A new potent analgesic agent with reduced liability to produce morphine tolerance.
Al-Khrasani M Abstract The therapeutic use of opioids is limited by the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still not completely understood. For this reason the search for new analgesic derivatives, endowed with lower tolerance, is always an active field. The newly synthesized 14- O -Methylmorphine-6-sulfate (14- O -MeM6SU) shows high efficacy in in vitro assays and a strong analgesic action in the rat tail flick test. The aim of present work was to investigate: the analgesic effect of 14- O -MeM6SU in mouse tail-flick test; the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kiraly K, Caputi FF, Hanuska A, Kató E, Balogh M, Köles L, Palmisano M, Riba P, Hosztafi S, Romualdi P, Candeletti S, Ferdinandy P, Fürst S, Al-Khrasani M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Microelectronics, bioinformatics and neurocomputation for massive neuronal recordings in brain circuits with large scale multielectrode array probes.
Abstract Deciphering neural network function in health and disease requires recording from many active neurons simultaneously. Developing approaches to increase their numbers is a major neurotechnological challenge. Parallel to recent advances in optical Ca(2+) imaging, an emerging approach consists in adopting complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology to realize MultiElectrode Array (MEA) devices. By implementing signal conditioning and multiplexing circuits, these devices allow nowadays to record from several thousands of single neurons at sub-millisecond temporal resolution. At the same time, th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Maccione A, Gandolfo M, Zordan S, Amin H, Marco SD, Nieus T, Angotzi GN, Berdondini L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Comparison of visual receptive field properties of the superior colliculus and primary visual cortex in rats.
Abstract The rat visual system comprises cortical and subcortical pathways. The receptive field properties of cells in the visual cortex have been extensively studied; however, the fundamental roles of the two circuits in visual information processing are not well understood. To address this question, we have applied quantitative methods to compare and characterize the spatiotemporal receptive field (RF) properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) cells and superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC) in rats by means of extracellular recordings. An analysis of visual stimulus processing revealed dis...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Li X, Sun C, Shi L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

c-Fos expression correlates with performance on novel object and novel place recognition tests.
Abstract In rodents, many studies have been carried out using novelty-preference paradigms. The results show that the perirhinal cortex and the hippocampus are involved in the recognition of a novel object, "what", and its new position, "where", respectively. We employed these two variants of a novelty-preference paradigm to assess whether the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in the dorsal hippocampus and perirhinal cortex correlates with the performance discrimination ratio (d2), on the respective versions of the novelty preference tests. A control group (CO) was added to explore c...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Mendez M, Arias N, Uceda S, Arias JL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Dynamic functional connectivity among neuronal population during modulation of extra-classical receptive field in primary visual cortex.
This study provided new insights for a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for surround modulation. PMID: 26192204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Niu X, Shi L, Wan H, Wang Z, Shang Z, Li Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Brain magnetic resonance metabolic and microstructural changes in adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy.
CONCLUSION: in subjects with LMNB1 gene duplication, we found a pathological increase in CSF lactate, likely due to active demyelination along with glial activation, and microstructural changes in the genu of the corpus callosum possibly underpinning the mild neuropsychological deficits. PMID: 26189928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zanigni S, Terlizzi R, Tonon C, Testa C, Manners DN, Capellari S, Gallassi R, Poda R, Gramegna LL, Calandra-Buonaura G, Sambati L, Cortelli P, Lodi R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Repeated cognitive stimulation alleviates memory impairments in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive memory and cognitive decline. Previous studies have identified the benefits of cognitive enrichment on reducing disease pathology. Additionally, epidemiological and clinical data suggest that repeated exercise, and cognitive and social enrichment, can improve and/or delay the cognitive deficiencies associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, 3xTg-AD mice were exposed to a rigorous training routine beginning at 3 months of age, which consisted of repeated training in the Morris water maze spatial ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Yeung ST, Martinez-Coria H, Ager RR, Rodriguez-Ortiz CJ, Baglietto-Vargas D, LaFerla FM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Exercise Suppresses COX-2 Pro-inflammatory Pathway in Vestibular Migraine.
