalizes stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behaviour by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in mouse hypothalamus.
Abstract Stress-induced disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly implicated in incidence of mood disorders. A heightened neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress play a fundamental role in the dysfunction of the HPA axis. We have previously demonstrated that iptakalim (Ipt), a new ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, could prevent oxidative injury and neuroinflammation against multiple stimuli-induced brain injury. The present study was to demonstrate the impacts of Ipt in stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behavior. We employed 2 stress paradigms: 8 w...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao XJ, Zhao Z, Yang DD, Cao LL, Zhang L, Ji J, Gu J, Huang JY, Sun XL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Activation of cannabinoid receptors elicits antidepressant-like effects in a mouse model of social isolation stress.
This study investigated the role of the cannabinoid system in depressive-like behavior and anxiety-like behavior of IC animals. For this purpose, NMRI mice were treated with WIN55, 212-2 (non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist) and AM-251 (cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist) and AM-630 (cannabinoid receptor type 2 antagonist). We found that behavioral abnormality followed by SIS was mitigated after administration of WIN55, 212-2. Also, depressive-like effects induced by SIS were significantly increased following administration of AM-251 and AM-630. Co-administration of cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM-251 and A...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Haj-Mirzaian A, Amini-Khoei H, Haj-Mirzaian A, Amiri S, Ghesmati M, Zahir M, Shafaroodi H, Dehpour AR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Icariin enhances remyelination process after acute demyelination induced by cuprizone exposure.
Abstract Pathology are still progressive and cumulative in the remission course of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), thus drug treatment during the remission period may play a great role for the regeneration of the myelin sheath. C57BL/6 mice were fed with cuprizone (CPZ, 0.2% w/w) for 5 weeks to induce acute demyelination and oligodendrocytes degeneration, after which CPZ was withdrawn to allow recovery. Icariin (ICA, 6.25, 12.5 and 25mg/kg/day), vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution) or water was administrated orally to mice for 1 week after CPZ withdrawal. Luxol-fast blue (LFB), immunohistochemical...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Y, Yin L, Zheng N, Zhang L, Liu J, Liang W, Wang Q Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Drugs targeting intermediate filaments can improve neurosupportive properties of astrocytes.
Pekny M Abstract In response to central nervous system (CNS) injury, astrocytes upregulate intermediate filament (nanofilament) proteins GFAP and vimentin. Whereas the intermediate filament upregulation in astrocytes is important for neuroprotection in the acute phase of injury, it might inhibit the regenerative processes later on. Thus, timely modulation of the astrocyte intermediate filaments was proposed as a strategy to promote brain repair. We used clomipramine, epoxomicin and withaferin A, drugs reported to decrease the expression of GFAP, and assessed their effect on neurosupportive properties and resilienc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: de Pablo Y, Chen M, Möllerström E, Pekna M, Pekny M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Involvement of peripheral P2Y1 receptors and potential interaction with IL-1 receptors in IL-1 β-induced thermal hypersensitivity in rats.
Involvement of peripheral P2Y1 receptors and potential interaction with IL-1 receptors in IL-1β-induced thermal hypersensitivity in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jan 30;: Authors: Kwon SG, Roh DH, Yoon SY, Choi SR, Choi HS, Moon JY, Kang SY, Beitz AJ, Lee JH Abstract Although interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine, the specific mechanisms underlying the role of its cognate receptor, the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) in peripheral sensitization remain to be investigated. Since emerging evidence in the literature indicates that IL-1β can modulate membrane-bo...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kwon SG, Roh DH, Yoon SY, Choi SR, Choi HS, Moon JY, Kang SY, Beitz AJ, Lee JH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The structural and functional evidence for vesicular release from astrocytes in situ.
Abstract The concept of the tripartite synapse states that bi-directional signalling between perisynaptic astrocyte processes, presynaptic axonal boutons and postsynaptic neuronal structures defines the properties of synaptic information processing. Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular release from astrocytes, as one of the mechanisms of astrocyte-neuron communication, has attracted particular attention but has also been the subject of intense debate. In neurons, regulated vesicular release is a strongly coordinated process. It requires a complex release machinery comprised of many individual components ranging from vesicul...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bohmbach K, Schwarz MK, Schoch S, Henneberger C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Carnosine modulates glutamine synthetase expression in senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery.
