Repeated exposure to propofol in the neonatal period impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the recognition function of rats in adulthood.
In this study, the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on synaptic plasticity and neurocognitive function were investigated. Postnatal day 7 (PND-7) Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with fat emulsion or 20, 40 or 60 mg/kg propofol for three consecutive days. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the rat hippocampus at PND-10 and PND-12 was measured by Western blotting. The number of dendritic branches, total dendritic length and dendritic spine density were observed by Golgi-Cox staining 2...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wan J, Shen CM, Wang Y, Wu QZ, Wang YL, Liu Q, Sun YM, Cao JP, Wu YQ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Alterations in the behavior, cognitive function, and BDNF level in adult male rats following neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors.
Abstract Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature brain. At an early developmental period, it acts in an excitatory manner that influences many processes of proliferation, migration, and differentiation of the neurons. Previous evidence indicated that manipulation of the GABAergic system function by activation or blockade of its receptors during developmental periods leads to behavioral and cognitive abnormality in adulthood. Therefore, we examined the effects of neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors by bicuculline on behavior, cognitive function, and hippocampal and...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Naderipoor P, Amani M, Abedi A, Sakhaie N, Sadegzadeh F, Saadati H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract In the past decade, there was an increasing interest in the therapeutic potential targeting ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels for an effective treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). KATP channels are widely expressed in the central nervous system and were reported to mediate the degeneration and death of nigral dopamine neurons in the pathogenesis of PD. This review aims to address the pivotal roles of KATP channels played in the mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis, and provide possible directions for further research from different perspectives, such as the vulnerability of dopamine neurons in th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao S, Wang M, Ma Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Experimental Models and Examination Methods of Retinal Detachment.
Abstract Retinal detachment refers to the separation of the retinal neuroepithelium and pigment epithelium, usually involving the death of photoreceptor cells. Severe detachment may lead to permanent visual impairment if not treated properly and promptly. According to the underlying causes, retinal detachment falls into one of three categories: exudative retinal detachment, traction detachment, and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Like many other diseases, it is difficult to study the pathophysiology of retinal detachment directly in humans, because the human retinal tissues are precious, scarce and non-regenera...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang ZY, Sun YJ, Song JY, Fan B, Li GY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture alleviated the depression-like behavior by regulating FGF2 and astrocytes in the hippocampus of rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress.
Abstract Studies have shown that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a neurotrophic factor associated with depression. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to be an effective treatment for depression. In the current study, we observed the effects of EA on hippocampal FGF2 and astrocytes, and further investigated the mechanism underlying antidepressant effect of EA. The Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) method were selected to induce depressive-like behaviors of rats. Paroxetine is a commonly used antidepressant and was used as a positive control drug in this experiment. The male adult Sprague Dawley ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yao Z, Zhang Z, Zhang J, Cai X, Zhong Z, Huang Y, Qu S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

HO-CO pathway activation may be associated with hippocampal μ and δ opioid on receptors in inhibiting inflammatory pain aversiveness and nociception in WT but not NOS2-KO mice.
HO-CO pathway activation may be associated with hippocampal μ and δ opioid on receptors in inhibiting inflammatory pain aversiveness and nociception in WT but not NOS2-KO mice. Brain Res Bull. 2021 Jan 07;: Authors: Cazuza RA, Arantes ALF, Pol O, Leite-Panissi CRA Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) modulate inflammatory nociception and anxiety. We evaluate whether treatments with a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer (CoPP) or a carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM-2) are capable of inhibiting inflammatory pain aversiveness in wild type (WT) and inducible nitric oxide synthas...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cazuza RA, Arantes ALF, Pol O, Leite-Panissi CRA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Impact of unilateral ureteral obstruction on cognition and neurodegeneration.
