Regulation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 during consolidation and extinction of fear memory.
Abstract Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression epigenetically through synchronized removal of acetyl groups from histones required towards memory consolidation. Moreover, dysregulated epigenetic machinery during fear or extinction learning may result in altered expression of some of these genes and result in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In the present study, region-specific expression of Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) was correlated to the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and the resultant conditioned response, in rats undergone fear and extinction learni...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Siddiqui SA, Singh S, Ugale R, Ranjan V, Kanojia R, Saha S, Tripathy S, Kumar S, Mehrotra S, Modi DR, Prakash A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Engineering Biomaterials to Control the Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells.
Abstract Stem cells with the potential for neural differentiation are a promising therapeutic avenue both for treating neurological disease and as a system to advance our fundamental understanding of disease biology in vitro. Precisely controlled extracellular environments that recapitulate critical aspects of embryonic development or the adult stem cell niche are necessary to ensure effective differentiation into the desired cell type. Biomaterials in particular have enabled new avenues for directing stem cell differentiation through the precise presentation of biochemical and biophysical cues. Furthermore, as tr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zimmermann JA, Schaffer DV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Underlying mechanisms of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated bicaudal C homolog 1 overexpression in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice with induced depressive-like behaviors.
Abstract Bicaudal C homolog 1 gene (BICC1) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD); however, less is known about the mechanisms of BICC1-induced depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in depressive-like behaviors induced by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated overexpression of BICC1 in the mPFC of mice. A viral-mediated genetic approach was employed to explore the BICC1 overexpression-induced depressive-like behavioral and molecular changes in mice. For the first time, we found that BICC1 overexpression significan...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Z, Zhou D, Li S, Zhang Y, Wang C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Potential role of P2X7 receptor in neurodegenerative processes in a murine model of glaucoma.
-Sanz M, Pintor J Abstract Glaucoma is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness, characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. The mechanisms that trigger the development of glaucoma remain unknown and have gained significant relevance in the study of this neurodegenerative disease. P2 × 7 purinergic receptors (P2 × 7R) could be involved in the regulation of the synaptic transmission and neuronal death in the retina through different pathways. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular signals underlying glaucomatous retinal injury. The time-cours...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: de Lara MJP, Avilés-Trigueros M, Guzmán-Aránguez A, Valiente-Soriano FJ, la Villa P, Vidal-Sanz M, Pintor J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNA H19 Prevents Neurogenesis in Ischemic Stroke through p53/Notch1 pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that H19 prevents the process of neurogenesis after ischemic stroke through p53/Notch1 pathway and strengthen the novel role of H19-based therapy for ischemic stroke. PMID: 31102753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang J, Cao B, Zhao H, Gao Y, Luo Y, Chen Y, Feng J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Sirt1 improves functional recovery by regulating autophagy of astrocyte and neuron after brain injury.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers neuronal death mechanisms that significantly induce neuronal loss and neurological dysfunction. Our previous study revealed that Sirt1 could improve the neuroprotective effect by reducing the astrocyte activation after TBI. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of Sirt1 attenuating astrocyte activation still remain unclear. The following study examined whether the protection of Sirt1 in nigrostriatal pathway injury is associated with autophagy regulation. We established a nigrostriatal pathway injury in the mouse brain in order to mimic the traumatic brain injury an...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Li D, Xu L, Li HP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Mild hypothermia alleviates diabetes aggravated cerebral ischemic injury via activating autophagy and inhibiting pyroptosis.
In conclusion, mild hypothermia alleviated diabetes aggravated cerebral ischemic injury via activating autophagy and inhibiting pyroptosis. PMID: 31082455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tu Y, Guo C, Song F, Huo Y, Geng Y, Guo M, Bao H, Wu X, Fan W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves neuronal activity without affecting astrocytes and microglia density.
In conclusion, we can assume that three days of high-frequency rTMS applied in healthy rats does not alter astroglia reactivity or inflammatory responses, such as microglia proliferation. Because we have shown an upregulation of neuronal metabolic activity in many limbic brain structures, in addition to higher c-Fos levels in the nearest cortical area to the rTMS, our work provides novel insight into the effectiveness and safety of rTMS as a brain modulation therapy. PMID: 31082456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Candela Z, Higarza SG, Marta M, Martínez JA, Pernía AM, Arias JL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Losartan inhibits development of spontaneous recurrent seizures by preventing astrocyte activation and attenuating blood-brain barrier permeability following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.