Abstract Migraine and dizziness are relatively common disorders. Patients with dizziness have a higher incidence of migraines than the general population. The discomfort experienced by these patients is often poorly controlled by medication. However, the pathophysiology of vestibular migraine (VM) remains unclear. We hypothesized that patients with VM would experience remission from symptoms after exercise training and that this effect may be mediated through the suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated inflammation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and possible anti-infla...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 4, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee YY, Yang YP, Huang PI, Li WC, Huang MC, Kao CL, Chen YJ, Chen MT Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Spinal cord injury affects I-wave facilitation in human motor cortex.
a E Abstract Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is represents a useful non-invasive approach for studying cortical physiology. To further clarify the mechanisms of cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury (SCI), we used a non-invasive paired TMS protocol for the investigation of the corticospinal I-waves, the so-called I-wave facilitation, in eight patients with cervical SCI. We found that the pattern of I-wave facilitation significantly differs between SCI patients with normal and abnormal central motor conduction (CMCT), and healthy controls. The group with normal CMCT showed increased I-wave facili...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 4, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nardone R, Höller Y, Bathke AC, Orioli A, Schwenker K, Frey V, Golaszewski S, Brigo F, Trinka E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Why sharing matters for electrophysiological data analysis.
We present the case for the sharing of electrophysiological datasets and tools for their analysis. Some of the problems, both sociological and technical, associated with improving the sharing of data and analysis tools are discussed. The work that has been done to try to improve data and code sharing in the electrophysiology area is reviewed. The sharing aspects of the current large projects in brain research are considered. PMID: 26149457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Smith LS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

2-Deoxy-d-glucose-induced hypothermia in anesthetized rats: Lack of forebrain contribution and critical involvement of the rostral raphe/parapyramidal regions of the medulla oblongata.
In this study, I examined possible involvement of the forebrain, which contains the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center, and the medullary rostral raphe/parapyramidal regions (rRPa/PPy), which mediate hypoxia-induced heat- loss responses, in 2DG-induced hypothermia in urethane-chloralose- anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. The intravenous injection of 2DG (250mg kg(-1)) elicited an increase in tail skin temperature and decreases in body core temperature and the respiratory exchange ratio, though it did not induce any significant change in the metabolic rate. These results indicate that th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 2, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Osaka T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Sex and Estrogen Affect the Distribution of Urocortin-1 Immunoreactivity in Brainstem Autonomic Nuclei of the Rat.
This study was done to investigate whether estrogen (E; 17β-estradiol) treatment (9 weeks) altered UCN-1 immunoreactivity in brainstem autonomic nuclei in female Wistar rats. Experiments were done in age matched adult males (controls), females (intact), and ovariectomized (OVX) only and OVX+E (30 pg/ml plasma) treated females. All animals received intracerebroventricular injections of colchicine and were then perfused transcardially with Zamboni's fixative. Coronal brainstem sections (40μm) were cut and processed immunohistochemically for UCN-1. In males, moderate UCN-1 fiber labeling was found in the nucleus of th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - July 2, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Ciriello J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of caloric restriction on the SIRT1/mTOR signaling pathways in senile mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a CR diet could lead to activation of SIRT1 and suppression of mTOR and S6K1 activation in C57BL/6 mice. We have shown that the SIRT1/mTOR signaling pathways may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of CR. PMID: 26135885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Ma L, Dong W, Wang R, Li Y, Xu B, Zhang J, Zhao Z, Wang Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Long lasting cerebellar alterations after perinatal asphyxia in rats.
In conclusion, we demonstrate that PA produces long-term damage in cellular histomorphology in rat cerebellar cortex which could be involved in the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits observed in both animals and humans. PMID: 26116983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Campanille V, Saraceno GE, Rivière S, Logica T, Kölliker R, Capani F, Castilla R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Streptozotocin diabetic mice display depressive-like behavior and alterations in the structure, neurotransmission and plasticity of medial prefrontal cortex interneurons.
her J Abstract Diabetes mellitus patients are at increased risk of developing depression, although the neurobiological bases of this comorbidity are not yet fully understood. These patients show CNS alterations, similar to those found in major depression, including changes in the structure and neurotransmission of excitatory neurons. However, although depressive patients and animal models also display alterations in inhibitory networks, little is known about the effects of diabetes on interneurons. Our main objective was to study the impact of diabetes on interneurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), one of...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 22, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Castillo-Gómez E, Coviello S, Perez-Rando M, Curto Y, Carceller H, Salvador A, Nacher J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Autophagy in glaucoma: Crosstalk with apoptosis and its implications.
