Investigation of the GPR39 zinc receptor following inhibition of monoaminergic neurotransmission and potentialization of glutamatergic neurotransmission.
Abstract Zinc can regulate neural function in the brain via the GPR39 receptor. In the present study we investigated whether inhibition of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine synthesis and potentialization of glutamate, via administration of p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), α-methyl-p-tyrosine (αMT) and N-methyl-D-aspartatic acid (NMDA), respectively, would cause changes in GPR39 levels. Western blot analysis showed GPR39 up-regulation following 3-day administration of αMT and NMDA in the frontal cortex, and GPR39 down-regulation following 10-day administration of pCPA, αMT, and NMDA in the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 23, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Młyniec K, Gaweł M, Librowski T, Reczyński W, Bystrowska B, Holst B Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis and oxidative stress.
Abstract The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including epilepsy. The present study investigated the effect of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling-induced pathological and biochemical events in mice. Our results showed that PTZ-kindling up-regulates the expression of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits in the hippocampus and that kindled mice were characterized by significant astrocytosis and neuron loss in the hippocampus. Oxidative stress, including excessive malondialdehyde (MDA) production and decreased en...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu X, Dong J, Shen K, Bai Y, Zhang Y, Lv X, Chao J, Yao H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in micromolar concentrations modulate glycine-induced Cl(-) current in rat hippocampal neurons.
Abstract The effects of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) were studied in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. 25, 100 or 500μM glycine were applied for 600ms with 40 s intervals. Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were co-applied with glycine in the range of concentrations of 0.01-100μM. We found that Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) affected IGly in a similar manner. Two types of effects of iron on IGly were observed. In low concentrations (0.1μM) Fe ions caused an acceleration of the IGly desensitization, and the effect was more pronounced for...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Solntseva EI, Bukanova JV, Kondratenko RV, Skrebitsky VG Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment aides in functional recovery following unilateral controlled cortical impact of the forelimb sensorimotor area however intranasal administration of nerve growth factor does not.
CONCLUSION: EE is an effective treatment on the recovery of motor function after a TBI. Intranasal administration of NGF was found to not be an effective treatment for functional motor recovery after a TBI. PMID: 25889001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Young J, Pionk T, Hiatt I, Geeck K, Smith JS Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Pretreatment with curcumin attenuates anxiety while strengthens memory performance after one short stress experience in male rats.
Abstract It is observed that memories are more strengthened in a stressful condition. Studies have also demonstrated an association between stressful events and the onset of depression and anxiety. Considering the nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties of curcumin in various experimental approaches, we appraised the beneficial effects of this herb on acute immobilization stress-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations. Rats in test group were administrated with curcumin (200mg/kg/day), dissolved in neutral oil, for one week. Both control and curcumin-treated rats were divided into unstres...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 10, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Haider S, Naqvi F, Batool Z, Tabassum S, Sadir S, Laiquat L, Naqvi F, Zuberi NA, Shakeel H, Perveen T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

CB1 receptors modulate affective behaviour induced by neuropathic pain.
mer A Abstract Patients suffering from chronic pain are often also diagnosed with a psychiatric condition, in particular generalized anxiety and major depression. The underlying pathomechanisms contributing to this comorbidity, however, are not entirely clear. In this manuscript we have focussed on the potential role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1, because it is known to modulate neuronal circuits contributing to chronic pain states and affective behaviours. For this purpose we analysed the consequences of a partial sciatic nerve ligation on anxiety- and depression related behaviours in mice lacking CB1 receptors...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rácz I, Nent E, Erxlebe E, Zimmer A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Hippocampal BDNF signaling restored with chronic asiaticoside treatment in depression-like mice.
In conclusion, our study implies that it is possible that asiaticoside exerts its antidepressant-like action by activating BDNF signaling in the hippocampus. PMID: 25857945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Luo L, Liu XL, Mu RH, Wu YJ, Liu BB, Geng D, Liu Q, Yi LT Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

In vivo evidence for neuroplasticity in older adults.
