Increased ethanol drinking in "humanized" mice expressing the mu opioid receptor A118G polymorphism are mediated through sex-specific mechanisms.
Increased ethanol drinking in "humanized" mice expressing the mu opioid receptor A118G polymorphism are mediated through sex-specific mechanisms. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Aug 02;: Authors: Henderson-Redmond AN, Lowe TE, Tian XB, Morgan DJ Abstract The A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the mu-opioid receptor gene (Oprm1) has been implicated in mediating the rewarding effects of alcohol. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that the G allele may confer a genetic vulnerability to alcohol dependence, though it remains unknown whether these effects are sex-specific. We used male and f...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Henderson-Redmond AN, Lowe TE, Tian XB, Morgan DJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Varenicline modulates ethanol and saccharin consumption in adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice.
Abstract Adolescence is a critical period in brain development that coincides with the initiation of alcohol use. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) have been shown to modulate ethanol behaviors in adult humans and in animal models; however, the role of these receptors in adolescent ethanol behaviors has not been explored. Throughout adolescence, nAChR expression undergoes large-scale developmental changes which may alter behavioral responses to ethanol. Here we examined the effect of varenicline, a nAChR partial agonist, on ethanol consumption, ataxia, sedation, and metabolism in adolescent male and female...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - August 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kamens HM, Silva C, Peck C, Miller CN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acute Ethanol Modulation of Neurocircuit Function in the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius.
Abstract The nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) is a brain stem region critical to many physiologic processes and has been implicated in addiction to multiple classes of abused drugs, including alcohol (EtOH). That said, the mechanism by which EtOH modulates NTS neurocircuit activity is not well characterized and has yet to be examined utilizing electrophysiologic methods in mouse models of alcohol use disorders. To begin to address this gap in knowledge, we sought to use whole-cell and cell-attached recordings to determine the mechanism of acute EtOH action on GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Aimino MA, Coker C, Silberman Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Duration of isoflurane-based surgical anesthesia determines severity of brain injury and neurological deficits after a transient focal ischemia in young adult rats.
Abstract Tremendous efforts and funds invested in discovery of novel drug treatments for ischemic stroke have so far failed to deliver clinically efficacious therapies. The reasons for these failures are not fully understood. An indiscriminate use of isoflurane-based surgical anesthesia with or without nitrous oxide may act as an unconstrained, untraceable source of data variability, potentially causing false-positive or false-negative results. To test this hypothesis, a common transient suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model of ischemic stroke in young adult male rats was used to determine the impa...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gaidhani N, Sun F, Schreihofer D, Uteshev VV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Genetic variation is associated with RTN4R expression and working memory processing in healthy humans.
Abstract The Nogo receptor (NgR) is implicated in neurodevelopmental processes and it participates in inhibiting axonal growth. Consistent with its high levels of expression in the prefrontal cortex, animal studies indicate that NgR is relevant for prefrontal-related cognitive processing. Given that genetic variation may alter mechanisms of gene expression impacting molecular and systems-level phenotypes, we investigated the association of genetic variation with the expression of the NgR coding gene (RTN4R), as well as with prefrontal correlates at progressively greater biological distance from gene effects. First...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lo Bianco L, Attrotto MT, Torretta S, Masellis R, Rampino A, D'Ambrosio E, Giorgio AD, Ferranti L, Fazio L, Gelao B, Blasi G, Bertolino A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of tramadol in the mouse forced swimming test.
Abstract Tramadol is an analgesic agent that is mainly used to treat moderate to severe pain. There is evidence that tramadol may have antidepressant property. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of tramadol have not been elucidated yet. Considering that fact that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling may play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of NMDA receptor signaling in the possible antidepressant-like effects of tramadol in the mouse forced swimming test (mFST). We found that tramadol exerted antid...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ostadhadi S, Norouzi-Javidan A, Chamanara M, Akbarian R, Imran-Khan M, Ghasemi M, Dehpour AR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acute action of rotenone on excitability of catecholaminergic neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla.
