A Comparison of Pediatric and Adult Safety Studies for Antipsychotic and Antidepressant Drugs Submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration
To examine the differences in the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of antipsychotic and antidepressant agents between pediatric and adult patients in studies submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) during the drug development process. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Xiaomei I. Liu, Paul Schuette, Gilbert J. Burckart, Dionna J. Green, Julie La, Janelle M. Burnham, Natella Rakhmanina, Adelaide Robb, Shiew Mei Huang, John N. van den Anker Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pediatrician Beliefs about Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis May Result in Referral Delays: A Spanish National Survey
We explored, through a national survey, pediatrician beliefs and misconceptions that could interfere with early referral of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A total of 831 pediatricians participated. Approximately one-half of the respondents underestimated the incidence of the disease and thought that pain was the leading symptom of oligoarticular forms. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mar ía Rosa Pavo, Jaime de Inocencio Tags: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research

Disability Is Not Delay: Precision Communication about Intellectual Disability
Sammy (a true story; the names and details have been anonymized). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Eyal Cohen, Amy Houtrow Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Reply
We appreciate the comments from Dr Tauber concerning our study on prevention of parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC) using a mixed lipid emulsion based on soybean-oil, medium chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOF-LE) in extremely low birth weight infants. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andreas Repa, Eleonore Pablik Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Fish oil lipid emulsion to prevent cholestasis in preterm infants
Prolonged parenteral nutrition using a soy-based lipid emulsion is thought to play a role in the development of cholestasis in premature infants.1,2 Previous studies have demonstrated a reversal of parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC) in both term and preterm infants after switching infants to a fish oil-based lipid preparation.3-5 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kate Tauber Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Comparison of Initial Pediatric Outpatient Echocardiogram Indications between Community and Academic Practice
To compare the appropriateness and diagnostic yield of initial outpatient transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) between a community pediatric cardiology practice and an academic children's hospital. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 17, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sowmya Balasubramanian, Faustine D. Ramirez, Yen Bui, Elif Seda Selamet Tierney, Sarina K. Behera Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Reply
We thank Oakley et  al for contributing to the debate on this important contemporary child health and development topic. Like us, they recognize that guidelines should support the best interests of children, and that having conflicting guidelines that are pitted against each other is not helpful. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 17, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Leon Straker, Juliana Zabatiero, Susan Danby, Karen Thorpe, Susan Edwards Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Frequency Domain Indices of Heart Rate Variability are Useful for Differentiating Vasovagal Syncope and Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children
To explore the value of frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) in the differential diagnosis between pediatric vasovagal syncope and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Chunyu Zhang, Selena Chen, Xueying Li, Hongfang Jin, Junbao Du Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Obesity in Adolescents and Youth: The Case for and against Bariatric Surgery
Obesity and its associated sequelae of hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), disturbances of reproduction, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis has been termed the plague of the 21st century and is increasing throughout the world in both adults and children.1-12 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ahmed Khattab, Mark A. Sperling Tags: Medical progress Source Type: research

