Intracerebral administration of ultrasound-induced dissolution of lipid-coated GDNF microbubbles provides neuroprotection in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of dopaminerigc neurons in the substantia nigra. Neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), have been shown to provide a neuroprotective effect in PD rats. We have previously reported that ultrasound-induced lipid-coated GDNF microspheres, which release GDNF in a sustained manner after low frequency ultrasound stimulation, can reduce hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal rats. In the present study, we investigated whether lipid-coated GDNF microspheres can provide a neuroprotective effect in a rat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang X, Cui G, Yang X, Zhang Z, Shi H, Zu J, Hua F, Shen X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A NeuroProteomic and Systems Biology Analysis of Rat Brain Post Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Stroke.
In conclusion, the proteomic responses identified in this study provide key information about target proteins involved in specific pathological pathways. PMID: 24583080 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ren C, Guingab-Cagmat J, Kobeissy F, Zoltewicz S, Mondello S, Gao M, Hafeez A, Li N, Geng X, Larner SF, Anagli J, Hayes RL, Ji X, Ding Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Baicalein ameliorated the upregulation of striatal glutamatergic transmission in the mice model of Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by a loss of projecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and diminished dopamine level in the striatum. Dopaminergic deficit consequently leads to the alterations of striatal basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the medium spiny neurons. The cytokines and neurotoxins released from the reactive immune cells induced the loss of the projecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which triggering the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigated the effect of treatment with...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Xue X, Liu H, Qi L, Li X, Guo C, Gong D, Qu H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Acute estradiol treatment affects the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in ovariectomized female rats.
Abstract Women and female rodents are more responsive to the subjective effects of psychostimulant drugs of abuse compared to males. A growing body of literature supports a role for estradiol as a mechanism underlying these sex differences. However, little is known about the influence of acute elevations in levels of estradiol on drug conditioned behaviors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of an acute increase in systemic estradiol levels on the expression of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP). Using a six day conditioning procedure, ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were condition...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Bobzean SA, Dennis TS, Perrotti LI Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Involvement of trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus in kinetic encoding of whisker movements.
Abstract In previous experiments performed on anaesthetised rats, we demonstrated that whisking neurons responsive to spontaneous movement of the macrovibrissae are located within the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Me5) and that retrograde tracers injected into the mystacial pad of the rat muzzle extensively labelled a number of Me5 neurons. In order to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics of the Me5-whisker pad neural connection, the present study analysed the Me5 neurons responses to artificial whisking induced by electrical stimulation of the peripheral stump of the facial nerve. Furthermore, an...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Mameli O, Stanzani S, Russo A, Pellitteri R, Manca P, De Riu PL, Caria MA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 24513428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 7, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Hoffman DA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

High-energy compounds mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) and activate calpain in cultured SH-SY5Y cells: potential use for preventing Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Deficiency in energy metabolisms is perhaps the earliest modifiable defect in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several high-energy compounds (HECs) such as ATP, phosphoenolpyruvate, phosphocreatine and acetyl coenzyme A have been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects. To understand their mechanism of actions, we tested the effects of these HECs on intracellular Ca(2+), a central regulator in brain function. Our data showed that the HECs robustly and dose-dependently mobilized intracellular Ca(2+) in cultured SH-SY5Y cells, and the actions were sensitive to intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-A...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Nguyen HT, Chen M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of death of crayfish glial cells but not neurons induced by photodynamic impact.
Abstract Epigenetic processes are involved in regulation of cell functions and survival, but their role in responses of neurons and glial cells to oxidative injury is insufficiently explored. Here, we studied the role of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation in reactions of neurons and surrounding glial cells to photodynamic treatment that induces oxidative stress and cell death. Isolated crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single mechanoreceptor neuron surrounded by glial cells was photosensitized with aluminum phthalocyanine Photosens that induced neuron inactivation, necrosis of the neuron and glia, a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 3, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sharifulina SA, Komandirov MA, Uzdensky AB Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nicotine administration in adolescence reprograms the subsequent response to nicotine treatment and withdrawal in adulthood: Sex-selective effects on cerebrocortical serotonergic function.
