Decompressive Fasciotomy in an Extremely Preterm Newborn with Compartment Syndrome
A preterm newborn boy (birth weight 650  g) was born at 256/7 weeks of gestational age; premature rupture of membranes occurred 84 hours before delivery, which was performed by emergency caesarean delivery because of transverse lie and evidence of the left lower limb in the vagina. Antepartum betamethasone treatment was completed. At b irth, the child was intubated and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of bradycardia and respiratory distress. Apgar score was 2, 5, and 6 at 1, 5, and 10 minutes, respectively. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gilda Belli, Giuseppe Cucca, Luca Filippi Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Reply
We thank Drs Bechard and Mehta for their interest in our study regarding body habitus and the risk of death for children with sepsis. We agree that children with obesity are a vulnerable group and face many challenges in an intensive care unit setting in a great number of aspects of care. However, we disagree that we labeled our findings as an “obesity paradox.” We stated that “There was no association between body habitus and mortality in critically ill children with sepsis.” We believe the confusion arose from the second paragraph of the discussion, where we stated, “Our mortality findings a...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Patrick A. Ross, Anoopindar K. Bhalla Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

When Acute Stridor Is More Than Croup
A 9-month-old girl with a history of prematurity at 25 weeks of gestation and neonatal intensive care unit stay with multiple prior intubations presented for hospital readmission due to stridor. During initial hospitalization she required noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure, helium-oxygen mixture, and racemic epinephrine for severity of symptoms. Neck radiograph was positive for “steeple sign” and the otolaryngology team (ENT) agreed with an initial diagnosis of croup. Two days after discharge, she developed recurrence of stridor, significant retractions, and tachypnea with normal oxygen saturations...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Marc R. Miller, Shannon F. Vitone, Eleanor P. Kiell, Nicholas M. Potisek Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

DNA Viremia Is Associated with Hyperferritinemia in Pediatric Sepsis
To evaluate the relationship between detection of DNA viruses, ferritin, and outcomes in children with severe sepsis. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dennis W. Simon, E. Scott Halstead, Sam Davila, Kate F. Kernan, Robert S.B. Clark, Gregory Storch, Joseph A. Carcillo Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dancing Eyes
A 25-month-old boy presented with abnormal eye movements, a history of myoclonic jerks progressing to near-continuous tremulousness, and unsteadiness of gait for the last month. He also had irritability, reduced sleep, and feeding difficulties. He was born to nonconsanguineous parents, had a smooth perinatal transition, and was developmentally normal before this presentation. Examination revealed normal head size, extreme irritability, truncal ataxia, peculiar eye movements, and tremulousness (Video; available at www.jpeds.com), which led to a syndromic diagnosis of opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amrit Kaur, Chandana Bhagwat, Priyanka Madaan, Lokesh Saini, Anmol Bhatia, Harmandeep Singh, Naveen Sankhyan Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Identifying Genetic Modifiers in the Age of Exome: Current Considerations
Critical congenital heart disease (CHD) refers to structural heart malformations present at birth that require surgical intervention during the first year of life. Despite advances in diagnosis, surgical strategies, and postoperative management, morbidity and mortality remain high for this patient group. Previous studies have identified that clinical variables such as premature birth, age, and body weight at surgery only partially define the risk for adverse outcomes. Identifying additional possible risk factors is of great clinical interest because this knowledge could be used to improve outcomes. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lisa J. Martin, D. Woodrow Benson Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Subcutaneous Nodules in Acute Rheumatic Fever
A 15-year-old boy presented with a history of fever, migratory polyarthritis, and progressive dyspnea for 4  weeks. Physical examination revealed multiple, small, subcutaneous nodules over the scalp, extensor surface of the elbows, metacarpophalangeal joints, and dorsum of feet (Figure). Nodules were 0.5-1.5 cm in size, mobile, firm, nontender, and without any erythema or induration. Cardiovascular exam ination revealed raised jugular venous pressure, cardiomegaly, soft first heart sound, loud second heart sound, grade 4/6 harsh pan systolic murmur, and grade 2 mid-diastolic murmur at apex. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amitabh Poonia, Priya Giridhara, Divya Sheoran Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Small-for-Gestational Age Birth Confers Similar Educational Performance through Middle School
To estimate the association between small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and educational performance on standardized testing and disability prevalence in elementary and middle school. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Karna Murthy, Krzysztof Karbownik, Craig F. Garfield, Gustave H. Falciglia, Jeffrey Roth, David N. Figlio Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Total Sarnat Score in Mild Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy Can Detect Infants at Higher Risk of Disability
To define mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and distinguish infants at risk of disability in the first 6  hours, this study stratified risk of disability by using early neurologic examination findings of infants enrolled in the Prospective Research for Infants with Mild Encephalopathy cohort. A total Sarnat score of ≥5 when performed at (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lina F. Chalak, Beverley Adams-Huet, Guilherme Sant'Anna Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Reply
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Usha S. Krishnan, Sankaran S. Krishnan, Steven H. Abman Source Type: research

