Incidence and Prevalence of Central Precocious Puberty in Korea: An Epidemiologic Study Based on a National Database
To investigate the prevalence and incidence of central precocious puberty in Korea using claims data provided by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea as the population-based epidemiologic study. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ye Jin Kim, Ahreum Kwon, Mo Kyung Jung, Ki Eun Kim, Jungwhan Suh, Hyun Wook Chae, Duk Hee Kim, Sangmi Ha, Gi Hyeon Seo, Ho-Seong Kim Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of Baby Triple P for Preterm Infants: Child Outcomes at 2  Years of Corrected Age
To determine the efficacy of a hospital-based intervention that transitions into existing community support, in enhancing developmental outcomes at 2  years of corrected age in infants born at less than 32 weeks. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paul B. Colditz, Roslyn N. Boyd, Leanne Winter, Margo Pritchard, Peter H. Gray, Koa Whittingham, Michael O'Callaghan, Luke Jardine, Peter O'Rourke, Louise Marquart, Kylee Forrest, Carmen Spry, Matthew R. Sanders Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

MMP-7: The Next Best Serum Biomarker for Biliary Atresia?
Clinicians face numerous challenges when managing infants with biliary atresia (BA), a serious liver condition characterized by obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts. First, they must identify infants with biliary atresia quickly, despite having imperfect noninvasive diagnostic tests. Efficient identification is important, because earlier treatment with the Kasai portoenterostomy correlates with the best chances of delaying or even avoiding need for liver transplant. Unfortunately, current diagnostic tests are imperfect and gold-standard testing is highly invasive. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sanjiv Harpavat Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Norwegian Scabies in a Patient with Down Syndrome
An 11-year-old girl with trisomy 21 and severe atopic dermatitis was admitted for fever of 4  days and nonitchy diffuse thick crusted scaly rash of unknown duration. Prior to the onset of the rash, she had been maintained on topical triamcinolone 1% as treatment for atopic dermatitis. Physical examination revealed elevated temperature (38.7°C), tachycardia (127 beats per minute), diffuse dry hyperkeratotic crusts (Figure, A and B), and areas of skin tenderness and erythema (Figure, B [arrow]). The rest of the examination was unremarkable. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Karen Lee, Gloria Heresi, Roukaya Al Hammoud Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Crusts on the Eyelashes
A 27-month-old boy was referred to pediatric dermatology for the evaluation of crusts on his eyelashes; they had been present for 2  months and were increasing in number. The crusts had appeared after a trip to Bulgaria, where his family had been sleeping in several different hotels and places. Physical examination showed crusts on both eyelashes and a few crusts on the front part of his scalp. He had slight conjunctivitis and palpebral pruritis. The child was in good health and the physical examination was otherwise normal. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Muriel Ouedraogo, Sarah Vent éjou, Sophie Leducq, Guillaume Desoubeaux, Annabel Maruani Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

BB Gunshot Wound to the Head
A 2-year-old boy was inadvertently shot by his older sibling while playing with a ball-bearing (BB) gun.  A single BB entered the right posterior temporal bone and crossed the parasellar region (Figure, A) into the left frontal lobe (Figure, B). The patient underwent multiple resuscitation attempts but succumbed shortly after arrival to the hospital from diffuse traumatic brain injury. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: David R. Santiago-Dieppa, Michael G. Brandel, Michael L. Levy, David D. Gonda Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