Abstract Neuroplasticity can be conceptualized as an intrinsic property of the brain that enables modification of function and structure in response to environmental demands. Neuroplastic strengthening of synapses is believed to serve as a critical mechanism underlying learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. Ex vivo work investigating neuroplasticity has been done on hippocampal slices using high frequency stimulation. However, in vivo neuroplasticity in humans has been difficult to demonstrate. Recently, a long-term potentiation-like phenomenon, a form of neuroplastic change, was identified in young adul...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: de Gobbi Porto FH, Fox AM, Tusch ES, Sorond F, Mohammed AH, Daffner KR Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Yokukansan normalizes glucocorticoid receptor protein expression in oligodendrocytes of the corpus callosum by regulating microRNA-124a expression after stress exposure.
In this study, we aimed to elucidate the GR regulation mechanism in oligodendrocytes and evaluate the effects of yokukansan (YKS), a Kampo medicine, on GR protein regulation. Acute exposure to stress increased plasma corticosterone levels, decreased GR protein expression, and increased miR-124a expression in the corpus callosum of adult male mice, though the GR mRNA and miR-18 expression levels were not significant changes. YKS normalized the stress-induced changes in the plasma corticosterone, GR protein, and miR124a expression levels. An oligodendrocyte primary culture study also showed that YKS down-regulated miR-124a, ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Shimizu S, Tanaka T, Tohyama M, Miyata S Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prophylactic lithium alleviates splenectomy-induced cognitive dysfunction possibly by inhibiting hippocampal TLR4 activation in aged rats.
Abstract Though the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear, evidence is accumulating for a pivotal role of neuroinflammation in the disease process. Advanced age and severe surgical trauma are two main risk factors for POCD. Lithium, a neuroprotective agent, can alleviate peripheral surgery-induced memory impairment in aged rats. The results of in vivo and in vitro experiments also showed that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) was associated with the occurrence and development of neuroinflammation and POCD. So we hypothesized that inhibition of TLR4 signaling in the hippocampus maybe ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu SM, Gui B, Dong HQ, Zhang X, Zhang SS, Hu LQ, Liu HL, Sun J, Qian YN Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

An acellular cerebellar biological scaffold: Preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and effects on neural stem cells.
In this report, we describe a dynamic decellularization protocol that combined intracardial perfusion and a series of treatments to effectively remove the cellular components from the cerebellum, which is a unique and relatively simple CNS structure. The resulting cerebellar scaffold retained neurosupportive proteins and growth factors and, when tested with neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro, was found to be cytocompatible and to stimulate the proliferation and migration of these cells. NSCs that were cultured in vitro on the scaffold differentiated into neurons and astrocytes, as indicated by their expression of βIII-...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu T, Tang Q, Shen Y, Tang H, Chen L, Zhu J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Response inhibition failure to visual stimuli paired with a "single-type" stressor in PTSD patients: An fMRI pilot study.
Response inhibition failure to visual stimuli paired with a "single-type" stressor in PTSD patients: An fMRI pilot study. Brain Res Bull. 2015 Mar 16; Authors: Brunetti M, Sepede G, Ferretti A, Mingoia G, Romani GL, Babiloni C Abstract Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to misinterpret innocuous stimuli as potential threats, possibly due to a conditioning provoked by traumatic episodes. Previous neuroimaging evidence has shown an abnormal activation of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in PTSD patients during fear conditioning and extinction. Nevertheless, the effects ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Brunetti M, Sepede G, Ferretti A, Mingoia G, Romani GL, Babiloni C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Coupling of ascorbate and nitric oxide dynamics in vivo in the rat hippocampus upon glutamatergic neuronal stimulation: a novel functional interplay.