Abstract The degeneration of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) catecholaminergic neurons was responsible for some cardiovascular symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous study had observed the impairment of these neurons in the early stage of PD in the rotenone-induced PD rat model, but the related mechanisms remain unclear. Rotenone is a mitochondrial inhibitor, influencing the neuronal electrophysiological activity through activation of K-ATP channels that potentially participate in cell death processes. In the present study, effects of rotenone on electrophysiological properties of RVLM catecho...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Shi L, Du X, Jiao Q, Jiang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The antidepressant effect of melatonin and fluoxetine in diabetic rats is associated with a reduction of the oxidative stress in the prefrontal and hippocampal cortices.
Abstract In the past few years possible mechanisms that link diabetes and depression have been found. One of these mechanisms is the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity in the hippocampal and prefrontal cortices, which are brain areas involved in mood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an antidepressant and of an antioxidant on behavior and oxidative activity in brains of diabetic rats. Rats rendered diabetic after a treatment with streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg) were treated with fluoxetine (15mg/kg), melatonin (10mg/kg), or vehicle for 4 weeks. All animals...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebai R, Jasmin L, Boudah A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The protective effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced memory deficits in rats.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI), as an expanding public health epidemic, is a common cause of death among youth. TBI is associated with cognitive deficits and memory impairment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous mediator, has been recognized as an important neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. In the present study the potential neuroprotective role of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor on TBI induced memory deficit in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury was investigated. CCI model was used to induce TBI. Male rats were randomly assigned into t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Karimi SA, Hosseinmardi N, Janahmadi M, Sayyah M, Hajisoltani R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The olfactory bulbectomized rat model is not an appropriate model for studying depression based on morphological/stereological studies of the hippocampus.
Abstract Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) has been used as an animal model for major depression that results in behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroendocrinological changes were reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressants, including fluoxetine. However, both etiological and construct validities are lacking in OBX for rats. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes in the hippocampi of rats undergoing OBX that were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 4 and 12 weeks) using stereological techniques. Our results revealed that OBX caused a reduction in the volumes of t...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yurttas C, Schmitz C, Turgut M, Strekalova T, Steinbusch HWM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Identifying novel members of the Wntless interactome through genetic and candidate gene approaches.
Abstract Wnt signaling is an important pathway that regulates several aspects of embryogenesis, stem cell maintenance, and neural connectivity. We have recently determined that opioids decrease Wnt secretion, presumably by inhibiting the recycling of the Wnt trafficking protein Wntless (Wls). This effect appears to be mediated by protein-protein interaction between Wls and the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), the primary cellular target of opioid drugs. The goal of this study was to identify novel protein interactors of Wls that are expressed in the brain and may also play a role in reward or addiction. Using genetic and...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Petko J, Tranchina T, Patel G, Levenson R, Justice-Bitner S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Serotonin depletion increases seizure susceptibility and worsens neuropathological outcomes in kainate model of epilepsy.
Abstract Serotonin is implicated in the regulation of seizures, but whether or not it can potentiate the effects of epileptogenic factors is not fully established. Using the kainic acid model of epilepsy in rats, we tested the effects of serotonin depletion on (1) susceptibility to acute seizures, (2) development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and (3) behavioral and neuroanatomical sequelae of kainic acid treatment. Serotonin was depleted by pretreating rats with p-chlorophenylalanine. In different groups, kainic acid was injected at 3 different doses: 6.5mg/kg, 9.0mg/kg or 12.5mg/kg. A single dose of 6.5mg/kg ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Maia GH, Brazete CS, Soares JI, Luz LL, Lukoyanov NV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prelimbic α1-adrenoceptors are involved in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors in the hemiparkinsonian rats.
Prelimbic α1-adrenoceptors are involved in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors in the hemiparkinsonian rats. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jul 14;: Authors: Wu ZH, Zhang QJ, Du CX, Xi Y, Li WJ, Guo FY, Yu SQ, Yang YX, Liu J Abstract At present, it is not clear whether α1-adrenoceptors in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) are involved in Parkinson's disease-related depression. Here we examined effects of PrL α1-adrenoceptors on depressive-like behaviors in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced depressive-like responses as measured by...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu ZH, Zhang QJ, Du CX, Xi Y, Li WJ, Guo FY, Yu SQ, Yang YX, Liu J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Taxifolin reduces the cholesterol oxidation product-induced neuronal apoptosis by suppressing the Akt and NF- κB activation-mediated cell death.