CONCLUSIONS: We characterized the cognitive and neuropathological changes in UUO mice. The results show that this mouse model can be used to further study cognitive changes related to chronic renal impairment. PMID: 33422661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ho YS, Lau CF, Lee K, Tan JY, Lee J, Yung S, Chang RC Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Angiopoietin-like 4 Promotes Angiogenesis and Neurogenesis in a Mouse Model of Acute Ischemic Stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: ANGPTL4 enhances angiogenesis and neurogenesis post-stroke by upregulating the phosphorylation of AKT, reduces neuronal death and inhibits inflammatory response, which resultes from the inhibition of FasL/Fas expression and its downstream pathway. PMID: 33417949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Qiu Z, Yang J, Deng G, Li D, Zhang S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

microRNA-139-5p alleviates neurological deficit in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage via HDAC4 depletion and BCL-2 activation.
CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that miR-139-5p elevation or HDAC4 knockdown alleviated neurological deficit and induced neurons growth via Bcl-2 elevation. PMID: 33400954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Fei S, Cao L, Li S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Critical role of dysfunctional mitochondria and defective mitophagy in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder and childhood disintegrative disorder. Mitochondria not only provide neurons with energy in the form of ATP to sustain neuron growth, proliferation and neurodevelopment, but also regulate neuron apoptosis, intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) clearance. Due to their postmitotic state and high energy-demanded feature, neurons are particularly prone to mitophagy and mitochondrial disfunction. Mitoph...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang YM, Qiu MY, Liu Q, Tang H, Gu HF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Resveratrol noncompetitively inhibits glycine receptor-mediated currents in neurons of rat central auditory neurons.
Abstract Resveratrol, a naturally occurring stilbene found in red wine, is known to modulate the activity of several types of ion channels and membrane receptors, including Ca2+, K+, and Na+ ion channels. However, little is known about the effects of resveratrol on some important receptors, such as glycine receptors and GABAA receptors, in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, the effects of resveratrol on glycine receptor or GABAA receptor-mediated currents in cultured rat inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC) neurons were studied using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings. Resveratro...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Shu FQ, Lu YG, Tang HP, Ye ZY, Huang YN, Wang M, Tang ZQ, Chen L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Knockdown EZH2 attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via regulating microRNA-30d-3p methylation and USP22.
CONCLUSION: Silencing EZH2 suppresses miR-30d-3p methylation and then ameliorates oxidative stress and nerve injury via regulating USP22 in cerebral I/R injury mice, which may be a potential candidate for treatment of cerebral I/R injury. PMID: 33388376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jin D, Wei W, Song C, Han P, Leng X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Research on developing drugs for Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Current treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are mainly dopaminergic drugs. However, dopaminergic drugs are only symptomatic treatments and limited by several side effects. Recent studies into drug development focused on emerging new molecular mechanisms, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, nuclear receptor-related 1 (Nurr1), adenosine receptor A2, nicotine receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Also, immunotherapy and common pathological mechanisms shared with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and diabetes have attracted much atte...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang CL, Han QW, Chen NH, Yuan YH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Safinamide in neurological disorders and beyond: evidence from preclinical and clinical studies.
Abstract The discovery and development of safinamide, an alpha-aminoamide, has been a valuable addition to the existing clinical management of Parkinson's disease (PD). The journey of safinamide dates back to the year 1983, when an alpha-aminoamide called milacemide showed a weak anticonvulsant activity. Milacemide was then structurally modified to give rise to safinamide, which in turn produced robust anticonvulsant activity. The underlying mechanism behind this action of safinamide is attributed to the inhibition of voltage gated calcium and sodium channels. Moreover, owing to the importance of ion channels in m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wasan H, Singh D, Kh R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Modulating the Activity of Right Temporo-parietal Junction by Anodal tDCS Enhances the Agent's Repayment in Hold-up Game.
Abstract Hold-up problem is very common in non-contractible relation-specific investment transactions. And this problem can affect by trust, cooperation and altruism behavior of human beings. Recent neuroscience researches had explored a network of right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) involved in human cooperation and altruism behavior. The purpose of this study is to modulate the activation of rTPJ through transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and to study the influence of rTPJ on investment and offer behavior in hold-up game. The results of our study showed that the anodal stimulation significantly i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hao S, Xiaoqin W, Yao Y, Xiaoqiang Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The PGE2 receptor EP3 plays a positive role in the activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neuronal activity in the hypothalamus in rats under immobilization stress.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that immobilization stress may result in increased activation of the HPA axis and neuronal activity through regulating the function of the EP3 receptor. PMID: 33370588 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lv L, Bai D, Ma Y, Liu K, Ma Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Naringenin improves depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice exposed to repeated hypoxic stress through inhibition of oxido-inflammatory mediators and NF-kB/BDNF expressions.