CONCLUSIONS: The coupling between NO and ascorbate upon glutamatergic activation points to a functional impact on the activities of both compounds and, although the precise molecular mechanism needs to be clarified, such a coupling lays the foundations for new regulatory mechanisms in the brain. PMID: 25783673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Ferreira NR, Lourenço C, Barbosa RM, Laranjinha J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: Adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models.
We describe specific physiological and molecular adaptations employed by different animals' models of hypoxia tolerance in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We highlight how these adaptations might provide potential clues on strategies to adapt for the clinical management of tissue hypoxia during conditions such as stroke where oxygen demand fails to match the supply. PMID: 25738761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nathaniel TI, Williams-Hernandez A, Hunter LA, Liddy C, Peffley DM, Imeh-Nathaniel A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine prevents rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease in rat: an investigation into the interaction of Parkin and Drp1 proteins.
In conclusion we found that NAC delayed the Parkinson's disease induction by rotenone and this effect might be related to its proved antioxidant effect. PMID: 25732239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rahimmi A, Khosrobakhsh F, Izadpanah E, Moloudi MR, Hassanzadeh K Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Exploring The Effect of Vitamin C on Sleep Deprivation Induced Memory Impairment.
Abstract In the current study, the possible beneficial effect of vitamin C (VitC) against sleep deprivation induced memory impairment was examined. Chronic sleep deprivation was induced via placing rats in a modified multiple platform apparatus for 8hrs/day for a period of 6 weeks. Concomitantly, VitC was administered to animals at doses of 150 and 500mg/kg/day. After 6 weeks of treatment, the Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM) was used to test for spatial learning and memory performance. Moreover, the hippocampus was dissected; and levels/activities of antioxidant defense biomarkers glutathione reduced (GSH), glutathio...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Mhaidat NM, Alzoubi KH, Khabour OF, Tashtoush NH, Banihani SA, Abdul-Razzak KK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Cocaine enhances the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA in adolescent mice.
Miñarro J Abstract Although the consumption of cocaine is frequent in young users of MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine), the influence of exposure to cocaine on the rewarding effects of MDMA in adolescents has not been studied. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effect of co-administration of cocaine (1 and 10mg/kg) and a sub-threshold dose of MDMA (1.25mg/kg) on the acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP) (experiment 1). In addition, the effect of pre-treatment with cocaine on MDMA-induced CPP was evaluated (experiment 2). Levels of monoamines in striatum, hippocampus and ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Aguilar MA, Roger-Sánchez C, Rodríguez-Arias M, Miñarro J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Antiepileptogenic effects of the selective COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib, on the development of spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.
Abstract Different data suggest the involvement of specific inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Cyclooxygenase (COX), which catalyses the production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, may play a significant role in seizure-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability. COX-2 is constitutively expressed in the brain and also increased during/after seizures. COX-2 inhibitors may thus attenuate inflammation associated with brain disorders. We studied whether early long-term treatment (17 consecutive weeks starting from 45 days postnatal age) with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Citraro R, Leo A, Marra R, De Sarro G, Russo E Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Exploring the potential relationship between Notch pathway genes expression and their promoter methylation in mice hippocampal neurogenesis.
Abstract The Notch pathway is a highly conserved pathway that regulates hippocampal neurogenesis during embryonic development and adulthood. It has become apparent that intracellular epigenetic modification including DNA methylation is deeply involved in fate specification of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, it is still unclear whether the Notch pathway regulates hippocampal neurogenesis by changing the Notch genes' DNA methylation status. Here, we present the evidence from DNA methylation profiling of Notch1, Hes1 and Ngn2 promoters during neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of postnatal, adult and traumatic...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Gao F, Kang X, Li J, Zhang L, Dong W, Jin Z, Li F, Gao N, Cai X, Yang S, Zhang J, Ren X, Yang X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The inimitable kynurenic acid: the roles of different ionotropic receptors in the action of kynurenic acid at a spinal level.