Reply
Thank you for the congratulations and comments. We are happy to provide the following responses. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Steven B. Powell, Jean M. Silvestri Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Status in Pediatric Health Research: A Scoping Review
To conduct a scoping review of the literature to describe current conceptualization and measurement of socioeconomic status in pediatric health research. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alicia G. Kachmar, Cynthia A. Connolly, Sharon Wolf, Martha A.Q. Curley Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Reply
We thank Dr Hansen for pointing out this rare phenomenon in infants, but would like to caution against drawing conclusions. Dr Hansen describes his own child with tracheomalacia whose clinical condition worsened with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and improved after withdrawal of the same. He postulates loss of tracheal tone with iNO. We have also observed “airway spasm,” though extremely rarely and only in infants with either Down syndrome or with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and suspected tracheobronchomalacia. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Usha S. Krishnan, Sankaran S. Krishnan, Steven H. Abman Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

Reply
We thank Dr Hirschler for her comments on our cardiovascular screening project in a middle school setting. Although our project was a feasibility test in an American, midwestern middle school, Dr Hirschler and colleagues have done large-scale screening efforts on school-age children and preschoolers in Argentina.1-7 Given that many children were identified to be at risk for cardiovascular disease, their work clearly demonstrates the value of screening in the school setting. Because screening is inconsistently happening in medical practices, our schools seem a natural setting to help identify children at risk. (Source: The ...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Robert M. Siegel Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Use in Community Care Settings
To examine patient- and provider-level factors associated with receiving attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication treatment in a community care setting. We hypothesized that the likelihood of ADHD medication receipt would be lower in groups with specific patient sociodemographic (eg, female sex, race other than white) and clinical (eg, comorbid conditions) characteristics as well as physician characteristics (eg,  older age, more years since completing training). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kelly I. Kamimura-Nishimura, Jeffery N. Epstein, Tanya E. Froehlich, James Peugh, William B. Brinkman, Rebecca Baum, William Gardner, Joshua M. Langberg, Phil Lichtenstein, David Chen, Kelly J. Kelleher Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Volume of Neonatal Care and Survival without Disability at 2  Years in Very Preterm Infants: Results of a French National Cohort Study
To investigate the relation between neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) volume and survival, and neuromotor and sensory disabilities at 2  years in very preterm infants. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 4, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Thomas Desplanches, B éatrice Blondel, Andrei Scott Morgan, Antoine Burguet, Monique Kaminski, Bénédicte Lecomte, Laetitia Marchand-Martin, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Paul Sagot, Patrick Truffert, Jennifer Zeitlin, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Jeanne Fresson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Airway spasm or collapse? An alternate mechanism of action for an important side effect of Sildenafil warrants consideration in patients with tracheobronchomalacia
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paul D. Hansen Source Type: research