Abstract Carnosine is believed to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia. However, few reports concern its function on senescent astrocytes during cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carnosine on cell damage and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in D-galactose-induced senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R). The results showed that OGD/R caused massive cell damage and a significant decrease in GS expression both in the young and senescent astrocytes. The GS expression level was partly recovered whereas it continued to decline in the rec...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shi X, Wang B, Liu Y, Zhang J, Huang Y, Cao P, Shen Y, Lyu J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Possible involvement of the CA1 GABAergic system on harmaline induced memory consolidation deficit.
Abstract Activation of the GABAB receptors inhibit learning and memory processes. The current research was designed to examine the role of dorsal hippocampal (CA1) GABAB receptors on harmaline induced memory consolidation deficit in mice. For this purpose, the effects induced by the GABAB antagonist phaclofen and the GABAB agonist baclofen on memory consolidation were assessed by using the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Furthermore, the possible involvement of harmaline on GABAB receptor's effects was also assessed through using the same behavioral procedure. In a first dose response experiments, post-traini...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nasehi M, Saadati N, Khakpai F, Zarrindast MR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Concomitant Behavioral and PFC Neuronal Activity Recorded Following Dose-Response Protocol of MPD in Adult Male Rats.
Abstract The use of methylphenidate (MPD), a commonly prescribed drug to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has steadily increased over the past 25 years. This trend has been accompanied by more MPD abuse by ordinary individuals for its cognitive enhancing effects. Therefore, understanding the effects of MPD on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain area involved in higher cortical processing such as executive function, language, planning, and attention regulation, is of particular importance. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of acute and chronic dose-response characteristics ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Venkataraman SS, Claussen C, Joseph M, Dafny N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Mir-29a expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cell and cerebrospinal fluid: diagnostic value in patients with pediatric tuberculous meningitis.
Abstract To evaluate the value of miR-29a expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Our study enrolled 112 children with TBM and 130 healthy children, from which PBMC and CSF were collected. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of miR-29a in PBMC and CSF, and then analyze the diagnostic value. Compared with control group, the miR-29a expressions in PBMC and CSF were increased in TBM children (both P
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pan D, Pan M, Xu YM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Adrenomedullin and angiotensin II signaling pathways involved in the effects on cerebellar antioxidant enzymes activity" [Brain Res. Bull. 128 (2017) 83-91].
Corrigendum to "Adrenomedullin and angiotensin II signaling pathways involved in the effects on cerebellar antioxidant enzymes activity" [Brain Res. Bull. 128 (2017) 83-91]. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jan 17;: Authors: Figueira L, Israel A PMID: 28108143 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Figueira L, Israel A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intracoerulear microinjection of orexin-A induces morphine withdrawal-like signs in rats.
Abstract Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides play a pivotal role in expression of opioid withdrawal signs. Hypothalamic orexinergic neurons provide dense afferents for the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Somatic signs of opioid withdrawal are associated with the enhanced activity of LC neurons. In addition, intra-LC administration of orexin-A leads to the hyperactivity of LC neurons. The present study was an attempt to investigate whether intra-LC microinjection of orexin-A induces morphine withdrawal-like signs in both morphine dependent and control rats. To end this, adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were use...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ghaemi-Jandabi M, Azizi H, Ahmadi-Soleimani SM, Semnanian S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Peripheral nerve injury potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission in locus coeruleus neurons.
In this study we examined whether chronic constriction injury (CCI) could affect glutamatergic synaptic transmission in LC neurons. CCI was performed on P10 to P12 Sprague Dawley pups. Seven days after CCI, horizontal slices of brainstem (300μm thick) were prepared and whole-cell patch clamp recording was performed. Evoked and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSC and sEPSC) were recorded from LC neurons at a holding potential of -70mV, in the presence of bicuculline (20μM). The sEPSCs recorded from LC neurons of neuropathic rats showed a significant increase in amplitude, but not in frequency. The eEPS...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rohampour K, Azizi H, Fathollahi Y, Semnanian S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Changes in the cerebellar and cerebro-cerebellar circuit in type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Currently, 422 million adults suffer from diabetes worldwide, leading to tremendous disabilities and a great burden to families and society. Functional and structural MRIs have demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit abnormalities in brain regions in the cerebral cortex. However, the changes of cerebellar anatomical connections in diabetic patients remains unclear. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography and statistical analysis were employed to investigate abnormal cerebellar anatomical connections in diabetic patients. This is the first s...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fang P, An J, Tan X, Zeng LL, Shen H, Qiu S, Hu D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Astrocytes and presynaptic plasticity in the striatum: Evidence and unanswered questions.