Abstract Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and astrocyte activation are important cause of recurrent epilepsy. There is experimental evidence for increased angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) expression during BBB breakdown and brain injury, and that blocking the AT1 receptor (e.g., with losartan) can improve microcirculation, attenuate inflammation and oxidative stress, and exhibit neuroprotective effects. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effects of losartan on status epilepticus-induced astrocyte activation and BBB damage in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats. We found that losartan treatm...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hong S, JianCheng H, JiaWen W, ShuQin Z, GuiLian Z, HaiQin W, Ru Z, Zhen G, HongWei R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Serotonin1B Receptor-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition of Proprioceptive Sensory Inputs to Jaw-Closing Motoneurons.
Abstract The proprioceptive sensory inputs from neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MesV) to masseter motoneurons (MMNs) play an important role in regulating masseter muscle activity during mastication. Several histological studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT) fibers densely innervate both the MesV and the trigeminal motor nucleus. However, the functional roles of 5-HT in the regulation of the excitatory synaptic inputs from MesV afferents to MMNs remain to be clarified. Thus, using the whole-cell recording technique in brainstem slice preparations from juvenile Wistar rats aged between postnatal ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nagata A, Nakayama K, Nakamura S, Mochizuki A, Gemba C, Aoki R, Dantsuji M, Maki K, Inoue T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Assessing drug response in engineered brain microenvironments.
Abstract Tissue engineered systems are important models for the testing and discovery of therapeutics against a number of diseases. The use of these models in vitro can expand both our understanding of the mechanisms behind disease and allow for higher throughput and personalized modeling of therapeutic response. Over the past decade there has been an explosion of models of neurological disorders that can be used in vitro to study new therapies against devastating neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and neuro-oncological disease. These models span several types of engineered microenvironments which are produced...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tate KM, Munson JM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acetylcholine receptor agonist effect on seizure activity and GABAergic mechanisms involved in prolonged febrile seizure development in an animal model.
In this study, α7-nAchRs were activated by using PNU-282,987 (PNU), a selective α7-nAchR agonist, in order to evaluate their effect in seizure threshold as well as GABAergic parameters in a PFS rat model. PFS was induced on 14-day old Sprague-Dawley rat pups by administration of lipopolysaccharide (217 ug/kg, i.p) followed 2.5 hours later by kainic acid (KA) (1.83 mg/kg, i.p). PNU was given prior to KA administration and Methyllycaconitine (MLA), an α7-nAchR antagonist, was given following KA injection. Seizure activity was recorded and monitored for one hour following seizure induction. Glu...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rakgantsho C, Mabandla MV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Synergistic effects of combined vaccination with BCG and influenza vaccines on spatial cognition and hippocampal plasticity in rats.
Abstract Previous study has demonstrated the neurobeneficial role of BCG and influenza vaccines. Based on this, our study concentrated on the synergistic effects on development of central nervous system by combined vaccination with BCG and influenza vaccines in rats. Our results displayed that pups combinedly vaccinated with BCG and influenza vaccines showed a significant enhance in spatial cognition, induction of LTP, hippocampal neurogenesis and morphology of dendritic spines compared with pups vaccinated with BCG solely. Furthermore, combined vaccination with BCG and influenza vaccines showed higher expression ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Q, Xuan A, Qi F, Yang J, Zou J, Yao Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Abnormal sympathetic activity after myocardial ischemia involving P2X4 in dorsal root ganglia.
In this study, we investigated the abnormal sympathetic activity after myocardial ischemia (MI) involving P2X4 receptor in the cervical DRG SGC. The results showed that MI injury upregulated the P2X4 receptor mRNA and protein in DRG, and the upregulated P2X4 receptor was co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in DRG SGCs. P2X4 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) treatment decreased the expression of P2X4 receptor, counteracted the upregulation of GFAP and IL-1β and inhibited P38MAPK phosphorylation in DRG of MI rats. These results indicate that application of P2X4 shRNA may reduce P2X4-mediated nociceptive sig...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gong Y, Zhou Y, Yang J, Li S, Wang Z, Rao J, Li L, Yuan H, Shi L, Yang R, Xu X, Liu S, Liang S, Zou L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Wallerian Degeneration in Experimental Focal Cortical Ischemia.
