“Medical Benefit” and Therapeutic Misconception: The Ethical Conundrum of Phase 1 Pediatric Oncology Research
The Belmont Report, the backbone of human subjects protection in the US, begins by distinguishing practice from research: “It is important to distinguish between biomedical and behavioral research, on the one hand, and the practice of accepted therapy on the other…”1 Although the latter aims at the well-being of individual patients with treatments whose benefit:risk has been endorsed by the US Food and Drug Admin istration, the former enlists participants in systematic investigations to determine empirically benefit:risk to develop generalizable knowledge and advance clinical medicine. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: D. Micah Hester, Lainie Friedman Ross Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

”Medical Benefit” and Therapeutic Misconception: The Ethical Conundrum of Phase 1 Pediatric Oncology Research
After a brief introduction, The Belmont Report, the backbone of human subjects protection in the United States (US), begins by distinguishing practice from research: “It is important to distinguish between biomedical and behavioral research, on the one hand, and the practice of accepted therapy on the other…”[1] Although the latter aims at the well-being of individual patients with treatments whose benefit:risk has been endorsed by the US Food and Drug Adm inistration, the former enlists participants in systematic investigations to determine empirically benefit:risk in order to develop generalizable know...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: D. Micah Hester, Lainie Friedman Ross Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Effects of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on Family Functioning
Over a year and a half after the first clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID ‐19) were reported in Whuan, China1,2, the magnitude of the pandemic across the globe and its related clinical and social effects3 are still unclear4. The pandemic has affected lives and sparked concerns about everything from health to job security. In high-Gross Domestic Product (GDP) countries, despite trillions in coronavirus aid released by governments, many families still struggle to pay for basic necessities like food and rent, and these difficulties worsened during the pandemic5,6. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pietro Ferrara, Giulia Franceschini, Giovanni Corsello, Julije Mestrovic, Ida Giardino, Mehmet Vural, Tudor Lucian PopMD, Leyla Namazova-BaranovaMD, Eli Somekh, Flavia Indrio, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani Source Type: research

Myopericarditis after the Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Adolescents
The FDA extended the emergency use authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents 12 through 15 years of age on May 10, 2021[1]. Following authorization large numbers of adolescents across the country began to receive immunization. As of June 21, 2021, 98,008 adolescents 12 through 15 years of age and 69,489 adolescents 16 and 17 years of age in Washington state completed the 2-dose schedule of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine [2]. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jenna Schauer, Sujatha Buddhe, Jessica Colyer, Eyal Sagiv, Yuk Law, Sathish Mallenahalli Chikkabyrappa, Michael A. Portman Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Effects of Correcting for Prematurity on Executive Function Scores of Children Born Very Preterm at School Age
To investigate whether correction for prematurity affects executive function scores in school-aged children born very preterm. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Flavia M. Wehrle, Alexandra St öckli, Vera Disselhoff, Barbara Schnider, Sebastian Grunt, Anne-Laure Mouthon, Bea Latal, Cornelia F. Hagmann, Regula Everts Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Intracranial Hemorrhage and 2-Year Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Infants Born Extremely Preterm
To determine the incidence, timing, progression, and risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in infants 240/7 to 276/7  weeks of gestational age and to characterize the association between ICH and death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 2 years of corrected age. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Janessa B. Law, Thomas R. Wood, Semsa Gogcu, Bryan A. Comstock, Manjiri Dighe, Krystle Perez, Mihai Puia-Dumitrescu, Dennis E. Mayock, Patrick J. Heagerty, Sandra E. Juul Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Real-World Evidence for Assessing Treatment Effectiveness and Safety in Pediatric Populations