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Evidence for Risk Organ Status
To investigate the “risk status” of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the gastrointestinal tract. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hoi Soo Yoon, Jae Hee Lee, Jennifer Michlitsch, Manuel Garcia-Carega, Michael Jeng Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ping-Pong Gaze in a Postictal State
A previously healthy, 17-month-old boy was brought to the emergency department following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure accompanied by fever. The seizure continued for 9  minutes but had spontaneously resolved before the patient's arrival at the hospital. However, the patient continued to display an altered mental status. On arrival, his Glasgow coma scale was 7 (E1V2M4), and his respiratory rate was 30 breaths per minute. His breathing pattern was normal. His body temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were 40.0°C, 190 beats per minute, 127/88 mm Hg, and 100% with supplemental oxy...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Takateru Ihara, Takaaki Mori, Osamu Nomura Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Airway spasm or collapse? An alternate mechanism of action for an important side effect of Sildenafil warrants consideration in patients with tracheobronchomalacia
Cohen et  al report that 2 of 269 pediatric study participants with pulmonary hypertension discontinued sildenafil owing to “airway spasm” described as “episodic desaturation associated with decreased air entry on physical examination, unresponsive to bronchodilators, and require(ing) aggressive baggi ng for resolution of symptoms.”1 Of note, 1 of the 2 patients referenced had severe tracheobronchomalacia. It was hypothesized that sildenafil caused edema in an already compromised airway, leading to episodic occlusion. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paul D. Hansen Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Screening for cardiometabolic risk factors at schools
One of the main reasons for my interest in the report by Siegel et  al1 is that we have been screening a large number of children for cardiometabolic risk at schools.2-6 Some of the results obtained in schools from Buenos Aires, Argentina included the association between cardiometabolic risk and both waist circumference and body mass index, as well as the associat ion between increased milk consumption and the improvement in insulin sensitivity.2,3 In addition, we found that maternal waist circumference was the best predictor for their child's cardiometabolic risk. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Valeria Hirschler Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Predictors of Early Extubation after Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ligation among Infants Born Extremely Preterm Dependent on Mechanical Ventilation
We conducted a retrospective study of 166 ventilator-dependent neonates born extremely preterm in whom patent ductus arteriosus was surgically ligated and evaluated the association of preoperative characteristics and time-to-successful postoperative extubation. Larger patent ductus arteriosus diameter ([>2.5  mm], adjusted hazard ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.72) and left-ventricular dilatation (z score ≥2, adjusted hazard ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.87) were associated with earlier extubation. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Srinath Krishnappa, Prakesh S. Shah, Amish Jain, Maura H.F. Resende, Patrick J. McNamara, Dany E. Weisz Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Definitions of Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders and Outcome Measures: A Systematic Review
To systematically review definitions of functional abdominal pain orders (FAPDs) and outcome measures used in therapeutic randomized controlled trials in pediatric FAPDs adhering to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology recommendations. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Judith Zeevenhooven, Merel L. Timp, Maartje M.J. Singendonk, Marc A. Benninga, Merit M. Tabbers Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

T-Cell Receptor Excision Circles in Newborns with Congenital Heart Disease
To determine if children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have lower newborn T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) levels than the general population and to evaluate if low TREC levels in newborns with CHD are associated with clinical complications such as hospitalization for infection. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Brooke T. Davey, Robert W. Elder, Michelle M. Cloutier, Nicholas Bennett, Ji Hyun Lee, Zhu Wang, Adrienne Manning, Tam Doan, Megan Griffiths, Maria Perez, Neha Ahluwalia, Olga H. Toro-Salazar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Precarious Imperative of Home Nursing for Technology-Dependent Children
Home nursing care for technology-dependent children is a precarious imperative. The findings from the study by Soboka et  al in this volume of The Journal, documenting the delays in initial hospital discharge for children newly started on mechanical ventilation due to problems securing adequate home nursing, provide further important evidence of this dangerous state of affairs.1 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chris Feudtner Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Association between First Fractures Sustained during Childhood and Adulthood and Bone Measures in Young Adulthood
To describe the association between fractures sustained at different stages of growth and bone measures in early adulthood. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yi Yang, Feitong Wu, Benny Antony, Feng Pan, Tania Winzenberg, Graeme Jones Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Hierarchical Data Structures and Multilevel Modeling
The statistical methods most familiar to readers of the biomedical or social-behavioral literature usually assume independence of sampling. The Student t  test, 1-way ANOVA, their nonparametric equivalents, as well as the χ2 and basic multivariable linear and logistic regression, all assume that the observations analyzed are independent of one another. These methods will produce invalid results when this assumption does not hold, for example when d ata are in a hierarchical arrangement that lends shared characteristics to groups of observations. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: James I. Hagadorn, Michele L. Shaffer Tags: Statistics, Explained Source Type: research