Taxifolin reduces the cholesterol oxidation product-induced neuronal apoptosis by suppressing the Akt and NF-κB activation-mediated cell death. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jul 11;: Authors: Kim A, Nam YJ, Lee CS Abstract The taxifolin effect on the cholesterol oxidation product-induced neuronal apoptosis was investigated using differentiated PC12 cells and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 7-ketocholesterol induced phosphorylation of Akt, and increase in the levels of cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB p65, cytosolic NF-κB p50 and cytosolic phosphorylated-IκB-α levels in PC12 cells. T...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim A, Nam YJ, Lee CS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Transient brain hypothermia reduces the reperfusion injury of delayed tissue plasminogen activator and extends its therapeutic time window in a focal embolic stroke model.
We examined whether short-term and mild local brain cooling can prevent hyperemia and/or adverse effects of delayed tPA in rat embolic stroke model. Male animals were subjected to embolic stroke and then randomly classified into control (saline), tPA (1mg/kg; i.v.), local hypothermia (LH), and tPA+LH. The drug was injected at 6h after ischemia. LH was conducted by direct ipsilateral (injured) hemisphere cooling at 6.5h after stroke and maintained for approximately 30minutes. Cerebral blood flow was monitored in a duration of 60minute after tPA administration and hyperemic response was measured. Infarct volume, blood-brain ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zarisfi M, Allahtavakoli F, Hassanipour M, Khaksari M, Rezazadeh H, Allahtavakoli M, Taghavi MM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intranasal nerve growth factor attenuating the seizure onset via p75R/Caspase pathway in the experimental epilepsy.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) shows neuroprotection while it is hard to cross the blood-brain barrier due to its large molecular weight. Our study used intranasal delivery of NGF to treat the experimental epilepsy. METHODS: The seizure was induced by injection of pentylenetetrazol (40mg/kg) into the rat. Based on the behavior performance, the successful models were randomized into control and NGF groups, given medium or NGF intranasally, respectively. The onset and duration of seizure were recorded. The neuron loss was assessed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. The expressions of Ca...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lei J, Feng F, Duan Y, Xu F, Liu Z, Lian L, Liang Q, Zhang N, Wang F Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inhibitory effects of tetramethylpyrazine on pain transmission of trigeminal neuralgia in CCI-ION rats.
Abstract Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat cerebral ischemic injury, but the mechanism of TMP on neural protection is not clear. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a facial pain syndrome that is characterized by paroxysmal, shock-like pain attacks located in the somatosensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. P2X3 receptor plays a crucial role in facilitating pain transmission. The present study investigates the effects of TMP on trigeminal neuralgia transmission mediated by P2X3 receptor of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). Chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital branch...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiong W, Tan M, He L, Ou X, Jin Y, Yang G, Huang L, Shen Y, Guan S, Xu C, Li G, Liu S, Xu H, Liang S, Gao Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat striatum.
to CA Abstract Striatum and the cerebral cortex are regions susceptible to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and glial cells in tissue adjacent to the hematoma may modulate cellular vulnerability after brain damage. Nonetheless, while the glial- associated changes occurring in the cerebral cortex after ICH may be important in maximizing brain recovery, they are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal profile of glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after ICH. First, the motor consequences of ICH and its relation to the lesion volume were analyzed. Seco...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Neves JD, Aristimunha D, Vizuete AF, Nicola F, Vanzela C, Petenuzzo L, Mestriner RG, Sanches EF, Gonçalves CA, Netto CA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effect of CXCR2 inhibition on seizure activity in the pilocarpine epilepsy mouse model.
This study suggests that CXCR2 plays a critical role in modifying epileptic seizure activity and that CXCR2 blockade could be a potential molecular therapeutic target for epilepsy. PMID: 28705496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu T, Yu X, Wang T, Liu Y, Liu X, Ou S, Chen Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Connexin43, but not connexin30, contributes to adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.
r P Abstract The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus represents a niche in which radial glia (RG)-like cells generate new neurons throughout postnatal life in the mammalian brain. Previous data showed that RG-like cells are coupled through gap junction channels, primarily formed by connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx30, and that the expression of these proteins is required for adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, their individual function and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that Cx43, but not Cx30, is crucial for adult neurogenesis. To assess whether Cx43-dependent intercellular couplin...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang J, Griemsmann S, Wu Z, Dobrowolski R, Willecke K, Theis M, Steinhäuser C, Bedner P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β reduces reactive glia and scar formation after traumatic brain injury in mice.
Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β reduces reactive glia and scar formation after traumatic brain injury in mice. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jul 03;: Authors: Pei D, Liu N, Li D, Yan H, Wang QB, Fang Y, Xie L, Li HP Abstract Brain injury leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions within the central nervous system. As the glial scar was a mechanical barrier to regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Here we investigated the role...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pei D, Liu N, Li D, Yan H, Wang QB, Fang Y, Xie L, Li HP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Alterations in nociception and morphine antinociception in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Abstract Currently, more than 78.6 million adults in the United States are obese. A majority of the patient population receiving treatment for pain symptoms is derived from this subpopulation. Environmental factors, including the increased availability of food high in fat and sugar, contribute to the continued rise in the rates of obesity. The focus of this study was to investigate whether long-term exposure to a high-fat, energy-dense diet enhances baseline thermal and inflammatory nociception while reducing sensitivity to morphine-induced antinociception. Antinociceptive and hypothermic responses to morphine wer...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nealon CM, Patel C, Worley BL, Henderson-Redmond AN, Morgan DJ, Czyzyk TA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cellular Mechanisms of Peroxynitrite-Induced Neuronal Death.
Abstract Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a strong biological oxidant formed by the diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide (NO(-)) and superoxide anion (O2(-)). It has long been theorized that peroxynitrite generation could be the cause in a number of pathological conditions ranging from atherosclerosis to inflammatory, autoimmune, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. Its relatively long biological half-life and high reactivity allows peroxynitrite to oxidize a number of different targets in the cell. In physiologically relevant conditions peroxynitrite can directly react with thiols, or the radical products of per...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramdial K, Franco MC, Estevez AG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effect of monascin on hematoma clearance and edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the high dosage of monascin played a neuroprotective role in ICH through reducing BBB permeability, edema and hematoma volume. PMID: 28655601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang J, Wang G, Yi J, Xu Y, Duan S, Li T, Sun XG, Dong L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Influence of social interaction on nociceptive-induced changes in locomotor activity in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain: use of novel thermal assays.
Abstract Most acute and chronic animal models of pain rely heavily on reflexive assays for evaluating levels of nociception, which involves removing the animal from its normal social environment. Here, we examine and characterize the influence of social interactions on inflammatory pain-evoked changes in movement in two different mouse strains. To produce inflammatory nociception, we injected CFA bilaterally into the hind paws of Balb/c and C3H mice and then recorded exploratory locomotor activity using an automated detector system to first evaluate the effects of social behavior on nociception. Secondly, we deter...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Smeester BA, Lee JH, Beitz AJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Modulation of gap junction-associated Cx43 in neural stem/progenitor cells following traumatic brain injury.
Abstract Restoration of learning and memory deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is attributed, in part, to enhanced neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPCs) function. Recent findings suggest gap junction (GJ)-associated connexin 43 (Cx43) plays a key role in the cell cycle regulation and function of NSPCs and is modulated following TBI. Here, we demonstrate that Cx43 is up-regulated in the dentate gyrus following TBI and is expressed on vimentin-positive cells in the subgranular zone. To test the role of Cx43 on NSPCs, we exposed primary cultures to the α-connexin Carboxyl Terminal (αCT1) peptid...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Greer K, Chen J, Brickler T, Gourdie R, Theus MH Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Age-dependent changes in autophosphorylation of alpha calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II in hippocampus and amygdala after contextual fear conditioning.