Abstract Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite that interacts with NMDA, AMPA/kainate and alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. The goal of this study was to clarify the roles of these receptors in the action of KYNA at a spinal level by using highly specific receptor antagonists alone or in triple combinations. Chronic osteoarthritis-like joint pain was induced with monosodium-iodoacetate in male Wistar rats. Mechanical allodynia and motor function were quantified. In the first series we determined the dose-response and time course effects of intrathecally administered KYNA (10-100μg), D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosp...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - February 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Tuboly G, Tar L, Bohar Z, Safrany-Fark A, Petrovszki Z, Kekesi G, Vecsei L, Pardutz A, Horvath G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

High therapeutic potential of positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: Proof-of-concept.
High therapeutic potential of positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: Proof-of-concept. Brain Res Bull. 2015 Jan 31; Authors: Gatson JW, Simpkins JW, Uteshev VV Abstract There are currently no clinically-efficacious drug therapies to treat brain damage secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this proof-of-concept study, we used a controlled cortical impact model of TBI in young adult rats to explore a novel promising approach that utilizes PNU-120596, a previously-reported highly selective Type-II positive allosteric modulator (α7-PAM) of...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Gatson JW, Simpkins JW, Uteshev VV Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Quantitative orientation preference and susceptibility to space motion sickness simulated in a virtual reality environment.
Abstract Orientation preference should appear when variable weightings of spatial orientation cues are used between individuals. It is possible that astronauts' orientation preferences could be a potential predictor for susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). The present study was conducted to confirm this relationship on Earth by quantifying orientation preferences and simulating SMS in a virtual reality environment. Two tests were carried out. The first was to quantitatively determine one's orientation preference. Thirty-two participants' vision and body cue preferences were determined by measuring percep...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen W, Chao JG, Chen XW, Wang JK, Tan C Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Improved Clinical Behavior of Established Relapsing-Remitting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis following Treatment with Endogenous Opioids: Implications for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.
This study examined the therapeutic efficacy of an endogenous peptide (opioid growth factor, OGF) known to inhibit cell replication in a receptor-mediated manner, utilizing a mouse model of relapse-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RR-EAE). RR-EAE was induced by immunization of SJL/J mice with proteolipid protein. Two days following establishment of clinical disease, treatment with OGF (10mg/kg) or saline was initiated and mice were observed on a daily basis. OGF treated mice had markedly reduced clinical signs of disease over the course of 40 days. OGF treatment increased the incidence and lengthened th...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hammer LA, Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Intrinsic exercise capacity is related to differential monoaminergic activity in the rat forebrain.
es DD Abstract Monoamines levels in central nervous system have been associated with exercise performance and fatigue. The present study investigated whether intrinsic exercise capacity is associated with differential activity of monoamines in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and accumbens (ACC) nucleus. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a progressive testing protocol. Based on the maximal time of exercise in the progressive testing protocol (TEPmax), the animals were divided into low-performance (LP), high-performance (HP), and standard-performance (SP) groups. After classification, eight animals in each group were cho...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rabelo PC, Almeida TF, Guimarães JB, Barcellos LA, Cordeiro LM, Moraes MM, Coimbra CC, Szawka RE, Soares DD Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cells engrafted in a fibrin scaffold stimulates Schwann cell reactivity and axonal regeneration following sciatic nerve tubulization.
ra AL Abstract The present study investigated the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) associated with a fibrin scaffold (FS) for the peripheral regenerative process after nerve tubulization. Adult female Lewis rats received a unilateral sciatic nerve transection followed by repair with a polycaprolactone (PCL) - based tubular prosthesis. Sixty days after injury, the regenerated nerves were studied by immunohistochemistry. Anti-p75NTR immunostaining was used to investigate the reactivity of the MSCs. Basal labeling, which was upregulated during the regenerative process, was detected in uninjured nerves a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Cartarozzi LP, Spejo AB, Junior RS, Barraviera B, Duek E, Carvalho JL, Góes AM, Oliveira AL Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of DPTP, a novel synthetic Clovamide derivative in In vitro and In vivo model of Neuroinflammation.