Prematurity as an Independent Risk Factor for the Development of Pulmonary Disease
To determine if premature infants without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are at similar risk for developing pulmonary morbidity as compared with those with BPD and if there are differences in management of care. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Julie L. Fierro, Molly Passarella, Scott A. Lorch Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Elevated Nucleated Red Blood Cells in Neonates with Down Syndrome and Pulmonary Hypertension
We report an association between higher absolute nucleated red blood cells and mean corpuscular volume and idiopathic persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn in neonates with Down syndrome. Elevation of these blood indicies should prompt echocardiographic studies to monitor pulmonary arterial pressures. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Itamar Nitzan, Yair Kasirer, Francis B. Mimouni, Daniel Fink, Nethanel Wasserteil, Cathy Hammerman, Alona Bin Nun Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Follow-up after Percutaneous Patent Ductus Arteriosus Occlusion in Lower Weight Infants
To describe longer term outcomes for infants (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Erin Nealon, Brian K. Rivera, Clifford L. Cua, Molly K. Ball, Corey Stiver, Brian A. Boe, Jonathan L. Slaughter, Joanne Chisolm, Charles V. Smith, Jennifer N. Cooper, Aimee K. Armstrong, Darren P. Berman, Carl H. Backes Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Unicoronal Synostosis
A 3-month-old, full-term, otherwise healthy female infant presented for evaluation of flattening of one side of the forehead and partial closure of one eye. Based on her appearance, the pediatrician suspected deformational plagiocephaly but considered the possibility of craniosynostosis. The former is managed by decreasing time spent on the flattened surface of the skull or using an orthotic helmet to reshape the skull. Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of 1 or more cranial sutures, nearly always requires surgical intervention to normalize the cranium and provide sufficient room for the brain to grow. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Frank Weng, John G. Meara, Linda R. Dagi Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Lack of Equipoise in the PDA-TOLERATE Trial: A Comparison of Eligible Infants Enrolled in the Trial and Those Treated Outside the Trial
The PDA: TO LEave it alone or Respond And Treat Early trial compared the effects of 2 strategies for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in infants (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Melissa Liebowitz, Anup Katheria, Jason Sauberan, Jaideep Singh, Kelly Nelson, Denise C. Hassinger, Susan W. Aucott, Joseph Kaempf, Amy Kimball, Erika Fernandez, William A. Carey, Jorge Perez, Arturo Serize, Andrea Wickremasinghe, Lawrence Dong, Matthew D Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Making a Genetic Diagnosis in a Level IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Population: Who, When, How, and at What Cost?
To investigate the prevalence of genetic disease and its economic impact in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by identifying and describing diseases diagnosed, genetic testing methodologies used, timing of diagnosis, length of NICU stay, and charges for NICU care. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kayleigh A. Swaggart, Daniel T. Swarr, Leandra K. Tolusso, Hua He, D. Brian Dawson, Kristen R. Suhrie Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Percutaneous Closure of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very Low Weight Infants: Considerations Following US Food and Drug Administration Approval of a Novel Device
The Amplatzer Piccolo  Occluder (or Amplatzer duct occluder II-additional sizes, ADO-II AS, Abbott, Chicago, Illinois) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on January 11, 2019.1 The class III device is indicated for percutaneous (catheter-based) closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in an infant wei ghing>700  grams and a postnatal age of>3  days. After this regulatory approval, the healthcare community is tasked with answering fundamental questions on the appropriate use of the device in a subgroup of highly vulnerable patients. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Carl H. Backes, Regan E. Giesinger, Brian K. Rivera, Darren P. Berman, Charles V. Smith, Clifford L. Cua, Kelly J. Kelleher, Patrick J. McNamara, Jonathan L. Slaughter Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Stem cells for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: A promising yet challenging journey lies ahead
We congratulate the authors for their commendable effort in conducting a phase I clinical trial on stem cell in prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).1 With increased survival of extremely low birth weight infants, BPD has emerged as a major morbidity in this population.2 Regenerative medicine in the form of stem cell therapy seems to be a promising solution for healing the affected lungs in this population. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tanushree Sahoo, Krishna Mohan Gulla Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