Abstract Glaucoma is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure that causes progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative process that updates the cellular components and plays an important role in cellular homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that autophagy is involved in the pathophysiological process of glaucoma. The role played by autophagy in glaucoma is complex, and conflicting evidence shows that autophagy promotes both RGC survival and death. The understanding of the major pattern of RGC loss and the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis remains limited i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - June 11, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Y, Huang C, Zhang H, Wu R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

PRefrontal cortex and hippocampus in behavioural flexibility and posttraumatic functional recovery: Reversal learning and set-shifting in rats.
Mogensen J Abstract Within one experiment and one T-maze, we examined the consequences of i) bilateral lesions of the anteromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), ii) bilateral transections of the fimbria-fornix (FF), or iii) combined lesions of both PFC and FF (COMB) on rats' ability to perform reversal or set-shifting. Postoperatively, the animals were trained to perform a spatial discrimination go-right task. This was followed by 1) a spatial reversal go-left task (reversal learning), or 2) a visual pattern discrimination task (set-shift). Neither single (PFC or FF) lesion nor combined (COMB) lesions affected the ani...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Malá H, Andersen LG, Christensen RF, Felbinger A, Hagstrøm J, Meder D, Pearce H, Mogensen J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Suppression of the swallowing reflex by stimulation of the red nucleus.
Abstract We study whether the red nucleus is involved in control of swallowing. The swallowing reflex was induced in anesthetized rats by repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. The electromyographic activities of the mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles were recorded in order to identify the swallowing reflex. Repetitive electrical stimulation applied to the red nucleus reduced the number of swallows. The onset latency of the first swallow was increased during repetitive electrical stimulation applied to the magnocellular part of the red nucleus. Microinjection of monosodium glutamate into ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 23, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Satoh Y, Tsuji K, Tsujimura T, Ishizuka K, Inoue M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

'O' Blood Type is Associated with Larger Grey-Matter Volumes in the Cerebellum.
Abstract Recent evidence indicated higher incidence of cognitive deficits in ABO blood-type system 'AB' individuals. Since this statistical difference might originate from the lack of protective effects exerted by 'O' alleles on the brain via vascular or non-vascular routes, this study investigated volumetric differences in grey matter between 'O' and non 'O' adults to explore the possibility of a structural endophenotype visible in 'O' adults without cognitive impairment or neurodegeneration. A large sample of cognitively healthy adults who had previously undergone structural MRI for research purposes were contac...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: De Marco M, Venneri A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Vitamin C reverses lead-induced deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats.
In this study, we examined the protective effects of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) against Pb exposure-induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP). Forty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups and subjected to the following treatments for three months: (1) vehicle (distilled water); (2) Pb; (3) ascorbic acid; (4) Pb+ascorbic acid; (5) Pb (two months) followed by ascorbic acid; and (6) ascorbic acid (one month) followed by Pb. After treatment, the population spike(PS) amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials(EPSP) were measured in the dentate gyrus(DG) of rats in vivo. Following these m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Karamian R, Komaki A, Salehi I, Tahmasebi L, Komaki H, Shahidi S, Sarihi A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Behaviour and prefrontal protein differences in C57BL/6N and 129 X1/SvJ mice.
Abstract Experimental animals provide valuable opportunities to establish aetiological mechanisms and test new treatments for neurodevelopmental psychiatric conditions. However, it is increasingly appreciated that inter-strain differences cannot be neglected in the experimental design. In addition, the importance of including females in preclinical-but also clinical-research is now recognised. Here, we compared behaviour and prefrontal protein differences in male and female C57BL/6N and 129X1/SvJ mice as both are commonly used experimental rodents. Relative to 129X1/SvJ mice, both sexes of C57BL/6N mice had weaker...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 20, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Li Q, Wong N, Zhang M, Wang W, Bu B, McAlonan GM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Salvianolic acid B attenuates apoptosis and inflammation via SIRT1 activation in experimental stroke rats.