The objective of the current study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of novel synthetic clovamide derivative on the suppression of microglial activation in an in vitro and in vivo model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an inflammatory response in murine BV-2 microglial cells. Molecular tools like immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting were used to study the activity of novel synthetic clovamide derivative to inhibit inflammation induced by LPS in microglial cells. In in vivo experiments, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mouse model of neuroinflam...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lim HW, In PJ, More SV, Park JY, Kim BW, Jeon SB, Yosep Y, Park EJ, Yoon SH, Choi DK Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Enteric plexuses of two choline-acetyltransferase transgenic mouse lines: chemical neuroanatomy of the fluorescent protein-expressing nerve cells.
In conclusion, the neurochemical coding of ENS neurons in these mouse lines is consistent with many observations in non-transgenic animals. Thus, they provide useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies on distinct neurochemical subtypes of ENS neurons. PMID: 25592616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Wilhelm M, Lawrence JJ, Gábriel R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prenatal Nicotine Changes the Response to Postnatal Chlorpyrifos: Interactions Targeting Serotonergic Synaptic Function and Cognition.
We examined whether prenatal nicotine exposure alters the subsequent response to chlorpyrifos given postnatally. Pregnant rats received nicotine throughout gestation at 3mg/kg/day, a regimen designed to achieve plasma levels seen in smokers; chlorpyrifos was given to pups on postnatal days (PN) 1-4 at 1mg/kg, just above the detection threshold for brain cholinesterase inhibition. We assessed long-term effects from adolescence (PN30) through full adulthood (PN150), measuring the expression of serotonin receptors and serotonin turnover (index of presynaptic impulse activity) in cerebrocortical brain regions encompassing the ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Levin ED, Seidler FJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The up-regulation of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 in rats with inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant.
Abstract Peripheral inflammation induces central sensitization that displays the features by the development of pain hypersensitivity to the stimuli. It has been shown that activation of glia contributes to the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after peripheral inflammation. It has been suggested that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) primarily expressed on microglia affects central pain response. The present study was designed to examine the expressions of TLR4 and microglia in the spinal cord in different time points of inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The results show that CFA i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao XH, Zhang T Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Effects of angiotensin type 2 receptor on secretion of the locus coeruleus in stress-induced hypertension rats.
g H Abstract Locus coeruleus (LC) has noradrenergic nerve terminals projecting to hypothalamus that modulating cardiovascular activity. To study the dynamic characteristics of norepinephrine (NE) release in hypothalamus followed by electrical stimulation in the locus coeruleus in the stress-induced hypertension (SIH) rats, we established the hypertension model rats by stimulations combining noise and foot-shock stress. After the end of modeling, NE release in the hypothalamus by electrical stimulation in LC was studied and NE signal was recorded by carbon fiber electrode. The peak value, the time to peak and half-...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Gong W, Lü J, Wang F, Wang B, Wang M, Huang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Impaired corticostriatal LTP and depotentiation following iPLA2 inhibition is restored following acute application of DHA.
Abstract Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a 22 carbon, six cis-double bonded (22:6, w3) omega-3 polyunsaturated acid (PUFA), found highly enriched with neuronal membranes, and believed to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity and cognitive correlates of learning and memory. DHA is released from the neuronal membrane via the action of the cytostolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) enzyme. Previous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of iPLA2 by bromoenol lactone (BEL), results in inhibition of CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), restored following acute application of DHA. In the present study, ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - January 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Mazzocchi-Jones D Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Subacute administration of fluoxetine prevents short-term brain hypometabolism and reduces brain damage markers induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats.