This article reflects the views and opinions of the authors and should not be construed to represent the views and opinions of the U.S. government, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, or any other public or private entity, who had no role in the writing of the report or the decision to submit the paper for publication. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Daniel B. Horton, Michael D. Blum, Mehmet Burcu Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Effects of Correcting for Prematurity on Executive Function Scores of Very Preterm Children at School Age
To investigate whether correction for prematurity affects executive function scores in school-aged children born very preterm. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Flavia M. Wehrle, Alexandra St öckli, Vera Disselhoff, Barbara Schnider, Sebastian Grunt, Anne-Laure Mouthon, Bea Latal, Cornelia F. Hagmann, Regula Everts Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Intracranial Hemorrhage and 2-year Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Infants
To determine the incidence, timing, progression, and risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in infants 24-0/7 to 27-6/7 weeks ’ gestational age (GA), and to characterize the association between ICH and death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 2 years corrected age (CA). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Janessa B. Law, Thomas R. Wood, Semsa Gogcu, Bryan A. Comstock, Manjiri Dighe, Krystle Perez, Mihai Puia-Dumitrescu, Dennis E. Mayock, Patrick J. Heagerty, Sandra E. Juul Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Parent-Reported Symptoms and Perceived Effectiveness of Treatment in Children Hospitalized with Advanced Heart Disease
To characterize parent-reported symptom burden and effectiveness of symptom management in children hospitalized with advanced heart disease. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Meaghan A. Molloy, Elizabeth S. DeWitt, Emily Morell, Jeffrey R. Reichman, David W. Brown, Ryan Kobayashi, Lynn A. Sleeper, Eleni G. Elia, Chase Samsel, Elizabeth D. Blume Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Serious Infections in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2002-2017 —A Nationwide Cohort Study
To assess absolute and relative risks of serious infections (resulting in inpatient care) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared with the general population. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jonas F. Ludvigsson, Michael C. Sachs, Jacob J ärås, Petter Malmborg, Ola Olén Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Parental Post-traumatic Stress and Healthcare Use in Infants with Complex Cardiac Defects
To examine the associations between post-traumatic stress of parents of infants with complex congenital heart defects and their healthcare use for their infants during the early months of life. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nadya Golfenshtein, Alexandra L. Hanlon, Alicia J. Lozano, Einav Srulovici, Amy J. Lisanti, Naixue Cui, Barbara Medoff-Cooper Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Neurologic Manifestations of Noncongenital Zika Virus in Children
We evaluated neurologic complications following noncongenital Zika virus infection in 11 children who presented with central nervous system signs. Zika virus RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid. Approximately one-quarter of patients required antiepileptic medication in follow-up, and 2 children progressed to learning difficulties or developmental delay. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Aline Almeida Bentes, Ana Paula Correa Crispim, Paula Eillanny Silva Marinho, Eisler Cristiane Carvalho Viegas, Karina Soares Loutfi, Isabela Guedes, Sara Tavares Araujo, Alice Martins Alvarenga, Luciana Maria Campos e Silva, Marcele Almeida Santos, Aline Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Neurological Manifestations of Non-congenital Zika Virus in Children
We evaluated neurological complications following non-congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in 11 children presented with central nervous system signs. ZIKV RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-q PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid. About one quarter of patients required anti-epileptic medication in follow-up, and two children progressed to learning difficulties or developmental delay. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Aline Almeida Bentes, Ana Paula Correa Crispim, Paula Eillanny Silva Marinho, Eisler Cristiane Carvalho Viegas, Karina Soares Loutfi, Isabela Guedes, Sara Tavares Araujo, Alice Martins Alvarenga, Luciana Maria Campos e Silva, Marcele Almeida Santos, Aline Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Influenza-Associated Neurologic Complications in Children
