Spinal cord injury induced Neuregulin 1 signaling changes in mouse prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
Abstract Accumulated evidence has recently demonstrated that spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to chronic damage in a wide range of brain regions. Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) signaling has been broadly recognized as an important mechanism contributing to neural differentiation and regeneration. We here studied the effect of SCI on Nrg1 signaling in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) in a mouse model. As was indicated by the increased levels of GFAP and Iba-1, our results demonstrated that SCI significantly induced activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in both PFC and HIP. In addition, both western blot ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xue WK, Zhao WJ, Meng XH, Shen HF, Huang PZ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Computing neurite outgrowth and arborization in superior cervical ganglion neurons.
In this study, we compare three methods of neurite analysis-ImageJ, NeuronJ, and ImagePro-in measuring the soma size, number of dendrites, and length of dendrites per cell of embryonic sympathetic rat neurons with BMP-7-induced dendritic growth. Our results indicate that ImageJ and NeuronJ measurements were of similar effectiveness and consistent throughout various images and multiple trials. NeuronJ required less user interaction in measuring the length of dendrites than the manual method and therefore, was faster and less labor intensive. Conversely, ImagePro tended to be inconsistent across images, overestimating both s...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Henley R, Chandrasekaran V, Giulivi C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Downregulation of RTN1-C attenuates MPP+-induced neuronal injury through inhibition of mGluR5 pathway in SN4741 cells.
In conclusion, our data suggest that downregulation of RTN1-C protects SN4741 cells against MPP+ through mGluR5-mediated preservation of Ca2+ homeostasis. Therefore, RTN1-C might represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of neuronal injury in experimental PD models. PMID: 30521940 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chang J, Zhang XL, Yu H, Chen J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Age-related alteration in the distribution of methylglyoxal and its metabolic enzymes in the mouse brain.
Abstract Methylglyoxal (MG) is an α-dicarbonyl compound that is naturally produced in vivo through glucose metabolism. In general, MG is metabolized by the glyoxalase 1(GLO1)/GLO2 system and aldose reductase (AR); however, excessive MG can react with proteins and nucleic acids to induce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Recently, the accumulation of AGEs in the brain has been presumed to be related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Research investigating the role of AGEs in such diseases is ongoing. However, the changes in MG co...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Koike S, Ando C, Usui Y, Kibune Y, Nishimoto S, Suzuki T, Ogasawara Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

TRPV4 channels stimulate Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in mouse neurons and trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Abstract Individuals with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) suffer varying degrees of neurological dysfunction as a result of neuronal apoptosis, and thus, maintenance of neuronal survival may be crucial to prevent ICH brain injury. Here, we report that the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) was upregulated in mouse neurons after ICH. The selective TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790 A aggravated neuronal death whereas the TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 promoted neuronal survival after ICH. We found that GSK1016790 A triggered Ca2+ signals that were amplified and propagated by Ca2+-induced ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen J, Tu L, Chen D, Tan T, Wang Y, Wang S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Molecular basis for increased lactate formation in the M üller glial cells of retina.
Molecular basis for increased lactate formation in the Müller glial cells of retina. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Nov 29;: Authors: Ola MS, LaNoue KF Abstract Müller glial cells are highly metabolic active cells that compensate for the high energy demand of retinal neurons. It has been believed that glucose provides the energy needs by the complete oxidation within Müller cells. However, numerous studies indicated that glial cells convert the majority of glucose to lactate, which may serve as an energy source for neurons. It is still not well understood why within glia, glucose is not completel...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ola MS, LaNoue KF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Morphine exposure before conception affects anxiety-like behavior and CRF level (in the CSF and plasma) in the adult male offspring.
Abstract It has been proven that exposure to some drugs even before gestation had transgenerational effects. To investigate the changes which induced by parental morphine exposure before gestation; mainly the anxiety-like behavior, Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) level in the CSF and plasma, CRF Receptor 1 (CRFR1), and the level of protein kinase C (PKC-α) were evaluated in the male offspring. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to morphine for 21 following days. Ten days after last drug exposure, animals were prepared for mating in 4 distinct groups as follow: drug-naïve female and male (used...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sabzevari S, Rohbani K, Sadat-Shirazi MS, Babhadi-Ashar N, Shakeri A, Ashabi G, Khalifeh S, Ale-Ebrahim M, Zarrindast MR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Lactation diminishes lesion-induced permeability of tracers into the brain.