In this study, the rat brain was subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Before this surgery, rats were intraperitoneally administrated SalB with or without EX527, a specific SIRT1 inhibitor. The infarct volume, neurological score and brain water content were assessed. In addition, levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the brain tissues were detected by commercial ELISA kits. And the expression levels of SIRT, Ac-FOXO1, Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by western blot. The results suggested that SalB exerted a cerebral-protective effect, as shown by reduced infarct volume, lowered brain edema and increased neuro...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lv H, Wang L, Shen J, Hao S, Ming A, Wang X, Su F, Zhang Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Multiscale entropy analysis of resting-state magnetoencephalogram with tensor factorisations in Alzheimer's disease.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neural data analysis'. PMID: 25982737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Escudero J, Acar E, Fernández A, Bro R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Embryonic neural stem cells in a 3D bioassay for trophic stimulation studies.
M, Carri NG Abstract Progenitors were discovered in the corpus striatum several years ago, but little is known about their proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to analyze embryonic progenitor cells from the corpus striatum using a bioassay with trophic stimulation. Primary cells obtained from brains of rat embryos at E13-14 were dissected from striatum niches and cultured in stem cell media. These floating dispersed cells clumped together to form spheroids, which were placed in type I collagen gel and cultured under basal conditions or with the addition of NGF, NT-3, or NTN. Optimum growth ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Gaitán AM, Torres-Ruíz NM, Carri NG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Past, present and future of spike sorting techniques.
Abstract Spike sorting is a crucial step to extract information from extracellular recordings. With new recording opportunities provided by the development of new electrodes that allow monitoring hundreds of neurons simultaneously, the scenario for the new generation of algorithms is both exciting and challenging. However, this will require a new approach to the problem and the development of a common reference framework to quickly assess the performance of new algorithms. In this work, we review the basic concepts of spike sorting, including the requirements for different applications, together with the problems ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rey HG, Pedreira C, Quiroga RQ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Investigation of the GPR39 zinc receptor following inhibition of monoaminergic neurotransmission and potentialization of glutamatergic neurotransmission.
Abstract Zinc can regulate neural function in the brain via the GPR39 receptor. In the present study we investigated whether inhibition of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine synthesis and potentialization of glutamate, via administration of p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), α-methyl-p-tyrosine (αMT) and N-methyl-D-aspartatic acid (NMDA), respectively, would cause changes in GPR39 levels. Western blot analysis showed GPR39 up-regulation following 3-day administration of αMT and NMDA in the frontal cortex, and GPR39 down-regulation following 10-day administration of pCPA, αMT, and NMDA in the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 23, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Młyniec K, Gaweł M, Librowski T, Reczyński W, Bystrowska B, Holst B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis and oxidative stress.
Abstract The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including epilepsy. The present study investigated the effect of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling-induced pathological and biochemical events in mice. Our results showed that PTZ-kindling up-regulates the expression of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits in the hippocampus and that kindled mice were characterized by significant astrocytosis and neuron loss in the hippocampus. Oxidative stress, including excessive malondialdehyde (MDA) production and decreased en...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu X, Dong J, Shen K, Bai Y, Zhang Y, Lv X, Chao J, Yao H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in micromolar concentrations modulate glycine-induced Cl(-) current in rat hippocampal neurons.
Abstract The effects of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) were studied in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. 25, 100 or 500μM glycine were applied for 600ms with 40 s intervals. Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were co-applied with glycine in the range of concentrations of 0.01-100μM. We found that Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) affected IGly in a similar manner. Two types of effects of iron on IGly were observed. In low concentrations (0.1μM) Fe ions caused an acceleration of the IGly desensitization, and the effect was more pronounced for...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Solntseva EI, Bukanova JV, Kondratenko RV, Skrebitsky VG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment aides in functional recovery following unilateral controlled cortical impact of the forelimb sensorimotor area however intranasal administration of nerve growth factor does not.
CONCLUSION: EE is an effective treatment on the recovery of motor function after a TBI. Intranasal administration of NGF was found to not be an effective treatment for functional motor recovery after a TBI. PMID: 25889001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Young J, Pionk T, Hiatt I, Geeck K, Smith JS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Pretreatment with curcumin attenuates anxiety while strengthens memory performance after one short stress experience in male rats.