Abstract Oxidative and inflammatory signaling pathways have been identified as important targets for mitigating hypoxic stress-induced neurological complications. Thus, the effects of naringenin, a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective bioflavonoid on hypoxic stress-induced depressive-like and anxiety-related behaviors in mice, and the underlying molecular mechanisms were evaluated in this study. Forty-two male Swiss mice were distributed into 5 groups (n = 7). Mice in group I (non-stress control) and group 2 (stress-control) both had vehicle (5% DMSO), while groups 3-5 received n...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Olugbemide AS, Ben-Azu B, Bakre AG, Ajayi AM, Femi-Akinlosotu O, Umukoro S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Silencing of miR-302b-3p alleviates isoflurane-induced neuronal injury by regulating PTEN expression and AKT pathway.
Abstract Isoflurane (ISO) is an anesthesia and can result in neuron injury. A previous study has indicated that microRNA-302b-3p (miR-302b-3p) exerts a crucial function in modulating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion damage-induced neuronal injury. We sought to examine the role of miR-302b-3p in ISO-induced neuronal injury. In the present study, the effects of miR-302b-3p on ISO-induced neuron injury were investigated by MTT and TUNEL assays. We discovered that ISO stimulation led to miR-302b-3p upregulation and neuronal injury. MiR-302b-3p silencing exerted protective effects against ISO induced neuronal injury. In a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Lu S, Fan X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Sex differences exist in brain renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities in transplacental ethyl-nitrosourea-induced gliomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Under the complexity of RAS cascade, the changes found suggest the predominant actions of angiotensin III against a decreased action of angiotensin II and angiotensin IV. We conclude that angiotensin peptides are involved in tumor growth in this rat model of glioma and that their role in tumor growth can be analyzed through their corresponding proteolytic regulatory enzymes, which make them new and attractive therapeutic targets beyond the use or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). PMID: 33359638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramírez-Expósito MJ, Carrera-González MP, Martínez-Martos JM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Post-Stroke Depression: Chaos to exposition.
Abstract Cerebral ischemia contributes to significant disabilities worldwide, impairing cognitive function and motor coordination in affected individuals. Stroke has severe neuropsychological outcomes, the major one being a stroke. Stroke survivors begin to show symptoms of depression within a few months of the incidence that overtime progresses to become a long-term ailment. As the pathophysiology for the progression of the disease is multifactorial and complex, it limits the understanding of the disease mechanism completely. Meta-analyses and randomized clinical trials have shown that intervening early with tric...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarkar A, Sarmah D, Datta A, Kaur H, Jagtap P, Raut S, Shah B, Singh U, Baidya F, Bohra M, Kalia K, Borah A, Wang X, Dave KR, Yavagal DR, Bhattacharya P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Butyrate alleviates PTZ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuron apoptosis in mice via Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
This study aims to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of sodium butyrate against the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling epilepsy. Sodium butyrate (SB) (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and sodium valproate for 40 days and PTZ (37 mg/kg) injection every day were conducted for Kunming mice, to investigate seizure intensity and latency, oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial structure and function, histopathology, and Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 expressions. It is shown that seizure latency was effectively increased and the intensity of seizures decreased by treatment with sodium butyrate. It was also found to reverse the str...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li D, Bai X, Jiang Y, Cheng Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Ketamine reversed short-term memory impairment and depressive-like behavior in animal model of Parkinson's disease.
In conclusion, ketamine reversed depressive-like behaviors and short-term memory impairment in rats with SNc bilateral lesions, indicating a promising profile for its use in PD patients. PMID: 33359641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vecchia DD, Kanazawa LKS, Wendler E, Hocayen PAS, Vital MABF, Takahashi RN, Cunha CD, Miyoshi E, Andreatini R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Aerobic Exercise Training Decreases Cognitive Impairment Caused by Demyelination by Regulating ROCK Signaling Pathway in Aging Mice.
