Sustained Inflation Versus Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation for Preterm Infants at Birth: Respiratory Function and Vital Sign Measurements
To characterize respiratory function monitor (RFM) measurements of sustained inflations and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) delivered non-invasively to infants in the Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial and to compare vital sign measurements between treatment arms. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elizabeth E. Foglia, Haresh Kirpalani, Sarah J. Ratcliffe, Peter G. Davis, Marta Thio, Helmut Hummler, Gianluca Lista, Francesco Cavigioli, Georg M. Schm ölzer, Martin Keszler, Arjan B. te Pas Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Early Atherosclerotic Inflammatory Pathways in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea
To evaluate structural and functional carotid changes and inflammatory profiles in children with OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) and healthy controls. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: David F. Smith, Christine L. Schuler, Md M. Hossain, Guixia Huang, Keith McConnell, Elaine M. Urbina, Raouf S. Amin Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Precision Vestibular Rehabilitation in Adolescents following Concussion: Preliminary Findings
To compare the effectiveness of a 4-week precision vestibular rehabilitation intervention compared with a behavioral management control intervention for adolescents with vestibular symptoms/impairment within 21 days of a concussion. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anthony P. Kontos, Shawn R. Eagle, Anne Mucha, Victoria Kochick, Jessica Doman, Claire Moldolvan, Cyndi L. Holland, Nicholas A. Blaney, Michael W. Collins Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

RSV and influenza infections: the brain is also susceptible
Viruses are a ubiquitous part of childhood, and though commonly mild, there is a more perilous side to common childhood viral infections. Childhood “viral syndromes” may begin with fever, cough, and rash; however, by poorly understood mechanisms, the generally mild viral infection can progress to cause severe neurologic complications. Important endemic respiratory infections - respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza occur each fall and winter. These two viruses cause significant respiratory morbidity and are leading causes of hospitalization for respiratory failure in pediatric hospitals each year123. (...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nicolas R. Chiriboga-Salazar, Sue J. Hong Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Update and Progress in Pediatric Sleep Disorders
Sleep is of utmost importance for the adequate growth, physical and cognitive development, and health of children. The field of pediatric sleep medicine, which is not a component of many residency training curricula, has grown significantly in recent years with newly described disorders, updated diagnostic methods, and new treatment options. Sleep transcends all disciplines; hence, having a fundamental awareness of suboptimal sleep in a child is paramount for the general pediatrician, and also any subspecialist. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lourdes M. DelRosso, Maria P. Mogavero, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni, Maida Chen Tags: Medical Progress Source Type: research

Treatment of Catheter-Related Arterial Thrombosis in Children – A 15-Year Single Center Experience
To investigate treatment modalities for children with extremity indwelling catheter (EIC)- or cardiac catheter-related arterial thrombosis. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 24, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ornella Crameri, Barbara Brotschi, Federica Achini, Mattia Rizzi, Manuela Albisetti Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Finberg L, Bernstein J. Acute hyponatremic dehydration. J Pediatr 1971;79:499-503. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yuping Xie, Beatrice Goilav Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Khazin AF, Hon EH, Yeh S. Observations on fetal heart rate and fetal biochemistry. 3. Base deficit of umbilical cord blood. J Pediatr 1971;79:406-12. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anne Lee Solev åg, Ola Didrik Saugstad Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Catalano LW, Safley GH, Museles M, Jarzynski DJ. Disseminated herpesvirus infection in a newborn infant. Virologic, serologic, coagulation and interferon studies. J Pediatr 1971;79:393-400. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jannicke H. Andresen, Ola Didrik Saugstad Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Hayes K, Gibas H. Placental cytomegalovirus infection without fetal involvement following primary infection in pregnancy. J  Pediatr 1971;79:401-5. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chabungbam Smilie, Piyush Gupta Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Cohen MI and Gertner LM. The use of medium-chain triglycerides in the management of biliary atresia. J Pediatr 1971;79:379-84. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Farhana Ali, Marialena Mouzaki Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Starfield B, Sharp E, Mellits D. Effective care in the ambulatory setting: the nurse's contribution. J Pediatr 1971;79:504-7. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tara Buckenmyer, Tania Shiminski-Maher Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Leroy JG, Spranger JW, Feingold M, Opitz JM, Crocker AC. I-cell disease: a clinical picture. J Pediatr 1971;79;3:360-5. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sanmati Cuddapah, Ian D. Krantz Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Ogta PL, Sinls LF, Karzon DT. Poliovirus antibody response in patients with acute leukemia. J Pediatr 1971;79:444-9. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah S. Long Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Benda G, Babson S. Peripheral intravenous alimentation of the small premature infant. J Pediatr 1971;79:494-98. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Josselyn Hern ández Pérez Source Type: research