acute;a-García L Abstract The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in epileptogenesis still remains controversial. In this regard, it has been reported that serotonergic drugs can alter epileptogenesis in opposite ways. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the selective 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine administered subacutely (10mg/kg/day×7 days) on the eventual metabolic impairment induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats. In vivo 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose ([(18)F] FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Shiha AA, de Cristóbal J, Delgado M, de la Rosa RF, Bascuñana P, Pozo MA, García-García L Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Changes in the frequency of swallowing during electrical stimulation of superior laryngeal nerve in rats.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the adaptation of the swallowing reflex in terms of reduced swallowing reflex initiation following continuous superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Forty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. To identify swallowing, electromyographic activity of the left mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles was recorded. To evoke the swallowing response, the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), recurrent laryngeal nerve, or cortical swallowing area was electrically stimulated. Repetitive swallowing evoked by continuous SLN stimulation was gradually reduced, a...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tsuji K, Tsujimura T, Magara J, Sakai S, Nakamura Y, Inoue M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Role of synaptic and nonsynaptic glutamate receptors in ischaemia induced neurotoxicity.
tos M Abstract In acute ischaemic brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration, the first step leading to excitotoxicity and cell death is the excessive release of Glu and the prolonged activation of Glu receptors, followed by intracellular calcium overload. There is apparent agreement that glutamatergic transmission via synaptic NMDA receptors (composed of GluN2A subunits) is neuroprotective, whereas transmission via non-synaptic NMDA receptors (composed of GluN2B subunits) is excitotoxic. Extrasynaptic NMDARs activate cell death pathways and may play a key role in Glu-induced excitotoxic neurodegeneration and apop...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Brassai A, Suvanjeiev R, Bán E, Lakatos M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

The dynamic changes of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway markers GRP78 and CHOP in the hippocampus of diabetic mice.
Abstract Diabetic encephalopathy has recently been recognized late complication of diabetes resulting in progressive cognitive deficits. Emerging evidence has indicated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic eye and kidney as well as non-diabetic neurodegeneration. However, there was little direct evidence for the involvement of ER stress in diabetic encephalopathy up to now. In the present work, we investigated the role of ER stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. Our results have demonstrated the existence of ER stress in the hippocam...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao Y, Yan Y, Zhao Z, Li S, Yin J Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Differential regulation of perineuronal nets in the brain and spinal cord with exercise training.
RM Abstract Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice like structures which encapsulate the cell body and proximal dendrites of many neurons and are thought to be involved in regulating synaptic plasticity. It is believed that exercise can enhance the plasticity of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in healthy and dysfunctional states by shifting the balance between plasticity promoting and plasticity inhibiting factors in favor of the former. Recent work has focused on exercise effects on trophic factors but its effect on other plasticity regulators is poorly understood. In the present study we investigated how exercis...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Smith C, Mauricio R, Nobre L, Marsh B, Wüst RC, Rossiter HB, Ichiyama RM Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Nociceptive spinal cord neurons of laminae I-III exhibit oxidative stress damage during diabetic neuropathy which is prevented by early antioxidant treatment with epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG).
Abstract Spinal cord neurons located in laminae I-III respond to nociceptive stimuli and participate in the transmission of painful information to the brain. In the present study we evaluated if nociceptive laminae I-III neurons are affected by oxidative stress damage in a model of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ rat). Additionally, we evaluated the effects of a preventive antioxidant treatment with epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) in nociceptive neuronal activation and behavioural signs of DNP. Three days after diabetes induction, a treatment protocol of STZ rats with ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Raposo D, Morgado C, Pereira-Terra P, Tavares I Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Aging alters visual processing of objects and shapes in inferotemporal cortex in monkeys.
P, Sáry G Abstract Visual perception declines with age. Perceptual deficits may originate not only in the optical system serving vision but also in the neural machinery processing visual information. Since homologies between monkey and human vision permit extrapolation from monkeys to humans, data from young, middle aged and old monkeys were analyzed to show age-related changes in the neuronal activity in the inferotemporal cortex, which is critical for object and shape vision. We found an increased neuronal response latency, and a decrease in the stimulus selectivity in the older animals and suggest that ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Csete G, Bognár A, Csibri P, Kaposvári P, Sáry G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

l-Ornithine intake affects sympathetic nerve outflows and reduces body weight and food intake in rats.