Phenotype and Genotype of a Cohort of Chinese Children with Early-Onset Protein-Losing Enteropathy
To examine the phenotypes and perform next-generation sequencing in children with early-onset protein-losing enteropathy. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ziqing Ye, Ying Huang, Yuhuan Wang, Junping Lu, Jie Wu, Zhuowen Yu Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantification of Serum Matrix Metallopeptide 7 Levels May Assist in the Diagnosis and Predict the Outcome for Patients with Biliary Atresia
To assess the diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of the serum matrix metallopeptidase-7 (MMP-7) level for biliary atresia in infants with cholestasis after hepatoportoenterostomy. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jia-Feng Wu, Yung-Ming Jeng, Huey-Ling Chen, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Hong-Yuan Hsu, Mei-Hwei Chang Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Health Outcomes of Youth in Clinical Pediatric Weight Management Programs in POWER
To describe treatment outcomes of children and adolescents enrolled in the Pediatric Obesity Weight Evaluation Registry, a consortium of multicomponent pediatric weight management programs in the US. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Seema Kumar, Eileen C. King, Amy L. Christison, Aaron S. Kelly, Adolfo J. Ariza, Claudia Borzutzky, Suzanne Cuda, Shelley Kirk, POWER Work Group Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Growth of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations in Pediatric Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
The evolution of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) over time in children with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is not well-defined. Herein we demonstrate that, although new PAVMs did not evolve in children with HHT, existing PAVMs exhibit quantitative growth over time highlighting the need for ongoing follow-up throughout childhood. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anina Ratjen, Jacky Au, Susan Carpenter, Philip John, Felix Ratjen Tags: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Mitochondrial Disorders: A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Case Series
We assessed the utility of near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate neonates with mitochondrial disorders. We observed abnormally high cerebral oxygen saturation levels indicating insufficient tissue oxygen utilization. We propose that near-infrared spectroscopy may be an additional tool in the diagnostic evaluation of a suspected mitochondrial disorder. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anna-Kaisa Niemi, Valerie Y. Chock Tags: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research

Persisting Isolated Metacarpal Swelling and Pain in Adolescence: Consider Osteochondrosis
A 13-year-old right-handed girl presented with a 5-month history of isolated pain to her left second digit. Her past medical history was unremarkable. Radiography had been performed with negative results. Her left second metacarpophalangeal joint displayed redness, swelling, tenderness, and restricted mobility (Figure  1; available at www.jpeds.com). Magnetic resonance imaging showed bone edema of the second digit (Figure 2; available at www.jpeds.com), suggesting either a chronic osteomyelitis, a monofocal chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis, or complex regional pain syndrome. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Luisa Cortellazzo Wiel, Giulia Gortani, Serena Pastore, Daniela Sanabor, Egidio Barbi Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

A Validated Scale for Assessing the Severity of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis
To develop a scale for the severity of mononucleosis. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ben Z. Katz, Caroline Reuter, Yair Lupovitch, Kristen Gleason, Damani McClellan, Joseph Cotler, Leonard A. Jason Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Variation in Transcutaneous Bilirubin Nomograms across Population  Groups
Some degree of jaundice appears in the first postnatal days in the majority of infants born at ≥35 weeks of gestation.1,2 Usually the jaundice is mild and self-limited and may even be beneficial. In unusual cases, the result of lack of equilibrium between the bilirubin production and elimination processes, the serum total bilirubin may continue to rise.3 If untreated, extreme hyperbilirubi nemia may lead to bilirubin neurotoxicity (kernicterus spectrum disorder). Not surprisingly, acute bilirubin encephalopathy, death, choreoathetotic cerebral palsy, sensorineural hearing loss, and other manifestations of...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michael Kaplan, Ruben Bromiker Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Postconcussion Academic Support in Children Who Attend a Primary Care Provider Follow-up Visit after Presenting to the Emergency Department
To examine whether a primary care provider (PCP) follow-up visit after emergency department evaluation of concussion improved the children's likelihood of receiving academic support. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Traci R. Snedden, Lauren A. Pierpoint, Dustin W. Currie, R. Dawn Comstock, Joseph A. Grubenhoff Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Histopathologic and Genetic Features of Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Atypical Late Presentation and Prolonged Survival
Alveolar capillary dysplasia typically presents with neonatal pulmonary hypertension and early mortality. However, there is growing evidence for a subset of disease with atypical late onset and/or prolonged survival. Here, we present the variable clinical, genetic, and pathology findings of 4 such patients. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jonathan J. Edwards, Chaya Murali, Jennifer Pogoriler, David B. Frank, Stephanie S. Handler, Mathew A. Deardorff, Rachel K. Hopper Tags: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research