In this study, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise training may have a protective effect on myelin sheath in aged mice by regulating the ROCK signal pathway, which is considered as a crucial mechanism for decreasing apoptosis and promoting regeneration. Briefly, C57/BL aged mice underwent an exercise training (5 days/week, lasting 6 weeks). Memory and cognitive impairment were examined using Novel object recognition (NOR) test and Morris water maze test (MWM). Demyelination was explored using Luxol fast blue staining and transmission electron microscopy in the corpus callosum (CC), and the expression of ROCK and a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bao C, He C, Shu B, Meng T, Cai Q, Li B, Wu G, Wu B, Li H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Top-down influence affects the response adaptation of V1 neurons in cats.
Abstract The visual system lowers its perceptual sensitivity to a prolonged presentation of the same visual signal. This brain plasticity, called visual adaptation, is generally attributed to the response adaptation of neurons in the visual cortex. Although well-studied in the neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1), the contribution of high-level visual cortical regions to the response adaptation of V1 neurons is unclear. In the present study, we measured the response adaptation strength of V1 neurons before and after the top-down influence of the area 21a (A21a), a higher-order visual cortex homologous to the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pan D, Pan H, Zhang S, Yu H, Ding J, Ye Z, Hua T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth transmit microRNA-26a to protect rats with experimental intracerebral hemorrhage from cerebral injury via suppressing CTGF.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provided the evidence that SHED could transmit miR-26a to protect ICH rats from cerebral injury by repressing CTGF, which may contribute to ICH therapy. PMID: 33333175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao B, Qian M, Zhang Y, Yin F Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Downregulation of LncRNA Gas5 Inhibits Apoptosis and Inflammation after Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats.
Abstract Spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury(SCII)affects nerve function through many mechanisms, which are complex and not fully understood. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an increasingly important role in SCII. We investigated the role of lncRNA growth arrest-specific 5(Gas5) in a rat SCII model, and its effects on apoptosis and inflammation possibly by modulating MMP-7, cleaved caspase-3 and IL-1β. LncRNA Gas5 and MMP-7 were knocked down by intrathecal siRNA injection. Neurological assessment and TUNEL assay were performed. The RNA and protein expr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Li X, Chen F, Li Z, Wang D, Ren X, Ma H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA GAS5 retards neural functional recovery in cerebral ischemic stroke through modulation of the microRNA-455-5p/PTEN axis.
CONCLUSION: This work elucidates that GAS5 downregulation upregulates miR-455-5p to repress PTEN expression, in turn attenuating IS, which may broaden the horizon of IS treatment. PMID: 33309710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu R, Yun Q, Zhang J, Bao J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Increased Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 13 in Cortical Lesions of the Focal Cortical Dysplasia.
Abstract Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are well recognized as important causes of medically intractable epilepsy in both children and adults. To explore the potential role of fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13) in intractable epilepsy caused by FCDs, we examined the expression of FGF13 in cortical lesions from 23 patients with FCD type Ia (FCDIa), 24 patients with FCD type IIa (FCDIIa), and 12 patients with FCD type IIb (FCDIIb), and we compared the results with the FGF13 expression levels in control cortex (CTX) brain tissues from 12 nonepileptic normal subjects. Both the mRNA levels and protein levels of FGF1...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu K, Yue J, Shen K, He J, Zhu G, Liu S, Zhang C, Yang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Commensal microbe-derived propionic acid mediates juvenile social isolation-induced social deficits and anxiety-like behaviors.
Abstract Social experiences during early life are thought to be critical for proper social and emotional development. Conversely, social insults during development causes long-lasting behavioral abnormalities later in life. However, how juvenile social deprivation influences social and emotional behaviors remains poorly understood. Here, we show that juvenile social isolation induces a shift in microbial ecology that negatively impacts social and emotional behaviors in adulthood. These behavioral changes, which occur during this critical period are transferable to antibiotic pre-treated mice by fecal microbiota tr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang L, Duan C, Xia X, Wang H, Wang Y, Zhong Z, Wang B, Ding W, Yang Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Enhancer II-targeted dsRNA decreases GDNF expression via histone H3K9 trimethylation to inhibit glioblastoma progression.