les T Abstract Diminished sensitivity to kainic acid (KA) lesioning action is present in the hippocampus of the lactating dam. Given that KA can alter blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, we investigated whether lactation would protect BBB permeability after treatment with this neurotoxin. Adult virgin or lactating (13-15 days pp) female Wistar rats were injected with an i.p. (10 mg/kg b.w.) or i.c.v. (100 ng/1 μl) KA dose. Control groups received a similar volume of vehicle. BBB permeability was assessed by an injection of fluorescent FITC-conjugated dextran tracer (40 kDa, 50&th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Solís CD, Morales T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Dietary magnesium deficiency impairs hippocampus-dependent memories without changes in the spine density and morphology of hippocampal neurons in mice.
Abstract Magnesium (Mg2+) is an essential mineral for maintaining biological functions. One major action of Mg2+ in the brain is modulating the voltage-dependent blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors, thereby controlling their opening, which is crucial for synaptic plasticity. Therefore, Mg2+ has been shown to play critical roles in learning and memory, and synaptic plasticity. However, the effects of dietary Mg2+ deficiency (MgD) on learning and memory and the morphology of neurons contributing to memory performance have not been examined in depth. Here, we show that MgD impairs hippocampus-de...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Serita T, Miyahara M, Tanimizu T, Takahashi S, Oishi S, Nagayoshi T, Tsuji R, Inoue H, Uehara M, Kida S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Purinergic receptors in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by the presence of focal lesions in white and grey matter with peripheral immune cells infiltration. Purinergic receptors control immune cell function as well as neuronal and oligodendroglial survival, and the activation of astrocytes and microglia, the endogenous brain immune cells. In particular, ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X4 and P2X7 and metabotropic receptor P2Y12 are differently expressed along the disease and their activation or blockage modifies the course of texperimental aut...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Domercq M, Zabala A, Matute C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Fractalkine/CX3CR1 is involved in the cross-talk between neuron and glia in neurological diseases.
Abstract Fractalkine (CX3C chemokine ligand 1, CX3CL1) is an essential chemokine, for regulating adhesion and chemotaxis through binding to CX3CR1, which plays a critical role in the crosstalk between glial cells and neurons by direct or indirect ways in the central nervous system (CNS). Fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis regulates microglial activation and function, neuronal survival and synaptic function by controlling the release of inflammatory cytokines and synaptic plasticity in the course of the neurological disease. The multiple functions of fractalkine/CX3CR1 make it exert neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects, whic...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Luo P, Chu SF, Zhang Z, Xia CY, Chen NH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Hindbrain Dorsal Vagal Complex AMPK Controls Hypothalamic Gluco-regulatory Transmitter and Counter-Regulatory Hormone Responses to Hypoglycemia.
This study investigated the hypothesis that DVC AMPK controls hypothalamic sensor, metabolic effector transmitter, and counter-regulatory hormone responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Male rats were injected into the caudal fourth ventricle with the AMPK inhibitor compound C or vehicle before hypoglycemia. Arcuate (ARH), ventromedial (VMN), and dorsomedial (DMN) nuclei and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were micropunch-dissected for norepinephrine ELISA and Western blot analyses. Hypoglycemic stimulation of norepinephrine activity in each site was impeded by compound C. Hypoglycemia caused drug-revocable (ARH) or -re...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mandal SK, Briski KP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Central action of rapamycin on early ischemic injury and related cardiac depression following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.
We reported that rapamycin exerts neuroprotection against cortical hypoxia early after SAH, but its mechanism is poorly understood. This in vivo study aimed to determine the potential role of the transcription factor STAT3 in the rapamycin-mediated neuroprotection in a mouse model of SAH. Forty C57BL/6 N mice were treated with an intracerebroventricular injection of rapamycin or vehicle (control) given after SAH induction by a filament perforation method, with or without STAT3 (Stattic) or ERK (PD98059) inhibitor pretreatment. Cerebral blood flow signals (%vascularity), brain tissue oxygen saturation (SbtO2), and ca...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamamoto S, Mutoh T, Sasaki K, Mutoh T, Taki Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Elective caesarean delivery and offspring's cognitive impairment: implications of methylation alteration in hippocampus glucocorticoid signaling genes.