Advocating for a cautious, conservative approach to screen time guidelines in young children
The commentary by Straker et  al1 purports that there are conflicting guidelines about children's screen time among 2 current early years policy documents in Australia. In our opinion, pitting potential health harms against potential education benefits is not in the best interest of children, as systematic reviews of the evide nce show that their learning, development, and health are tightly interconnected.2-4 We agree that it would be ideal to have better evidence about the impact of newer technologies such as mobile phones and tablets. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anthony D. Okely, Mark S. Tremblay, John J. Reilly, Catherine Draper, Thomas N. Robinson Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Higher Body Mass Index Is Associated with Iron Deficiency in Children 1 to 3 Years of Age
To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and iron deficiency in early childhood, while considering the influence of low-grade systemic inflammation. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Emma E. Sypes, Patricia C. Parkin, Catherine S. Birken, Sarah Carsley, Colin MacArthur, Jonathon L. Maguire, Cornelia M. Borkhoff, TARGet Kids! Collaboration Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Prevalence and Characteristics of Pediatric Opioid Exposures and Poisonings in the United States
To examine the prevalence and characteristics of pediatric opioid exposures and poisonings in the US. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 4, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anisha M. Patel, David C. Wheeler, S. Rutherfoord Rose, Pramit A. Nadpara, Amy L. Pakyz, Norman V. Carroll Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Black Race Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
To use a large current prospective cohort of infants (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 4, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rita M. Ryan, Rui Feng, Catalina Bazacliu, Thomas W. Ferkol, Clement L. Ren, Thomas J. Mariani, Brenda B. Poindexter, Fan Wang, Paul E. Moore, Prematurity and Respiratory Outcome Program (PROP) Investigators Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Social-Emotional Functioning Explains the Effects of Physical Activity on Academic Performance among Chinese Primary School Students: A Mediation Analysis
To examine the mediating effects of socioemotional and behavioral functioning in the association between physical activity and academic achievement in Chinese children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 4, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yunting Zhang, Li Niu, Donglan Zhang, Patrick Ip, Frederick Ho, Yanrui Jiang, Wanqi Sun, Qi Zhu, Fan Jiang Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Association of Home Respiratory Equipment and Supply Use with Health Care Resource Utilization in Children
To compare health care use and spending in children using vs not using respiratory medical equipment and supplies (RMES). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - January 4, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jay G. Berry, Denise M. Goodman, Ryan J. Coller, Rishi Agrawal, Dennis Z. Kuo, Eyal Cohen, Joanna Thomson, Danielle DeCourcey, Neal DeJong, Anna Agan, Dipika Gaur, Madeline Coquillette, Charis Crofton, Amy Houtrow, Matt Hall Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Contingencies on the workshop for bronchopulmonary dysplasia classification
We read with interest the executive summary of the workshop on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).1 The authors provided a comprehensive review on the incidence and pathogenesis of BPD and summarized the historical aspects in the definition of BPD. The workshop suggested refining the definition of BPD to include different grades based on the amount of respiratory support that an infant receives. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 24, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hany Aly, Mohamed A. Mohamed, Jen Tien Wung Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply
Aly and Mohamed have submitted itemized comments on the summary of the NIH sponsored workshop on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The comments reflect on the definition of BPD and its implications. A well-recognized concern is that all currently used definitions only include the oxygen and ventilatory treatments being delivered at a single gestational age, generally 36 weeks postconceptional age.1 There are currently no objective assessments of alveolar, vascular, and airway injuries. The inadequacy of using the therapy to define the disease can be resolved only with the development of predictive biomarkers and imaging te...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 24, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rosemary D. Higgins, Alan H. Jobe Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Effects of Daily Zinc, Daily Multiple Micronutrient Powder, or Therapeutic Zinc Supplementation for Diarrhea Prevention on Physical Growth, Anemia, and Micronutrient Status in Rural Laotian Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
To evaluate the optimal zinc supplementation strategy for improving growth and hematologic and micronutrient status in young Laotian children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Maxwell A. Barffour, Guy-Marino Hinnouho, Sengchanh Kounnavong, K. Ryan Wessells, Kethmany Ratsavong, Bangone Bounheuang, Bigphone Chanhthavong, Dalaphone Sitthideth, Khanpaseuth Sengnam, Charles D. Arnold, Kenneth H. Brown, Sonja Y. Hess Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Association of Hydrocortisone Dosage on Mortality in Infants Born Extremely Premature
To characterize common dosing strategies and to investigate the association between hydrocortisone dosage and in-hospital mortality in infants born extremely premature. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Veeral N. Tolia, Timothy M. Bahr, Monica M. Bennett, Gregory Martin, Rachel G. Greenberg, Matthew M. Laughon, Reese H. Clark Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Imaging diagnosis of pneumonia in children
Ambroggio et  al1 report on lung ultrasonography as a viable alternative to chest radiography to detect pneumonia in children.2 They emphasize both the higher specificity of chest radiography for many findings compared with lung ultrasonography and the operator's skill in the diagnostic process. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Fernando Maria de Benedictis, Cecilia Lanza, Fabio Midulla Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Age-Related Changes in Inferior Vena Cava Dimensions among Children and Adolescent with Syncope
To test the hypothesis that increased venous compliance manifested as inferior vena cava (IVC) dilation is an important substrate for syncope in children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pushpa Shivaram, Sylvia Angtuaco, Aziez Ahmed, Joshua Daily, Deborah F. Grigsby, Ling Li, Mary Craft, David Danford, Shelby Kutty Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Surfactant Administration in Preterm Infants: Drug Development Opportunities
To evaluate how frequently surfactant is used off-label in preterm infants. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Genevieve Taylor, Wesley Jackson, Christoph P. Hornik, Alec Koss, Sreekar Mantena, Kenya Homsley, Blair Gattis, Menefese Kudumu-Clavell, Reese Clark, P. Brian Smith, Matthew M. Laughon Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Age-Related Changes in Inferior Vena Cava Dimensions among Children and Adolescents with Syncope
To test the hypothesis that increased venous compliance manifested as inferior vena cava (IVC) dilation is an important substrate for syncope in children. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pushpa Shivaram, Sylvia Angtuaco, Aziez Ahmed, Joshua Daily, Deborah F. Grigsby, Ling Li, Mary Craft, David Danford, Shelby Kutty Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Early Indicators of Creatine Transporter Deficiency
Early identification is a goal for creatine transporter deficiency and will be critical for future treatment. Before their first birthday, one-half of this sample showed both a significant feeding/weight gain issue and delayed sitting or crawling. Combined, these early indicators could have alerted providers to conduct a urine screen. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 20, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Judith S. Miller, Rebecca P. Thomas, Amanda Bennett, Simona Bianconi, Aleksandra Bruchey, Robert J. Davis, Can Ficicioglu, Whitney Guthrie, Forbes D. Porter, Audrey Thurm Tags: Clinical and laboratory observations Source Type: research

