Effect of Prophylaxis for Early Adrenal Insufficiency Using Low-Dose Hydrocortisone in Very Preterm Infants: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis
To assess the effect of prophylaxis for early adrenal insufficiency using low-dose hydrocortisone on survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very preterm infants using an individual patient data meta-analysis. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 8, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michele L. Shaffer, Olivier Baud, Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil, Outi M. Peltoniemi, Francesco Bonsante, Kristi L. Watterberg Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Thirteen-Year Outcomes in Very Preterm Children Associated with Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity on Neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging
To investigate the association between white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging in very preterm infants and neurobehavioral outcomes at the age of 13 years. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 7, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ines M. M ürner-Lavanchy, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Deanne K. Thompson, Lex W. Doyle, Jeanie L.Y. Cheong, Rod W. Hunt, Terrie E. Inder, Peter J. Anderson Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Child and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: Evidence from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project
To examine the trends associated with child and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts and to compare these trends to those among the adult population. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 7, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jason T. Carbone, Katherine J. Holzer, Michael G. Vaughn Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Neonatal Lung Disease Associated with TBX4 Mutations
Variable lung disease was documented in 2 infants with heterozygous TBX4 mutations; their clinical presentations, pathology, and outcomes were distinct. These findings demonstrate that TBX4 gene mutations are associated with neonatal respiratory failure and highlight the wide spectrum of clinicopathological outcomes that have implications for patient diagnosis and management. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 7, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kristen Suhrie, Nathan M. Pajor, Shawn K. Ahlfeld, D. Brian Dawson, Kevin R. Dufendach, Joseph A. Kitzmiller, Daniel Leino, Rachel C. Lombardo, Teresa A. Smolarek, Pamela A. Rathbun, Jeffrey A. Whitsett, Christopher Towe, Kathryn A. Wikenheiser-Brokamp Tags: Clinical and laboratory observations Source Type: research

Muscle Fitness Cut Points for Early Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents
To study the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) association between muscle fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in youth; whether there are muscle fitness cut points associated with CVD risk (cross-sectional); and whether the health-related muscle fitness cut points identified at baseline are associated with CVD risk 2 years later. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 7, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jos é Castro-Piñero, Alejandro Perez-Bey, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Verónica Cabanas-Sanchez, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Oscar L. Veiga, Ascensión Marcos, Jonatan R. Ruiz, UP & DOWN Study Group Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Adenovirus-Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Children
To characterize the spectrum and salient clinical features of adenovirus-associated neurologic disease in immunocompetent children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 6, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kevin L. Schwartz, Susan E. Richardson, Daune MacGregor, Sanjay Mahant, Kamini Raghuram, Ari Bitnun Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Taiwan National Newborn Screening Program by Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Mucopolysaccharidoses Types I, II, and VI
To evaluate the initial cutoff values, rates of screen positives, and genotypes for the large-scale newborn screening program for multiple mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in Taiwan. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 6, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Min-Ju Chan, Hsuan-Chieh Liao, Michael H. Gelb, Chih-Kuang Chuang, Mei-Ying Liu, Hsiao-Jan Chen, Shu-Min Kao, Hsiang-Yu Lin, You-Hsin Huang, Arun Babu Kumar, Naveen Kumar Chennamaneni, Nagendar Pendem, Shuan-Pei Lin, Chuan-Chi Chiang Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Prospective Cohort Study of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection during Pregnancy with Fetal Growth Restriction: Serologic Analysis and Placental Pathology
To investigate prospectively the prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and the pathologic features of the placenta in cases of fetal growth restriction (FGR). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 6, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mitsuru Tsuge, Akira I. Hida, Toshio Minematsu, Naotoshi Honda, Yumi Oshiro, Mikifumi Yokoyama, Yoichi Kondo Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Measurement System to Evaluate Quality of Life for Children and Adolescents with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated Plexiform Neurofibroma