To determine the frequency of neurologic complications associated with influenza in hospitalized children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: James W. Antoon, Matt Hall, Alison Herndon, David P. Johnson, Charlotte M. Brown, Whitney L. Browning, Todd A. Florin, Leigh M. Howard, Carlos G. Grijalva, Derek J. Williams Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Serious Infections in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2002 –2017 – A Nationwide Cohort Study
To assess absolute and relative risks of serious infections (resulting in inpatient care) in children with IBD compared with the general population. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Prof Jonas F. Ludvigsson, Michael C. Sachs, Jacob J ärås, Petter Malmborg, Ola Olén Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Perinatal and Child Factors mediate the association between Preeclampsia and Offspring School Performance
To determine if maternal preeclampsia is an independent risk factor for poorer academic school performance in offspring, taking into account important perinatal and child factors. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Monica Zen, Francisco Schneuer, Thushari I. Alahakoon, Natasha Nassar, Vincent W. Lee Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ball-valve Left Atrial Thrombus in Juvenile Mitral Stenosis
A 13-year-old boy presented with rapidly progressive dyspnea and orthopnea over 2 days. He had a history of exertional dyspnea since early childhood but did not seek medical advice. On physical examination, there was sinus tachycardia, mid diastolic murmur at apex, loud second heart sound (S2) and bilateral lungs crepitation. Antistreptolysin O titer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were within normal limit. Echocardiogram revealed thickened and doming anterior mitral leaflet with decreased E-F slope, severe mitral stenosis (estimated mitral valve area by planimetry = 0.6 cm.sq.), and severe pulmonary...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amitabh Poonia, Priya Giridhara Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

Parental Post Traumatic Stress and Healthcare Utilization in infants with Complex Cardiac Defects
To examine the associations between post-traumatic stress of parents of infants with complex congenital heart defects, and their healthcare utilization for their infants during the early months of life. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nadya Golfenshtein, Alexandra L. Hanlon, Alicia J. Lozano, Einav Srulovici, Amy J. Lisanti, Naixue Cui, Barbara Medoff-Cooper Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Single-Center Comparison of Outcomes Following Cardiac Surgery in Low Birth Weight and Standard Birth Weight Neonates
To compare outcomes between low birth weight (LBW; (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Minso Kim, Oluwatimilehin Okunowo, Anne M. Ades, Stephanie Fuller, Natalie E. Rintoul, Maryam Y. Naim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Longitudinal Reference Values for Cerebral Ventricular Size in Preterm Infants Born at 23-27  Weeks of Gestation
To establish longitudinal reference values for cerebral ventricular size in the most vulnerable patients at risk for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Katharina Goeral, Hannah Schwarz, Marlene Hammerl, Jonas Brugger, Michael Wagner, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Gregor Kasprian, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Angelika Berger, Monika Olischar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Deficits in the Functional Muscle –Bone Unit in Youths with Fontan Physiology
To determine whether dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a clinically available tool, mirrors the magnitude of deficits in trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) demonstrated on peripheral quantitative computed tomography in youth with Fontan physiology. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sumeet S. Vaikunth, Mary B. Leonard, Kevin K. Whitehead, David J. Goldberg, Jack Rychik, Babette S. Zemel, Catherine M. Avitabile Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Single Center Comparison of Outcomes Following Cardiac Surgery in Low Birth Weight Compared to Standard Birth Weight Neonates
To compare outcomes between low birth weight (LBW, (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Minso Kim, Oluwatimilehin Okunowo, Anne M. Ades, Stephanie Fuller, Natalie E. Rintoul, Maryam Y. Naim Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Early Respiratory Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.