In this study, we designed six candidate dsRNAs targeting the enhancer or silencer in GDNF gene promoter II to check their effects on GDNF transcription and GBM progression. RESULTS: Among these dsRNAs, enhancer II-targeted dsRNA significantly inhibited U251 GBM progression by downregulating GDNF (P   0.05). Bisulfate PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that both DNA methylation and trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at silencer II-targeted region significantly increased, and H3K9me3 at enhancer II-targeted region significantly decreased, in U251 cells compared with HA ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang B, Han X, Gao Q, Liu J, Li S, Zha W, Wang X, Guo X, Gao D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cannabidiol attenuated the maintenance and reinstatement of extinguished methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference in rats.
Abstract Methylphenidate (MPH) is a mild CNS stimulant that has been used in hyperactive children, and patients with neurodegenerative and major depressive disorders. Exposure to MPH-associated cues enhances craving and arousal in drug users. On the other hand, cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic potential that might be useful in alleviating symptoms of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CBD administration on extinction and reinstatement of MPH-induced conditioning place preference (CPP) in rats. Male rats received MPH (1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg, i.p) or morphine (5 or 10 ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kashefi A, Tomaz C, Jamali S, Rashidy-Pour A, Vafaei AA, Haghparast A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Early molecular alterations in anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in a rodent model of neuropathic pain.
This study firstly compared the gene expression profiles between neuropathic pain animals with and without depressive-like behavior, and we suggested the early changes in the activities of MAPK signaling pathway, c-Fos and Gadd45β might be related to late-onset depressive behavior induced by peripheral nerve injury. PMID: 33253785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiao C, Liu D, Du J, Guo Y, Deng Y, Hei Z, Li X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Psychopharmacological characterization of an emerging drug of abuse, a synthetic opioid U-47700, in adult zebrafish.
Abstract 3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700) is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist originally synthesized as a prospective analgesic drug. Several times more potent than morphine, U-47700 has high abuse potential and may cause clinical neurotoxicity, euphoria, respiratory depression and occasional mortality. U-47700 also evokes analgesia, sedation and euphoria-like states in both humans and rodents. Despite the growing use and abuse of U-47700, its psychopharmacological and toxicological profiles remain poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly beco...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kolesnikova TO, Shevyrin VA, Eltsov OS, Khatsko SL, Demin KA, Galstyan DS, de Abreu MS, Kalueff AV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nociceptive, emotional, electrophysiological, and histological characterization of the chronic constriction injury model in female Wistar Han rats.
Abstract Chronic neuropathic pain affects 7-10% of the population and is often accompanied by comorbid emotional disorders, which greatly reduce the quality of life of the patients, impairing physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Despite the higher prevalence and severity of chronic pain in women, the number of publications using female animals remains scarce. While in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model the development of mechanical/thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain has been shown in both sexes, little is known on CCI-induced emotional impairments and sciatic nerve his...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fonseca-Rodrigues D, Laranjeira I, Barbosa J, Lamas NJ, Amorim D, Almeida A, Pinto-Ribeiro F Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Upregulated Nmnat2 Causes Neuronal Death and Increases Seizure Susceptibility in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
Abstract A significant pathological feature of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is neuronal loss. Oxidative stress caused by repeated seizures is an important mechanism leading to neuronal loss in hippocampus. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) a coenzyme that is involved in many biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2) catalyzes an essential step in NAD (NADP) biosynthetic pathwayhas and been considered as a neuronal maintenance factor that protect neurons against insults through context-dependent mechanism. However, it is unexpected that Nm...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu H, Meng Q, Zhang Y, Li H, Liu Y, Dong S, Liu B, Zhang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of microRNA-140-5p on ischemic stroke in mice via regulation of the TLR4/NF- κB axis.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicates that miR-140-5p over-expression may be instrumental for the therapeutic targeting of ischemic stroke by alleviating neuron injury with the involvement of the TLR4/NF-κB axis. PMID: 33246036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Song W, Wang T, Shi B, Wu Z, Wang W, Yang Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Trans fat intake during pregnancy or lactation increases anxiety-like behavior and alters proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoid receptor levels in the hippocampus of adult offspring.