Von Hippel Lindau Disease
A 10-year-old girl was evaluated in the ophthalmologic department for funduscopic examination because of sustained hypertension, headaches, and vomiting for several weeks. General and ophthalmologic medical history was unremarkable. The patient had no ocular complaints, and visual acuity was unaffected. Dilated funduscopic examination showed no signs of hypertensive retinopathy or papilledema (Figure, A). However, in the right eye, a small, white-yellowish nodular lesion in the retinal periphery with connection to dilated and slightly tortuous afferent and efferent retinal vessels was noted (Figure, B). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Deniz Hos, Claus Cursiefen, Claudia Dahlke Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Dichotomizing the spectrum of ductal shunt places long-term outcomes research at risk
We commend Collins et  al on a comprehensive analysis of extensive follow-up data designed to evaluate the long-term implications of a neonatal diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).1 We agree that the literature is lacking thoughtful, well-designed studies in this area. In addition to rigorous follow-up data, we would like to echo the authors’ comment that a homogenous definition of the target population is an essential component of well-designed research. Lack of a clear definition of ductal hemodynamic significance plagues the current body of literature leading, in part, to the confusion that the author...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Timothy G. Elgin, Patrick J. McNamara, Regan E. Giesinger Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply
We appreciate the comments of Elgin et  al. Their recitation and agreement with a number of the limitations we had outlined, as well as our admonition of caution regarding translation of our results to contemporary cohorts and practice, is beneficial; it is important that such things be considered with any scientific report. Notably, fr om our perspective, the proposal that our dichotomization of subjects into those with clinically evident patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and those without PDAs threatens long-term research is a bit hyperbolic and, although flattering, likely gives too much credit to our work's potential...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: R. Thomas Collins, Robert E. Lyle, Patrick H. Casey Tags: Letters to the editor Source Type: research

An Age-Based Framework for Evaluating Genome-Scale Sequencing Results in Newborn Screening
To assess the performance of a standardized, age-based metric for scoring clinical actionability to evaluate conditions for inclusion in newborn screening and compare it with the results from other contemporary methods. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 6, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Laura V. Milko, Julianne M. O'Daniel, Daniela M. DeCristo, Stephanie B. Crowley, Ann Katherine M. Foreman, Kathleen E. Wallace, Lonna F. Mollison, Natasha T. Strande, Zahra S. Girnary, Lacey J. Boshe, Arthur S. Aylsworth, Muge Gucsavas-Calikoglu, Dianne M Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Psychiatric Disorders and Gun Carrying among Adolescents in the United States
To estimate associations between psychiatric disorders and gun carrying among adolescents and to estimate the total number of adolescents in the US who have psychiatric disorders and report carrying guns. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 5, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rose M.C. Kagawa, Dahsan S. Gary, Garen J. Wintemute, Kara E. Rudolph, Veronica A. Pear, Katherine Keyes, Magdalena Cerd á Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Chronic Cholangiopathy Associated with Primary Immune Deficiencies Can Be Resolved by Effective Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
To investigate effects and outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on sclerosing cholangitis, in pediatric patients with different primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - March 5, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nedim Had žić, Zohreh Nademi, Maesha Deheragoda, Yoh Zen, Reem Elfeky, Austen Worth, Paul Veys, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, E. Graham Davies Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Childhood Predictors of Violent Victimization at Age 17  Years: The Role of Early Social Behavioral Tendencies
To assess the relation between early social behavioral tendencies and the risk of violent victimization in late adolescence. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Margit Averdijk, Denis Ribeaud, Manuel Eisner Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Off-Label Drugs in Neonatology: Analyses Using Large Data Bases
Two reports in this volume of The Journal from the neonatology team at the University of North Carolina use the Pediatrix Medical Group Data Warehouse of administrative information to further the ongoing discussion of the frequent off-label uses of drugs in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).1,2 The report on the frequent, but not approved, use of furosemide for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) identified that prolonged use can decrease BPD.1 The report on surfactant for preterm infants with or at risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) identified frequent deviations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) app...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 26, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alan H. Jobe Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Large Scale Next Generation Sequencing and Newborn Screening: Are We Ready?
Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program that aims to identify children with medically actionable conditions prior to becoming symptomatic and provide interventions that result in improvement of long-term outcomes. Over the past decades, a number of conditions have been gradually added to the screening panels. Significant expansion of NBS happened in the mid-1990s to early 2000s when tandem mass spectrometry became available and was applied to detecting biochemical genetic conditions. Several organizations were established to ensure that NBS is standardized and uniformed. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chanika Phornphutkul, James Padbury Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Waltzer S, Breau G, Gerald PS. J Pediatr 1969;74:438-48 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Philip F. Giampietro Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
McCracken GH, Jr, Chen TC, Hardy JB, Tzan N. J Pediatr 1969;74:378-82 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah S. Long Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Heller RH, Joseph JM, Davis HJ. J Pediatr 1969;74:370-7 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sara E. Ortega Alonzo Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Stewart AL, Keay AJ, Jacobs PA, Melville MM. J Pediatr 1969;74:449-58 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Philip F. Giampietro Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Blattner RJ. J Pediatr 1969;74:479-81 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ishminder Kaur, Sarah S. Long Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Laestadius ND, Aase JM, Smith DW. J Pediatr 1969:74;465-8. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Payal Gupta, Piyush Gupta Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