To investigate the impact of neighborhood conditions on respiratory-related hospital admissions in the first year after discharge from the neonatal unit in a population of infants born very preterm with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Juliette Deschamps, Mohamed Boucekine, Laurence Fayol, Jean Christophe Dubus, Steve Nauleau, Patricia Garcia, Farid Boubred Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Deficits in the Functional Muscle-Bone Unit in Youth With Fontan Physiology
To determine whether dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a clinically available tool, mirrors the magnitude of deficits in trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) demonstrated on peripheral quantitative computed tomography in youth with Fontan physiology. We aimed to describe DXA-derived BMD at multiple sites and investigate the relationship between BMD and leg lean mass, a surrogate for skeletal muscle loading. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sumeet S. Vaikunth, Mary B. Leonard, Kevin K. Whitehead, David J. Goldberg, Jack Rychik, Babette S. Zemel, Catherine M. Avitabile Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Longitudinal Reference Values for Cerebral Ventricular Size in Preterms Born 23 –27 Weeks
To establish longitudinal reference values for cerebral ventricular size in the most vulnerable patients at risk for intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Katharina Goeral, Hannah Schwarz, Marlene Hammerl, Jonas Brugger, Michael Wagner, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Gregor Kasprian, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Angelika Berger, Monika Olischar Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Thyroid Hormone Function in Small for Gestational Age Term Newborns
To test the hypothesis that term small for gestational age (SGA) neonates exhibit higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and an increased incidence of congenital hypothyroidism. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dinushan C. Kaluarachchi, Victoria B. Nicksic, David B. Allen, Jens C. Eickhoff, Mei W. Baker, Pamela J. Kling Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Bloody Diarrhea and Shiga Toxin –Producing Escherichia coli Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children: Data from the ItalKid-HUS Network
To analyze the results of an enhanced laboratory-surveillance protocol for bloody diarrhea aimed at identifying children with Shiga toxin –producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection early in the course of the disease toward the early identification and management of patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gianluigi Ardissino, Chiara Vignati, Carla Masia, Valentina Capone, Rosaria Colombo, Francesca Tel, Laura Daprai, Sara Testa, Antonella Dodaro, Fabio Paglialonga, Mario Luini, Maurizio Brigotti, Damiano Picicco, Carlo Baldioli, Franca Pagani, Rossella Cer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Noncommunicable diseases of prematurity: Time for a new mindset?
Jobe and Bancalari provide a paradigm shifting overview of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) that highlights the futility of definitions based on disease severity and points out the “systemic” nature of such a disease during a lifetime trajectory.1 Jobe and Bancalari, who are 2 leading contributors to the history of BPD and research in this field, discuss the challenge of using the current definition of BPD to categorize longitudinal lung growth and function. Indeed, subjec ts born very preterm can develop some extent of lung functional impairment even in the absence of a BPD diagnosis and are placed on a trajec...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Eugenio Baraldi, Alfonso Galderisi Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Longitudinal Evaluation of the Stability of Hand Function in Rett Syndrome
To investigate the longitudinal stability of hand function in Rett syndrome and to analyze further the relationships between stability of hand function and genotype, age and walking ability. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jenny Downs, Kingsley Wong, Carolyn Drummond, Helen Leonard Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Advances in the therapy of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been the prototypical neurological disorder for designing and validating disease-specific therapies. There are now 3 approved treatments for SMA, each utilizing a novel therapeutic modality, and each effective in changing the natural history of SMA, a condition which was previously universally fatal in childhood in its severe infantile form. By changing the natural history of this disease, new phenotypes, new complications as well as new clinical, research, and ethical questions are emerging. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jenna Klotz, Carolina Tesi Rocha, Sally Dunaway Young, Tina Duong, MyMy Buu, Jacinda Sampson, John W. Day Tags: Medical Progress Source Type: research

Bloody Diarrhea and STEC-HUS in Children: Data from the ItalKid-HUS Network
To analyze the results of an enhanced laboratory-surveillance protocol for bloody diarrhea aimed at identifying children with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection early in the course of the disease towards the early identification and management of patients with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gianluigi Ardissino, Chiara Vignati, Carla Masia, Valentina Capone, Rosaria Colombo, Francesca Tel, Laura Daprai, Sara Testa, Antonella Dodaro, Fabio Paglialonga, Mario Luini, Maurizio Brigotti, Damiano Picicco, Carlo Baldioli, Franca Pagani, Rossella Cer Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Reply
Baraldi and Galderisi suggest using the nomenclature of non-communicable disease of prematurity to describe the multiple organ systems impacted by severe prematurity. We note that a previous hypothesis from Ola Saugstad was that bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (RDP), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) were all adverse effects of prematurity that resulted from oxidant injury (3), bringing all 4 observations of the complications under one descriptive roof. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alan H. Jobe, Eduardo Bancalari Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Non-communicable diseases of prematurity: time for a new mindset?
