Reply
I completely agree with Dr Parikh's statement that the association between patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is due in large part to the many shared factors (eg, immature development, infection, inflammation, excessive fluid administration, etc) that play a causal role in the development of both disorders. As a result, the presence of a persistent PDA can function as an early risk factor/clinical “biomarker” to help identify infants who are at risk for developing BPD. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ronald I. Clyman Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply
This study was conducted because we were concerned about the absence of data on PTIF even though it at least partly determines the effectiveness of the first-line treatment most often chosen for AVB management (ie, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy [HFNC]). Indeed, measurements have been recorded in very preterm or healthy full-term neonates but none in patients with AVB. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christophe Mil ési, Julien Baleine, Gilles Cambonie Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

---
This study was conducted because we were concerned about the absence of data on PTIF even though it at least partly determines the effectiveness of the first-line treatment most often chosen for AVB management, ie, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC). Indeed, measurements have been recorded in very preterm or healthy full-term neonates, but none in patients with AVB. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christophe Mil ési, Julien Baleine, Gilles Cambonie Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Assessing peak inspiratory flow for initial HFNC flow setting: the end point or a first step towards a new approach?
In this study, 29% of PTIF values were>2 L/kg/min. The Authors thus cautiously propose a higher initial HFNC flow rate of 2.5 L/kg/min (or>3 L/kg/min in particular cases) than the commonly used 2 L/kg/min. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paola Papoff, Francesco Montecchia Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

---
I completely agree with Dr Parikh ’s statement that the association between patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is due in large part to the many shared factors (eg, immature development, infection, inflammation, excessive fluid administration, etc) that play a causal role in the development of both disorders. As a result, the presence of a persistent PDA can function as an early risk factor/clinical “biomarker” to help identify infants who are at risk for developing BPD. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ronald I. Clyman Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Does Prolonged Ductal Patency Cause Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia or is the Direction of Causation Reversed?
The study by Clyman et al is 1 of 3 recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to successfully achieve patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)1-3 closure but fail in reducing the rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)/death. These disappointing results are consistent with older RCTs of NSAIDs now studied in over 5,000 infants born prematurely.4 Yet, Clyman et al argue this failure may have stemmed from delayed initiation of treatment.1 How much experimental evidence is required to conclude that a PDA does not cause BPD?5 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nehal A. Parikh Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The “Cs” of Mentoring: Using Adult Learning Theory and the Right Mentors to Position Early-Career Investigators for Success
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tina L. Cheng, Jamilah M. Hackworth Tags: AMSPDC Source Type: research

Assessing Health Care Utilization and Compliance in Kawasaki Disease
To characterize health care utilization and costs associated with care after diagnosis of Kawasaki disease including adherence to guidelines for echocardiograms. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 19, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Scarlett Carmen Johnson, Marshall Chew, Daniel Clay Williams, Annie N. Simpson, Daniel L. Brinton, Annie Lintzenich Andrews Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessing Healthcare Utilization and Compliance in Kawasaki Disease
To characterize healthcare utilization and costs associated with care after diagnosis of Kawasaki disease including adherence to guidelines for echocardiograms. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 19, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Scarlett Carmen Johnson, Marshall Chew, Daniel Clay Williams, Annie Simpson, Daniel Brinton, Annie Lintzenich Andrews Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Under-reporting of Hepatic Steatosis in Children: A Missed Opportunity for Early Detection
To determine the prevalence of underreporting of hepatic steatosis found incidentally on computed tomography (CT). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hiroko Okura, Toshifumi Yodoshi, Samjhana Thapaliya, Andrew T. Trout, Marialena Mouzaki Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Maternal Self-Report of Tetanus Diphtheria Pertussis Vaccination during Pregnancy Correlates with Patient-Specific Electronic Medical Records