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics
Morris HG, Jorgensen JR. Recovery of endogenous pituitary-adrenal function in corticosteroid-treated children. J Pediatr 1971;79:480-8. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Claire E. Moore, Lisa Swartz Topor Source Type: research

Steroid bursts associated with severe adverse events
Yao TC, Wang JY, Chang SM, Chang YC, Tsai YF, Wu AC, et al. Association of Oral Corticosteroid Bursts With Severe Adverse Events in Children. JAMA Pediatr 2021. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0433 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Shih-Chieh Shao, Ching-Chi Chi Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Five vs 10 day amoxicillin course for pneumonia
Pernica JM, Harman S, Kam AJ, Carciumaru R, Vanniyasingam T, Crawford T, et al. Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia: The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr 2021;175:475-82. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.6735 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: William Bonadio Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Maternal COVID-19 vaccine antibody response and passage into cord blood
Prabhu M, Murphy EA, Sukhu AC, Yee J, Singh S, Eng D, et al. Antibody Response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Messenger RNA Vaccination in Pregnant Women and Transplacental Passage Into Cord Blood. Obstet Gynecol 2021. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004438 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kathryn J. Gray Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Incomplete Kawasaki criteria and non-White race associated with multiple ED visits prior to diagnosis
Lo J, Gauvreau K, Baker AL, de Ferranti SD, Friedman KG, Lo MS, et al. Multiple Emergency Department Visits for a Diagnosis of Kawasaki Disease: An Examination of Risk Factors and Outcomes. J Pediatr 2021;232:127-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.01.007 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Brian W. McCrindle Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Pubertal-stage adjustment decreases prevalence of obesity
Bomberg EM, Addo OY, Sarafoglou K, Miller BS. Adjusting for Pubertal Status Reduces Overweight and Obesity Prevalence in the United States. J Pediatr 2021;231:200-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.12.038 (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Samuel S. Gidding Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

Insight into barriers and action to improve immunization of children experiencing homelessness
Gennaro et al assessed parental attitudes as well as barriers to receiving immunizations among young children experiencing homelessness in the Washington, DC area. The work represents an important contribution in a significantly under-researched area in the domain of childhood immunization. A strength of the study is inclusion of questions in the survey that go beyond sociodemographic characteristics and access, eg, concerns and attitudes about immunizations (Figure). The children's immunization records were used to assess and verify immunization status. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah S. Long Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

A new perspective on vitamin A for premature infants
In a 1999 landmark trial, Tyson et al (N Engl J Med 1999;340:1962-8. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199906243402505) reported that 4 weeks of intramuscular vitamin A reduced vitamin A deficiency and modestly reduced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in preterm infants (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Robin H. Steinhorn Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