Abstract The hippocampus and amygdala are essential brain regions responsible for contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The autophosphorylation of alpha calcium-calmodulin kinase II (αCaMKII) at threonine-286 (T286) is a critical step implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the changes in αCaMKII levels with aging and training in associated brain regions are not fully understood. Here, we studied how aging and training affect the levels of phosphorylated (T286) and proportion of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala. Young and aged mice, na&i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fang T, Kasbi K, Rothe S, Aziz W, Giese KP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Elevated serum [Met(5)]-enkephalin levels correlate with improved clinical and behavioral outcomes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Abstract Methionine enkephalin ([Met(5)]-enkephalin, Opioid growth factor (OGF)) is a small neuropeptide with growth-related as well as immunomodulatory properties. OGF is distributed widely throughout the body, is both autocrine and paracrine produced, and has a very short half-life in serum. In addition to its neurotransmitter functions, OGF inhibits cell replication of a wide variety of cells involved in the autoimmune process. In this preclinical study, mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocytic glycoprotein (MOG35-55) to establish a chronic progressive form of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and ser...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ludwig MD, Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective effect of Lycium Barbarum polysaccharides on dextromethorphan-induced mood impairment and neurogenesis suppression.
BW, Siu AM Abstract Dextromethorphan (DXM) is one of the common drugs abused by adolescents. It is the active ingredient found in cough medicine which is used for suppressing cough. High dosage of DXM can induce euphoria, dissociative effects and even hallucinations. Chronic use of DXM may also lead to depressive-related symptoms. Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. A recent study has shown the potential beneficial effect of Lycium barbarum to reduce depression-like behavior. In the present st...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Po KK, Leung JW, Chan JN, Fung TK, Sánchez-Vidaña DI, Sin EL, So KF, Lau BW, Siu AM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Heightened Sympathetic Arousal is demonstrated by Skin Conductance Responsivity to Auditory Stimuli in a Small Cohort of Neonates with Opiate Withdrawal.
Abstract To determine the effects of auditory stimulus on skin conductance (SC) in infants with severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) that required morphine treatment (MT) compared with NAS infants that did not require morphine treatment (non-MT). We prospectively enrolled opiate-exposed term infants without polysubstance exposure. Skin conductance responses to an auditory stimulus (ringing a bell for 3seconds) near the time of discharge were obtained. Skin conductance was measured before, during, and after the stimulus. Non-parametric tests were used to determine between group and within phase differences. In...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Oji-Mmuo CN, Gardner FC, Doheny KK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cerebral ischemia/repefusion injury: from bench space to bedside.
Abstract While stroke research represents the primary interface between circulation and brain research, the hemostasis system also carries a pivotal role in the mechanism of vascular brain injury. The complex interrelated events triggered by the energy crisis have a specific spatial and temporal pattern arching from the initial damage to the final events of brain repair. The complexity of the pathophysiology make it difficult to model this disease, therefore it is challenging to find appropriate therapeutic targets. The ever-persistent antagonism between the positive results of drug candidates in the experimental ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nagy Z, Nardai S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Drug induces depression-like phenotypes and alters gene expression profiles in Drosophila.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness that affects more than 350 million people worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of depression are currently unclear. Studies suggest that Drosophila and humans have similar depression-like symptoms under pressure. In this research, we choose Drosophila melanogaster as the animal model to explore the molecular mechanisms that trigger depression. RESULTS: We found that feeding D. melanogaster with the medium containing Levodopa or Chlorpromazine could induce depression-like phenotypes in both behavioral and biochemical biomar...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang MD, Zheng Y, Wang JL, Wang YF Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Pre-adolescent and adolescent mice are less sensitive to the effects of acute nicotine on extinction and spontaneous recovery.
In this study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine administration on extinction and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear memories in pre-adolescent (PND 23), late adolescent (PND 38), and adult (PND 53) C57B6/J mice. Mice were first trained in a background contextual fear conditioning paradigm and given an intraperitoneal injection of one of four doses of nicotine (0.045, 0.09, 0.18, or 0.36mg/kg, freebase) prior to subsequent extinction or spontaneous recovery sessions. Results indicated that all acute nicotine doses impaired extinction of contextual fear in adult mice. Late adolescent mice exhibited impaired ext...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kutlu MG, Zeid D, Tumolo JM, Gould TJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Involvement of autophagy in connexin 40 reduction in the late phase of traumatic brain injury in rats" [Brain Res. Bull. 131 (2017) 100-106].