Abstract Wallerian degeneration (WaD), commonly secondary to cerebral infarction, is the descending damage of fiber tracts with their accompanying myelin sheaths. However, whether this sequential injury can occur in non-ischemic corpus callosum (CC) and striatum in focal cortical ischemic model has not been fully demonstrated. The present study aimed to elucidate detailed histopathologic changes in CC and striatum after acute focal cortical infarction induced by permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rat. We found that myelin integrity, myelin-related proteins, MBP and MAG, and...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zuo M, Guo H, Wan T, Zhao N, Cai H, Zha M, Xiong Y, Xie Y, Ye R, Liu X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Citalopram attenuates social behavior deficits in the BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J mouse model of autism.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core symptoms: impaired social communication and the presence of repetitive, stereotyped behaviors and/or restricted interests. Alterations in serotonergic signaling are involved in the genesis of ASD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported to reduce repetitive behaviors and rescue social deficits in ASD mouse models and patients. In the present study, we examined the potential of citalopram (a representative selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on sociability and repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mouse mod...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acute Restraint Stress Alters Food-Foraging Behavior in Rats: Taking the Easier Way While Suffered.
Abstract Stress can influence decision-making in humans from many cognitive perspectives, while the underlying neurobiological mechanism remains incompletely understood. Food-foraging is a rodent behavior involving strategic possessing of nutritional supply in social context; experimental model of this behavior could help explore the effect of stress on decision-making and the brain mechanism thereof. In the present study, the influence of stress on food-foraging behavior was assessed in rats using an open field choosing paradigm wherein food collection (standard food or sweet food) were associated with social com...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bo-Xuan T, Wang LF, Zhong XL, Zhao-Lan H, Cao WY, Cui YH, Li SJ, Zou GJ, Liu Y, Zhou SF, Zhang WJ, Jing-Zhi S, Yan XX, Li F, Li CQ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

GABAB receptor activation attenuates inflammatory orofacial pain by modulating interleukin-1 β in satellite glial cells: role of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether GABAB receptors in TG SGCs attenuate inflammatory facial pain via mediating IL-1β following inflammation and its mechanisms. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected into the whisker pad of rats to induce inflammation in vivo. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added to culture medium to activate SGCs in vitro. Behavioral measures showed that microinjection of baclofen (a selective GABAB receptor agonist) into the TG ameliorated the mechanical allodynia of CFA-treated rats. Interestingly, baclofen pretreatment inhibited SGC activation and IL-1β production, how...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu F, Zhang YY, Song N, Lin J, Liu MK, Huang CL, Zhou C, Wang H, Wang M, Shen JF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on the attentional set-shifting task performance of alcohol-dependent rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The attentional/cognitive flexibility of the prefrontal cortex of alcohol-dependent rats was damaged and the NaB administration procedure itself did not produce cognitive deficits, but instead exacerbated cognitive impairment in alcohol-dependent rats. PMID: 31029598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Sun L, Wang L, Wang M, Lu G, Wang Y, Li Q, Li C, Zhou J, Ma H, Sun H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effect of lithium chloride on the attenuation of cognitive impairment in experimental hypoglycemic rats.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is the most common complication in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Accumulating evidence indicated that severe hypoglycemia could induce cognitive impairment. However, the molecular mechanism of regulating this progress is largely unknown. METHODS: We established a model of insulin-induced recurrent hypoglycemia in adult male Wistar rats (n = 40). Lithium chloride was injected after hypoglycemia once a day for consecutive 30 days. The loss of cognition function was evaluated by water maze test in these hypoglycemic rats. Glial cells activation and Wnt and in...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu Y, Wang Q, Wu Z, Lu K, Cheng X, Jin W, Zhao Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The role of gonadal hormones in the hypoglossal discharge activity of rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to analyze the effects of gonadal hormones on XII neuroplasticity in both female and male rats. The results suggest that the estradiol level is related to XII neuroplasticity rather than the testosterone level, and testosterone may indirectly adjust XII neuroplasticity by converting to estradiol. Estradiol and testosterone levels are related to 5-HT levels in the respective genders. PMID: 31022436 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Si T, Zhou X, Ke H, Liu P, Xiong M, Li H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Interaction Between Microfilament and Microtubule- Dependent Tensions and Ischemia/Hypoxic-Induced Alteration of Structural Tension in Neuronal Cells.