When should you worry about bronchiolitis obliterans?
In this volume of The Journal, Carpenter et al describe a case series of 68 patients with Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS), reporting that 9% develop bronchiolitis obliterans. This is potentially an important observation, as it serves to underscore the need to have sufficient diagnostic suspicion to screen for bronchiolitis obliterans in at-risk patients. At the same time, questions remain. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Denise M. Goodman Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Pharmacologic restraint during ED mental health visits
In this volume of The Journal, Foster et al reported the trends and variation in the use of pharmacologic restraint among pediatric mental health visits in the emergency department. The authors noted a more than 2-fold increase in mental health visits over the past decade. The use of pharmacologic restraints during the same time period increased more than 3-fold. More importantly, they reported significant variation in the use of pharmacologic restraints across hospitals. Ideally, children with mental health concerns should be seen in emergency departments that create calming environments and by staff trained on behavioral...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: E. Vincent S. Faustino Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Earlier diagnosis and treatment of autism
Despite our ability to reliably diagnose autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from 18-24 months of age, and the widespread use of ASD screening tools, the median age of diagnosis has hovered around 4 years of age. In this volume of The Journal, Pierce et al describe an exciting new model for detecting and initiating earlier treatment for ASD —which may lead to improved developmental outcomes. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lane Strathearn Tags: The Editors' Perspectives Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Information for Readers
(Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

30-year Survival after Cardiac Surgery for Patients with Turner Syndrome
To evaluate long-term survival in patients with Turner Syndrome after congenital heart surgery with a focus on left heart obstructive lesions (LHOLs). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sabikha Alam, J ’Neka S. Claxton, Michael Mortillo, Leandros Sassis, Pelagia Kefala-Karli, Michael Silberbach, Lazaros Kochilas, Stephanie Burns Wechsler Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Early Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on Pediatric Clinical Research: A Pan-European and Canadian Snapshot in Time
To capture the early effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on pediatric clinical research. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Olivier L. Mantha, Florence Flamein, Mark Turner, Ricardo M. Fernandes, Regis Hankard, Network of National Networks Study Group Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Fig Tree Leaves Phytophotodermatitis
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anna Papazoglou, Elpis Mantadakis Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

