Thalamocortical Hyperconnectivity and Amygdala-Cortical Hypoconnectivity in Male Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that pathophysiological changes associated with ASD are more likely related to thalamocortical hyperconnectivity than to amygdala-cortical hypoconnectivity. Future studies should examine full sets of clinical and behavioral symptoms in combination with functional connectivity to explore possible biomarkers for ASD.IntroductionAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical social communication and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, or activities, both of which must be present in the early developmental period (1). Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli and unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment are highly significant symptoms that are directly associated with subjective distress in daily life in affected patients (2). The distress caused by particular sensory stimuli can cause maladaptive behaviors in those who are unable to communicate appropriately in social situations. Although sensory hyper- and hyporesponsiveness are not unique to ASD, they appear to be more prevalent in this population than among individuals with other developmental disabilities or schizophrenia. Previous studies have investigated the neurophysiological basis of such disturbances in unimodal and multimodal sensory processing among patients with ASD, as well as disturbances in shifting attention to and from sensory stimuli (3, 4).Extensive structural and functional neuroimaging studies have investigated alterations in pattern...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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In this report, we describe the prevalence and disease burden of each mental disorder for the states of India, from 1990 to 2017.MethodsWe used all accessible data from multiple sources to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by these disorders for all the states of India from 1990 to 2017, as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We assessed the heterogeneity and time trends of mental disorders across the states of India. We grouped states on the basis of their Socio-demographic Index (SDI), whi...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: Fun seeking on the BAS and frustration intolerance should be considered as targets in prevention and intervention programs for IA among adolescents with ADHD.IntroductionThe negative effects of internet addiction (IA) have become a concern in the past decades. IA is characterized by persistent internet use despite negative consequences, loss of control, preoccupation with internet use, increasing amounts of time spent online, and withdrawal symptoms (1). Internet gaming disorders are listed in the “Conditions for Further Study” section in the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Men...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Sleep patterns in children and adolescents were related to the psychiatric diagnosis of their parent(s). Future follow-up of these results may clarify the relations between early sleep differences and the risk of developing mood disorders in individuals at high familial risk.IntroductionSleep disturbances are core symptoms of mood disorders including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (1). Additionally, sleep problems have been associated with more severe symptoms, greater functional impairment, and increased risk for relapse among individuals with mood disorders (2). Over 40% of children and youth...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2018Source: The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 5, Issue 7Author(s): Line Olsen, Thomas Sparsø, Shantel M Weinsheimer, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha Dos Santos, Wiktor Mazin, Anders Rosengren, Xabier Calle Sanchez, Louise K Hoeffding, Henriette Schmock, Marie Baekvad-Hansen, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Mark J Daly, Benjamin M Neale, Marianne G Pedersen, Esben Agerbo, Ole Mors, Anders Børglum, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Preben Bo MortensenSummaryBackgroundAlthough the pathogenic nature of copy number variants (CNVs) on chromosome 22q11.2 has been recognised for decades, unbiased estimates...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Discussion Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a common genetic abnormaly with a prevalence of 1 in ~650 male births. It was first described in 1942 by Dr. Harry Klinefelter. It is associated with at least one extra X chromosome with the most common karyotype (~80% of patients) being 47 XXY. Other karyotypes are seen along with mosaicism. It is believed that although it is very prevalent, only about 25-33% of people with KS are identified. About 10% are identified before puberty with the rest usually identified because of hypogonadism and tall stature especially in teenage years or due to infertility in adulthood. KS is diagnosed...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Progress in Neurobiology Author(s): Margaret C. Grabb, Jogarao V.S. Gobburu Many psychiatric and behavioral disorders manifest in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, etc.) and the opportunity for intervening early may attenuate full development of the disorder and lessen long term disability. Yet, pediatric drug approvals for CNS indications are limited, and pediatric testing generally occurs only after establishing adult efficacy, more as an afterthought ra...
Source: Progress in Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism can look a lot alike. Children with either one can be very active and impulsive, and can have trouble focusing and interacting with other people. In fact, it can be hard to tell the difference between the two. But telling the difference is very important. In a study just published in the journal Pediatrics, researchers looked at about 1,500 children between the ages of 2 and 17 who had a current diagnosis of autism (as reported by their parents). They found that those who got an ADHD diagnosis before they got an autism diagnosis were diagnosed with autism an averag...
Source: New Harvard Health Information - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children's Health Mental Health Source Type: news
Conclusions Our findings suggest that deletion or duplication of the CNTN6 gene is associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental behavioral disorders.
Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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