Detrimental Impact of Low Birth Weight on Circulating Number and Functional Capacity of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Healthy Children: Role of Angiogenic Factors
To provide a comprehensive assessment of the relationship of birth weight with both endothelial progenitor cell function and angiogenic factors in children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Livia Victorino Souza, Franciele De Meneck, Vanessa Oliveira, Elisa Mieko Higa, Eliana Hiromi Akamine, Maria do Carmo Franco Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pediatricians Advocating Breastfeeding: Let's Start with Supporting our Fellow Pediatricians First
Physician mothers have some of the highest rates of breastfeeding initiation; however, their rates of continuation of breastfeeding to 12 months of age drop substantially from 97% to 34%.1 Major barriers include difficulty finding time and a place to express their milk while at work, competing demands from work and family, as well as perceived lack of employer support.1,2 Less than one-third of physician mothers are able to reach their personal breastfeeding goal, with more than one-half stating that they would have breastfed longer if their “job had been more supportive.”3 Insufficient opportunities to express...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Megan H. Pesch, Sarah Tomlinson, Kanakadurga Singer, Heather L. Burrows Tags: Notes from the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. Source Type: research

Faculty Development Programming within Pediatric Departments: Is it Really Happening? What their Webpages Tell Us
The number of faculty development programs at the medical school level has increased, although they vary in specific scope and content.1 A few pediatric department programs have been described, including one that focuses on developing leaders in educational innovation2 and 2 that describe comprehensive pediatric department programs.3,4 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Susan L. Rosenthal, Caitlin Gamble, Sara E. Landers, Lawrence R. Stanberry Tags: Notes from the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. Source Type: research

Planning the Pediatric Workforce in Israel
Israel provides a useful model for effective and efficient pediatric workforce planning. Israel is a child-oriented society and 33% of the population are children with the highest fertility rate in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries.1 Although infant mortality in Israel is one of the lowest in the world, child poverty level and disparities in healthcare are in the top of OECD nations. Being a child-oriented society, the demand for pediatric services characterized by availability and qualified expertise is very high, including the demand for primary care services to be provided by ped...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Eli Somekh, Manuel Katz, Zachi Grossman Tags: European Paediatric Association Source Type: research

Patient characteristics and neuroimaging for headache in the ED
Cain MR, Arkilo D, Linabery AM, Kharbanda AB. Emergency Department Use of Neuroimaging in Children and Adolescents Presenting with Headache. J Pediatr 2018;201:196-201. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Daniel S. Tsze Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Neither fluid rate nor sodium content affect neurocognitive outcomes in DKA
Kuppermann N, Ghetti S, Schunk JE, Stoner MJ, Rewers A, McManemy JK. Clinical Trial of Fluid Infusion Rates for Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis. N Engl J Med 2018;378:2275-87. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Joseph Wolfsdorf Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