Zinc Deficiency in a Preterm Infant
A 6-month-old female, born at 27  weeks of gestational age presented with sharply demarcated, eczematous, pinkish-orange, hyperkeratotic papules, and plaques in a U-shaped distribution, extending from her cheeks to her chin and notably sparing the lips (Figure A). Sharply demarcated, symmetrical, beefy red, shallow erosions—“s cald-like” in appearance—were noted perianally and acrally. Eyebrow hair was sparse, and fingernails were slightly ridged and soft. Mouth, tongue, and muscle tone were normal. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 19, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Carly A. Zaladonis, Laraib Z. Safeer, David C. Hanson, Laurel Erickson-Parsons, Andrew C. Krakowski Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Rediscovering the Physical Exam: Zinc Deficiency in a Preterm Infant
An 6-month-old female, born at 27 weeks gestational age presented with sharply demarcated, eczematous, pinkish-orange, hyperkeratotic papules and plaques in a U-shaped distribution, extending from her cheeks to her chin and notably sparing the lips. Sharply demarcated, symmetrical, beefy red, shallow erosions – “scald-like” in appearance – were noted peri-anally and acrally. Eyebrow hair was sparse, and fingernails were slightly ridged and soft. Mouth, tongue, and muscle tone were normal. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 19, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Carly A. Zaladonis, Laraib Z. Safeer, David C. Hanson, Laurel Erickson-Parsons, Andrew C. Krakowski Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Zero-sum or worse? Considering detrimental effects of selective mandates on voluntary childhood vaccinations
Conflict of interest. None declared. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Philipp Sprengholz, Cornelia Betsch Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Low Birth Weight and Congenital Heart Disease: Current Status and Future Directions
Low birth weight is traditionally defined as a birth weight less than 2.5 kg. Regardless of the presence of congenital heart disease, contributory factors for low birth weight include maternal medical conditions, fetal anatomic abnormalities or genetic syndromes, prematurity, in- utero growth restriction, or some combination thereof. We have known for decades that neonates with congenital heart disease are at greater risk for being born at low birth weight, with the notable exception of those with d-transposition of the great arteries. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: John M. Costello, Scott M. Bradley Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Screening Students and Staff for Asymptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Chicago  Schools
To assess rates of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in K-8 schools with risk mitigation procedures in place, and to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in school and household contacts of these positive individuals. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 17, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Priya R. Edward, Megan E. Reyna, Mary Kate Daly, Judd F. Hultquist, William J. Muller, Egon A. Ozer, Ramon Lorenzo-Redondo, Patrick C. Seed, Lacy M. Simons, Karen Sheehan, Jacinta Staples, Larry Kociolek Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Screening Students and Staff for Asymptomatic COVID-19 in Chicago Schools
To assess rates of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positivity in K-8 schools with risk mititgation procedures in place, and to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in school and household contacts of these positive individuals. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 17, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Priya R. Edward, Megan E. Reyna, Mary Kate Daly, Judd F. Hultquist, William J. Muller, Egon A. Ozer, Ramon Lorenzo-Redondo, Patrick C. Seed, Lacy M. Simons, Karen Sheehan, Jacinta Staples, Larry Kociolek Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Reply
J.S. is funded by the Wellcome Trust (WT104848 and WT203132), and UKRI/ AHRC Ethics Accelerator (AH/V013947/1). Through his involvement with the Murdoch Children ’s Research Institute, J.S. also received funding from the Victorian State Government through the Operational Infrastructure Support (OIS) Program. J.S. is a Partner Investigator on an Australian Research Council Linkage award (LP190100841, Oct 2020-2023), which involves industry partnership from Illumina and does not personally receive any funds from Illumina. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 17, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alberto Giubilini, Julian Savulescu, Margie Danchin Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Ulnar Pseudarthrosis in a Child With Type 1 Neurofibromatosis
A 9-year-old boy was evaluated for a malformation of his right forearm present from birth (Figure 1). e Type 1 neurofibromatosis was confirmed by genetic testing. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alessandro Agostino Occhipinti, Prisca Da Lozzo, Elena Favaretto, Andrea Magnolato, Irene Bruno, Barbi Egidio Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Relationship of Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Score with Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Histology and Response to Vitamin E or Metformin
To study the diagnostic performance of the enhanced liver fibrosis score (ELF) for detecting different stages of fibrosis and its usefulness in detecting histologic response to vitamin E or metformin in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who participated in the Vitamin E or Metformin for the Treatment Of NAFLD In Children (TONIC) trial. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Samer Gawrieh, Kathryn E. Harlow, Francis Pike, Katherine P. Yates, Laura A. Wilson, Oscar W. Cummings, William M. Rosenberg, Naga Chalasani, Jean P. Molleston Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Uptake of Screening and Recurrence of Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Among At-Risk Siblings of Pediatric Probands
To determine uptake of cardiac screening and recurrence of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) in a population of at-risk siblings of pediatric probands. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Daniel Miller, Lisa J. Martin, Justin T. Tretter, James Cnota, Nicole Weaver, Erin Miller, Amy Shikany Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Parental Enrollment Decision-making for a Neonatal Clinical Trial
To describe the parental experience of recruitment and assess differences between parents who participated and those who declined to enroll in a neonatal clinical trial. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elliott Mark Weiss, Katherine F. Guttmann, Aleksandra E. Olszewski, Brooke E. Magnus, Sijia Li, Scott YH. Kim, Anita R. Shah, Sandra E. Juul, Yvonne W. Wu, Kaashif A. Ahmad, Ellen Bendel-Stenzel, Natalia A. Isaza, Andrea L. Lampland, Amit M. Mathur, Rakes Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Relationship of Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Score with Pediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Histology and Response to Vitamin E or Metformin
To study the diagnostic performance of the enhanced liver fibrosis score (ELF) for detecting different stages of fibrosis and its usefulness in detecting histological response to vitamin E or metformin in children with NAFLD who participated in the TONIC trial. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Samer Gawrieh, Kathryn E. Harlow, Francis Pike, Katherine P. Yates, Laura A. Wilson, Oscar W. Cummings, William M. Rosenberg, Naga Chalasani, Jean P. Molleston Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ecthyma Gangrenosum in an Infant with Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 Deficiency
A 1-year-old boy was transferred to our hospital due to severe septic shock that led to cardiac arrest. The patient reportedly had fluid-refractory septic shock that required catecholamine administration. On admission, a characteristic skin rash covered the patient ’s entire body (Figure 1). His right buttock and thigh were reddish–purple and swollen (Figure 2). An incision was made in the right thigh, and the patient was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis. Surgical debridement was performed within the first 5 hours following his arrival. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Koji Kanno, Yoshiaki Cho, Shuichi Fujii, Yuki Ami, Osamu Nishizeki, Motoshi Sonoda, Masataka Ishimura, Naoki Fujiwara Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Ecthyma Gangrenosum in an Infant With Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4) Deficiency
A 1-year-old boy was transferred to our hospital due to severe septic shock that led to cardiac arrest. The patient reportedly had fluid-refractory septic shock that required catecholamine administration. . On admission, a characteristic skin rash covered the patient's entire body (Figure 1). His right buttock and thigh were reddish-purple and swollen (Figure 2). An incision was made in the right thigh, and the patient was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis. Surgical debridement was performed within the first five hours following his arrival. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Koji Kanno, Yoshiaki Cho, Shuichi Fujii, Yuki Ami, Osamu Nishizeki, Motoshi Sonoda, Masataka Ishimura, Naoki Fujiwara Tags: Rediscovering the Physical Exam Source Type: research