In this study, by establishing CD mice model, we found that mice born with CD had lower corticosterone level at birth compared with those born by vaginal delivery (VD). Impairment in learning and memory was observed in CD offspring in adolescence, while the effect did not persist in the adulthood. In hippocampus, the expression of glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1) and FK506 binding protein gene 5 (Fkbp5) was higher in CD offspring in all postnatal time points. In hippocampus, the average methylation level at nerve growth factor-inducible protein A (NGFI-A) binding sites in exon 17 of Nr3c1, and the methylation in intron...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang K, Hu Y, Sun Y, Yu Z, Liu W, Zhu P, Tao F Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Entorhinal cortex stimulation induces dentate gyrus neurogenesis through insulin receptor signaling.
Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as a therapeutically effective method to treat pharmacological resistant neurological disorders. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of DBS on the brain are not yet fully understood. Beside numerous suggested mechanisms, regulation of neurogenesis is an attractive mechanism through wich DBS can affect the cognitive functions. Considering the high expression of insulin receptors in hippocampus and also impaired neurogenesis in diabetic brain, the present study aimed to examine the role of insulin receptor signaling in DBS...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ronaghi A, Zibaii MI, Pandamooz S, Nourzei N, Motamedi F, Ahmadiani A, Dargahi L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Lipid metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Since the metabolic disorder may be the high risk that contribute to the progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Overtaken of High-fat, high-glucose or high-cholesterol diet may hasten the incidence of AD in later life, due to the metabolic dysfunction. But the metabolism of lipid in brain and the exact effect of lipid to brain or to the AD's pathological remain controversial. Here we summarize correlates of lipid metabolism and AD to provide more foundation for the daily nursing of AD sensitive patients. PMID: 30472149 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu TB, Zhang Z, Luo P, Wang SS, Peng Y, Chu SF, Chen NH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Dopamine in the hippocampal dentate gyrus modulates spatial learning via D1-like receptors.
Abstract Increasing evidence supports that dopamine (DA) plays an important role in the hippocampal function via activation of D1-like receptors (D1Rs). As the entry structure of the hippocampal formation, the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is critically involved in spatial learning and memory. Despite a number of studies investigated how DA influences CA1 plasticity and learning, there are fewer studies examining the influence of DA signaling to the DG. To investigate the roles of DA and D1Rs of the DG in modulation of spatial learning and memory, the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats were measured by...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang F, Wan P, Wang W, Xiao B, Jin H, Jin Q Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Purinergic signaling in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by three major histopathological markers: amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis in the central nervous system (CNS). It is now accepted that neuroinflammatory events in the CNS play a crucial role in the development of AD. This review focuses on neuroinflammatory signaling mediated by purinergic receptors (P1 adenosine receptors, P2X ATP-gated ion channels and G protein-coupled P2Y nucleotide receptors) and how therapeutic modulation of purinergic signaling influences disease progress...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Erb L, Woods LT, Khalafalla MG, Weisman GA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of dimethyl fumarate on neuroinflammation and apoptosis in PTZ kindling model in rats.
CONCLUSION: DMF demonstrated anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect in hippocampus, which might be regulated by increased level of antioxidant response elements. PMID: 30472152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Singh N, Saha L, Kumari P, Singh J, Bhatia A, Banerjee D, Chakrabarti A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Baseline Characterization of Epilepsy in an Onchocerciasis Endemic Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Abstract Increased epilepsy prevalence is reported in onchocerciasis (OC) endemic areas and is associated with the occurrence of distinct syndromes such as nodding disease and Nakalanga syndrome. To date, a causal relationship between OC and epilepsy is still a matter of controversy. We conducted a case-control study of participants with epilepsy and age- and gender-matched presumably healthy controls to elucidate the relationships between OC and epilepsy and explore the role of inflammation and growth factors in an OC endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Eighty-two participants with epilepsy (m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Burfeind KG, Kashama JK, Bora BK, Murchison CF, Ramos-Crawford AL, Nseka MT, Kunyu SB, Okitundu DL, Mashukano NL, Banea JM, Boivin Michael J, Mwanza JK, Mumba D, Tshala-Katumbay DD Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The role of adenosine in epilepsy.
Abstract Adenosine is a well-characterized endogenous anticonvulsant and seizure terminator of the brain. Through a combination of adenosine receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms, adenosine affects seizure generation (ictogenesis), as well as the development of epilepsy and its progression (epileptogenesis). Maladaptive changes in adenosine metabolism, in particular increased expression of the astroglial enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), play a major role in epileptogenesis. Increased expression of ADK has dual roles in both reducing the inhibitory tone of adenosine in the brain, which consequently reduces t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Weltha L, Reemmer J, Boison D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

P2X receptors and acupuncture analgesia.