Abstract It is observed that memories are more strengthened in a stressful condition. Studies have also demonstrated an association between stressful events and the onset of depression and anxiety. Considering the nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties of curcumin in various experimental approaches, we appraised the beneficial effects of this herb on acute immobilization stress-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations. Rats in test group were administrated with curcumin (200mg/kg/day), dissolved in neutral oil, for one week. Both control and curcumin-treated rats were divided into unstres...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 10, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Haider S, Naqvi F, Batool Z, Tabassum S, Sadir S, Laiquat L, Naqvi F, Zuberi NA, Shakeel H, Perveen T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

CB1 receptors modulate affective behaviour induced by neuropathic pain.
mer A Abstract Patients suffering from chronic pain are often also diagnosed with a psychiatric condition, in particular generalized anxiety and major depression. The underlying pathomechanisms contributing to this comorbidity, however, are not entirely clear. In this manuscript we have focussed on the potential role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1, because it is known to modulate neuronal circuits contributing to chronic pain states and affective behaviours. For this purpose we analysed the consequences of a partial sciatic nerve ligation on anxiety- and depression related behaviours in mice lacking CB1 receptors...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rácz I, Nent E, Erxlebe E, Zimmer A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Hippocampal BDNF signaling restored with chronic asiaticoside treatment in depression-like mice.
In conclusion, our study implies that it is possible that asiaticoside exerts its antidepressant-like action by activating BDNF signaling in the hippocampus. PMID: 25857945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Luo L, Liu XL, Mu RH, Wu YJ, Liu BB, Geng D, Liu Q, Yi LT Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

In vivo evidence for neuroplasticity in older adults.
Abstract Neuroplasticity can be conceptualized as an intrinsic property of the brain that enables modification of function and structure in response to environmental demands. Neuroplastic strengthening of synapses is believed to serve as a critical mechanism underlying learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. Ex vivo work investigating neuroplasticity has been done on hippocampal slices using high frequency stimulation. However, in vivo neuroplasticity in humans has been difficult to demonstrate. Recently, a long-term potentiation-like phenomenon, a form of neuroplastic change, was identified in young adul...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: de Gobbi Porto FH, Fox AM, Tusch ES, Sorond F, Mohammed AH, Daffner KR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Yokukansan normalizes glucocorticoid receptor protein expression in oligodendrocytes of the corpus callosum by regulating microRNA-124a expression after stress exposure.
In this study, we aimed to elucidate the GR regulation mechanism in oligodendrocytes and evaluate the effects of yokukansan (YKS), a Kampo medicine, on GR protein regulation. Acute exposure to stress increased plasma corticosterone levels, decreased GR protein expression, and increased miR-124a expression in the corpus callosum of adult male mice, though the GR mRNA and miR-18 expression levels were not significant changes. YKS normalized the stress-induced changes in the plasma corticosterone, GR protein, and miR124a expression levels. An oligodendrocyte primary culture study also showed that YKS down-regulated miR-124a, ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Shimizu S, Tanaka T, Tohyama M, Miyata S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prophylactic lithium alleviates splenectomy-induced cognitive dysfunction possibly by inhibiting hippocampal TLR4 activation in aged rats.
Abstract Though the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear, evidence is accumulating for a pivotal role of neuroinflammation in the disease process. Advanced age and severe surgical trauma are two main risk factors for POCD. Lithium, a neuroprotective agent, can alleviate peripheral surgery-induced memory impairment in aged rats. The results of in vivo and in vitro experiments also showed that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) was associated with the occurrence and development of neuroinflammation and POCD. So we hypothesized that inhibition of TLR4 signaling in the hippocampus maybe ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu SM, Gui B, Dong HQ, Zhang X, Zhang SS, Hu LQ, Liu HL, Sun J, Qian YN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

An acellular cerebellar biological scaffold: Preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and effects on neural stem cells.
In this report, we describe a dynamic decellularization protocol that combined intracardial perfusion and a series of treatments to effectively remove the cellular components from the cerebellum, which is a unique and relatively simple CNS structure. The resulting cerebellar scaffold retained neurosupportive proteins and growth factors and, when tested with neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro, was found to be cytocompatible and to stimulate the proliferation and migration of these cells. NSCs that were cultured in vitro on the scaffold differentiated into neurons and astrocytes, as indicated by their expression of βIII-...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu T, Tang Q, Shen Y, Tang H, Chen L, Zhu J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Response inhibition failure to visual stimuli paired with a "single-type" stressor in PTSD patients: An fMRI pilot study.