To evaluate the concordance between maternal report of antepartum tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and vaccination status documented in the electronic medical record (EMR), as well as factors associated with discordance. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ailin Song, Margaret Sherin, Shannon Cleary, Cathie Spino, Henry H. Bernstein Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Maternal Self-Report of Tdap Vaccination During Pregnancy Correlates with Patient-Specific Electronic Medical Records
To evaluate the concordance between maternal report of antepartum Tdap vaccination and vaccination status documented in the electronic medical record (EMR), as well as factors associated with discordance. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ailin Song, Margaret Sherin, Shannon Cleary, Cathie Spino, Henry H. Bernstein Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Underreporting of Hepatic Steatosis in Children: A Missed Opportunity for Early Detection
To determine the prevalence of underreporting of hepatic steatosis found incidentally on computer tomography (CT). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hiroko Okura, Toshifumi Yodoshi, Samjhana Thapaliya, Andrew T. Trout, Marialena Mouzaki Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Short- Versus Prolonged-Duration Antibiotics for Outpatient Pneumonia in Children
To identify practice patterns in the duration of prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of ambulatory children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to compare the frequency of adverse clinical outcomes between children prescribed short- versus prolonged-duration antibiotics. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Daniel J. Shapiro, Matthew Hall, Susan C. Lipsett, Adam L. Hersh, Lilliam Ambroggio, Samir S. Shah, Thomas V. Brogan, Jeffrey S. Gerber, Derek J. Williams, Carlos G. Grijalva, Anne J. Blaschke, Mark I. Neuman Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Correction
After manuscript acceptance and publication online, The Journal of Pediatrics was notified of several errors in the Editorial “Magnetic Resonance Biomarkers in Very Preterm Infants: Relationships to Perinatal Factors” by O’Shea, Thompson, and Doyle (J Pediatr 2021, in press, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.12.081). Following editorial communication with the authors, the authors made revisions to the Editorial. T he final version of the article has since been updated. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 17, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Pre- and Perinatal Correlates of Ideal Cardiovascular Health during Early Childhood: A Prospective Analysis in the Healthy Start Study
To characterize prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health (ICVH) during early childhood (4-7  years of age), and to identify pre- and perinatal biological, sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral correlates of ICVH. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wei Perng, Ellen C. Francis, Caylor Schuldt, Gregory Barbosa, Dana Dabelea, Katherine A. Sauder Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Association of Co-exposure of Antenatal Steroid and Prophylactic Indomethacin with Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation
To evaluate the association of a combined exposure to antenatal steroids and prophylactic indomethacin with the outcome of spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) among neonates born at (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hemasree Kandraju, Jaideep Kanungo, Kyong-Soon Lee, Sibasis Daspal, Mohammad Amin Adie, Jon Dorling, Xiang Y. Ye, Shoo K. Lee, Prakesh S. Shah, Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN) and Canadian Preterm Birth Network (CPTBN) Investigators Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pre- and Perinatal Correlates of Ideal Cardiovascular Health (ICVH) During Early Childhood: A Prospective Analysis in the Healthy Start Study
To characterize prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health (ICVH) during early childhood (4-7 years), and to identify pre- and perinatal biological, sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral correlates of ICVH. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wei Perng, Ellen C. Francis, Caylor Schuldt, Gregory Barbosa, Dana Dabelea, Katherine A. Sauder Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Effect of a Novel Oxygen Saturation Targeting Strategy on Mortality, Retinopathy of Prematurity, and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Neonates Born Extremely Preterm
To study the impact of an oxygen management strategy incorporating oxygen saturation (SpO2) targeting and fraction of inspired oxygen monitoring on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and mortality. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 15, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bharath Srivatsa, Karlous Malcolm, Reese H. Clark, Kenneth G. Kupke Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Effect of a Novel Oxygen Saturation Targeting Strategy on Mortality, Retinopathy of Prematurity and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Neonates