Abstract Intracellular mechanical tension plays a vital role in maintaining neuronal function and is generated steerablely by motor proteins along microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). To explore the interaction between these subcellular tensions and elucidate their underlying mechanisms, we constructed MF- and MT-dependent tension probes using the Förster resonance energy transfer technique. Hypotonic stress activated MF and MT tensions in calcium-dependent manner, which antagonized outward expansion of cells synergistically; conversely, hypertonic stress attenuated MF and MT tensions in a calcium-ind...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li G, Chen T, Wang Y, Zhang J, Guo J, Huiwen W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inhibition of inflammation is not enough for recovery of cognitive impairment in hepatic encephalopathy: effects of minocycline and ibuprofen.
This study intends to determine neuroprotective effects of minocycline (MINO) and ibuprofen (IBU), and also set out to assess whether inhibition of inflammation is enough to achieve optimal improvement of hepatic encephalopathy symptoms. The hepatic encephalopathy was induced by bile-duct ligation (BDL), and the animals received first dose of MINO and/or IBU 15 days later and then every day until the 28 day. The rats were divided into the 6 groups of control, sham, BDL + V and BDL + IBU, BDL + MINO and BDL + MINO + IBU, which each group had 3 sub-groups ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohammadian F, Arab Firuzjaee M, Haghani M, Shabani M, Shid Moosavi SM, Mohammadi F Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

P2Y4/TSP-1/TGF- β1/pSmad2/3 pathway contributes to acute generalized seizures induced by kainic acid.
P2Y4/TSP-1/TGF-β1/pSmad2/3 pathway contributes to acute generalized seizures induced by kainic acid. Brain Res Bull. 2019 Apr 18;: Authors: Zhang Y, Zhu W, Yu H, Yu J, Zhang M, Pan X, Gao X, Wang Q, Sun H Abstract Epilepsy is accompanied by angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/phosphorylated small mothers against decapentaplegic 2 and 3 (pSmad2/3)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, activated by thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is further regulated by Y type P2 purinergic receptor activity, may participate in ang...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Y, Zhu W, Yu H, Yu J, Zhang M, Pan X, Gao X, Wang Q, Sun H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The CCL2 elevation in primary afferent fibers produces zymosan-induced hyperalgesia through microglia-mediated neuronal activation in the spinal dorsal horn.
Abstract Although C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain through neuron-microglia interactions, its pronociceptive function underlying inflammatory pain remains to be fully understood. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential role of CCL2 in pain sensitization following zymosan-induced inflammation. Intraplantar injection of zymosan into the rat hind paw significantly increased the expression of CCL2 in both dorsal root ganglions and the superficial dorsal horn. The expression of CCL2 was exclusively present in the isolectin B4-positive unmyelina...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chun S, Bae Kwon Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nicotine Inhibits Rapamycin-induced Pain through Activating mTORC1/S6K/IRS-1-related Feedback Inhibition Loop.
In this study, pain was induced in naïve male C57BL/6 J mice by intraperitoneally injecting rapamycin acutely or repeatedly. Subsequently, pain thresholds, including mechanical and thermal pain, were measured. The involving signaling pathway was tested using western blot analysis and immunofluorescent assay. Changes in neuronal excitability caused by different treatments were also analyzed using whole-cell recording. Microinjection into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was used to test the role of nAChRs containing the α4β2 or α7 subtype in this brain region in pain modulation. Our results s...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li S, Guan S, Wang Y, Cheng L, Yang Q, Tian Z, Zhao M, Wang X, Feng B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Proconvulsant effects of sildenafil citrate on pilocarpine-induced seizures: involvement of cholinergic, nitrergic and pro-oxidant mechanisms.