Abstract Purinergic signaling has recently been suggested to constitute the cellular mechanism underlying acupuncture-induced analgesia (AA). By extending the original hypothesis on endogenous opioids being released during AA, Geoffrey Burnstock and Maiken Nedergaard supplied evidence for the involvement of purinoceptors (P2 and P1/A1 receptors) in the beneficial effects of AA. In view of certain pain states (e.g. neuropathic pain) which respond only poorly to therapy with standard analgesics, as well as with respect to the numerous unwanted effects of opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is of gr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang Y, Yin HY, Liu J, Rubini P, Illes P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Purinergic signaling in the retina: from development to disease.
Abstract Retinal injuries and diseases are major causes of human disability involving vision impairment by the progressive and permanent loss of retinal neurons. During development, assembly of this tissue entails a successive and overlapping, signal-regulated engagement of complex events that include proliferation of progenitors, neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical differentiation and synaptogenesis. During retinal damage, several of these events are re-activated with both protective and detrimental consequences. Purines and pyrimidines, along with their metabolites are emerging as important molecules regulat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Marques Ventura AL, Dos Santos-Rodrigues A, Mitchell CH, Faillace MP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neurological Manifestations in Onchocerca volvulus infection; a Review.
Abstract Human onchocerciasis, caused by infection by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a major neglected public health problem that affects millions of people in the endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Onchocerciasis is known to be associated with skin and eye disease and more recently, neurological features have been recognized as a major manifestation. Especially the latter poses a severe burden on affected individuals and their families. Although definite studies are awaited, preliminary evidence suggests that neurological disease may include the nodding syndrome, Nakalanga syn...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hotterbeekx A, Namale Ssonko V, Oyet W, Lakwo T, Idro R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment restores oxidative balance in animals chronically exposed to toluene: Comparison with melatonin.
acute;nez N Abstract Inhalants are widely used as recreational drugs, and toluene is the main chemical compound present in most inhalants used for these purposes. Previous studies have shown that repeated toluene exposure produces cellular death and memory impairment, while environmental enrichment (EE) rescues from those effects. However, the mechanisms involved in those responses are unclear. Previous studies have shown that toluene induces a redox imbalance at the neuronal level; although, details on the mechanism of action of environmental enrichment enhancing antioxidant capacity remain to be explored. It is ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Montes S, Yee-Rios Y, Páez-Martínez N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

New progress in the approaches for blood-brain barrier protection in acute ischemic stroke.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is a disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide, which often places an additional strain on families and society due to the poor prognosis. Blood brain-barrier (BBB) damage is the critical pathological process, which contributes to hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and poor prognosis in cerebral ischemia. Thus, there is a pressing need to seek an approach to ameliorate BBB damage and reduce the HT that can be induced by fibrinolytic therapy involving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in clinical practice. This review provides an overview of the recent scientific report...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Zhong W, Jiang Z, Tang X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Analysis of the neuronal network of the medullary respiratory center in transgenic rats expressing archaerhodopsin-3 in Phox2b-expressing cells.
Abstract Preinspiratory (Pre-I) neurons in the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) comprise one of the respiratory rhythm generators in the medulla of the neonatal rat. A subgroup of pFRG/Pre-I neurons expresses the transcription factor Phox2b. To further analyze detailed neuronal mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation in the neonatal rat, we developed a transgenic (Tg) rat line in which Phox2b-positive cells expressed archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch). Brainstem-spinal cord preparations were isolated from 0-2-day-old Tg newborn rats and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ikeda K, Kaneko R, Yanagawa Y, Ogawa M, Kobayashi K, Arata S, Kawakami K, Onimaru H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and motor behavior in healthy adults: a study review.
Abstract The influence of individual differences in cognition and behavior may be partly explained by the different genetic polymorphisms. Among the genetic polymorphisms capable of altering cognitive and behavioral functions, the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism regulates the availability of dopamine (DA) in the prefrontal cortex and has a trimodal distribution in the population. The Met allele has higher DA availability in the synaptic clefts and can be associated with cognitive stability. Val homozygous individuals exhibit lower DA concentrations in the synaptic clefts, which can be as...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: de Holanda Marinho Nogueira NG, Bacelar MFB, de Paula Ferreira B, Parma JO, Lage GM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of matrix metalloproteinases in cerebral ischemic rats by promoting activation and migration of astrocytes and microglia.