Abstract Nicotine exposure in adolescence produces lasting changes in subsequent behavioral responses to addictive agents. We gave nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and then examined the subsequent effects of nicotine given again in adulthood (PN90-107), focusing on cerebrocortical serotonin levels and utilization (turnover) as an index of presynaptic activity of circuits involved in emotional state. Our evaluations encompassed responses during the period of adult nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120, PN130), as well as long-term changes (...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 30, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Slotkin TA, Card J, Seidler FJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Present status and future challenges of electroencephalography- and magnetic resonance imaging-based monitoring in preclinical models of focal cerebral ischemia.
Abstract Animal models are useful tools for better understanding the mechanisms underlying neurological deterioration after an ischemic insult as well as subsequent evolution of changes and recovery of functions. In response to the updated requirements for preclinical investigations of stroke to include relevant functional measurement techniques and biomarker endpoints, we here review the state of knowledge on application of some translational electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods, and in particular, electroencephalography monitoring and magnetic resonance imaging in rodent models of ischemic stroke. This ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Moyanova S, Dijkhuizen R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Channelopathies and dendritic dysfunction in fragile X syndrome.
Abstract Dendritic spine abnormalities and the metabotropic glutamate receptor theory put the focus squarely on synapses and protein synthesis as the cellular locus of fragile X syndrome. Synapses however, are only partly responsible for information processing in neuronal networks. Neurotransmitter triggered excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are shaped and integrated by dendritic voltage-gated ion channels. These EPSPs, and in some cases the resultant dendritic spikes, are further modified by dendritic voltage-gated ion channels as they propagate to the soma. If the resultant somatic depolarization is lar...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Brager DH, Johnston D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Puerarin blocks the signaling transmission mediated by P2X3 in SG and DRG to relieve myocardial ischemic damage.
Abstract P2X3 receptors in stellate ganglia (SG) and cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are involved in sympathoexcitatory reflex induced by myocardial ischemic damage. Puerarin, a major active ingredient extracted from the traditional Chinese plant medicine Ge-gen, has been widely used in treatment of myocardial and cerebral ischemia. The present study is aimed to observe the effects of puerarin on the signaling transmission mediated by P2X3 receptor in SG and DRG after myocardial ischemic damage. Our results showed that systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased, and the expression levels of P2X3 m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu S, Zhang C, Shi Q, Li G, Song M, Gao Y, Xu C, Xu H, Fan B, Yu S, Zheng C, Zhu Q, Wu B, Peng L, Xiong H, Wu Q, Liang S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Regulation of memory - From the adrenal medulla to liver to astrocytes to neurons.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. PMID: 24406469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 7, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Gold PE Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of tempol on the passive avoidance and novel object recognition task in diabetic rats.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of synthetic antioxidant, tempol on the passive avoidance (PA) memory and novel object recognition (NOR) tests in the diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar rats randomly divided into the control, diabetic, diabetic receiving tempol and healthy receiving tempol groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg, ip). Then, the rats received saline or tempol (30mg/kg) orally by gavages for 60 days. After that, they were assessed using the PA memory and NOR tests. The results of NOR test showed that the discrimination index (DI) in the healthy receiving...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 7, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Jabbarpour Z, Shahidi S, Saidijam M, Sarihi A, Hassanzadeh T, Esmaeili R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effect of exercise on carbohydrate preference in female rats.
This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the influence of exercise on, taste preference for complex and simple carbohydrates with this context conditioning paradigm. PMID: 24406468 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Keeley RJ, Zelinski EL, Fehr L, McDonald RJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Enhance, delete, incept: Manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. PMID: 24397964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Spiers HJ, Bendor D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Human reconsolidation: A reactivation and update.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory Enhancement'. PMID: 24397965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Agren T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Locomotor response to novelty correlates with differences in number and morphology of hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in rats.