Jobe and Bancalari provide a paradigm shifting overview of BPD that highlights the futility of definitions based on disease severity and points out the “systemic” nature of such a disease during a lifetime trajectory(1). Jobe and Bancalari, who are two leading contributors to the history of BPD and research in this field, discuss the challenge of using the current definition of BPD to categorize longitudinal lung growth and function. Indeed, ve ry preterm subjects can develop some extent of lung functional impairment even in the absence of a BPD diagnosis and are placed on a trajectory of low lung function with...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Eugenio Baraldi, Alfonso Galderisi Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Isolated Erythematous Plaque on Lower Lid in a 12-Year-Old
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: A. Somnath Das, B. Arpita Hati, C. Kakali Mridha, D. Devansi Sarawgi, E. Pratik Dey, F. Pranjal Parveen Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

Low Birth Weight as an Early-Life Risk Factor for Adult Stroke Among Men
To evaluate the association between birth weight and the risk of adult stroke in men, independent of body mass index (BMI) at young adult age. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 26, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lina Lilja, Maria Bygdell, Jari Martikainen, Annika Rosengren, Claes Ohlsson, Jenny M. Kindblom Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Low Birth Weight as an Early Life Risk Factor for Adult Stroke Among Men
To evaluate the association between birth weight and the risk of adult stroke in men, independent of body mass index (BMI) at young adult age. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 26, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lina Lilja, Maria Bygdell, Jari Martikainen, Annika Rosengren, Claes Ohlsson, Jenny M. Kindblom Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome of Children: Subphenotypes, Risk Factors, Biomarkers, Cytokine Profiles, and Viral Sequencing
To assess demographic, clinical, and biomarker features distinguishing patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); compare MIS-C sub-phenotypes; identify cytokine biosignatures; and characterize viral genome sequences. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Roberta L. DeBiasi, Ashraf S. Harahsheh, Hemalatha Srinivasalu, Anita Krishnan, Matthew P. Sharron, Kavita Parikh, Karen Smith, Michael Bell, Drew Michael, Meghan Delaney, Joseph Campos, Eric Vilain, Jonathan LoTiempo, Jaclyn N. Kline, Tova Ronis, Suvanka Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Duane Retraction Syndrome Type 1
A 5-year-old girl presented with headache for 1  week. Her medical, birth, developmental, and family history were unremarkable. Findings of the physical examination were normal except for incomitant strabismus. On further inquiry, the parents revealed that they had noticed a squint since infancy. Findings of an ophthalmologic examination reveale d limited left eye abduction with an upshoot, globe retraction, and palpebral fissure narrowing on adduction (Figure and Video [available at www.jpeds.com]). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sushma Kalyan Achuta, Sreedhara M.S. Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Acid Suppression Does Not Improve Laryngomalacia Outcomes but Treatment for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Might Be Protective
To determine if the use of acid suppression and thickened feeds impact laryngomalacia outcomes in infants, including supraglottoplasty risk, time to supraglottoplasty, and hospitalization risk. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Daniel R. Duncan, Kara Larson, Kathryn Davidson, Nina Williams, Enju Liu, Karen Watters, Reza Rahbar, Rachel L. Rosen Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal symptoms and channelopathy-associated epilepsy
To determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms among patients with channelopathy-associated developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Veronica C. Beck, Lori L. Isom, Anne T. Berg Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Duane Retraction Syndrome Type1
A 5-year-old girl presented with headache for one week. Her medical, birth, developmental, and family history were unremarkable. Physical examination was normal except for incomitant strabismus. On further inquiry, the parents revealed that they had noticed a squint since infancy. An ophthalmological examination revealed limited left eye abduction with an upshoot, globe retraction, and palpebral fissure narrowing on adduction (Figure and Video [available at www.jpeds.com]). Adduction of the left eye was normal. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sushma Kalyan Achuta, Sreedhara M S Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