This study was designed to investigate whether early MMPs inhibition could promote the recovery of cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h and reperfusion. The rats were divided into three groups: sham + vehicle (S + V) group, MCAO + vehicle (M + V) group, and MCAO + GM6001 (M + G) group. Infarct volume was assessed by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and the expression of GFAP, IBA1, p-ERK, ERK, and MMP9 were evaluated by Western blot and immuno...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Zhao HH, Li D, Li HP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A Cynomolgus monkey model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
In this study, we developed and tested a Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model of TLE. A total of 5 Cynomolgus monkeys received3-4 weekly unilateral hippocampal injections of kainic acid (KA) to induce repetitive acute seizures. Animals were monitored via video and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess KA-induced acute seizures and subsequent spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SREDs). During acute seizures, EEG recording showed bursts of generalized spike discharges arising from the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the KA injection. Three months later, we detected abundant interictal epileptiform discharge...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen T, Deng Y, Sha L, Shen Y, Xu Q Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The role of insulin-like growth factor 1 in ALS cell and mouse models: a mitochondrial protector.
In this study, scAAV9-hIGF-1 was intramuscularly injected into transgenic SOD1G93A mice and administered to cell lines expressing the ~25-kDa C-terminal fragment of transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-25). The mitochondrial electrical transmembrane potential was hyperpolarized, and electron microscopy findings revealed that the abnormal mitochondria were transformed. Moreover, the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic process was modified through the upregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)), the downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2-associa...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wen D, Cui C, Duan W, Wang W, Wang Y, Liu Y, Li Z, Li C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Adiponectin confers neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through activating the cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling.
In conclusion, our findings further suggest that APN exerts protective effect against cerebral I/R injury might through the cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway. APN is a novel candidate in the treatment of I/R diseases in the future. PMID: 30395885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bai H, Zhao L, Liu H, Guo H, Guo W, Zheng L, Liu X, Wu X, Luo J, Li X, Gao L, Feng D, Qu Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of simvastatin and insulin in memory protection in a rat model of diabetes mellitus and dementia.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with insulin and simvastatin could provide a promising memory protective effect in diabetics. PMID: 30395886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fawzy Fahim V, Wadie W, Shafik AN, Ishak Attallah M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Central muscarinic and LPBN mechanisms on sodium intake.
Abstract Central cholinergic activation stimulates water intake, but also NaCl intake when the inhibitory mechanisms are blocked with injections of moxonidine (α2 adrenergic/imidazoline agonist) into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, we investigated the involvement of central M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors on NaCl intake induced by pilocarpine (non-selective muscarinic agonist) intraperitoneally combined with moxonidine into the LPBN or by muscimol (GABAA agonist) into the LPBN. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN and in the lateral ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Anesio A, Barbosa SP, de Luca LA, de Paula PM, Colombari DSA, Colombari E, Andrade CAF, Menani JV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Near-Infrared Photobiomodulation Combined with Coenzyme Q10 for Depression in a Mouse Model of Restraint Stress: Reduction in Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation, and Apoptosis.
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) combined with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on depressive-like behavior, cerebral oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis markers in mice. To induce a depressive-like model, mice were subjected to sub-chronic restraint stress for 5 consecutive days. NIR PBM (810 nm laser, 33.3 J/cm2) and/or CoQ10 (500 mg/kg/day, gavage) were administered for five days concomitantly with immobilization. Behavior was evaluated by the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open field test (OFT). Mitochondrial membran...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Salehpour F, Farajdokht F, Cassano P, Sadigh-Eteghad S, Erfani M, Hamblin MR, Moghadam Salimi M, Karimi P, Rasta SH, Mahmoudi J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

TRA2A Promotes proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition of glioma cells.
In this study, our results demonstrated that the expression of TRA2A was higher in the glioma tissue than that of normal tissue. Overexpression of TRA2A in glioma SHG44 cell lines promoted the tumor cells proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), while, knockdown of TRA2A showed the opposite effect. Thus, our findings provide new insights into the role of TRA2A in the progression of glioma, and implicate the potential application of TRA2A in glioma therapy. PMID: 30367895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang J, Hu X, Deng Y, Yuan P, Xie Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Promoting axonal regeneration through exosomes: an update of recent findings on exosomal PTEN and mTOR modifiers.