Corrigendum to "Involvement of autophagy in connexin 40 reduction in the late phase of traumatic brain injury in rats" [Brain Res. Bull. 131 (2017) 100-106]. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Jun 13;: Authors: Chen W, Guo Y, Yang W, Zheng P, Zeng J, Tong W PMID: 28622830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen W, Guo Y, Yang W, Zheng P, Zeng J, Tong W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Different patterns of changes between actin dynamics and synaptic density in the rat's primary visual cortex during a special period of visual development.
This study suggests actin cytoskeleton not only provides the structural basis but also regulates a various array of cellular activities underlying synaptic function. Besides, it highlights a further research of synaptic pruning. PMID: 28602762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen MQ, Bi AL, Zhang YY, Yan Q, Sun YY, Zhang XY, Ma XZ, Bi HS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

An Improved Three-Vessel Occlusion Model of Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.
Abstract We developed an improved three-vessel occlusion model of global cerebral ischemia in rats. This method consists in cessation of cerebral blood flow by accessing a. carotis communis sin. through the ventral surface of the neck as well as tr. brachiocephalicus and a. subclavia sinistra through the first intercostal space, bypassing the pleural cavity and excluding pneumothorax. After the occlusion of the vessels that resulted in interruption of their blood flow, according to laser-Doppler flowmetry, there was a sharp decline in local cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex to 4±1% of the initial lev...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Atochin DN, Chernysheva GA, Aliev OI, Smolyakova VI, Osipenko AN, Logvinov SV, Zhdankina AA, Plotnikova TM, Plotnikov MB Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of different musical frequencies on NPY and Ghrelin secretion in the rat hypothalamus.
Abstract It is known that exists a relationship between listening to music and food intake. Hypothalamus appears to integrate the orexigenic properties of a novel peptide, ghrelin (Ghre) that induces food intake through neuropeptide Y (NPY). Ghre stimulates appetite by acting on the ventral hypothalamus, which controls food intake. Ghre is secreted from the stomach and circulates in the bloodstream under fasting conditions, sending a hunger signal from the periphery to the Central Nervous System. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the rat, the effects of different musical frequencies (432 and 440Hz) on the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Russo C, Russo A, Gulino R, Pellitteri R, Stanzani S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Zeaxanthin improves diabetes-induced cognitive deficit in rats through activiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
This study demonstrated that zeaxanthin ameliorate diabetes-related cognitive deficit may by means of protecting neural cell from hyperglycemia involved in AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway. This study may provide a potential therapeutic approach for the prevention of diabetes- associated cognitive deficit. PMID: 28599877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou X, Wang S, Ding X, Qin L, Mao Y, Chen L, Li W, Ying C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Functions of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat, correlating single-unit and cardiovascular responses.
In conclusion, microinjection of AngII into the PVN stimulates neurons resulting in an increase in firing rate and consequently produces a short or long pressor response. These responses were mediated through AT1 and AT2 receptors; however, AT1 receptor may produce inhibition too. The results suggest that AngII of the PVN may be a neurotransmitter playing a role in arterial pressure regulation. PMID: 28596051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Khanmoradi M, Nasimi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Brain networks activated to form object recognition memory.
Abstract Object recognition memory allows discrimination of familiar and novel objects. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for object recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory at the anatomic level remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the brain network for the generation of OR memory in mice by measuring the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos. We found that c-fos expression was induced in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), insular cortex (IC), perirhinal cortex (PRh), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) w...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tanimizu T, Kono K, Kida S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Characterization of aromatase expression in the spinal cord of an animal model of familial ALS.
Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease involving motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. ALS leads to progressive, aggravated muscle weakness and paralysis. Although the precise pathogenesis remains unknown, several studies have shown that estrogens exert neuroprotective effects during the course of the disease. Aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen synthesis. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting to observe the characteristics of aromatase expression in the spinal cords of copper-zinc superoxide dism...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun C, Liu Y, Liu Y, Zhao M, Zhai J, Hao P, Wang Y, Ji Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Ceftriaxone reverses deficits of behavior and neurogenesis in an MPTP-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease dementia.