Abstract Changes in dietary habits, including the increased consumption of processed foods, rich in trans fatty acids (TFA), have profound effects on offspring health in later life. Thus, this study aimed to assess the influence of maternal trans fat intake during pregnancy or lactation on anxiety behavior, as well as markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) of adult male offspring. Female Wistar rats were supplemented daily with soybean oil/fish oil (SO/FO) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) by oral gavage (3.0 g/kg body weight) during pregnancy or lactati...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pase CS, Metz VG, Roversi K, Roversi K, Vey LT, Dias VT, Schons CF, de David Antoniazzi CT, Duarte T, Duarte M, Burger ME Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Assessing the dependence of the number of EEG channels in the brain networks' modulations.
ni PM Abstract Aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the EEG channels number on the brain networks' analysis, to establish whether and how much higher density EEG actually contributes to add supplementary information to brain networks analyses. 59 electrodes EEGs were recorded in 20 healthy subjects in eyes open and closed condition. For each condition, we analyzed the recording dataset of 59 channels, and three sub-datasets obtained by the selection of 44, 30, 19 channels from the 59 ones. Then we computed the EEG sources of current density and evaluated the SW index in the four EEGs data montages. Re...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Miraglia F, Tomino C, Vecchio F, Alù F, Orticoni A, Judica E, Cotelli M, Rossini PM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Agmatine Improves the Behavioral and Cognitive Impairments Associated with Chronic Gestational Ethanol Exposure in Rats.
This study provides functional evidences for the therapeutic potential of agmatine in cognitive impairment and other neurological complications associated with FASD. PMID: 33242522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Aglawe MM, Kale MB, Rahangdale SR, Kotagale NR, Umekar MJ, Taksande BG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Hippocampal synaptoproteomic changes of susceptibility and resilience of male rats to chronic social isolation.
Abstract The susceptibility of an individual to chronic social isolation (CSIS) stress may cause major depression (MD) whereby some individuals are resistant to the stress. Recent studies relate MD with altered expression of synaptic proteins in specific brain regions. To explore the neurobiological underpinnings and identify candidate biomarkers of susceptibility or resilience to CSIS, a comparative proteomic approach was used to map hippocampal synaptic protein alterations of rats exposed to 6 weeks of CSIS, an animal model of depression. This model generates two stress-response phenotypes: CSIS-sensitive (depre...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Perić I, Costina V, Gass P, Findeisen P, Filipović D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

MicroRNA-29a-3p strengthens the effect of dexmedetomidine on improving neurologic damage in newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage by inhibiting HDAC4.
CONCLUSION: The study concludes that miR-29a-3p strengthened the effect of Dex on improving neurologic damage in newborn rats with HIBD by inhibiting HDAC4. PMID: 33232741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang W, Xiao F, Huang W, Wei Q, Li X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Myelination of regenerating optic nerve axons occurs in conjunction with an increase of the oligodendrocyte precursor cell population in the adult mice.
ez AM Abstract Recently, regeneration of CNS tracts has been partially accomplished by strategies of intrinsic neuronal growth stimulation. However, restoration of function is dependent on proper myelination of regenerating axons. Previous work from our group (Goulart et al., 2018) has shown an increase in oligodendrocyte staining in the regenerating optic nerve, 2 weeks after crush, in animals that were submitted to conditional deletion of pten gene in retinal ganglion cells and intravitreal injection of zymosan + cAMP. Thus, in the present study we aimed to investigate the maturation of the oligode...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Rocha Mendonça H, Boas COGV, Dos Santos Heringer L, Oliveira JT, Blanco Martinez AM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Corticotropin-releasing factor neurotransmission in the lateral hypothalamus modulates the tachycardiac response during acute emotional stress in rats.