To assess the health-related quality of life of children with neurofibromatosis type 1-related plexiform neurofibromas (pNF) using a battery of patient-reported outcome measures selected based on a conceptual framework derived from input by patients, parents, and clinicians regarding the most important pNF symptoms and concerns. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 6, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jin-Shei Lai, Sally E. Jensen, Joel Charrow, Robert Listernick Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Different Growth Patterns Persist at 24 Months of Age in Formula-Fed Infants Randomized to Consume a Meat- or Dairy-Based Complementary Diet from 5 to 12 Months of Age
To test the long-term effect on growth status at 24 months of age in formula-fed infants who were randomized to consume a meat- or dairy-based complementary diet from 5 to 12 months of age. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 6, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Minghua Tang, Vivianne Andersen, Audrey E. Hendricks, Nancy F. Krebs Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Obesity is Associated with Higher Blood Pressure and Higher Levels of Angiotensin II but Lower Angiotensin-(1-7) in Adolescents Born Preterm
To evaluate if obesity is associated with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased angiotensin-(1-7) or Ang-(1-7) in the circulation and urine among adolescents born prematurely. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 5, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrew M. South, Patricia A. Nixon, Mark C. Chappell, Debra I. Diz, Gregory B. Russell, Hossam A. Shaltout, T. Michael O'Shea, Lisa K. Washburn Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Impact of Time Interval between Extubation and Reintubation on Death or Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants
To explore the relation between time to reintubation and death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely preterm infants. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 5, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wissam Shalish, Lara Kanbar, Lajos Kovacs, Sanjay Chawla, Martin Keszler, Smita Rao, Bogdan Panaitescu, Alyse Laliberte, Doina Precup, Karen Brown, Robert E. Kearney, Guilherme M. Sant'Anna Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Living with Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia —Parental Views of Their Child's Quality of Life
To assess parents' views of their children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the association between neonatal morbidities and HRQoL in children with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) who survived to 18-36 months of corrected age. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 5, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jennifer M. Brady, Huayan Zhang, Haresh Kirpalani, Sara B. DeMauro Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Breath-Enhanced to Conventional Nebulizers in the Treatment of Children with Acute Asthma
To compare the efficacy of a breath-enhanced and a conventional jet nebulizer in the treatment of children with moderate to severe acute asthma. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mike A. Gardiner, Matthew H. Wilkinson Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Sildenafil Use in Children with Pulmonary Hypertension
To assess the demographics, treatment algorithm, and outcomes in a large cohort of children treated with sildenafil. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jennifer L. Cohen, Shannon N. Nees, Gerson A. Valencia, Erika B. Rosenzweig, Usha S. Krishnan Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Urban-Rural Residence and Child Physical Abuse Hospitalizations: A National Incidence Study
To determine if child physical abuse hospitalization rates vary across urban-rural regions overall and after accounting for race/ethnicity and poverty demographics. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Henry T. Puls, Jessica L. Bettenhausen, Jessica L. Markham, Jacqueline M. Walker, Brett Drake, Kathryn E. Kyler, Mary Ann Queen, Matthew Hall Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Drowsy Driving, Sleep Duration, and Chronotype in Adolescents
To determine whether self-reported drowsy driving was associated with an evening chronotype, a biologically-based difference in circadian sleep-wake timing, and shorter school-night sleep duration in a sample of high school drivers. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Judith A. Owens, Tracy Dearth-Wesley, Allison N. Herman, Robert C. Whitaker Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Digital Screen Time and Pediatric Sleep: Evidence from a Preregistered Cohort Study
To determine the extent to which time spent with digital devices predicts meaningful variability in pediatric sleep. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrew K. Przybylski Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Diaper Rash in an Infant with Seizures
We evaluated a 50-day-old female infant with recurrent seizures for the past 1 week. The baby had been born to nonconsanguineous parents at term by an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Family history was not contributory. On examination, her head circumference was 37  cm, −2.38 Z score for age and sex and central hypotonia. Sharply delineated erythematosus rashes were noted around the perineal region (Figure, A) . The rash had been presumed to be a diaper rash and she had been prescribed coconut oil application. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sumeet R. Dhawan, Indar Kumar Sharawat, Arushi Gahlot Saini, Renu Suthar, Savita Verma Attri Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

Nuchal Rigidity in Infantile Bacterial Meningitis