To study the impact of an oxygen management strategy incorporating oxygen saturation (SpO2) targeting and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) monitoring on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 15, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bharath Srivatsa, Karlous Malcolm, Reese H. Clark, Kenneth G. Kupke Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Developmental Service Referrals and Utilization Among Young Children in Protective Custody
In this study of young children presenting to a foster care clinic, 77% were not receiving developmental services, and 75% failed developmental screening. Of those potentially eligible, 60% were not referred for developmental services. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mary V. Greiner, Sarah J. Beal, Katie Nause, Jennifer Ehrhardt Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Prevalence, Virulence Gene Profiling, and Characterization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from Children with Acute Diarrhea, Asymptomatic Nourished, and Malnourished Children Younger Than 5  Years of Age in India
To study the significance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) as a pathogen causing acute diarrhea and a commensal in healthy nourished and malnourished children younger than five years of age in the Chandigarh region and to address possible traits of EAEC virulence genes, biofilm formation, phylogroups, and antibiotic resistance that would be correlated with diarrhea or carriage. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 10, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vinay Modgil, Pankaj Chaudhary, Bhavneet Bharti, Jaspreet Mahindroo, Md Yousuf, Meenakshi Koundal, Balvinder Mohan, Neelam Taneja Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Prevalence, Virulence Gene Profiling and Characterization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli From Acute Diarrhea, Asymptomatic Nourished and Malnourished Children Less Than 5 Years of Age in India
To study the significance of EAEC as a pathogen causing acute diarrhea and a commensal in healthy nourished and malnourished children less than five years of age in the Chandigarh region and to address possible traits of EAEC virulence genes, biofilm formation, phylogroups and antibiotic resistance that would be correlated with diarrhea or carriage. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 10, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vinay Modgil, Pankaj Chaudhary, Bhavneet Bharti, Jaspreet Mahindroo, Md Yousuf, Meenakshi Koundal, Balvinder Mohan, Neelam Taneja Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Impact of Payor-Initiated Switching of Inhaled Corticosteroids on Lung Function
To evaluate the impact of a payor-initiated formulary change in inhaled corticosteroid coverage on lung function in patients with asthma and on provider prescribing practices. This formulary change, undertaken in August 2016 by a Medicaid payor in Kentucky, eliminated coverage of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), a metered dose inhaler (MDI), in favor of mometasone furoate, available as MDI and dry powder inhaler (DPI). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 9, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Scott Bickel, Ronald Morton, Adrian O ’Hagan, Caitlin Canal, Jonathan Sayat, Nemr Eid Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Early and Repeated Screening Detects Autism Spectrum Disorder
To evaluate timing and accuracy of early and repeated screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during well-child visits. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 9, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Taralee Hamner, Sarah Nanovic, Katelynn S. Porto, Kirsty L. Coulter, Sherief Y. Eldeeb, Chi-Ming A. Chen, Deborah A. Fein, Marianne L. Barton, Lauren B. Adamson, Diana L. Robins Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Pediatric Primary Care Practice in Europe
The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a heavy toll on the adult population.1 In the US, out of 1.4 million diagnosed with COVID-19, 154 children have died.2 In a large cohort study of 135 794 children tested for COVID-19, the infection rate was low (4%), many positive children remained asymptomatic, and if signs of illness were present, disease symptoms were typically mild. The case fatality rate in this group was 0.2%.3 In Europe, early studies showed a low fatality rate of 0.69% in children who tested positive for COVID-19, and 4% developed severe illness. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 8, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gottfried Huss, Christine Magendie, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Elke Jaeger-Roman Tags: European Paediatric Association Source Type: research

The Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Pediatric Primary Care Practice in Europe
The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a heavy toll on the adult population1. In the US, out of 1.4 million diagnosed with COVID-19, 154 children have died2. In a large cohort study of 135,794 children tested for COVID-19, the infection rate was low (4%), many positive children remained asymptomatic, and if signs of illness were present, disease symptoms were typically mild. The case fatality rate in this group was 0.2%3. In Europe, early studies showed a low fatality rate (0.69%) in children who tested positive for COVID-19, and 4% developed severe illness4. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 8, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gottfried Huss, Christine Magendie, Massimo Pettoello –Mantovani, Elke Jaeger-Roman Source Type: research