Primary Hypertension Beginning in Childhood and Risk for Future Cardiovascular Disease
Hypertension in adulthood continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 Hypertension in childhood is not uncommon, but due to the absence of data on future adverse outcomes (heart failure, stroke, kidney failure) hypertension has been defined in childhood as systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP)>95th percentile of age, sex, and height adjusted normative BP data. The prevalence of childhood hypertension is approximately 4 percent, and the prevalence of elevated BP, a condition of higher risk for progression to hypertension, is approximately 10 percent. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bonita Falkner, Empar Lurbe Tags: Medical Progress Source Type: research

Comparison of Predictive Values of Magnetic Resonance Biomarkers Based on Scan Timing in Neonatal Encephalopathy Following Therapeutic Hypothermia
To determine the optimal quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) biomarker in neonatal encephalopathy following therapeutic hypothermia, based on scan timing. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jun Shibasaki, Tetsu Niwa, Aur élie Piedvache, Moyoko Tomiyasu, Naho Morisaki, Yuta Fujii, Katsuaki Toyoshima, Noriko Aida Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Consideration of Racism in Pediatric Epidemiologic Studies
In epidemiologic research, race is considered often as a covariate of an outcome because such is customary practice, is seemingly easy to measure, is stable over time, and often is associated with variation in the outcome.1 The complexities and limitations in using race, a socially constructed way of grouping people for these purposes, however, perceptively elaborated 20 years ago,1 unmasks a dogma and challenges the neutrality of the traditional rationale for using race as a covariate. Jones underscores the points that definition and delineation of race are highly heterogeneous, contextually based, and subject to change o...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Karl C.K. Kuban, Ren ée Jarrett Boynton, Timothy Heeren, T. Michael O'Shea Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Pediatric Chair Turnover and Demographics
M.C. serves as the Editor for the AMSPDC Section of The Journal of Pediatrics and was not involved in the peer review process of or decision to accept this manuscript. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mitchell B. Cohen, Inmaculada Aban, Michael Artman, Geoffrey Binney, Abigail Blake, Charlotte Boney, Lewis First, Morris Gessouroun, Bruce K. Rubin, Mary Taylor, Patricia Emmanuel Tags: AMSPDC Source Type: research