Abstract Exosomes, in the mix with other extracellular microvesicles (EVs), are very broadly implicated in a multitude of neuronal physiological and pathological processes. However, their roles in axonal regeneration upon injury, which is potentially useful from a therapeutics perspective, are less well-defined. Exosomes from both neuronal and non-neuronal sources have been shown to promote neurite growth or enhance axon regeneration of injured neurons. How these beneficial effects are actually achieved has not been very clear. In some cases the effects have been directly or indirectly attributed to specific exoso...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang BL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cerebral inoculation of human A53T α-synuclein reduces spatial memory decline and amyloid-β aggregation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease.
Cerebral inoculation of human A53T α-synuclein reduces spatial memory decline and amyloid-β aggregation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Oct 23;: Authors: Hao YN, Lu QX, Zhai YH, Wang HY, Wu MN, Hu MM, Yang B, Wang ZJ, Wu ZW, Qi JS Abstract Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and α-synuclein (α-syn) are major components of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively. Co-occurrence of Aβ and α-syn in the senile brains of AD and LB diseases suggests interactions between the two ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hao YN, Lu QX, Zhai YH, Wang HY, Wu MN, Hu MM, Yang B, Wang ZJ, Wu ZW, Qi JS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nonlinear reactions of limbic structure electrical activity in response to rhythmical photostimulation in guinea pigs.
Abstract Photostimulation of the visual analyzer with a periodic signal is widely used in research and clinical practice, as well as in brain-computer interface technologies. In most studies of rhythmic photostimulation in structures of visual system at all its levels, the nonlinear nature of the response reactions is noted. However, the mechanism of formation of the induced electrophysiological reactions remains unclear. In addition, there is no literature data on the nature of response reactions of "non-visual" brain structures. The goal of the present study was to investigate the peculiarities and dyn...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bondar A, Shubina L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Iontophoretic microlesions with kainate or 6-hydroxidopamine in ventromedial prefrontal cortex result in deficit in conditioned taste avoidance to palatable tastants.
te;cz O, Gálosi R, Karádi Z, Lénárd L Abstract Effects of kainate or 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA) lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) on taste-related learning and memory processes were examined. Neurotoxins were applied by iontophoretic method to minimize the extent of lesion and the side effects. Acquisition and retention of conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) was tested to different taste stimuli (0.05 M NaCl, 0.01 M saccharin, 0.01 M citrate and 0.00025 M quinine). In the first experiment, palatability index of taste solutions with these con...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Berta B, Péczely L, Kertes E, Petykó Z, Ollmann T, László K, Kállai V, Kovács A, Zagorácz O, Gálosi R, Karádi Z, Lénárd L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Deletion of aquaporin-4 aggravates brain pathology after blocking of the meningeal lymphatic drainage.
Abstract The glymphatic pathway and meningeal lymphatic vessels are involved in clearance of metabolic macromolecules from the brain. However, the functional interaction between the two systems in the maintenance of brain homeostasis remains unclear. Here we reported that deletion of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a functional regulator of glymphatic clearance, aggravated brain pathology of 3 month-old mice after blocking of the meningeal lymphatic drainage for 2 weeks via ligation of the deep cervical lymphatic nodes (LdcLNs). LdcLNs increased total and phosphorylated Tau protein levels in the hippocampus of both genotype m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cao X, Xu H, Feng W, Su D, Xiao M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Social defeat-induced Cingulate gyrus immediate-early gene expression and anxiolytic-like effect depend upon social rank.
Abstract Social hierarchy is considered to impart an adaptive advantage to the species by reducing long-term conflict between conspecifics. While social stratification is frequently established via stress-inducing stimuli, the subsequent integration of individuals into the hierarchy may attenuate anxiety. Presently, we hypothesized that repeated reinforcement of murine social hierarchy in the dominant-submissive relationship (DSR) food-competition test would engender divergent neuroplastic changes mediating both social and anxiety-like behavior among selectively-bred Dominant (Dom) and Submissive (Sub) mice. Two w...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Basil AH, Gross M, Rajkumar R, Kirby M, Pinhasov A, Gs D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Essential roles of neuropeptide VGF regulated TrkB/mTOR/BICC1 signaling and phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 in the rapid antidepressant-like actions of ketamine in mice.