Response inhibition failure to visual stimuli paired with a "single-type" stressor in PTSD patients: An fMRI pilot study. Brain Res Bull. 2015 Mar 16; Authors: Brunetti M, Sepede G, Ferretti A, Mingoia G, Romani GL, Babiloni C Abstract Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to misinterpret innocuous stimuli as potential threats, possibly due to a conditioning provoked by traumatic episodes. Previous neuroimaging evidence has shown an abnormal activation of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in PTSD patients during fear conditioning and extinction. Nevertheless, the effects ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Brunetti M, Sepede G, Ferretti A, Mingoia G, Romani GL, Babiloni C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Coupling of ascorbate and nitric oxide dynamics in vivo in the rat hippocampus upon glutamatergic neuronal stimulation: a novel functional interplay.
CONCLUSIONS: The coupling between NO and ascorbate upon glutamatergic activation points to a functional impact on the activities of both compounds and, although the precise molecular mechanism needs to be clarified, such a coupling lays the foundations for new regulatory mechanisms in the brain. PMID: 25783673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Ferreira NR, Lourenço C, Barbosa RM, Laranjinha J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: Adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models.
We describe specific physiological and molecular adaptations employed by different animals' models of hypoxia tolerance in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We highlight how these adaptations might provide potential clues on strategies to adapt for the clinical management of tissue hypoxia during conditions such as stroke where oxygen demand fails to match the supply. PMID: 25738761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nathaniel TI, Williams-Hernandez A, Hunter LA, Liddy C, Peffley DM, Imeh-Nathaniel A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine prevents rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease in rat: an investigation into the interaction of Parkin and Drp1 proteins.
In conclusion we found that NAC delayed the Parkinson's disease induction by rotenone and this effect might be related to its proved antioxidant effect. PMID: 25732239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rahimmi A, Khosrobakhsh F, Izadpanah E, Moloudi MR, Hassanzadeh K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Exploring The Effect of Vitamin C on Sleep Deprivation Induced Memory Impairment.
Abstract In the current study, the possible beneficial effect of vitamin C (VitC) against sleep deprivation induced memory impairment was examined. Chronic sleep deprivation was induced via placing rats in a modified multiple platform apparatus for 8hrs/day for a period of 6 weeks. Concomitantly, VitC was administered to animals at doses of 150 and 500mg/kg/day. After 6 weeks of treatment, the Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM) was used to test for spatial learning and memory performance. Moreover, the hippocampus was dissected; and levels/activities of antioxidant defense biomarkers glutathione reduced (GSH), glutathio...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Mhaidat NM, Alzoubi KH, Khabour OF, Tashtoush NH, Banihani SA, Abdul-Razzak KK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cocaine enhances the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA in adolescent mice.
Miñarro J Abstract Although the consumption of cocaine is frequent in young users of MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine), the influence of exposure to cocaine on the rewarding effects of MDMA in adolescents has not been studied. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effect of co-administration of cocaine (1 and 10mg/kg) and a sub-threshold dose of MDMA (1.25mg/kg) on the acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP) (experiment 1). In addition, the effect of pre-treatment with cocaine on MDMA-induced CPP was evaluated (experiment 2). Levels of monoamines in striatum, hippocampus and ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Aguilar MA, Roger-Sánchez C, Rodríguez-Arias M, Miñarro J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Antiepileptogenic effects of the selective COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib, on the development of spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.
Abstract Different data suggest the involvement of specific inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Cyclooxygenase (COX), which catalyses the production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, may play a significant role in seizure-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability. COX-2 is constitutively expressed in the brain and also increased during/after seizures. COX-2 inhibitors may thus attenuate inflammation associated with brain disorders. We studied whether early long-term treatment (17 consecutive weeks starting from 45 days postnatal age) with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Citraro R, Leo A, Marra R, De Sarro G, Russo E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Exploring the potential relationship between Notch pathway genes expression and their promoter methylation in mice hippocampal neurogenesis.
Abstract The Notch pathway is a highly conserved pathway that regulates hippocampal neurogenesis during embryonic development and adulthood. It has become apparent that intracellular epigenetic modification including DNA methylation is deeply involved in fate specification of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, it is still unclear whether the Notch pathway regulates hippocampal neurogenesis by changing the Notch genes' DNA methylation status. Here, we present the evidence from DNA methylation profiling of Notch1, Hes1 and Ngn2 promoters during neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of postnatal, adult and traumatic...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Gao F, Kang X, Li J, Zhang L, Dong W, Jin Z, Li F, Gao N, Cai X, Yang S, Zhang J, Ren X, Yang X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The inimitable kynurenic acid: the roles of different ionotropic receptors in the action of kynurenic acid at a spinal level.