Abstract Individual differences in the intensity of locomotor response to a new environment (exploratory reaction) are generally used as a model to study individual vulnerability to stress and drug addiction. In the present work we studied the number, distribution and morphology of the hypothalamic cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+ cells) (immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining) in male Wistar rats divided based on high (HR), midline (MR) or low (LR) locomotor activity in response to novelty. Morphology and total number of TH+ cells were analyzed for A11-A15 dopaminergic groups. We found corre...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 3, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Jerzemowska G, Plucińska K, Kuśmierczak M, Myślińska D, Orzeł-Gryglewska J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Can fear extinction be enhanced? A review of pharmacological and behavioral findings.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. PMID: 24374101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 25, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Fitzgerald PJ, Seemann JR, Maren S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neuroprotective efficiency of tetanus toxin c fragment in model of global cerebral ischemia in mongolian gerbils.
In this study, the TTC effect was tested for the first time in animal model of global cerebral ischemia induced by 10-min occlusion of both common carotid arteries. The aim was to evaluate the effect of TTC gene therapy treatment on the development and expression of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and motor hyperactivity in Mongolian gerbils. Several oxidative stress and motor behavioral parameters were investigated between 2h and 14 d after reperfusion. Neuroprotective efficiency of TTC was observed in the forebrain cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum at the level of each examined o...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 20, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Radenovic L, Selakovic V, Olivan S, Calvo AC, Rando A, Janac B, Osta R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inflammatory responses in the rat superior colliculus after eye enucleation.
In this study, immunoblotting and immunostaining assays revealed increased expression of astrocyte and microglia markers in the rat superior colliculus (SC) between 1 and 15 days after contralateral enucleation. A transient increase of neuronal COX-2 protein expression was also found in the SC. To evaluate the role of an anti-inflammatory drug in attenuating both COX-2 and glial cell activation, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) was administered (1mg/kg i.p., for 3 days) to enucleated rats. Immunoblotting data revealed that DEX treatment significantly inhibited COX-2 protein expression. Postlesion immunostai...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 12, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Hernandes MS, Britto LR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The dendritic hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.
This article is part of a special issue Dendrites and Disease. PMID: 24333192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 12, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Cochran JN, Hall AM, Roberson ED Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Abnormal Kalirin Signaling in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.
Abstract Changes in dendritic spines structure and function play a critical role in a number of physiological processes, including synaptic transmission and plasticity, and are intimately linked to cognitive function. Alterations in dendritic spine morphogenesis occur in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and likely underlie the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with these disorders. The neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) kalirin is emerging as a key regulator of structural and functional plasticity at dendritic spines. Moreover, a series of recent studies have genetically and function...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 12, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Remmers C, Sweet RA, Penzes P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Keep warm and get success: The role of postischemic temperature in the mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of postischemic temperature on the success rate. A total of 100 C57BL/6 mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group (n=50), body temperature was allowed to self-regulate after MCAO; temperature-controlled group (n=50), mice were kept warm in an incubator for 12h after MCAO. The body temperature of animals was measured before, during, and for 12h after MCAO. Neurological deficits and infarct volumes were measured at 24h after MCAO. There was significant difference (P
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 12, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu L, Xu L, Xu X, Fan X, Xie Y, Yang L, Lan W, Zhu J, Xu G, Dai J, Jiang Y, Liu X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Periodic maternal deprivation may modulate offspring anxiety-like behavior through mechanisms involving neuroplasticity in the amygdala.
Abstract Maternal care has been shown to affect the development of behavioral and endocrine systems. In rats, periodic maternal deprivation (PMD) serves as an early life stressor that directly influences maternal care by promoting more pup-directed behaviors in stressed dams. To further assess the qualities of PMD that may ameliorate long-term anxiety effects in trait anxiety animals, we coded behaviors across lactation (postnatal day (PND) 5, 16, 21) in dams phenotyped as high (HAn) and low-anxiety (LAn). We assessed anxiety-like behavior in male offspring using the elevated plus maze (EPM), focusing on percent o...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 12, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Berman AK, Lott RB, Donaldson ST Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Increased expression of phosphorylated c-Jun and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase associated with neuronal cell death in diabetic and high glucose exposed rat retinas.