An Immature Science: Intensive Care for Infants Born at ≤23 Weeks of Gestation
The gestational age boundary separating infants considered too immature for intensive care from infants who may benefit has shifted dramatically during the past 50  years. In 1971, a widely used neonatology textbook stated that “The lower limit of viability is probably around 28 weeks, at which time most infants weigh two pounds, four ounces (1000 g).”1 Today, the most immature infants routinely cared for by neonatologists in some parts of the world are born at 22 or 23 weeks of gestation, with many weighing less than a pound. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 6, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Matthew A. Rysavy, Katrin Mehler, Andr é Oberthür, Johan Ågren, Satoshi Kusuda, Patrick J. McNamara, Regan E. Giesinger, Angela Kribs, Erik Normann, Susan J. Carlson, Jonathan M. Klein, Carl H. Backes, Edward F. Bell Tags: Medical Progress Source Type: research

Changes in Strength of Recommendation and Perceived Barriers to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: Longitudinal Analysis of Primary Care Physicians, 2008-2018
To evaluate among pediatricians and family physicians human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommendation practices for 11- to 12-year-old youth; report parental refusal/deferral of HPV vaccination; and report barriers to HPV vaccination changed over time. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 6, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jessica R. Cataldi, Sean T. O'Leary, Lauri E. Markowitz, Mandy A. Allison, Lori A. Crane, Laura P. Hurley, Michaela Brtnikova, Brenda L. Beaty, Carol Gorman, Elissa Meites, Megan C. Lindley, Allison Kempe Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gestational Age-Dependent Variations in Effects of Prophylactic Indomethacin on Brain Injury and Intestinal Injury
To evaluate the impact of prophylactic indomethacin on early death ( (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 6, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mosarrat Qureshi, Prakesh S. Shah, Dalal Abdelgadir, Xiang Y. Ye, Jehier Afifi, Ryan Yuen, Sara Calderon Crossman, Barbara Taylor, Khorshid Mohammad, Bruno Piedboeuf, Khalid Aziz, Canadian Neonatal Network investigators Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Hydrocephalus and Bobble-Head Doll Syndrome
A 4-month-old female child presented to a neurosurgeon for evaluation of macrocephaly and abnormal head movements. The mother's pregnancy had no complications or known perinatal infections. The parents were unrelated, and there was no family history of congenital anomalies. Ultrasonography performed at 14 and 24 weeks of gestation had revealed moderate hydrocephalus. The patient was born at 38 weeks of gestation by cesarean section, with birth weight 4,100 g, length 50 cm, and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) 40 cm. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 6, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Aldo Jose Ferreira da Silva, Ana Luisa Malta Doria, Thalita Lustosa de Oliveira Avelino Lopes Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

An Immature Science: Intensive Care for Infants Born at ≤23 Weeks of Gestation
The gestational age boundary separating infants considered too immature for intensive care from infants who may benefit has shifted dramatically during the past 50 years. In 1971, a widely used neonatology textbook stated that “The lower limit of viability is probably around 28 weeks, at which time most infants weigh two pounds, four ounces (1000 g).”1 Today, the most immature infants routinely cared for by neonatologists in some parts of the world are born at 22 or 23 weeks of gestation, with many weighing less than a pound. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 6, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Matthew A. Rysavy, Katrin Mehler, Andr é Oberthür, Johan Ågren, Satoshi Kusuda, Patrick J. McNamara, Regan E. Giesinger, Angela Kribs, Erik Normann, Susan J. Carlson, Jonathan M. Klein, Carl H. Backes, Edward F. Bell Tags: Medical Progress Source Type: research

Changes in Strength of Recommendation and Perceived Barriers to HPV Vaccination: Longitudinal Analysis of Primary Care Physicians, 2008-2018
To evaluate among pediatricians and family physicians how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommendation practices for 11-12 year-old youth; report parental refusal/ deferral of HPV vaccination; and report barriers to HPV vaccination changed over time. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 6, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jessica R. Cataldi, Sean T. O ’Leary, Lauri E. Markowitz, Mandy A. Allison, Lori A. Crane, Laura P. Hurley, Michaela Brtnikova, Brenda L. Beaty, Carol Gorman, Elissa Meites, Megan C. Lindley, Allison Kempe Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Leukemia Risk in a Cohort of 3.9 Million Children With and Without Down Syndrome