Type 2 Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy: The Diagnosis is in Your Hands
A 16-year-old girl from Northeastern Brazil presented with generalized lack of subcutaneous fat, high serum levels of triglycerides, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol since birth. Her medical history included diabetes mellitus diagnosed at 6 years of age, which was uncontrolled despite the use of high doses of insulin (5  U/kg/day), and 3 previous hospitalizations for acute pancreatitis because of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Besides insulin, she was taking metformin and ciprofibrate. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 20, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Renan Magalh ães Montenegro, Virgínia Oliveira Fernandes, Jaquellyne Gurgel Penaforte Saboia, Ana Paula Dias Rangel Montenegro, Josivan Gomes Lima Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

Worse Metabolic Control and Dynamics of Weight Status in Adolescent Girls Point to Eating Disorders in the First Years after Manifestation of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Findings from the Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation Registry
To assess indications of eating disorders in girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 20, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Thomas Reinehr, Barbara Dieris, Angela Galler, Martin Teufel, Gabriele Berger, Rainer Stachow, Sven Golembowski, Ute Ohlenschl äger, Martin Holder, Michael Hummel, Reinhard W. Holl, Nicole Prinz Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Furosemide Exposure and Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants
To evaluate the association between furosemide exposure and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 20, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rachel G. Greenberg, Sreepriya Gayam, Destiny Savage, Andrew Tong, Daniel Gorham, Ari Sholomon, Reese H. Clark, Daniel K. Benjamin, Matthew Laughon, P. Brian Smith, Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act —Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Increased Congenital Hypothyroidism Detection in Preterm Infants with Serial Newborn Screening
To determine the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in preterm infants and to identify associated risk factors. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 20, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dinushan C. Kaluarachchi, David B. Allen, Jens C. Eickhoff, Sandra J. Dawe, Mei W. Baker Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Nadler HL. J Pediatr 1969;74:132-43. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lainie Friedman Ross Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal Of Pediatrics
Nyhan WL, James JA, Teberg AJ, Sweetman L, Nelson LG. J Pediatr 1969;74:20-7. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ola Didrik Saugstad Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal Of Pediatrics
Summitt RL. J Pediatr 1969;74:58-66 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jennifer L. Heithaus Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Dodge WF, West EW, Fras PA, Travis LB. J Pediatr 1969;74:107-10. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kirtisudha Mishra, Piyush Gupta Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Thibeault DW, Grossman H, Hagstrom JWC, Auld PA. J Pediatr 1969;74:1-10 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Meredith Laguna, Benjamin Laguna, Michael D. Cabana Tags: 50 Years Ago Source Type: research

Challenges of Funding Pediatric Fellowship Programs —Invited Commentary from the Council of Pediatric Subspecialties
Funding for pediatric subspecialty fellowship programs has become increasingly difficult given the recent changes in healthcare reimbursement that are decreasing the financial support available for education. In contrast to the full funding of core residency programs, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) reimburse subspecialty trainee positions at 50% of the core level.1 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Melvin B. Heyman, Pnina Weiss, Debra Boyer, Jill Fussell, Lisa Imundo, Tandy Aye, Imad T. Jarjour, Robert Spicer, James Bale Tags: Notes from the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. Source Type: research

Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Healthcare Seen Through the Lens of Pediatrics
From an increasing reliance on telehealth and precision medicine to a continually expanding use of artificial intelligence and interdisciplinary teams, pediatricians must be able to create a clear goal for their teams and units and motivate their followers and colleagues to pursue this goal. Furthermore, pediatricians and pediatric specialists must be able to capitalize on their personal strengths to effectively engage in both transformational and transactional leadership behaviors as the situation necessitates. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Keaton A. Fletcher, Alan Friedman, Giovanni Piedimonte Tags: Notes from the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Consensus and Systematic Review on Reducing the Time to Diagnosis of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive, X-linked, recessive neuromuscular disease that affects approximately 1 in 5000 live male births.1 Patients with DMD experience progressive muscle weakness, owing to the absence of functional dystrophin protein, and typically experience delayed walking, difficulty running or climbing stairs, and frequent falls.2,3 However, several nonmotor signs and symptoms (eg, behavioral issues, neurocognitive deficits, and speech delay) also can be associated with the disease. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Madhuri Hegde, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Filippo Buccella, Alessandra Ferlini, Pia Gallano, R. Rodney Howell, France Leturcq, Ann S. Martin, Anna Potulska-Chromik, Jonas A. Saute, Wolfgang M. Schmidt, Thomas Sejersen, Sylvie Tuffery-Giraud, Tags: Workshop/Symposium Summary Source Type: research