A 1-year-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and vomiting. His vaccination status was up to date, including 4 doses of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and Hemophilus influenza type b vaccines. At presentation, there were no physical signs suggesting respiratory or circulatory compromise. His heart rate and respiratory rate were 150 beats per minute and 44 times per minute, respectively. His body temperature was 39.6 °C. There was no paralysis, and the pupillary light reflex was normal. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 30, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kazuki Iio, Yuichi Ogawa, Takateru Ihara, Yuho Horikoshi, Hiroshi Hataya Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Effects of Carrying an Unwanted Pregnancy to Term on Women's Existing Children
To examine how receiving or being denied a wanted abortion affects the subsequent development, health, caregiving, and socioeconomics of women's existing children at time of seeking abortion. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 30, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Diana Greene Foster, Sarah E. Raifman, Jessica D. Gipson, Corinne H. Rocca, M. Antonia Biggs Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Physical –Mental Comorbidity of Pediatric Migraine in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort
To examine the associations between headaches and migraine with physical and mental disorders in a large pediatric registry. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 29, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tarannum Lateef, Jian-Ping He, Karin Nelson, Monica E. Calkins, Ruben Gur, Raquel Gur, Kathleen R. Merikangas Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a Voice Smoke Alarm Using the Child's Name for Sleeping Children: A Randomized Trial
To test maternal voice alarm effectiveness under residential conditions and determine whether personalizing the maternal voice alarm message with the child's first name improves effectiveness. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 25, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gary A. Smith, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Mark Splaingard Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Plasma miR-1290 Is a Novel and Specific Biomarker for Early Diagnosis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis —Biomarker Discovery with Prospective Cohort Evaluation
To discover specific circulating microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for the early differentiation of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) from neonatal sepsis and inflammatory conditions. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 24, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pak Cheung Ng, Kathy Yuen Yee Chan, Terence Ping Yuen, Tony Sit, Hugh Simon Lam, Kam Tong Leung, Raymond Pui On Wong, Lawrence Chi Ngong Chan, Yennie Lap Ian Pang, Hon Ming Cheung, Winnie Chiu Wing Chu, Karen Li Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Optimal Timing of Repeat Newborn Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism in Preterm Infants to Detect Delayed Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Elevation
To evaluate the timing of a delayed rise in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in preterm infants with congenital hypothyroidism, and to determine whether cases of congenital hypothyroidism would be missed by using current consensus guidelines of repeat screening at approximately 2 weeks of age or 2 weeks after the first screening. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 24, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Niamh McGrath, Colin Patrick Hawkes, Philip Mayne, Nuala Patricia Murphy Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Malnutrition Risk in Canadian Pediatric Hospitals: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study
To assess the prevalence, causes, and consequences of malnutrition, as well as the evolution of nutritional status, in Canadian pediatric health care institutions. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 24, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: V éronique Bélanger, Andrea McCarthy, Valérie Marcil, Valérie Marchand, Dana L. Boctor, Mohsin Rashid, Angela Noble, Vishal Avinashi, Bridget Davidson, Véronique Groleau, Schohraya Spahis, Emile Levy Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Anti-M üllerian Hormone in Girls with Premature Adrenarche: The Impact of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome History in their Mothers
To assess whether the serum levels of anti-M üllerian hormone (AMH) are increased in girls with premature adrenarche because they are at a higher risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) later in life. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 24, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alexandra Efthymiadou, Maria Bogiatzidou, Dimitra Kritikou, Dionisios Chrysis Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Epilepsy and Neurodegeneration: Clues in the Hair and Blood Vessels!
A 4-month-old boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, presented with daily, recurrent seizures. The initial focal, motor seizures evolved into clustered, flexor type of infantile spasms at 7 months of age and became polymorphic by 15 months of age. He had global developmental delay with a developmental age of 3-4 months. Additionally, he lost head control with progression and required repeated hospitalizations for pneumonia. He was the third child born in the family with an unremarkable perinatal period. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 24, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ashwini Prithvi, Indar Kumar Sharawat, Arushi Gahlot Saini, Paramjeet Singh Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Utility of Diagnostic Studies for Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Orthostatic Intolerance