To assess leukemia risks among children with Down syndrome in a large, contemporary cohort. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 5, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Emily C. Marlow, Jonathan Ducore, Marilyn L. Kwan, Stephanie Y. Cheng, Erin J.A. Bowles, Robert T. Greenlee, Jason D. Pole, Alanna Kulchak Rahm, Natasha K. Stout, Sheila Weinmann, Rebecca Smith-Bindman, Diana L. Miglioretti Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Talking to Parents about Spanking: The Potential for Pediatricians to Reduce the Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences
Parents ’ use of spanking to punish child misbehavior is replete with controversy despite ample evidence that spanking can lead to harmful outcomes,1 such as increasing child aggressive and externalizing behavior,2-4 internalizing mental health problems,5,6 and compromised brain development.1,7 Empirical conclusions about the effects of spanking no longer derive from weak cross-sectional, correlational research designs. Studies now employ rigorous research designs that approximate true experiments,2,4 account for children’s initial levels of behavior problems to demonstrate increases in problems a fter spanking...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 5, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christina M. Rodriguez Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Comparison of Alternatives to Body Mass Index Z-Scores for Children with Very High Body Mass Indexes
The current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) z-scores are inaccurate for BMIs of ≥97th percentile. We, therefore, considered 5 alternatives that can be used across the entire BMI distribution: modified BMI-for-age z-score (BMIz), BMI expressed as a percentage of the 95th percentile (%CDC95th percentile), extended BMIz, BMI expressed as a percentage of the median (%median), and %median adjusted for the dispersion of BMIs. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 4, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: David S. Freedman, Amy J. Goodwin Davies, Lyudmyla Kompaniyets, Samantha J. Lange, Alyson B. Goodman, Thao-Ly Tam Phan, F. Sessions Cole, Amanda Dempsey, Nathan Pajor, Ihuoma Eneli, Dimitri A. Christakis, Christopher B. Forrest Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Persistent Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Supine Sleep Positioning among US Preterm Infants, 2000-2015
To assess trends in racial disparity in supine sleep positioning (SSP) across racial/ethnic groups of infants born early preterm (Early preterm; (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 4, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sunah S. Hwang, Suhong Tong, Ruben A. Smith, Wanda D. Barfield, Laura Pyle, Catherine Battaglia, Beth McManus, Susan Niermeyer, Angela Sauaia Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Use of Economic Evaluation in Pediatric Research
The author declares no conflicts of interest. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 4, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Edward CF. Wilson Source Type: research

Persistent Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Supine Sleep Positioning among U.S.-born Preterm Infants, 2000-2015
To assess trends in racial disparity in supine sleep positioning across racial/ethnic groups of early preterm (EPT; (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 4, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sunah S. Hwang, Suhong Tong, Ruben A. Smith, Wanda D. Barfield, Laura Pyle, Catherine Battaglia, Beth McManus, Susan Niermeyer, Angela Sauaia Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Compliance with Early Long-Term Prophylaxis Guidelines for Severe Hemophilia A
To evaluate the applicability and compliance with guidelines for early initiation of long-term prophylaxis in infants with severe hemophilia A and to identify factors associated with guideline compliance. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 4, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paul Saultier, Yves Guillaume, Virginie Demiguel, Claire Berger, Annie Borel-Derlon, S égolène Claeyssens, Annie Harroche, Caroline Oudot, Anne Rafowicz, Marc Trossaert, Bénédicte Wibaut, Christine Vinciguerra, Mohamed Boucekine, Karine Baumstarck, Sa Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Comparison of Alternatives to CDC BMI Z-Scores for Children With Very High BMIs
The current CDC BMI z-scores are inaccurate for BMIs ≥ 97th percentile. We, therefore, considered 5 alternatives that can be used across the entire BMI distribution: modified BMIz, %CDC95th percentile, extended BMIz, %median, and %median adjusted for the dispersion of BMIs. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 4, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: David S. Freedman, Amy J. Goodwin Davies, Lyudmyla Kompaniyets, Samantha J. Lange, Alyson B. Goodman, Thao-Ly Tam Phan, F. Sessions Cole, Amanda Dempsey, Nathan Pajor, Ihuoma Eneli, Dimitri A. Christakis, Christopher B. Forrest Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Point-of-Care Testing Improves Lead Screening Rates at 1- and 2-Year Well Visits