es MM Abstract Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Proconvulsant effect is a serious adverse event associated with sildenafil use. Here, we investigated the possible proconvulsant effects of sildenafil in pilocarpine (PILO)-induced seizures model, which mimics some aspects of temporal lobe epilepsy. We also evaluated sildenafil's effects on hippocampal markers related to PILO-induced seizure, for instance, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) markers, namely nitrite, inducible NO synthase (i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: de Carvalho MAJ, Chaves Filho A, de Souza AG, de Carvalho Lima CN, de Lima KA, Rios Vasconcelos ER, Lima Feitosa M, Souza Oliveira JV, de Souza DAA, Macedo DS, de Souza FCF, de França Fonteles MM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

miR-124 upregulates astrocytic glutamate transporter-1 via the Akt and mTOR signaling pathway post ischemic stroke.
In this study, the effects of miR-124 on GLT-1 expression in astrocytes after ischemic stroke were explored using an in vitro model of ischemic stroke (oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion, OGD/reperfusion). The expression of GLT-1 was significantly decreased with lower expression of miR-124 in astrocytes injured by OGD/reperfusion. When miR-124 expression was improved, the expression of GLT-1 was notably increased in astrocytes injured by OGD/reperfusion. The results revealed that GLT-1 expression in astrocytes had a relationship with miR-124 after OGD/reperfusion. However, a direct interaction could not be confirmed wi...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang WY, Jiang C, Ye HB, Jiao JT, Cheng C, Huang J, Liu J, Zhang R, Shao JF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Therapeutic Efficacy of Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Loaded Collagen Scaffolds in ex vivo organotypic brain slice Parkinson's Disease Models.
In this study, we assess the efficacy of collagen scaffolds loaded with GDNF on dopaminergic neuronal survival in organotypic ex vivo slices: axotomy, rotenone, and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) models. Coronal (150 µm) mesencephalon brain slices were prepared from postnatal day 9-11 mice. In these slices 424 ± 32 and 158 ± 26 dopamine neurons were found in SN and ventral tegmental area, respectively. Collagen was crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol), loaded with GDNF and drops of 2 µl collagen scaffold containing 10 ng GDNF were directly placed onto...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ucar B, Humpel C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Ca2+-PKC α-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is involved in the suppressive effect of propofol on proliferation of neural stem cells from the neonatal rat hippocampus.
Ca2+-PKCα-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is involved in the suppressive effect of propofol on proliferation of neural stem cells from the neonatal rat hippocampus. Brain Res Bull. 2019 Apr 16;: Authors: Hu Q, Huang L, Zhao C, Shen Y, Zheng XF, Wang Y, Zhou CH, Wu YQ Abstract Neonatal exposure to propofol induces persistent behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. In addition to triggering the apoptosis of neurons in the developing brain, anesthetics may contribute to the development of cognitive deficits by interfering neurogenesis. Given the importance of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in neuroge...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu Q, Huang L, Zhao C, Shen Y, Zheng XF, Wang Y, Zhou CH, Wu YQ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Extracellular Regulating Kinase 1/2 Against Stroke in Rats.
CONCLUSION: ERK/MSCs transplantation showed better functional recovery after stroke in rats, likely in part through enhancing survival of MSCs and possibly by modulating the proliferation, neuronal de-differentiation and neuroinflammation. PMID: 31002912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao X, Wu D, Dou L, Zhang H, Huang L, Zeng J, Zhang Y, Yang C, Li H, Liu L, Ma B, Yuan Q Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

RTN1-C is involved in high glucose-aggravated neuronal cell subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation injury via endoplasmic reticulum stress.
CONCLUSIONS: High glucose significantly increases RTN1-C expression in OGD/R-treated cells. RTN1-C affects high glucose-treated OGD/R cells by exacerbating ER stress. PMID: 31002913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin M, Ling J, Geng X, Zhang J, Du J, Chen L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Insulin treatment protects the brain against neuroinflammation by reducing cerebral cytokines and modulating mitochondrial function.
ler A Abstract In the central nervous system, glial cells protect the brain against neuronal stress by inducing inflammatory responses; namely, intracellular signaling and cytokine production. However, chronic inflammation is often associated with degenerative diseases that can damage hormone signaling and mitochondrial function. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces neuroinflammation by stimulating the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); moreover, it generates oxidative stress and impairs cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to assess the therape...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bortoluzzi Canteiro P, Casagrande Antero D, Dos Santos Tramontin N, Ugioni Simon K, Mendes C, Anastácio Borges Correa ME, Lock Silveira PC, Pastoris Muller A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

XPro1595 ameliorates bone cancer pain in rats via inhibiting p38-mediated glial cell activation and neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn.