Abstract The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is implicated in the physiological and behavioral responses during stressful events. However, the local neurochemical mechanisms related to control of stress responses by this hypothalamic area are not completely understood. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the involvement of CRFergic neurotransmission acting through the CRF1 receptor within the LH in cardiovascular responses evoked by an acute session of restraint stress in rats. For this, we investigated the effect of bilateral microinjection of different doses (0.01, 0.1 and 1 nmol/100 nL) of the selecti...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Barretto-de-Souza L, Benini R, Reis-Silva LL, Crestani CC Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF to mBDNF in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.
This article reviews the mechanisms of the conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF and the research status of intracellular/extracellular proteolytic proteases for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 33202257 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang M, Xie Y, Qin D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Spectrum of social alterations in the Neurobeachin haploin sufficiency mouse model of autism.
This study compared one-year-old male and female Nbea+/- mice and their control littermates in an extensive behavioral battery that focused on social behaviors and communication. Nbea haploinsufficiency was associated with selective, sex-dependent, quantitative and qualitative changes, including alterations in social interest and approach, ultrasonic vocalization (USV) between same-sex adult conspecifics, and preferred types of social interaction. Notably, Nbea+/- females (but not males) displayed a significantly higher number of calls, and the mean principal frequency of their calls was higher than those of normal female ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Odent P, Creemers J, Bosmans G, D'Hooge R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nuclear receptor TLX may be through regulating the SIRT1/NF- κB pathway to ameliorate cognitive impairment in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggested that TLX exerted protective effects against cognitive deficits induced by CCH. The possible mechanisms of TLX may be through regulating the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway, promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibiting the neuroinflammatory response. PMID: 33197535 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Qu C, Qu C, Xu L, Shen J, Lv D, Li Y, Song H, Li T, Zheng J, Zhang J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuronal activity-dependent myelin repair promotes motor function recovery after contusion spinal cord injury.
In this study, we induced the demyelination of the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST) by a mild contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) on the T10 segment, and manipulated the neuronal activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) using chemogenetic viruses to induce activity and to suppress it. We found that oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation and oligodendrocyte maturity following remyelination was strengthened after 4-week of neuronal activity stimulation. Furthermore, hindlimb motor function was also found to be improved. Vice versa, suppression of neuronal activity attenuated these effects. These results indicate...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Luo M, Yin Y, Li D, Tang W, Liu Y, Pan L, Yu L, Tan B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Exendin-4 Induces a Novel Extended Effect of Ischemic Tolerance via Crosstalk with IGF-1R.
In this study, mice were pretreated with Ex-4 for 7 days, and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed on different days after cessation of Ex-4 treatment. Ex-4 ameliorated neurological dysfunction and reduced the infarct volume induced by MCAO. These protective effects lasted for 6 days after the cessation of Ex-4 treatment and were associated with sustained upregulation of PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and HIF-1α levels, as well as HIF-1α downstream genes. Knockdown of GLP-1R or HIF-1α in the brain by short hairpin RNA abolished Ex-4 treatment-mediated neuroprotection. In normal mice, Ex-4 treatment led...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang H, Liu Y, Cheng L, Ma X, Luo X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Overexpression of Protein Kinase M ζ in the Hippocampus Mitigates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Cognitive Deficit in Rats.
In conclusion, hippocampal overexpression of PKMζ restored memory dysfunction induced by amyloidopathy in part, through preserving hippocampal GluA2 containing AMPA receptors. PKMζ's signaling pathway could be considered as a therapeutic target to battle memory deficits in the early phase of AD. PMID: 33188852 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Amini N, Azad RR, Motamedi F, Mirzapour-Delavar H, Ghasemi S, Aliakbari S, Pourbadie HG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Disrupted prefrontal neuronal oscillations and morphology induced by sleep deprivation in young APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice.
This study suggests that failure to acquire adequate sleep could trigger an early electrophysiological, molecular, and morphological alteration in the PFC of AD mice. Therapeutic interventions that manipulate sleep by targeting these pathways may be a promising approach toward delaying the progression of this incurable disease. PMID: 33186630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tabassum S, Misrani A, Tabassum S, Ahmed A, Yang L, Long C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research