Abstract Previous studies have suggested that rapid reductions in depression-like behaviors are observed in response to sub-anesthetic-doses of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. Neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic) is a critical effector of depression-like behaviors and is thought to be involved in the antidepressant actions of ketamine that have been demonstrated. However, the mechanism underlying the involvement of VGF in the anti-depressant action of ketamine remains unclear. We found that single dose ketamine treatment reversed CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors and decrease of VGF...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen M, Lv D, Liu X, Li S, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Wang C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Short term exposure to oxycodone alters the survival, proliferation and differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem cell in vitro.
Abstract As one of several opioids, oxycodone has been widely used, particularly in postoperative analgesia in children and cesarean section. However, the effect of oxycodone on developing brain still remains to be seen. Since there is a link between anesthetics exposure and long-term behavioral or cognitive dysfunction in young children, in the current study, the direct effect of oxycodone on neural stem cells (NSCs) biological behaviors was investigated. After exposed to a high dose of oxycodone (10 μg/mL) for 48 hrs, NSCs survival and proliferation were significantly reduced, while NSCs apoptos...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu G, Zhao X, Wang F, Tan R, Wang J, Li X, Chen C, An J, Lu H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Effects of Xiao Yao San on interferon- α-induced depression in mice" [Brain Res. Bull. 139 (2018) 197-202].
Corrigendum to "Effects of Xiao Yao San on interferon-α-induced depression in mice" [Brain Res. Bull. 139 (2018) 197-202]. Brain Res Bull. 2018 Sep 29;: Authors: Wang M, Huang W, Gao T, Zhao X, Lv Z PMID: 30279022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang M, Huang W, Gao T, Zhao X, Lv Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of Melatonin on Attenuating the Isoflurane-Induced Oxidative Damage is Related to PKC α/Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Developing Rats.
This study aims to determine whether the effect of melatonin on isoflurane-induced oxidative stress is related to activation of the PKCα/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Rat pups at postnatal day 7 were treated with control or 1.5% isoflurane for 4 h after pretreatment for 15 min with either melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) or 1% ethanol. The hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopic examination were used for observation of histopathology. The Oxidative stress-related indicators were detected by using assay kits. The western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were us...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li B, Feng X, Hu X, Chen Y, Sha J, Zhang H, Fan HG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like Effects of Insulin and IGF-1 are Mediated by IGF-1 Receptors in the Brain.
Abstract Depression is associated with uncontrolled diabetes, which indicates a lack of insulin effect, yet the role of the insulin receptor in mediating depression is not clearly established because insulin receptors are not required for glucose entry into the brain. However, insulin receptors are important for brain function since insulin receptor knockout mice have depressive-like activity. Depression and cognitive problems are also associated with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the elderly. Rodent studies showed chronic IGF administration had antidepressant-like (AD) activity. We asked if insulin ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mueller PL, Pritchett CE, Wiechman TN, Zharikov A, Hajnal A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

S100A8/A9 induces microglia activation and promotes the apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells by activating the NF- κB signaling pathway.
This study indicates that S100A8/A9 induces the activation of BV-2 microglial cells and promotes the production of pro-inflammatory factors by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway, which further exacerbates OPC damage. PMID: 30266587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu M, Xu L, Wang Y, Zhou N, Zhen F, Zhang Y, Qu X, Fan H, Liu S, Chen Y, Yao R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cab45s Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats.
Abstract Recent studies have shown that Cab45 s, belonging to the CREC family, can fight against apoptosis in the cancer cell lines. Here, we report that Cab45 s may involve in neuronal apoptosis at the early stage of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in pathophysiology. We found that expression of Cab45 s was enhanced in areas contiguous to hematoma following ICH in adult rats, and that so were the expressions of Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and active caspase-3. In vitro, coimmunoprecipitation analysis indicated the interaction between Cab...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen J, Zhou T, Li H, Li W, Wang S, Song Y, Ke K, Cao M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Hydrogen ameliorates chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced neurocognitive impairment via inhibiting oxidative stress.
In conclusion, these results suggest that inhalation of H2 could attenuate the CIH-induced neurocognitive functions impairment via anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis effect. Additional, our findings may provide a potential therapeutic for neurocognitive diseases in patients with OSA. PMID: 30243887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li W, Yang S, Yu FY, Zhao Y, Sun ZM, An JR, Ji E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research