In conclusion, inhibition of spinal glia by XPro1595 may have utility in the treatment of bone cancer-induced neuroinflammation, and our results further implicate XPro1595 as a new promising therapeutic agent for BCP. PMID: 31002915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou KX, He XT, Hu XF, Zhao WJ, Li CX, Zhang C, Zhang T, Gu ZX, Deng JP, Dong YL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Magnolia officinalis reduces the long-term effects of the status epilepticus induced by kainic acid in immature rats.
o-Suárez S Abstract During critical periods of neurodevelopment, the immature brain is susceptible to neuronal hyperexcitability, alterations such as hyperthermia, hypoxia, brain trauma or a preexisting neuroinflammatory condition can trigger, promote and prolong epileptiform activity and facilitate the development of epilepsy. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the long-term neuroprotective effects Magnolia officinalis extract, on a model of recurrent status epilepticus (SE) in immature rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with kainic acid (KA) (3 mg/kg, dissolved in saline solution) be...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Vega-García A, Santana-Gómez CE, Rocha L, Magdaleno-Madrigal VM, Morales-Otal A, Buzoianu-Anguiano V, Feria-Romero I, Orozco-Suárez S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Establishment of a novel mesial temporal lobe epilepsy rhesus monkey model via intra-hippocampal and intra-amygdala kainic acid injection assisted by neurosurgical robot system.
CONCLUSION: A novel mTLE-NHP model was induced by one-time intra-hippocampal and intra-amygdalar KA injection, with detectable SE and SRS. Severe hippocampal atrophy, neuronal ultrastructural damage, BBB disruption, neuronal loss and gliosis were confirmed in this model, with widespread limbic system damage, which are similar to the pathology of mTLE patients. PMID: 30954527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Zhu G, Shi L, Liu D, Zhang X, Liu Y, Yuan T, Du T, Zhang J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effects of running exercise on oligodendrocytes in the hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic unpredictable stress.
Abstract Running exercise has been shown to be associated with decreased symptoms of depression. However, the mechanisms underlying these antidepressant effects of running exercise remain relatively unclear. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model rats treated with running exercise and changes in oligodendrocytes in the hippocampus. After 4 weeks of CUS, the model group was randomly divided into a CUS standard group (18 rats) and a CUS running group (15 rats). Then, a 4-week treadmill running trial was performed with the CUS run...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang J, Liang X, Zhang Y, Chen L, Wang F, Tan C, Luo Y, Xiao Q, Chao F, Zhang L, Gao Y, Huang C, Qi Y, Tang Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Concerted suppression of Ih and activation of IK(M) by ivabradine, an HCN-channel inhibitor, in pituitary cells and hippocampal neurons.
Abstract Ivabradine (IVA), a heart-rate reducing agent, is recognized as an inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) and also reported to ameliorate inflammatory or neuropathic pain. However, to what extent this agent can perturb another types of membrane ion currents in neurons or endocrine cells remains to be largely unknown. Therefore, the Ih or other types of ionic currents in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells and in hippocampal mHippoE-14 neurons was studied with or without the presence of IVA or other related compounds. The IVA addition caused a time- and concentration-dependent reduction in th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hsiao HT, Liu YC, Liu PY, Wu SN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

miR-93-5p targets Smad7 to regulate the transforming growth factor- β1/Smad3 pathway and mediate fibrosis in drug-resistant prolactinoma.
miR-93-5p targets Smad7 to regulate the transforming growth factor-β1/Smad3 pathway and mediate fibrosis in drug-resistant prolactinoma. Brain Res Bull. 2019 Apr 01;: Authors: Hu B, Mao Z, Du Q, Jiang X, Wang Z, Xiao Z, Zhu D, Wang X, Zhu Y, Wang H Abstract Prolactinoma is a common subtype of pituitary tumors. Dopamine receptor agonists are the preferred treatment for prolactinoma; however, with this therapy, drug resistance often occurs. In our previous work, we found that partial resistant prolactinomas showed increased fibrosis and that the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad3 signal...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu B, Mao Z, Du Q, Jiang X, Wang Z, Xiao Z, Zhu D, Wang X, Zhu Y, Wang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Harpagide inhibits neuronal apoptosis and promotes axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats by activating the Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway.