Abstract One of the main functions of astrocytes is to ensure glutamate homeostasis by glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis. However, during the past ten years it has become clear that astrocytes may also induce changes in synaptic glutamate release when respective pathways must cope with the consequences of brain damage or other alterations in their functional requirements. The loss of glutamatergic synapses in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease is likely to associate with a continuous redistribution of presynaptic activity within the pool of surviving synapses, and astrocytes may have a role in the mainten...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dvorzhak A, Melnick I, Grantyn R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Streptozotocin causes neurotoxic effect in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.
Abstract Streptozotocin (STZ) is a glucosamine-nitrosourea compound used for experimental simulation of sporadic Alzheimer's disease at intracerebroventricular administration in vivo. The studies of STZ influence on neurons of central nervous system performed on the primary cultures are practically absent. We have shown the application of STZ (1-5mM) in primary culture for 48h induced strong dose-dependent death in cultured cerebellar granule neurons. This toxic effect was decreased by pyruvate, insulin partially. Using the indicator Fluo-4 AM for measurements of intracellular calcium ions and tetramethylrhodamine...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Genrikhs EE, Stelmashook EV, Golyshev SA, Aleksandrova OP, Isaev NK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Indispensable role of the voltage-gated calcium channels in the procognitive effects of angiotensin IV.
CONCLUSION: The data support a notion about key role of the functional VGCCs in neuronal procognitive effects of Ang IV. PMID: 28069437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Braszko JJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A317491 relieved HIV gp120-associated neuropathic pain involved in P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglia.
In this study, we aimed to explore the role of the P2X3 receptor in gp120-induced neuropathic pain. Our data showed that mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats treated with gp120 were increased compared to those in the control group. The expression levels of the P2X3 mRNA and protein in rats treated with gp120 were higher than those in the control group. The P2X3 antagonist A317491 decreased mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia and the up-regulated expression levels of P2X3 mRNA and protein in rats treated with gp120. A317491 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels in the gp120-treated rat DRG. In addition...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yi Z, Rao S, Ouyang S, Bai Y, Yang J, Ma Y, Han X, Wu B, Zou L, Jia T, Zhao S, Hu X, Lei Q, Gao Y, Liu S, Xu H, Zhang C, Liang S, Li G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Amelioration of apelin-13 in chronic normobaric hypoxia-induced anxiety-like behavior is associated with an inhibition of NF- κB in the hippocampus.
In conclusion, the present results illustrated that inhibition of APJ and promotion of NF-κB activation in the microglial of hippocampus might be involved in anxiogenic effect in CNH-exposed mice, and apelin-13 ameliorates CNH-induced anxiety-like behavior might be associated with an inhibition of NF-κB activation. PMID: 28065733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan J, Ding L, Xia D, Chen D, Jiang P, Ge W, Zhao R, Guo J, Fan X, Xue F, Wang Y, Mao S, Hu L, Gong Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

GluR3B Ab's induced oligodendrocyte precursor cells excitotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction.
In this study, we found that the survival rate of OPCs decreased, apoptosis increased and the release of LDH increased with GluR3B Ab's treatment. GluR3B Ab's enhanced the level of intracellular Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), caused mitochondrial potential collapse measured by JC-1 and promoted mitochondrial cytochrome C release. AMPARs antagonist NBQX reversed OPCs apoptosis caused by GluR3B Ab's. Taken together, these data suggests that AMPAR was involved in GluR3B Ab's-induced OPCs toxicity by mitochondrial dysfunction. The study revealed a new mechanism for OPCs excitotoxicity in many central nervous system ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Y, Chen Y, Du WT, Wu XX, Dong FX, Qu XB, Fan HB, Yao RQ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Early Stage Alterations of Catecholamine and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Levels in Posttraumatic Acute Diffuse Brain Swelling.
The objective of this study was to investigate CA and ACTH levels in the patients with PADBS in the early stage and discuss the possible roles CA and ACTH in the pathogenesis of PADBS. It is a cross-sectional study. A group of patients with PADBS (n=10) was compared with a group of patients with severe brain injury (SBI) (n=33). A control group of healthy adults (n=25) was also included. Blood samples were obtained to measure levels of epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and ACTH as soon as the patients arrived at the neurosurgery department, which was done within 4hours after trauma. Both SBI and PADBS ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen W, Sheng J, Peng G, Yang J, Wang S, Li K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Glutamatergic modulation of noradrenaline release in the rat median preoptic area.
Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate whether glutamatergic receptor mechanisms modulate the release of noradrenaline (NA) in the region of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) using intracerebral microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats. Perfusion of N-methyl-D-asparatate (NMDA, 10 and 50μM) through the microdialysis probe significantly enhanced dialysate NA concentration in the region of the MnPO. Local perfusion of the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK801, 10 and 50μM) did not change the basal release of NA in the MnPO area. MK801 (10μM) administered together with NMDA antagonized...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Takahashi M, Hayashi Y, Tanaka J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Colocalization of neurotransmitter transporters on the plasma membrane of the same nerve terminal may reflect cotransmission" [Brain Res. Bull. 127 (2016) 100-110].
Corrigendum to "Colocalization of neurotransmitter transporters on the plasma membrane of the same nerve terminal may reflect cotransmission" [Brain Res. Bull. 127 (2016) 100-110]. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jan;128:113 Authors: Romei C, Bonifacino T, Milanese M, Usai C, Raiteri L PMID: 28041580 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Romei C, Bonifacino T, Milanese M, Usai C, Raiteri L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Age-related alterations in human neocortical plasticity.
This study not only provides valuable insight into healthy age-related alterations in neocortical plasticity, but is also the first to identify an LTD-like modulation of the VEP in humans. PMID: 28043855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Spriggs MJ, Cadwallader CJ, Hamm JP, Tippett LJ, Kirk IJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Molecular and cellular physiology of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters.
Abstract Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate brain. After its release from presynaptic nerve terminals, it is rapidly taken up by high-affinity sodium-dependent plasma membrane transporters. While both neurons and glial cells express these excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), the majority of glutamate uptake is accomplished by astrocytes, which convert synaptically-released glutamate to glutamine or feed it into their own metabolism. Glutamate uptake by astrocytes not only shapes synaptic transmission by regulating the availability of glutamate to postsynaptic neuronal receptors,...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Rose CR, Ziemens D, Untiet V, Fahlke C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Electroencephalographic frontal synchrony and caudal asynchrony during painful hand immersion in cold water.
In this study, we sought to validate our pre-clinical data using EEG recordings in humans during immersion of the hand in ice cold water, a moderately noxious stimulus. Power spectral analysis shows that an increase in pain score is associated with an increase in power amplitude within a frequency range of 6-7Hz at the frontal (Fz) electrode. These results are consistent with our previous pre-clinical animal studies and the clinical literature. We also report a novel reduction in power at the caudal (O1) electrode within a broader 3-30Hz rand and decreased coherence between Fz and C3, C4 electrodes within the theta (4-8Hz)...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Levitt J, Choo HJ, Smith KA, LeBlanc BW, Saab CY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Manuscript title: Acute Effects of Aceclofenac, COX-2 inhibitor, on Penicillin-Induced Epileptiform Activity.
CONCLUSION: The results indicated that not all of the COX-2 inhibitors may have anticonvulsant or proconvulsant features on patients with epilepsy susceptibility and must be used with great care. It was also suggested that not only cyclooxygenase metabolic pathway but also lipoxygenase pathway should be considered together in further detailed studies. PMID: 28017780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Taşkıran M, Taşdemir A, Ayyıldız N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inotropic support against early brain injury improves cerebral hypoperfusion and outcomes in a murine model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.
This study aimed to determine the role of dobutamine for inotropic cardiac support in improving cerebral blood flow (CBF) and outcomes after experimental SAH, mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Thirty-one mice were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation, and assigned to either 2% isoflurane postconditioning performed between 1 and 2.5h after SAH induction or concomitant intravenous dobutamine infusion (15μg/kg/min) with or without HIF inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) (10mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally. Neurobehavioral function was assessed daily by neurological scores and open field testing. DCI ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Mutoh T, Mutoh T, Nakamura K, Sasaki K, Tatewaki Y, Ishikawa T, Taki Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Parkin and PINK1 functions in oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.
Abstract Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding Parkin and PINK1 are causally linked to autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and PINK1, a mitochondrial-targeted kinase, function together in a common pathway to remove dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. Presumably, deficiency for Parkin or PINK1 impairs mitochondrial autophagy and thereby increases oxidative stress due to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria that release reactive oxygen species. Parkin and PINK1 likely have additional functions that may be relevant to the mechanisms by which mutation...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Barodia SK, Creed RB, Goldberg MS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Anti-apoptotic and angiogenic effects of intelectin-1 in rat cerebral ischemia.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is an acute life-threatening disease, which causes neurological dysfunction. The formation of new blood vessels around the infarct is vital to the restoration of perfusion and healing of brain tissue. Studies have shown that intelectin-1 (omentin) promotes endothelial cell function and angiogenesis in response to ischemia and inhibits apoptosis in rats with unilateral hind limb surgery. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of intelectin-1 following focal cerebral ischemia. We specifically assessed the effect of increased expression of intelectin-1 in promoting ang...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gu N, Dong Y, Tian Y, Di Z, Liu Z, Chang M, Jia X, Qian Y, Zhang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Ca3 hippocampal field: cellular changes and its relation with blood nitro-oxidative stress reveal a balancing function of ca3 area in rats exposed to repetead restraint stress.