Abstract The aim of this study is to examine whether the increased expression of phosphorylated c-Jun (p-c-Jun) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) are significantly associated with neuronal cell death in diabetic rat retinas and retinas exposed to high glucose. Retinas isolated from six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and six streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (DM) were cultured in serum-free medium. The explants from non-diabetic controls were cultured in normal-glucose (N) or high-glucose (HG) medium. Furthermore, neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and Taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) were inc...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 11, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Oshitari T, Bikbova G, Yamamoto S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Somatostatin enhances tooth-pulp-evoked cervical dorsal horn neuronal activity in the rat via inhibition of GABAergic interneurons.
Abstract A recent in vitro electrophysiological analysis combined with anatomical approach suggests that a potential disinhibitory mechanism involving somatostatin (SST), which is released by interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn, contributes to nociceptive transmission (Yasaka et al., 2010); however, whether this mechanism occurs in vivo remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether iontophoretic application of SST facilitates the excitability of nociceptive upper cervical spinal dorsal horn (C1) neurons through GABAergic disinhibiton, using extracellular electrophysiolog...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 6, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Takahashi M, Takeda M, Matsumoto S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro.
Abstract The vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) are expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and play an important role in packing the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most profound known regulators of survival in the developing peripheral nervous system (PNS). Whether BDNF regulates the expression of VGLUT3 and VMAT2 in DRG neurons is still unclear. In the present study, primary cultured rat DRG neurons were used to evaluate the effects of BDNF on VGLUT3 and VMAT2 expression. The signali...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 4, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu D, Bi Y, Liu Z, Liu H, Li Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Central immune overactivation in the presence of reduced plasma corticosterone contributes to swim stress-induced hyperalgesia.
nas R Abstract Although it is widely known that immunological, hormonal and nociceptive mechanisms are altered by exposure to repeated stress, the interplaying roles of each function in the development of post-stress hyperalgesia are not completely clear. Thus, we wanted to establish how interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), corticosterone and microglia interact to contribute in the development of hyperalgesia following repeated forced swim. Rats were subjected to either forced swim, sham swim or non-conditioned. Each group was then treated with minocycline, ketoconazole, or saline. Thermal nociception was measured via...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 4, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Suarez-Roca H, Quintero L, Avila R, Medina S, De Freitas M, Cárdenas R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Rapamycin Improves Sociability in the BTBR T(+)Itpr3tf/J Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Abstract Overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), such as tuberous sclerosis complex, neurofibromatosis 1, and fragile X syndrome. Administration of mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) inhibitors (e.g. rapamycin) in syndromic mouse models of ASDs improved behavior, cognition, and neuropathology. However, since only a minority of ASDs are due to the effects of single genes (∼10%), there is a need to explore inhibition of mTOR activity in mouse models that may be more relevant to the majority of nonsyndromic pre...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 29, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Burket JA, Benson AD, Tang AH, Deutsch SI Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Dynamic changes of Apo A1 mediated by LXR/RXR/ABCA1 pathway in brains of the aging rats with cerebral hypoperfusion.
i Y Abstract Cerebral hypoperfusion or aging often results into the disturbances of cholesterol and lipoprotein, which have been tightly associated with numerous neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as vascular dementia. The pathway of liver X receptor- β (LXR-β)/retinoic X receptor-α (RXR-α)/ABCA1 plays a vital role in lipoprotein metabolism. However, there were no reports about the relationship between the signal molecules of the pathway and lipoprotein homeostasis in cerebral hypoperfusion models. Therefore, we aimed to detect the expression of the pathway molecules in the aging rat...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 26, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang L, Zhang X, Lü Y, Tian M, Li Y Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prenatal Dexamethasone, as Used in Preterm Labor, Worsens the Impact of Postnatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Serotonergic Pathways.