A Prospective Study of Parent Health-Related Quality of Life before and after Discharge from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
To determine how infant illness and parent demographics are associated with parent health-related quality of life (HRQL) during and 3  months after hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We hypothesized that parents of extremely preterm infants would report lower NICU HRQL than other parents, and that all parents would report improved HRQL after discharge. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah McAndrew, Krishna Acharya, Jacqueline Westerdahl, David C. Brousseau, Julie A. Panepinto, Pippa Simpson, Jonathan Leuthner, Joanne M. Lagatta Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Parent Preferences Regarding Home Oxygen Use for Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
To determine parent preferences for discharge with home oxygen in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ryan Lau, R. Trafford Crump, David C. Brousseau, Julie A. Panepinto, Mateo Nicholson, Jacqueline Engel, Joanne Lagatta Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Holy Grail of Ascertainment of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis
Although bacterial sepsis in newborn infants undoubtedly has occurred since the dawn of our species, the specific diagnosis only became possible less than a century ago with the advent of techniques for routine blood cultures.1 Since then, those responsible for care of newborn infants have had a respectful fear of fulminant sepsis. Recognition that early signs of infection often are subtle2 and that infection, especially with group B Streptococcus, could progress from few or no signs to death within hours3 supported a recommendation for the “institution of vigorous therapy, often prior to the availability of definiti...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: William E. Benitz, Sarah S. Long Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Who's Watching the Children? Caregiver Features Associated with Physical Child Abuse versus Accidental Injury
To compare caregiver features and caregiving arrangements of children with physical abuse vs accidental injuries. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 26, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amanda K. Fingarson, Mary Clyde Pierce, Douglas J. Lorenz, Kim Kaczor, Berkeley Bennett, Rachel Berger, Melissa Currie, Sandy Herr, Sheila Hickey, Julia Magana, Kathi Makoroff, Marcia Williams, Audrey Young, Noel Zuckerbraun Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Discharge Instruction Comprehension and Adherence Errors: Interrelationship Between Plan Complexity and Parent Health Literacy
To examine associations between parent health literacy, discharge plan complexity, and parent comprehension of and adherence to inpatient discharge instructions. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alexander F. Glick, Jonathan S. Farkas, Alan L. Mendelsohn, Arthur H. Fierman, Suzy Tomopoulos, Rebecca E. Rosenberg, Benard P. Dreyer, Jennifer Melgar, John Varriano, H. Shonna Yin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cost-Savings of Fluoride Varnish Application in Primary Care for Medicaid-Enrolled Children in Virginia
To determine the cost-benefit of fluoride varnish application during pediatric well-visits for the Medicaid/Children's Health Insurance Program population in Virginia (VA) from a Medicaid payer perspective. To provide initial cost estimates from the primary care provider (PCP) perspective. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christina R. Scherrer, Shillpa Naavaal Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Randomized Controlled Trial of Iron-Fortified versus Low-Iron Infant Formula: Developmental Outcomes at 16  Years
To test differences in cognitive outcomes among adolescents randomly assigned previously as infants to iron-fortified formula or low-iron formula as part of an iron deficiency anemia prevention trial. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sheila Gahagan, Erin Delker, Estela Blanco, Raquel Burrows, Betsy Lozoff Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Prospective Assessment of Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography for Discriminating Biliary Atresia from other Causes of Neonatal Cholestasis
To prospectively assess the diagnostic performance of ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) and hepatobiliary laboratory biomarkers for discriminating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal cholestasis. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jonathan R. Dillman, Frank W. DiPaola, Sally J. Smith, Richard A. Barth, Akihiro Asai, Simon Lam, Kathleen M. Campbell, Jorge A. Bezerra, Gregory M. Tiao, Andrew T. Trout Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Prenatal, Perinatal, and Early Childhood Factors Associated with Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea
To investigate prenatal, perinatal, and early childhood factors, including cord and early childhood plasma leptin, on a clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among children in the Boston Birth Cohort. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ting Chen, Mary E. Hughes, Hongjian Wang, Guoying Wang, Xiumei Hong, Li Liu, Yuelong Ji, Colleen Pearson, Shenghui Li, Lingxin Hao, Xiaobin Wang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Parent-to-Parent Advice on Considering Spinal Fusion in Children with Neuromuscular Scoliosis
To convey advice from families whose children recently underwent spinal fusion to families whose children are under consideration for initial spinal fusion for neuromuscular scoliosis and to providers who counsel families on this decision. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Brigid Garrity, Jay Berry, Charis Crofton, Erin Ward, Joanne Cox, Laurie Glader, Lucia Bastianelli, John Emans, Michael Glotzbecker, Norah Emara, Joseph Salem, Tiago Jabur, Sophie Higgins, Jillian Shapiro, Sara Singer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Use of Lung Ultrasound to Improve Timeliness of Surfactant Replacement in Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Are we Ready?
The management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is generally based on the clinical presentation and the increasing fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) requirement, which guides clinicians to consider administering surfactant. However, the dilemma regarding the ideal time to administer surfactant still exists. Early use of surfactant (within 2  hours of postnatal life) in RDS will decrease pneumothorax and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and improve survival.1-3 The identification of an infant who requires surfactant is usually based on the infant's requirement of supplemental O2. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Abhay Lodha, Vineet Bhandari Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

The Low Risks and High Rewards of Penicillin Allergy Delabeling: An Algorithm to Expedite the Evaluation
A father brings his 2 sons, ages 11 and 13 years, to an allergy clinic for testing for amoxicillin allergy. They both received amoxicillin for upper respiratory infections as toddlers, and one of them developed diarrhea. Both were labeled as penicillin allergic, but the family says both they and the pediatrician have forgotten who actually had the reaction. Their charts both carry the label of penicillin allergy. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Cathleen Collins Tags: Grand Rounds Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Adams FH, Latta H, el-Salawy A, Nozaki M. J Pediatr 1969;75:59-66. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alan H. Jobe Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Satran L, Sharp H, Schenken JR, Krivit W. J Pediatr 1969;75:39-46. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Soofia Khan, William Balistreri Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Pagano JS. J Pediatr 1969;75:162-3. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vipin M. Vashishtha, Piyush Gupta Source Type: research