This study depicts the balancing role of CA3 area in time-varying stress conditions. PMID: 28013041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Toma VA, Farcas AD, Parvu M, Silaghi-Dumitrescu R, Roman I Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Naringin alleviates early brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting apoptosis.
This study aims to clarify the neuroprotective effect of naringin on early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the possible mechanisms of naringin in the treatment of SAH. The endovascular puncture model was performed to induce SAH model in rats and the efficacy of 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg naringin were tested by intraperitoneally administration. SAH grade, neurological score, brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, the changes of oxidative stress related factors, apoptosis-related proteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and neuronal morphology were detected to analy...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Han Y, Su J, Liu X, Zhao Y, Wang C, Li X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Monitoring Ca(2+) elevations in individual astrocytes upon local release of amyloid beta in acute brain slices.
Abstract The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to involve acute neurotoxic effects exerted by oligomeric forms of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ). Application of Aβ oligomers in physiological concentrations have been shown to transiently elevate internal Ca(2+) in cultured astroglia. While the cellular machinery involved has been extensively explored, to what degree this important signalling cascade occurs in organised brain tissue has remained unclear. Here we adapted two-photon excitation microscopy and calibrated time-resolved imaging (FLIM), coupled with patch-clamp electrophysiology, to m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Tyurikova O, Zheng K, Rings A, Drews A, Klenerman D, Rusakov DA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Different doses of dexmedetomidine reduce plasma cytokine production, brain oxidative injury, PARP and caspase expression levels but increase liver oxidative toxicity in cerebral ischemia-induced rats.
In conclusion, DEX induced protective effects against cerebral ischemia-induced brain and erythrocyte oxidative injuries through regulation of the antioxidant level and cytokine production. However, both doses of DEX induced oxidative toxicity and apoptotic effects in the rats' livers. PMID: 28007581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Akpınar O, Nazıroğlu M, Akpınar H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of Neurotoxicants and Traumatic Brain Injury in α-Synuclein Protein Misfolding and Aggregation.
Role of Neurotoxicants and Traumatic Brain Injury in α-Synuclein Protein Misfolding and Aggregation. Brain Res Bull. 2016 Dec 16;: Authors: Rokad D, Ghaisas S, Harischandra DS, Jin H, Anantharam V, Kanthasamy A, Kanthasamy AG Abstract Protein misfolding and aggregation are key pathological features of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and other forms of human Parkinsonism. PD is a complex and multifaceted disorder whose etiology is not fully understood. However, several lines of evidence support the multiple hit hypothesis that genetic vulnerability and environme...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Rokad D, Ghaisas S, Harischandra DS, Jin H, Anantharam V, Kanthasamy A, Kanthasamy AG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Diversity of astrocyte potassium channels: An update.
r C Abstract Astrocyte K(+) channels and the K(+) currents they mediate dwarf all other transmembrane conductances in these cells. This defining feature of astrocytes and its functional implications have been investigated intensely over the past decades. Nonetheless, many aspects of astrocyte K(+) handling and signaling remain incompletely understood. In this review, we provide an update on the diversity of K(+) channels expressed by astrocytes and new functional implications. We focus on inwardly-rectifying K(+) channels (particularly Kir4.1), two-pore K(+) channels and voltage and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels....
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Seifert G, Henneberger C, Steinhäuser C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Association of Environmental Enrichment and Locomotor Stimulation in a Rodent Model of Cerebral Palsy: Insights of Biological Mechanisms.
This study was designed to describe which biological and functional mechanisms underlying rehabilitative process in clinical practice. Male rat pups were initially divided in two groups: control (healthy) and submitted to a CP model. Then, pups were divided in eight groups: CP, CPEE, CPLS, CPEELS and its respectively control groups. Functional outcomes were assessed at the postnatal day (P) 31 and P52. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles, tibia bone parameters, the expression of synaptophysin in the primary motor cortex (M1) and ventral horn (VH) of the spinal cord, were evaluated. The association of therapies was abl...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Meireles AL, Marques MR, Segabinazi E, Spindler C, Piazza FV, Salvalaggio GS, Augustin OA, Achaval M, Marcuzzo S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Adrenomedullin and angiotensin ii signaling pathways involved in the effects on cerebellar antioxidant enzymes activity.