Abstract Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite that interacts with NMDA, AMPA/kainate and alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. The goal of this study was to clarify the roles of these receptors in the action of KYNA at a spinal level by using highly specific receptor antagonists alone or in triple combinations. Chronic osteoarthritis-like joint pain was induced with monosodium-iodoacetate in male Wistar rats. Mechanical allodynia and motor function were quantified. In the first series we determined the dose-response and time course effects of intrathecally administered KYNA (10-100μg), D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosp...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Tuboly G, Tar L, Bohar Z, Safrany-Fark A, Petrovszki Z, Kekesi G, Vecsei L, Pardutz A, Horvath G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

High therapeutic potential of positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: Proof-of-concept.
High therapeutic potential of positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: Proof-of-concept. Brain Res Bull. 2015 Jan 31; Authors: Gatson JW, Simpkins JW, Uteshev VV Abstract There are currently no clinically-efficacious drug therapies to treat brain damage secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this proof-of-concept study, we used a controlled cortical impact model of TBI in young adult rats to explore a novel promising approach that utilizes PNU-120596, a previously-reported highly selective Type-II positive allosteric modulator (α7-PAM) of...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Gatson JW, Simpkins JW, Uteshev VV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Quantitative orientation preference and susceptibility to space motion sickness simulated in a virtual reality environment.
Abstract Orientation preference should appear when variable weightings of spatial orientation cues are used between individuals. It is possible that astronauts' orientation preferences could be a potential predictor for susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). The present study was conducted to confirm this relationship on Earth by quantifying orientation preferences and simulating SMS in a virtual reality environment. Two tests were carried out. The first was to quantitatively determine one's orientation preference. Thirty-two participants' vision and body cue preferences were determined by measuring percep...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen W, Chao JG, Chen XW, Wang JK, Tan C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Improved Clinical Behavior of Established Relapsing-Remitting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis following Treatment with Endogenous Opioids: Implications for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.
This study examined the therapeutic efficacy of an endogenous peptide (opioid growth factor, OGF) known to inhibit cell replication in a receptor-mediated manner, utilizing a mouse model of relapse-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RR-EAE). RR-EAE was induced by immunization of SJL/J mice with proteolipid protein. Two days following establishment of clinical disease, treatment with OGF (10mg/kg) or saline was initiated and mice were observed on a daily basis. OGF treated mice had markedly reduced clinical signs of disease over the course of 40 days. OGF treatment increased the incidence and lengthened th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hammer LA, Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intrinsic exercise capacity is related to differential monoaminergic activity in the rat forebrain.
es DD Abstract Monoamines levels in central nervous system have been associated with exercise performance and fatigue. The present study investigated whether intrinsic exercise capacity is associated with differential activity of monoamines in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and accumbens (ACC) nucleus. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a progressive testing protocol. Based on the maximal time of exercise in the progressive testing protocol (TEPmax), the animals were divided into low-performance (LP), high-performance (HP), and standard-performance (SP) groups. After classification, eight animals in each group were cho...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rabelo PC, Almeida TF, Guimarães JB, Barcellos LA, Cordeiro LM, Moraes MM, Coimbra CC, Szawka RE, Soares DD Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cells engrafted in a fibrin scaffold stimulates Schwann cell reactivity and axonal regeneration following sciatic nerve tubulization.
ra AL Abstract The present study investigated the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) associated with a fibrin scaffold (FS) for the peripheral regenerative process after nerve tubulization. Adult female Lewis rats received a unilateral sciatic nerve transection followed by repair with a polycaprolactone (PCL) - based tubular prosthesis. Sixty days after injury, the regenerated nerves were studied by immunohistochemistry. Anti-p75NTR immunostaining was used to investigate the reactivity of the MSCs. Basal labeling, which was upregulated during the regenerative process, was detected in uninjured nerves a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Cartarozzi LP, Spejo AB, Junior RS, Barraviera B, Duek E, Carvalho JL, Góes AM, Oliveira AL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research