To assess the utility of gastrointestinal (GI) diagnostic studies in the evaluation of patients with orthostatic intolerance. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 24, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lana N. Zhang, Jeffrey P. Moak, John Desbiens, Sridhar Hanumanthaiah, Robin R. Fabian, Lindsay Clarke, Rashmi D. Sahay, Anil Darbari Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Lifestyle Habits, Dietary Factors, and the Metabolically Unhealthy Obese Phenotype in Youth
To determine whether lifestyle habits and dietary factors at age 8-10 years predict the development of metabolically unhealthy obesity 2 years later among children who were previously metabolically healthy obese. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 23, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jean-Baptiste Roberge, Andraea Van Hulst, Tracie A. Barnett, Vicky Drapeau, Andrea Benedetti, Angelo Tremblay, M élanie Henderson Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Panel-Based Next-Generation Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Cholestatic Genetic Liver Diseases: Clinical Utility and Challenges
To test the application of a target enrichment next-generation sequencing (NGS) jaundice panel in genetic diagnosis of pediatric liver diseases. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 23, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Huey-Ling Chen, Huei-Ying Li, Jia-Feng Wu, Shang-Hsin Wu, Hui-Ling Chen, Yu-Hsuan Yang, Yu-Hua Hsu, Bang-Yu Liou, Mei-Hwei Chang, Yen-Hsuan Ni Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Social Risk Factors Impact Hospital Readmission and Outpatient Appointment Adherence for Children with Congenital Heart Disease
To examine the relations of individual and cumulative social risk factors to hospitalization outcomes and adherence to outpatient cardiology appointments within the first 2 years of life for congenital heart disease survivors. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 23, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Abigail C. Demianczyk, Shashank P. Behere, Deepika Thacker, Maia Noeder, Emily A. Delaplane, Christian Pizarro, Erica Sood Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pediatricians and long-acting reversible contraceptive counseling and provision
We agree with the assertion of Trope et  al1 that long acting reversible contraception (LARC) counseling and insertion is an important part of the practice of pediatric medicine and should be prioritized in pediatric residency training. As they noted, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends LARC as first-line contraceptive op tions for adolescents. However, this recommendation, found in the AAP's Policy Statement, was published in September 2014.2 Pediatricians' contraceptive knowledge deficits and lack of contraceptive counseling practices discussed by Trope et al stem from survey data collected prio...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 23, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Risa L. Fridy, Sofya Maslyanskaya, Sylvia Lim, Susan M. Coupey Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Need for Routine Screening of Health-Related Quality of Life in Families of Young Children with Complex Congenital Heart Disease
To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in families of young children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD), and identify the demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors that place these children and their mothers at greater risk of vulnerability. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 23, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dominique L. Denniss, Gary F. Sholler, Daniel S.J. Costa, David S. Winlaw, Nadine A. Kasparian Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Heagarty MC, Robertson L, Kosa J, Alpert JJ. J Pediatr 1968;73:740-4 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Giordano P érez-Gaxiola Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Miller LG. J Pediatr 1968;73:699-705. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jennifer Accardo Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in the Journal of Pediatrics
Kisker CT, Glueck H, Kauder E. J Pediatr 1968;73:748-51 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Philip J. Hashkes Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

As Few Pediatricians as Possible and as Many Pediatricians as Necessary?
A common mantra is “as little as possible and as much as necessary.” This perception can be applied to all kinds of different projects in everyday life in order to help achieve a good outcome. It also applies to medicine, for example, “as little antibiotics as possible and as much/many antibiotics as necessary.” However, does this “rule” also apply to the pediatric workforce, that is, “as few pediatricians as possible and as many pediatricians as necessary”? How can we develop a sustainable pediatric workforce to meet the healthcare needs of children? We previously offered di...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jochen Ehrich, Laila Burla, Angel Carrasco Sanz, Ellen Crushell, F ügen Cullu, Jana Fruth, Andreas Gerber-Grote, Hilary Hoey, Karoly Illy, Jan Janda, Danielle Jansen, Reinhold Kerbl, Julije Mestrovic, Aida Mujkic, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Alf Nicholson, Tags: European Paediatric Association Source Type: research

Funding Pediatric Subspecialty Training: Are T32 Grants the Future?