This study explores how glucocorticoids sensitize the developing brain to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Pregnant rats received a standard therapeutic dose (0.2mg/kg) of dexamethasone on gestational days 17-19; pups were given subtoxic doses of chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, (1mg/kg,
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 23, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Slotkin TA, Card J, Seidler FJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inactivation of β-catenin results in the reduction of postnatal body weight gain.
Inactivation of β-catenin results in the reduction of postnatal body weight gain. Brain Res Bull. 2013 Nov 19; Authors: Wang HT, Zeng L, Zhang X, Li K, Zu Y, Liu JW, Liu YJ, Zhu ZC, Xiong ZQ, Zheng J, Hu ZL Abstract Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARH) is the core component in the regulation circuits of food intake and energy homeostasis. ARH projections to other parts of the hypothalamus and to extrahypothalamic areas are established in the postnatal two weeks, which is a pivotal stage for individual development. β-catenin, a cell adhesion protein and also the mediator of canonical Wnt signalin...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 19, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang HT, Zeng L, Zhang X, Li K, Zu Y, Liu JW, Liu YJ, Zhu ZC, Xiong ZQ, Zheng J, Hu ZL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Bicyclol upregulates transcription factor Nrf2, HO-1 expression and protects rat brains against focal ischemia.
In this study, the role of bicyclol in cerebral ischemia and its potential mechanism were investigated. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion), Vehicle (MCAO+0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose), By-L (Vehicle+bicyclol 50mg/kg), By-H (Vehicle+bicyclol 100mg/kg) and Sham operated groups. Bicyclol was administered intragastrically once a day for 3 consecutive days; after 1h of bicyclol pretreatment on the third day, rat ischemic stroke was induced by MCAO. Neurological deficit, infarct volume, and brain edema were detected at 24h after stroke. Western b...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 16, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang J, Fu B, Zhang X, Zhang L, Bai X, Zhao X, Chen L, Cui L, Zhu C, Wang L, Zhao Y, Zhao T, Wang X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Levothyroxin ReplacemEnt Therapy restores hypothyroidism induced impairment of L-LTP INDUCTION: Critical role OF CREB.
Abstract Cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor crucial for late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) induction and maintenance. Upon Multiple high frequency stimulation (MHFS), large Ca(2+) influx activates adenylyl cyclase. This, in turn, activates PKA, which by itself or through MAPK p42/p44 can activate (phosphorylate) CREB. Upon phosphorylation, P-CREB activates multiple genes essential for L-LTP generation. Calcium calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV) is also activated by calcium and can directly activate CREB. We have shown previously that hypothyroidism impairs L-LTP and redu...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Alzoubi KH, Alkadhi KA Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Small Nogo-66-binding peptide promotes neurite outgrowth through RhoA inhibition after spinal cord injury.
In this study, two small peptides were tested in a neurite outgrowth assay and spinal cord injury (SCI) model to examine the effects of these molecules on the inhibition of Nogo-66/NgR signalling. PepIV was selected from a phage display peptide library as a Nogo-66 binding molecule. And PepII was synthesized as a potential NgR antagonist. The results indicated that PepIV and PepII decrease the mRNA levels of the small GTPase RhoA and partially neutralize CNS myelin inhibition to cultured cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). Moreover, treatment with both peptides was propitious to maintaining residual axons after SCI, thereby p...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 29, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Deng Q, Cai W, Li S, Zhang Y, Su B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Allicin protects rat cortical neurons against mechanical trauma injury by regulating nitric oxide synthase pathways.
Abstract Allicin, a small molecule that is responsible for the typical smell and most of the functions of garlic, possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential in many pathologic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effect of allicin in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) using primary cultured rat cortical neurons. We found that allicin treatment significantly reduced mechanical trauma-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibited apoptotic neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner. These pro...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 29, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou YF, Li WT, Han HC, Gao DK, He XS, Li L, Song JN, Fei Z Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Contaminating levels of zinc found in commonly-used labware and buffers affect glycine receptor currents.