Abstract Ingesting the amino acid l-ornithine effectively improves lipid metabolism in humans, although it is unknown whether it affects the activities of autonomic nerves that supply the peripheral organs related to lipid metabolism, such as adipose tissues. Thus, we investigated the effects of l-ornithine ingestion on autonomic nerves that innervate adipose tissues and the feeding behaviors of rats. Intragastric injection of l-ornithine (2.5%) in urethane-anesthetized rats activated sympathetic nerve activity to white adipose tissue (WAT-SNA), and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BA...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Konishi Y, Koosaka Y, Maruyama R, Imanishi K, Kasahara K, Matsuda A, Akiduki S, Hishida Y, Kurata Y, Shibamoto T, Satomi J, Tanida M Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Prenatal Nicotine Alters the Developmental Neurotoxicity of Postnatal Chlorpyrifos Directed Toward Cholinergic Systems: Better, Worse, or Just "Different?"
This study examines whether prenatal nicotine exposure sensitizes the developing brain to subsequent developmental neurotoxicity evoked by chlorpyrifos, a commonly-used insecticide. We gave nicotine to pregnant rats throughout gestation at a dose (3mg/kg/day) producing plasma levels typical of smokers; offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1mg/kg) that produces minimally-detectable inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. We evaluated indices for acetylcholine (ACh) synaptic function throughout adolescence, young adulthood and later adulthood, in brain regions possessing the majority ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Estradiol Regulation of Hypothalamic Astrocyte Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Activity: Role of Hindbrain Catecholamine Signaling.
This study investigated the hypothesis that hypothalamic astrocytes express the ultra-sensitive energy gauge adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and that the ovarian hormone estradiol (E) controls activation of this sensor by insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). E- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pretreated by caudal fourth ventricular administration of the catecholamine neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) prior to sc insulin or vehicle injection. Individual astrocytes identified in situ by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunolabeling were laser-microdissected from the ventrom...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tamrakar P, Briski KP Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Inhibition of DOR prevents remifentanil induced postoperative hyperalgesia through regulating the trafficking and function of spinal NMDA receptors in vivo and in vitro.
CONCLUSION: The above results indicate that inhibition of DOR could significantly inhibit remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia via modulating the total protein level, membrane trafficking and function of NMDA receptors in the dorsal horn of spinal cord, suggesting that naltrindole could be a potential anti-hyperalgesic agent for treating OIH. PMID: 25498394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang C, Li Y, Wang H, Xie K, Shu R, Zhang L, Hu N, Yu Y, Wang G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Lateral habenula as a link between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems contributes to depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.
In this study, we screened rats with depressive-like behaviors from PD model animals and found that cytochrome c oxidase activity in the LHb of these rats was twice that seen in the control rats. In the forced swim test, LHb lesions caused a decrease in depressive-like behavior of PD rats as indexed by decreased immobility times and increased climbing times. Additionally, LHb lesions caused an enhance in 5-HT levels in the raphe nuclei. These results suggest that LHb lesions may improve depressive-like behavior in PD rats by increasing 5-HT levels in the raphe nuclei. Thus, LHb contributes to the depressive-like behavior i...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - December 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Luo XF, Zhang BL, Li JC, Yang YY, Sun YF, Zhao H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

c-Fos induction in mesotelencephalic dopamine pathway projection targets and dorsal striatum following oral intake of sugars and fats in rats.