2-6 years-of-age is the period associated with greatest BMI acceleration among obese adolescents
Geserick M, Vogel M, Gausche R, Lipek T, Spielau U, Keller E, et  al. Acceleration of BMI in Early Childhood and Risk of Sustained Obesity. N Engl J Med 2018;379:1303-12. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Zachary J. Ward Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Maternal voice smoke alarms outperform tone alarms in waking grammar-school-age children
Smith GA, Chounthirath T, Splaingard M. Effectiveness of a Voice Smoke Alarm with the Child's Name for Sleeping Children: A Randomized Trial. J Pediatr;205:250-6. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kyran Quinlan Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Minitablets may be an acceptable alternative to liquid in infants and young children
Klingmann V, Linderskamp H, Meissner T, Mayatepek E, Moeltner A, Breitkreutz J, et  al. Acceptability of Multiple Uncoated Minitablets in Infants and Toddlers: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr 2018;201:202-7. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hannah Batchelor Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

You are what you eat! Is this for real?
It is certainly no secret that nutrition in the first few years of life, when growth is rapid, plays a major role in long-term health outcomes in regard to both optimal growth and obesity prevention. Formula fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants and weight gain is greater in formula fed infants receiving isocaloric formulas with higher protein content. Although the evidence favors promoting breast milk over formula feedings, there is little evidence-based guidance as to which complementary feeds should be given to promote optimal growth and to prevent obesity. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ivor D. Hill Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

The metabolic costs 30 years after preterm birth
The “developmental origins of adult disease” is a well-accepted hypothesis, linking early exposures to various disease states. However, whether prematurity itself contributes to metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adulthood is unknown. One limitation has been the lack of data from a population-b ased, prospective study of these infants as adults. Fortuitously, in 1986, every VLBW neonate born in New Zealand and admitted to a neonatal unit was prospectively enrolled in an audit of retinopathy of prematurity. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Clyde J. Wright Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Sleep, autonomic control, and preterm birth —complex interrelationships with important health consequences
Heart rate variability is now well-established as a means to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) control by analyzing the beat-to-beat variability over time of consecutive heart beats. The R-R intervals are mathematically transformed and depicted as power spectra within different frequency domains. Low frequency reflects both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, high frequency reflects parasympathetic activity, and total power reflects overall autonomic activity. These analyses have been applied to a wide range of clinical conditions, and investigators have studied maturation of ANS control in preterm and term infan...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Denise M. Goodman Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Have Zackery Lystedt concussion laws made an impact?
The United States each have varying youth concussion laws requiring written clearance from a health professional before returning an athlete to play after a concussion. These laws were inspired by Zackery Lystedt, a teen in Washington state who lost his life when he returned to high school football too soon after a likely concussion earlier in a game and died that same day from an intracranial hemorrhage. The state of Washington thereafter enacted the first youth concussion law in 2009, and all other states have followed. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paul G. Fisher Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Genetic disorders of lung development
In this volume of The Journal is a report of 2 infants with severe congenital lung disease associated with mutations in TBX4. Infant A had fatal lung disease in the early neonatal period. The other infant required significant clinical interventions, including ECMO, but is surviving with residual lung disease. The genetic analyses included whole exome sequencing on patient A and extensive molecular testing on patient B including an microarray which demonstrated deletion of the entire region containing TBX4 and TBX2 as well as exome sequencing of a gene panel for infants with congenital lung disease. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: James F. Padbury Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Normative curves for physically aggressive behaviors in children 6 to 24 months of age
It is known that childhood aggression is a risk factor for violence later in life. Pediatricians are called on continuously to assess a child's behavior and provide parents with anticipatory guidance that attempts to promote strategies for intervention that are positive and promote behavioral growth and to avoid strategies that may stunt behavioral growth and may be harmful. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah S. Long Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Information for Readers
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

End-of-Life Decisions 20  Years after EURONIC: Neonatologists’ Self-Reported Practices, Attitudes, and Treatment Choices in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria
To assess changes in attitudes of neonatologists regarding the care of extremely preterm infants and parental involvement over the last 20  years. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - February 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Katja Schneider, Boris Metze, Christoph B ührer, Marina Cuttini, Lars Garten Tags: Original Article Source Type: research