In this study, we demonstrated that harpagide attenuated neuronal apoptosis via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This resulted in a promotion of axonal regeneration and an inhibition of glial scar formation, which ultimately improved functional behavioral recovery after SCI in rats. Specifically, the administration of harpagide after SCI increased the expression levels of β-catenin, c-myc and cyclin D1 proteins in spinal cord neurons, as well as increased the number of motor neurons and reduced the size of the SCI lesion area. In addition, the administration of harpagide after SCI also decreased...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rong Y, Liu W, Zhou Z, Gong F, Bai J, Fan J, Li L, Luo Y, Zhou Z, Cai W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in the regulation of the cell death pathway and neuroinflammation.
Abstract Septic brain injury is a severe disease of the central nervous system and involves alteration of the cell death pathway due to sepsis. Increasing evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a key role in the development of sepsis. Cell death is also thought to contribute to septic brain injury. However, the mechanism that regulates cell death pathways in response to TLR4 in neurons exposed to septic brain injury is unclear. Here, we established a rat model of septic brain injury to evaluate the effect of TLR4 inhibition on cell death pathways. Furthermore, primary neurons with and those with...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Zhang L, Tang J, Yang X, Huang J, Zhu T, Zhao F, Li S, Li X, Qu Y, Mu D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The protection of New Interacting Motif E shot (NIMoEsh) in mice with collagenase-induced acute stage of intracerebral hemorrhage.
In this study, we confirmed that using NIMoEsh to inhibit JNK activation effectively reduced the level of brain injury following ICH. We evaluated brain outcomes by histology, immunofluorescence, Luxol fast blue/Cresyl violet staining and other experimental methods. We found that NIMoEsh could significantly inhibit the activity of JNK and thus improve inflammation, white-matter damage and neuronal cell death after ICH in mice. Our results suggest that JNK activation plays an important role of brain damage after acute stage of ICH and that NIMoEsh may be a potential target drug for the treatment of ICH. PMID: 30935978 ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Zhou M, Liu N, Shi Z, Pang Y, Li D, Qi J, An R, Wu H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The single intravenous administration of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQR1 after traumatic brain injury attenuate neurological deficit in rats.
Abstract The protective effect of SkQR1, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, was investigated on the model of focal one-sided traumatic brain injury (TBI) of the sensorimotor cortex region from 1 to 7 days after the injury. TBI caused a reliable disruption of the functions of the limbs contralateral to injury focus. The intravenous single injection of SkQR1 (250 nmol/kg) but not C12R1 (a SkQR1 homologue devoid of the antioxidant group) 30 min after TBI reduced the impairment of the motor functions of the limbs. A statistically significant improvement in limb function in animals was shown using 3 dif...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Genrikhs EE, Stelmashook EV, Alexandrova OP, Novikova SV, Voronkov DN, Glibka YA, Skulachev VP, Isaev NK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Pharmacology of P2Y Receptors.
IV Abstract P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for extracellular nucleotides. There are eight mammalian P2Y receptor subtypes divided into two subgroups (P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, and P2Y11) and (P2Y12, P2Y13, and P2Y14). The P2Y receptors are expressed in various cell types and play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology including inflammatory responses and neuropathic pain. The antagonism of P2Y12 receptors is used in pharmacotherapy for the prevention and therapy of cardiovascular events. The nucleoside analogue ticagrelor and active metabolites of the thienopyridine compounds ticlo...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kügelgen IV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of astaxanthin on newborn rats exposed to prenatal maternal seizures.