ADRENOMEDULLIN AND ANGIOTENSIN II SIGNALING PATHWAYS INVOLVED IN THE EFFECTS ON CEREBELLAR ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY. Brain Res Bull. 2016 Dec 02;: Authors: Leticia F, Anita I Abstract Human adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide involved in cardiovascular control. AM has two specific receptors formed by the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 2 or 3, known as AM1 and AM2 receptors, respectively. In addition, AM has appreciable affinity for the calcitonin gene-1 related peptide receptor (CGRP1), composed of CRLR/RAMP1. In brain, AM and the...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Leticia F, Anita I Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive stimulation transiently enhances the permeability of the rat blood-brain barrier and induces astrocytic changes.
In conclusion, ECS transiently enhances the permeability of the BBB, which may be accompanied by changes in astrocytic endfeet. PMID: 27915091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ito M, Bolati K, Kinjo T, Ichimura K, Furuta A, McLoughlin DM, Suzuki T, Arai H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acupuncture ameliorates inflammatory response in a chronic unpredictable stress rat model of depression.
Abstract Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Chronic inflammatory response has been viewed as a key factor in depression. Acupuncture in Chinese medicine has been shown to be an effective treatment for depression. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying antidepressant effect of acupuncture. The rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 28days to induce depressive-like behaviors. Acupuncture treatment was applied once every other day during the 28-day stress period. The behavioral tests (body weight, sucrose consumption and locomotor activity)...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu J, Shao RH, Jin SY, Hu L, Tu Y, Guo JY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Platelets are responsible for the accumulation of β-amyloid in blood clots inside and around blood vessels in mouse brain after thrombosis.
CONCLUSION: The increased concentration of platelets allows enhanced release of Aβ during thrombosis, suggesting an additional source of Aβ in the brains of Alzheimer's patients that may arise if frequent micro-thrombosis events occur in their brains. PMID: 27908798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kucheryavykh LY, Dávila-Rodríguez J, Rivera-Aponte DE, Zueva LV, Washington AV, Sanabria P, Inyushin MY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Development of Fast Neurotransmitter Synapses: General principle and Recent progress.
PMID: 27894823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu W, Chen Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective effects of high Tryptophan diet on aging-induced passive avoidance impairment and hippocampal apoptosis.
Abstract In our previous work we have shown that L-Tryptophan (TrP) enriched diet prevents the age-induced decline of hippocampal Serotonin (5-HT) production. Considering that loss or reduction in 5-HT neurotransmission may contribute to age-related cognitive decline, here we have investigated the effect of such diet on passive avoidance (PA) behavior, cell death, pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules (BAX, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) and an important transcription factor involved in synaptic plasticity and memory (CREB). The increase in 5-HT neurotransmission in the Hippocampus (Hp) of aged rats was induced by 1 month of h...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Musumeci G, Castrogiovanni P, Szychlinska MA, Imbesi R, Loreto C, Castorina S, Giunta S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Methylphenidate modulates dorsal raphe neuronal activity: behavioral and neuronal recordings from adolescent rats.
This study aimed to investigate the role of the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus, one of the major sources of serotonergic innervation in the mammalian brain, in the response to MPD exposure. Freely behaving adolescent rats previously implanted bilaterally with permanent electrodes were used. An open field assay and a wireless neuronal recording system were used to concomitantly record behavioral and DR electrophysiological activity following acute and chronic MPD exposure. Four groups were used: one control (saline) and three experimental groups treated with 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg MPD respectively. Animals received daily MPD or...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Whitt H, Kharas N, Dafny N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Increased Expression of HERPUD1 Involves in Neuronal Apoptosis after Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Abstract Homocysteine-inducible endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible ubiquitin-like domain member 1 protein (HERPUD1) is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Immense amounts of research showed HERPUD1 plays multiple roles in various models. In this work, we explored the role of HERPUD1 during the pathophysiological processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Rat ICH model was established and verified by behavioral test. Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed a significant up-regulation of HERPUD1 expression around the hematoma after ICH. Besides, the expression of cytochrome c (cyt c) and ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ding W, Chen R, Wu C, Chen W, Zhang H, Fan X, Wang H, Ji Y, Xie L, Ning X, Shen L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research