Abstract Overconsumption of nutrients high in fats and sugars can lead to obesity. Previous studies indicate that sugar or fat consumption activate individual brain sites using Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI). Sugars and fats also elicit conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) that are differentially mediated by flavor-flavor (orosensory: f/f) and flavor-nutrient (post-ingestive: f/n) processes. Dopamine (DA) signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the amygdala (AMY) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), has been implicated in acquisition and expression of fat- and sugar-CFP. The present study examined the effec...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Dela Cruz JA, Coke T, Karagiorgis T, Sampson C, Icaza-Cukali D, Kest K, Ranaldi R, Bodnar RJ Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Medical genetics-based drug repurposing for Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease that threatens the elderly. No efficient therapeutic method is currently available to combat AD. Drug repurposing has provided a new route for AD drug discovery, and medical genetics has shown potential in target-based drug repurposing. We compared AD-associated genes with approved drug targets and found that three are targeted by 23 approved drugs. Thus, these drugs may be used to treat AD according to the medical genetic information of the targets. In vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that four drugs, all of which are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibit...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang XZ, Quan Y, Tang GY Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Different action of a specific NR2B/NMDA antagonist Ro 25-6981 on cortical evoked potentials and epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats.
In conclusion, our results indicate that Ro 25-6981 as a selective antagonist of NR2B/NMDARs exhibit age- and activation-dependent anticonvulsant action at early postnatal development. In contrast, the influence of Ro 25-6981 on physiological excitability induced by single pulse stimulation of sensorimotor cortex does not depend on age. This compound may thus represent a useful antiepileptic agent in immature brain since its action against ADs prolongation can be observed even 110min after the single administration of the drug. PMID: 25446739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research Bulletin)
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Szczurowska E, Mareš P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Desvenlafaxine reduces apoptosis in amygdala after myocardial infarction.
This study was designed to determine if desvenlafaxine (DV), a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, can attenuate apoptosis observed in the limbic system after myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in rats by occlusion of the left descending artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Another group of sham (control) rats was similarly manipulated, but without occlusion. Half of the full cohort received DV (3mg/kg/day intraperitoneal), starting 5min after the onset of reperfusion; the other half received the vehicle (0.5ml of 0.9% saline). Rats were sacrificed after 3 days for biochemical analyses and MI size mea...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Malick M, Gilbert K, Barry M, Godbout R, Rousseau G Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Optogenetic control of astrocytes: Is it possible to treat astrocyte-related epilepsy?
Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects around 1% of the population worldwide. The two main therapies, pharmacology and the electrical stimulation, both have some shortcomings. For instance, pharmacological therapy is frequently accompanied by side effects, and current anticonvulsive drugs fail to be effective to around a third of patients. These patients could suffer astrocyte-related epilepsy, as increasing evidence indicates that dysfunctions of astrocytes can result in epilepsy. However, epilepsy drugs that affect astrocytes are not available currently. Although electrical stimulation has ben...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ji ZG, Wang H Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Molecular pathways of mitochondrial dysfunctions: Possible cause of cell death in anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity.
Abstract The effect of anesthesia on the developing brain has attracted more attention and arguments. This review summarizes various studies on developmental neurotoxicity induced by anesthesia, particularly focuses on the function of the mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental results present evidence that general anesthesia can cause mitochondrial dysfunction via complex pathways, including oxidative stress, electron transport chain dysfunction, mitochondrial dynamics, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway. Hence, the molecular processes of mitochondrial dysfunction should be underst...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Yu Q, Liang W Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Dihydromyricetin ameliorates the oxidative stress response induced by methylglyoxal via the AMPK/GLUT4 signaling pathway in PC12 cells.
Abstract Dihydromyricetin (DMY), the major bioactive flavonoid ingredient extracted from the leaves of Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz) W.T. Wang, displays multiple pharmacological activities, including oxidation resistance, antitumor properties and free radical scavenging capacities. However, the role of DMY in methylglyoxal (MG)-induced diabetes-associated cognitive decline and its underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of DMY on oxidative stress and glucose transport activity in a MG-induced PC12 cell line and to explore the related mechanisms....
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - October 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang B, Le L, Pan H, Hu K, Xu L, Xiao P Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research