Abstract Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) so that glutamatergic modulation maybe a potential therapeutic target for PD. Ceftriaxone (CEF) has been reported to increase glutamate uptake by increasing glutamate transporter expression and has been demonstrated neuroprotective effects in animal study. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CEF on behavior and neurogenesis in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model. MPTP was stereotaxically injected into the substantia nigra pars ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hsieh MH, Meng WY, Liao WC, Weng JC, Li HH, Su HL, Lin CL, Hung CS, Ho YJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Possible involvement of CREB/BDNF signaling pathway in neuroprotective effects of topiramate against methylphenidate induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in isolated hippocampus of rats: molecular, biochemical and histological evidences.
Abstract Chronic abuse of methylphenidate (MPH) can cause serious neurotoxicity. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) were approved, but its putative mechanism remains unclear. In current study the role of CREB/BDNF signaling pathway in TPM protection against methylphenidate-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus was evaluated. 60 adult male rats were divided randomly into six groups. Groups received MPH (10mg/kg) only and concurrently with TPM (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) and TPM (50 and 100mg/kg) only for 14 days. Open field test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity. Some biomarkers of apoptotic, ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Motaghinejad M, Motevalian M, Babalouei F, Abdollahi M, Heidari M, Madjd Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Sulfiredoxin-1 During Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Oxidative Stress Injury in Rats.
Abstract As an endogenous antioxidant protein, Sulfiredoxin1 (Srxn1) can prevent cell oxidative stress damage. However, its role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we explored effects of Srxn1 knockdown on oxidative stress using in vitro and in vivo I/R models and investigated related neuroprotective mechanisms. For in vitro studies, primary cortical neuronal cultures were transfected with an interfering lentivirus targeting Srxn1. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was conducted after Srxn1 knockdown. MTS and lactate dehydrogenase assa...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu J, Chen Y, Yu S, Li L, Zhao X, Li Q, Zhao J, Zhao Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.
In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to at least 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with u...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ruitenberg MJ, Wells J, Bartlett PF, Harvey AR, Vukovic J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Fluvoxamine maleate effects on dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex of stressed parkinsonian rats: implications for learning and memory.
This study suggests that DA and 5-HT signaling in the PFC are responsive to FM and may reduce stress-induced cognitive impairment in PD. PMID: 28549887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dallé E, Daniels WMU, Mabandla MV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Protective treatments and their target retinal ganglion cells in diabetic retinopathy.
Abstract Diabetic retinopathy(DR)is one of the complications of diabetes which could cause severe vision loss. Retinal ganglion cell(RGC)injury has been confirmed prior to micro-vascular damage. Over the past few decades, a number of animal and clinical studies have confirmed that RGC impairment leads to an early deterioration of vision in DR. Inhibition of aldose reductase (AR), advanced glycation end product (AGE), oxidative stress, glutamate toxicity, and an inflammatory response may play important roles in protecting RGCs in DR. Furthermore, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase-1 (Nmnat1), neurotro...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang J, Liu R, Kuang HY, Gao XY, Liu HL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Evaluation of direct and cell-mediated triple-gene therapy in spinal cord injury in rats.
This study investigates the efficacy of various combinations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiogenin (ANG) and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in rats. Multiple therapeutic genes were administered intrathecally either via adenoviral vectors or by using genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCBMCs). Following the induction of SCI, serial assessment of cord regeneration was performed, including morphometric analysis of gray and white matters, electrophysiology and behavioral test. The therapeutic gene combinations VEGF+GDNF+N...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Islamov RR, Izmailov AA, Sokolov ME, Fadeev PO, Bashirov FV, Eremeev AA, Shaymardanova GF, Shmarov MM, Naroditskiy BS, Chelyshev YA, Lavrov IA, Palotás A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

MicroRNA-129-5p inhibits the development of autoimmune encephalomyelitis-related epilepsy by targeting HMGB1 through the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway.
This study provides evidence that miR-129-5p inhibits the development of AE-related epilepsy by suppressing HMGB1 expression and inhibiting TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway. PMID: 28528202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu AH, Wu YT, Wang YP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Changes in resting state functional brain connectivity and withdrawal symptoms are associated with acute electronic cigarette use.
Abstract Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with va...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hobkirk AL, Nichols TT, Foulds J, Yingst JM, Veldheer S, Hrabovsky S, Richie J, Eissenberg T, Wilson SJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research