Abstract Zinc is an allosteric modulator of glycine receptor function, enhancing the effects of glycine at nM to low μM concentrations, and inhibiting its effects at higher concentrations. Because of zinc's high potency at the glycine receptor, there exists a possibility that effects attributed solely to exogenously-applied glycine in fact contain an undetected contribution of zinc acting as an allosteric modulator. We found that glycine solutions made up in standard buffers and using deionized distilled water produced effects that could be decreased by the zinc chelator tricine. This phenomenon was observed in...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 28, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Cornelison GL, Mihic SJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Increase in Alzheimer's related markers preceeds memory disturbances: studies in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rat.
án J, Tímár J, Bagdy G, Zelena D Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. For more effective therapy early diagnostic markers could be beneficial. Therefore we compared one year old rats with adults and examined if changes in possible brain markers of AD preceeded memory decline. We also tested if vasopressin-deficient animals were useful model of AD as vasopressin has well known positive effect on memory and AD patient has decreased vasopressin production. We compared adult (3 month) and old (12 month), normal and vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 28, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Varga J, Klausz B, Domokos A, Kálmán S, Pákáski M, Szűcs S, Garab D, Zvara A, Puskás L, Kálmán J, Tímár J, Bagdy G, Zelena D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

NF-κB, ERK, p38 MAPK and JNK contribute to the initiation and/or maintenance of mechanical allodynia induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the red nucleus.
NF-κB, ERK, p38 MAPK and JNK contribute to the initiation and/or maintenance of mechanical allodynia induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the red nucleus. Brain Res Bull. 2013 Oct 23; Authors: Zhang Q, Wang J, Duan MT, Han SP, Zeng XY, Wang JY Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the red nucleus (RN) plays facilitated roles in the development of abnormal pain. Here, the roles of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 23, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Q, Wang J, Duan MT, Han SP, Zeng XY, Wang JY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Chronic antidepressant desipramine pretreatment increases open field-induced the brain expression and spleen production of interleukin 10 in rats: the effect of response to novelty and social dominance.
Abstract In the present study, we established a role of individual differences in locomotor response to novelty or social position in modulatory effect of chronic (14 consecutive days) antidepressant drug desipramine pretreatment (10mg/kg i.p.) on acute (30min), white and illuminated open field (OF)-induced changes in spleen anti-tumor activity of natural killer (NK) cells (chromium release assay) in parallel to the brain anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Fos expression (immunohistochemistry), splenocytic pro-inflammatory interferon γ (IFN-γ) and IL-10 production (ELISA), and plasma corticos...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 22, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Wrona D, Listowska M, Kubera M, Majkutewicz I, Glac W, Wojtyła-Kuchta B, Plucińska K, Grembecka B, Podlacha M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Substance P Receptor Antagonist In lateral Habenula Improves Rat Depression-Like Behaviors.
This study demonstrates that the LHb mediates the antidepressive effect of SPA by increasing the 5-HT levels in the DRN, suggesting that the LHb may be a potential target of antidepressant. PMID: 24157953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang LM, Yu L, Jin HJ, Zhao H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Balb/c Mice Treated with D-Cycloserine Arouse Increased Social Interest in Conspecifics.
Abstract The genetically-inbred Balb/cJ (Balb/c) mouse with functional alteration of its endogenous tone of NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission displays impaired sociability in a standard paradigm; this mouse strain has been proposed as a model of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Prior work showed that treatment of the Balb/c mouse with a centrally-effective dose of D-cycloserine, a partial glycineB NMDA receptor agonist, improved several measures of its sociability. Additionally, D-cycloserine-treated Balb/c mice show greater preference for a social stimulus mouse than an inanimate object. We wondered if tr...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Benson AD, Burket JA, Deutsch SI Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Over-expression of Mash1 improves the GABAergic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that over-expression of Mash1 can improve GABAergic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. PMID: 24144723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 18, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang K, Long Q, Jia C, Liu Y, Yi X, Yang H, Fei Z, Liu W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A comparison of phenylketonuria with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Do markedly different aetiologies deliver common phenotypes?
Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a well-defined metabolic disorder arising from a mutation that disrupts phenylalanine metabolism and so produces a variety of neural changes indirectly. Severe cognitive impairment can be prevented by dietary treatment; however, residual symptoms may be reported. These residual symptoms appear to overlap a more prevalent childhood disorder: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the aetiology of ADHD is a vast contrast to PKU: it seems to arise from a complex combination of genes; and it has a substantial environmental component. We ask whether these two disorde...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 16, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Stevenson M, McNaughton N Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The effects of early-life seizures on hippocampal dendrite development and later-life learning and memory.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Dendrites and Disease'. PMID: 24140049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 15, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Casanova JR, Nishimura M, Swann JW Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Pronociception from the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is mediated by the rostral ventromedial medulla in healthy controls but is absent in arthritic animals.
Abstract The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) has been proposed to participate in stress-induced hyperalgesia through facilitation of pronociceptive cells in the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM). We hypothesized that the DMH participates in hyperalgesia induced by arthritis. The DMH was pharmacologically manipulated while assessing heat-evoked nociceptive behavior or the discharge rates of pronociceptive RVM ON- and antinociceptive RVM OFF-like cells in NAIVE, SHAM and monoarthritic (ARTH) animals. In NAIVE and SHAM animals, the changes in nociceptive behavior induced by activation of the DMH by gluta...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 9, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Pinto-Ribeiro F, Amorim D, David-Pereira A, Monteiro AM, Costa P, Pertovaara A, Almeida A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Differential distribution of parvalbumin- and calbindin-D28K-immunoreactive neurons in the rat periaqueductal gray matter and their colocalization with enzymes producing nitric oxide.
bri M Abstract The distribution, colocalization with enzymes producing nitric oxide (NO), and the synaptic organization of neurons containing two calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) - parvalbumin (Parv) and calbindin-D28K (Calb) - were investigated in the rat periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). Parv-immunopositive (ParvIP) neurons were detected in the mesencephalic nucleus and rarely in the PAG. CalbIP neurons were found both in the dorsolateral (PAG-dl) and ventrolateral PAG (PAG-vl); their size ranged from 112.96μm(2) (PAG-dl) to 125.13μm(2) (PAG-vl). Ultrastructurally Parv and Calb immunoreactivity was mostly ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 6, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Barbaresi P, Mensà E, Lariccia V, Pugnaloni A, Amoroso S, Fabri M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effect of Tolperisone On The Resting Brain and On Evoked Responses, an phMRI Bold Study.
nyi K Abstract Tolperisone is a voltage gated sodium channel blocker centrally acting muscle relaxant drug, with a very advantageous side effect profile. Like other sodium channel blockers, it has weak affinity to the resting state, and high affinity to the open/inactivated state of the channel. In this paper its effect on BOLD responses in rat brain were elucidated both on the resting brain and paw stimulation evoked BOLD responses. Tolperisone did not exert any visible effect on resting brain, but strongly inhibited the paw stimulation evoked BOLD responses showing somewhat higher efficacy in brain areas involve...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 4, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Kocsis P, Gajári D, Deli L, Gőcze KZ, Pozsgay Z, Tihanyi K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of treating acute traumatic brain injury with Calcium channel blockers.
Abstract The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate and meta-analyse the current evidence for the use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in the treatment of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (tSAH). A systematic search of clinical trials.gov, Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of science search and WHO trial registry, plus hand-searching of grey literature, was undertaken in March 2013. Two reviewers independently extracted the data using a pre-defined data extraction form. RevMan 5 software was used to synthesise data and calculate the risk ratio (R...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 4, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu GZ, Wang MD, Liu KG, Bai YA, Wu W, Li W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research