To increase blood lead level screening rates in children at 12- and 24-month well visits through provider education and the implementation of a point-of-care (POC) lead screening program in 4 primary care practice offices located in and neighbored by counties with ≥5% prevalence of blood lead levels ≥5 μg/dL. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 3, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Benjamin Carnahan, Eric W. Schaefer, Benjamin N. Fogel Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Point of Care Testing Improves Lead Screening Rates at 1 and 2 Year Well Visits
To increase blood lead level screening rates in children at 12 and 24 month well visits through provider education and the implementation of a point of care (POC) lead screening program in four primary care practice offices located in and neighbored by counties with ≥5% prevalence of blood lead levels ≥5 μg/dL. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 3, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Benjamin Carnahan, Eric W. Schaefer, Benjamin N. Fogel Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Risk Factors of Early Mortality and Morbidity in Esophageal Atresia with Distal Tracheoesophageal Fistula: A Population-Based Cohort Study
To identify the risk factors for early mortality and morbidity in a population with distal esophageal atresia (EA)-tracheoesophageal fistula. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rony Sfeir, Veronique Rousseau, Arnaud Bonnard, Thomas Gelas, Madeleine Aumar, Nicoleta Panait, Christian Piolat, Sabine Irtan, Virginie Fouquet, Aurelie Lemandat, Stephan De Napoli, Edouard Habonimana, Thierry Lamireau, Jean Louis Lemelle, Frederic El Ba Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Masquerader of neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension
A neonate was born at 37+2 weeks weighing 2444 grams without any birth asphyxia or difficult transition. She was roomed in with mother and started on breastfeeding. At 57 hours of life, she was noted to be lethargic and feeding poorly. On examination, she had tachypnea, tachycardia, pallor and hepatomegaly with a grade 3 ejection systolic murmur suggestive of congestive cardiac failure. She was shifted to neonatal intensive unit immediately, her saturation was 93-97% without significant pre- and post-ductal differences, well palpable femoral pulses and age-appropriate blood pressure records in all 4 limbs. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kritika Setlur, Mayank Priyadarshi, Shankhneel Singh, Ankit Verma Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

African American Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients Have an Increased Risk of Death After Transferring to Adult Healthcare
To analyze long-term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant recipients after they have transferred to an adult provider and assess for racial disparities in health outcomes. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mikaela Katz, Scott Gillespie, James P. Stevens, Lori Hall, Vasantha Kolachala, Ryan Ford, Keri Levin, Nitika Gupta Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Risk Factors of Early Mortality and Morbidity in Esophageal Atresia With Distal Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula: A Population-Based Cohort Study
To identify the risk factors for early mortality and morbidity in a population with distal esophageal atresia (EA)-tracheoesophageal fistula. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: R. Sfeir, V. Rousseau, A. Bonnard, T. Gelas, M. Aumar, N. Panait, C. Piolat, S. Irtan, V. Fouquet, A. Le Mandat, S. De Napoli, E. Habonimana, T. Lamireau, J.L. Lemelle, F. Elbaz, I. Talon, M.L. Polimerol, H. Allal, Ph Buisson, T. Petit, D. Louis, H. Lardy Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Neonatal Morbidities in Infants Born Late Preterm at 35-36  Weeks of Gestation: A Swedish Nationwide Population-based Study
To assess risk for neonatal morbidities among infants born late preterm at 35-36 gestational weeks, early term (37-38  weeks), and late-term (41 weeks) infants, compared with full-term (39-40 weeks) infants. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ayoub Mitha, Ruoqing Chen, Maria Altman, Stefan Johansson, Olof Stephansson, Jenny Bolk Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Associations Among Referral Concerns, Screening Results, and Diagnostic Outcomes of Young Children Assessed in a Statewide Early Autism Evaluation Network
To examine associations between referral concerns, screening results, and diagnostic outcomes for young children evaluated across a statewide primary care network for early screening and diagnosis of ASD. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rebecca McNally Keehn, Qing Tang, Nancy Swigonski, Mary Ciccarelli Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Universal Cholesterol Screening Among Pediatric Primary Care Providers Within California and Minnesota: A Qualitative Assessment of Barriers and Facilitators
To assess current pediatric cholesterol screening practices, and attitudes, among pediatric primary care providers (PCPs) via qualitative semi-structured interviews designed to identifybarriers and facilitators to universal cholesterol screening practices recommended by the National Heart Blood and Lung Institute and the American Academy of Pediatrics. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jenna Soukup, Heather A. Zierhut, Hannah Ison Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research