A Fetal Risk Stratification Pathway for Neonatal Aortic Coarctation Reduces Medical Exposure
To test the hypothesis that a fetal stratification pathway will effectively discriminate between infants at different levels of risk for surgical coarctation and reduce unnecessary medicalization. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Shiraz A. Maskatia, David Kwiatkowski, Shazia Bhombal, Alexis S. Davis, Doff B. McElhinney, Theresa A. Tacy, Claudia Algaze, Yair Blumenfeld, Amy Quirin, Rajesh Punn Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Siblings with Thickened Palms and Soles
A 3-year-old girl of Chinese descent presented with progressive thickening of palms and soles since early infancy. She was born term with an uneventful antenatal and perinatal history. There was redness of her palms and soles, present since the age of 3 months, which gradually became thicker and yellow in color, associated with occasional fissuring and pain. Her mother had the same condition, while her 1-year-old brother was noted to have similar early findings. On physical examination, there was diffuse thickening of her palms and soles with an overlying yellow waxy surface (Figure 1). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Henrietta Albela, Kin Fon Leong Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

More than a bump on the head
A 9-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of fever and frontal headache, followed by a frontal swelling 3 days before admission. He had no visual or neurological symptoms and denied preceding respiratory symptoms or trauma. A well-circumscribed, tender, firm, globular swelling measuring 3x3cm was seen over the forehead (Figure 1). Neurological and ophthalmological examination were unremarkable. The differential diagnoses were Pott ’s puffy tumor, osseous tumor, and infected hematoma. Radiological imaging demonstrated frontal bone osteomyelitis with subperiosteal collection and frontal sinusitis (Figure 2). (So...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chin Ling, David CE. Ng, Tribeni Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome of Children: Sub-phenotypes, Risk Factors, Biomarkers, Cytokine Profiles and Viral Sequencing
To assess demographic, clinical, and biomarker features distinguishing patients with Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); compare MIS-C sub-phenotypes; identify cytokine biosignatures; and characterize viral genome sequences. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Roberta L. DeBiasi, Ashraf S. Harahsheh, Hemalatha Srinivasalu, Anita Krishnan, Matthew P. Sharron, Kavita Parikh, Karen Smith, Michael Bell, Drew Michael, Meghan Delaney, Joseph Campos, Eric Vilain, Jonathan LoTiempo, Jaclyn N. Kline, Tova Ronis, Suvanka Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Respiratory Syncytial Virus –Associated Neurologic Complications in Children: A Systematic Review and Aggregated Case Series
To describe the features and frequency of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated severe acute neurologic disease in children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gemma L. Saravanos, Catherine L. King, Lucy Deng, Nicole Dinsmore, Isabelle Ramos, Mari Takashima, Nigel Crawford, Julia E. Clark, Russell C. Dale, Cheryl A. Jones, Nicholas J. Wood, Philip N. Britton Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Neurologic Complications in Children: A Systematic Review and Aggregated Case Series
To describe the features and frequency of RSV-associated severe acute neurologic disease in children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gemma L. Saravanos, Catherine L. King, Lucy Deng, Nicole Dinsmore, Isabelle Ramos, Mari Takashima, Nigel Crawford, Julia E. Clark, Russell C. Dale, Cheryl A. Jones, Nicholas J. Wood, Philip N. Britton Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pulmonary Function Tests in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Screened for Pulmonary Hypertension: A Pilot Study
To compare pulmonary function tests (PFTs), specifically respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and compliance (Crs), in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with and without pulmonary hypertension (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: John D. Adair, Brendan Kelly, Diane Schilling, Kseniya Parkhotyuk, Ladawna Gievers, Amanda Kim, Brian Scottoline, Cindy T. McEvoy Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in THE Journal of Pediatrics
Pochedly C, Collipp PJ, Wolman SR, Suwansirikul S, Rezvani I. J Fanconi's anemia with growth hormone deficiency. J Pediatr 1971;79:93-6. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Philip F. Giampietro Source Type: research