It's all about people. For an academic department or even the discipline of pediatrics, long-term viability is all about our trainees. Who we train, and how we train them, is our legacy. Although the optimal mechanics of pediatric subspecialty fellowship training are undeniably complicated, funding pediatric subspecialty research training in the US can be even more daunting. There might now be an opportunity to influence thinking of the National Insitutes of Health (NIH) as they re-evaluate how training and career development programs are best awarded and financed, as well as critically examine how we collectively as depar...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: William J. Steinbach, Daniel K. Benjamin, John W. Sleasman Tags: Notes from the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. Source Type: research

Use of acid suppressive medications and antibiotics in young infants is associated with development of allergic disease
Mitre E, Susi A, Kropp LE, Schwartz DJ, Gorman GH, Nylund CM. Association Between Use of Acid-Suppressive Medications and Antibiotics During Infancy and Allergic Diseases in Early Childhood. JAMA Pediatr 2018;172:e180315. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Vitamin D reduces risk of recurrent wheezing in premature black infants
Hibbs AM, Ross K, Kerns LA, Wagner C, Fuloria M, Groh-Wargo S, et  al. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Recurrent Wheezing in Black Infants Who Were Born Preterm: The D-Wheeze Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2018;319:2086-94. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Augusto A. Litonjua Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Inhaled long-acting beta agonist combined with a corticosteroid does not increase risk of death compared with corticosteroid alone
Busse WW, Bateman ED, Caplan AL, Kelly HW, O'Byrne PM, Rabe KF, et  al. Combined Analysis of Asthma Safety Trials of Long-Acting β2-Agonists. N Engl J Med 2018;378:2497-505. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Carlos A. Camargo Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

High adverse-event rates among hospitalized pediatric patients
Stockwell DC, Landrigan CP, Toomey SL, Loren SS, Jang J, Quinn JA, et  al. Adverse Events in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients. Pediatrics 2018;142:pii: e20173360. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alisa Khan Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Heart-rate-characteristic monitoring decreases NICU length of stay
Swanson JR, King WE, Sinkin RA, Lake DE, Carlo WA, Schelonka RL, et  al. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay Reduction by Heart Rate Characteristics Monitoring. J Pediatr 2018;198:162-7. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Karen D. Fairchild Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

One step forward for evidence-based therapy for learning problems in preterm children
Executive functions, such as working memory, emerge during childhood. Premature children are at risk for impaired executive function; this often becomes apparent at school age or adolescence when learning and behavior are compromised (Semin Perinatol 2016; 40:520-9). Therapy for working memory may be recommended but this may cause a dilemma for parents and pediatricians as the evidence basis for specific types of training often are lacking and this is not likely to be covered by insurance. In this volume of The Journal, Anderson et  al describe a randomized trial of a commercial working memory training program for 7-y...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raye-Ann deRegnier Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Preventing childhood obesity
Over the past 20 years, there has been a large body of research on the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. A variety of different therapeutic approaches, including child alone, parent alone, and parent/child combinations have been studied. In this time, there have been fewer studies of prevention of childhood obesity. This means that, in practice, many efforts at prevention have simply incorporated approaches used in the treatment of obesity. However, it should be noted that prevention and treatment are 2 potentially very different clinical scenarios. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Stephen R. Daniels Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

BMI in early childhood
There is concern about obesity in childhood throughout the world. There has been a focus on changes in weight and BMI in early childhood as a predictor of later obesity. Many national data sets, such as NHANES in the US, are cross-sectional. These data sources leave open the question of longitudinal trends. In this volume of The Journal, Jabakhanji et  al use data from the nationally representative, longitudinal Growing Up in Ireland study to evaluate height, weight, and BMI at 9 months, 3 years, and 5 years of age to evaluate change over time. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Stephen R. Daniels Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Pragmatism vs idealism in preterm human milk fortification
In this volume of The Journal, Schanler et  al report the results of a randomized trial of an acidified human milk fortifier, compared with a non-acidified human milk fortifier, in premature infants weighing 700-1500 grams at birth. The authors hypothesized that infants fed the acidified human milk fortifier would have more acidosis and con sequently, poorer growth than infants fed a non-acidified fortifier. To address this, the primary outcome of the study was the rate of weight gain. Other outcomes of interest were feeding tolerance and basic biochemical assessments including electrolytes and bicarbonate levels. (So...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raye-Ann deRegnier Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Abdominal-pain-first presentation of Kawasaki disease
Clinicians from Italy cared for a child with high fever and abdominal pain as first complaints of Kawasaki disease. Abdominal computed tomography showed concentric thickening of jejunal bowel, dilatation of small and large intestine, ascitic fluid, and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes. As typical mucocutaneous signs and laboratory findings appeared, the diagnosis was considered. IGIV therapy was associated with rapid defervescence and resolution of abdominal pain. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah S. Long Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Placental windows into neonatal encephalopathy
Despite the appropriate use of therapeutic hypothermia, neurodevelopmental impairments occur in a significant number of infants with neonatal encephalopathy. This may be related to our limited understanding of the nature and timing of the inciting events for many patients with neonatal encephalopathy. Further understanding of this problem requires the opening of a window into the past, before the birth, to evaluate what may have occurred before any clinical signs of fetal compromise. The placenta may provide this window, and placental lesions have shown associations with patterns of brain injury and developmental outcomes ...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raye-Ann deRegnier Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research