This study was designed to investigate whether astaxanthin ameliorates the hippocampal damage in newborn rats induced by maternal epileptic seizures in utero and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent chronic amygdalar kindling. After being fully kindled, all rats were allowed to mate, and electrical stimulation in the amygdala was performed every other day throughout the pregnancy. Astaxanthin was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 30 mg/kg/d throughout pregnancy. Prenatal astaxanthin administration ameliorated neuronal lesions, decreased oxidative stress and induced the exp...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu Y, Wang X, Feng J, Xie T, Si P, Wang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Alteration level of hippocampus BDNF expression and long-term potentiation upon microinjection of BRL15572 hydrochloride in a rat model of methamphetamine relapse.
This article assessed effects of BRL15572 hydrochloride (5-HT1D receptor antagonist) on behavior, long-term potentiation (LTP), and BDNF level in reinstated METH-rats. Conditioned place preference was induced by injecting METH (5 mg/kg; i.p.) or saline on the conditioning days. On the last day of extinction, they received priming METH [simultaneously with BRL (2 μg/5 μl; i.c.v.) or vehicle] or saline or saline + vehicle. Preference scores, LTP components and expression of BDNF were measured on the following day. The preference score of METH treatment increased dramatically more than...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shahidi S, Mehrpour O, Sadeghian R, Soleimani Asl S, Komaki A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intrahippocampal 5-HT1A receptor antagonist inhibits the improving effect of low-frequency stimulation on memory impairment in kindled rats.
Abstract In addition to its anticonvulsant effect, low frequency stimulation (LFS) improves learning and memory in kindled animals. In the present study, the role of 5-HT1A receptors in mediating LFS' improving effect on spatial learning and memory was investigated in amygdala-kindled rats. Amygdala kindling was conducted in a semi-rapid kindling stimulations (12 stimulations per day) in male Wistar rats. LFS (4 trains of 0.1 ms pulse duration at 1 Hz, 200 pulses, 50-150 μA, at 5 min intervals) was applied after termination of kindling stimulations. NAD-299 (a selective 5-HT1A recept...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gharib A, Komaki A, Manoochehri Khoshinani H, Saidijam M, Barkley V, Sarihi A, Mirnajafi-Zadeh J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Olfactory deficit is associated with mitral cell dysfunction in the olfactory bulb of P301S tau transgenic mice.
In this study, the expression of P-tau in the olfactory bulb (OB), particularly in the mitral cell layer (MCL), external plexiform layer (EPL), and granule cell layer (GCL), of AD patients was found to be significantly higher than that in the OB of normal aging subjects, which suggested that these layers in the OB were susceptible to P-tau. The P301S tau transgenic mice (P301S mice) exhibit AD-like features, which can be characterized by olfactory dysfunction that precedes cognitive disorder. Importantly, the excessive P-tau expression in the OB of P301S mice, particularly in MCs, was associated with MC loss at 9 months of...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li S, Li W, Wu X, Li J, Yang J, Tu C, Ye X, Ling S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The influence of microenvironment and extracellular matrix molecules in driving neural stem cell fate within biomaterials.
Abstract Transplantation of stem cells is a promising potential therapy for central nervous system disease and injury. The capacity for self-renewal, proliferation of progenitor cells, and multi-lineage potential underscores the need for controlling stem cell fate. Furthermore, transplantation within a hostile environment can lead to significant cell death and limited therapeutic potential. Tissue-engineered materials have been developed to both regulate stem cell fate, increase transplanted cell viability, and improve therapeutic outcomes. Traditionally, regulation of stem cell differentiation has been driven thr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wilems T, Vardhan S, Wu S, Sakiyama-Elbert S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A Hyaluronan/Methylcellulose-Based Hydrogel for Local Cell and Biomolecule Delivery to the Central Nervous System.
Abstract Regenerative medicine strategies rely on exogenous cell transplantation and/or endogenous cell stimulation. Biomaterials can help to increase the regenerative potential of cells and biomolecules by controlling transplanted cell fate and provide a local, sustained release of biomolecules. In this review, we describe the use of a hyaluronan/methylcellulose (HAMC)-based hydrogel as a delivery vehicle to the brain, spinal cord, and retina to promote cellular survival and tissue repair. We discuss various controlled release strategies to prolong the delivery of factors for neuroprotection. The versatility of t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ho MT, Teal CJ, Shoichet MS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research