Lung ultrasound may allow for timelier surfactant administration and reduce radiograph use
De Martino L, Yousef N, Ben-Ammar R, Raimondi F, Shankar-Aguilera S, De Luca D. Lung Ultrasound Score Predicts Surfactant Need in Extremely Preterm Neonates. Pediatrics 2018;142. pii: e20180463. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: De-Ann Pillers Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Association of bacterial coinfections in febrile infants with viral infections
Mahajan P, Browne LR, Levine DA, Cohen DM, Gattu R, Linakis JG, et  al. Risk of Bacterial Coinfections in Febrile Infants 60 Days Old and Younger with Documented Viral Infections. J Pediatr 2018;203:86-91. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anne J. Blaschke Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Maternal prenatal Tdap not associated with autism development in the child
Becerra-Culqui TA, Getahun D, Chiu V, Sy LS, Tseng HF. Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatrics 2018;142. pii: e20180120. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: W. Ian Lipkin Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Early onset and hospital acquired neonatal sepsis associated with high mortality
Giannoni E, Agyeman PKA, Stocker M, Posfay-Barbe KM, Heininger U, Spycher BD, et  al. Neonatal Sepsis of Early Onset, and Hospital-Acquired and Community-Acquired Late Onset: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study. J Pediatr 2018;201:106-14. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: James L. Wynn Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Intravenous immunoglobulin use in children with ITP does not affect development of chronic disease
Heitink-Poll é KMJ, Uiterwaal CSPM, Porcelijn L, Tamminga RYJ, Smiers FJ, van Woerden NL, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin vs observation in childhood immune thrombocytopenia: a randomized controlled trial. Blood 2018;132:883-91. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michele P. Lambert Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Who is prescribing opioids to children with headaches?
When a child's pain from headache is intolerable, parents frequently seek relief for their son or daughter acutely in a primary care clinic or emergency department. Opioids are discouraged as a quick remedy because these medicines often lead to refractory or chronic headaches. Regardless, what do busy physicians prescribe when they are put on the spot? (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paul G. Fisher Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Taking the baby out of the box: moving closer to evidence-based incubator weaning
Caring for infants in incubators to support thermoregulation was one of the first evidence-based strategies to improve survival of preterm infants (Pediatrics 1958; 22:876-86). Although this has been known for more than 60 years, in the intervening years there has been little evidence to guide the weaning of infants out of the incubator and practices vary considerably between hospitals. In this volume of The Journal, Shankaran et  al report the results of a randomized trial of incubator weaning at weights of 1600 vs 1800 grams in 366 infants from 17 centers across the United States. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raye-Ann deRegnier Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Making noise about high frequency ventilators
Excessive noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are ubiquitous, yet they have many harmful effects, including disruption of the autonomic nervous system and sleep cycle and increased risk for hearing loss, periventricular brain injury, and delayed development. For these reasons, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends maintaining NICU noise levels at (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Robin H. Steinhorn Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Brain and behavior relationships in preterm children
Although initial follow up studies of preterm children focused on outcomes such as cerebral palsy and intellectual disability, over time we have learned that social and emotional problems also may be consequences of preterm birth and that these problems may be associated with brain injury. In this volume of The Journal, Duncan et  al studied extremely preterm toddlers at 18-22 months of age. Social difficulties and problem behaviors were described in 26-34% of children. Social competence was linked with cerebellar lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raye-Ann deRegnier Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Migrant mothers and risks of developmental disabilities in their children
Western Australia presents a unique opportunity to study a culturally diverse population of births. Over the last 3 decades there, just under 30% of children were born to mothers who themselves were foreign-born, while about 6% of deliveries were among Australian Indigenous women and two-thirds in Australian non-Indigenous mothers, as reported by Abdullahi et  al in this volume of The Journal. The authors set out to explore whether children from foreign-born mothers have higher rates of intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and cerebral palsy. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paul G. Fisher Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

ACEs and adolescent obesity
There has been increasing interest in and concern about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and subsequent health effects. ACEs include such things as child physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, familial substance abuse, and domestic violence. Questions have arisen regarding whether such adverse experiences could have an impact on weight status (underweight or overweight and obesity) later in life. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Stephen R. Daniels Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Information for Readers
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - December 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research