Very tight vs. tight control: what should be the criteria for pharmacologic therapy dose adjustment in diabetes in pregnancy? Evidence from randomized controlled trials
ConclusionsWhen evaluating RCTs which included criteria for pharmacologic GDM therapy dose adjustment, the most common criterion for diagnosis was the two‐step test, and the most common used therapies were insulin and metformin. Regarding glucose monitoring, the most common frequency was four times per day, fasting and two hours after each main meal, using as target glucose values 95 and 120 mg/dL, respectively. Importantly, we found six different criteria for pharmacologic GDM therapy dose adjustment, with the majority using very tight criteria of either one or two values per week higher than the target values, of whic...
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Claudia Caissutti, Gabriele Saccone, Andrea Ciardulli, Vincenzo Berghella Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Very tight versus tight control: what should be the criteria for pharmacologic therapy dose adjustment in diabetes in pregnancy? Evidence from randomized controlled trials
ConclusionsWhen evaluating RCTs which included criteria for pharmacologic GDM therapy dose adjustment, the most common criterion for diagnosis was the two‐step test, and the most common used therapies were insulin and metformin. Regarding glucose monitoring, the most common frequency was four times per day, fasting and two hours after each main meal, using as target glucose values 95 and 120 mg/dL, respectively. Importantly, we found six different criteria for pharmacologic GDM therapy dose adjustment, with the majority using very tight criteria of either one or two values per week higher than the target values, of whic...
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Claudia Caissutti, Gabriele Saccone, Andrea Ciardulli, Vincenzo Berghella Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Crystalline structure of pulverized dental calculus induces cell death in oral epithelial cells
ConclusionDental calculus induces pyroptotic cell death in human oral epithelial cells and the crystalline structure plays a major role in this process. Oral epithelial cell death induced by dental calculus might be important for the etiology of periodontitis. (Source: Journal of Periodontal Research)
Source: Journal of Periodontal Research - November 20, 2017 Category: Dentistry Authors: S. M. Ziauddin, A. Yoshimura, J. L. Montenegro Raudales, Y. Ozaki, K. Higuchi, T. Ukai, T. Kaneko, T. Miyazaki, E. Latz, Y. Hara Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Very tight versus tight control: which should be the criteria for pharmacologic therapy dose adjustment in diabetes in pregnancy? Evidence from randomized controlled trials
ConclusionsWhen evaluating RCTs which included criteria for pharmacologic GDM therapy dose adjustment, the most common criteria for diagnosis was the two step test, and the most common used therapies were insulin and metformin. Regarding glucose monitoring, the most common frequency was four times per day, fasting and 2 hours after each main meal, using as target glucose values 95mg/dL and 120mg/dL, respectively. Importantly, we found six different criteria for pharmacologic GDM therapy dose adjustment, with the majority using very tight criteria of either 1 or 2 values per week higher than the target values, of which two ...
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - November 10, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Claudia Caissutti, Gabriele Saccone, Andrea Ciardulli, Vincenzo Berghella Tags: Systematic review Source Type: research

Comparative risk of serious hypoglycemia with oral antidiabetic monotherapy: A retrospective cohort study
ConclusionsSulfonylureas were associated with the highest rates of serious hypoglycemia. Among all study drugs, the highest rate was seen with glyburide. Pioglitazone was associated with a lower adjusted hazard for serious hypoglycemia vs metformin, while rosiglitazone and nateglinide had hazards similar to that of metformin. (Source: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety)
Source: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety - November 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Charles E. Leonard, Xu Han, Colleen M. Brensinger, Warren B. Bilker, Serena Cardillo, James H. Flory, Sean Hennessy Tags: ORIGINAL REPORT Source Type: research

Antidiabetic drug glyburide modulates depressive-like behavior comorbid with insulin resistance
Abundant reports indicated that depression was often comorbid with type 2 diabetes and even metabolic syndrome. Considering they might share common biological origins, it was tentatively attributed to the chro... (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - October 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wen-Jun Su, Wei Peng, Hong Gong, Yun-Zi Liu, Yi Zhang, Yong-Jie Lian, Zhi-Yong Cao, Ran Wu, Lin-Lin Liu, Bo Wang, Yun-Xia Wang and Chun-Lei Jiang Tags: Research Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Differences of Sulfonylureas and the Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular and Hypoglycemic Events
CONCLUSIONS The nonspecific, long-acting sulfonylureas glyburide and glimepiride do not have an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events compared with the specific, short-acting sulfonylureas gliclazide, glipizide, and tolbutamide. However, nonspecific, long-acting sulfonylureas glyburide and glimepiride have an increased risk of severe hypoglycemia. (Source: Diabetes Care)
Source: Diabetes Care - October 23, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Douros, A.; Yin, H.; Yu, O. H. Y.; Filion, K. B.; Azoulay, L.; Suissa, S. Tags: Epidemiology-Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology/Health Services Research Source Type: research

Irisin protects against neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation in part depends on the inhibition of ROS-NLRP3 inflammatory signaling pathway
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Molecular Immunology, Volume 91 Author(s): Juan Peng, Xian Deng, Wei Huang, Ji-hua Yu, Jian-xiong Wang, Jie-ping Wang, Shi-bin Yang, Xi Liu, Li Wang, Yun Zhang, Xiang-Yu Zhou, Hui Yang, Yan-Zheng He, Fang-yuan Xu Recent studies found that irisin, a newly discovered skeletal muscle-derived myokine during exercise, is also synthesized in various tissues of different species and protects against neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome play an important role in detecting cellular damage and mediating inflammatory responses t...
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Patchouli Alcohol Isolated from Pogostemon Cablin Mediates Endothelium-Independent Vasorelaxation by Blockade of Ca2+ Channels in Rat Isolated Thoracic Aorta
Conclusion PA may act as a Ca2+ antagonist to exert an intensively vasorelaxant effects through endothelium-independent pathway, and its mechanisms underlying the vasoactivities seem to be associated with the blockade of extracellular Ca2+ influx through VDCCs and ROCCs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) membrane and intracellular Ca2+ releases through IP3R- and RYR-mediated Ca2+ channels in sarcolemma. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - September 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sentinel Modular Program for Propensity Score–Matched Cohort Analyses: Application to Glyburide, Glipizide, and Serious Hypoglycemia
Sentinel is a program sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration to monitor the safety of medical products. We conducted a cohort assessment to evaluate the ability of the Sentinel Propensity Score Matching Tool to reproduce in an expedited fashion the known association between glyburide (vs. glipizide) and serious hypoglycemia. Thirteen data partners who contribute to the Sentinel Distributed Database participated in this analysis. A pretested and customizable analytic program was run at each individual site. De-identified summary results from each data partner were returned and aggregated at the Sentinel Operations...
Source: Epidemiology - September 28, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Pharmacological Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
AbstractGestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the setting of poor glycemic control. The initial management for GDM includes intensive lifestyle modification, which often requires behavioral and nutritional changes to optimize glycemic control. Pharmacotherapy for GDM is initiated when glycemic targets are not met. The rapid-acting bolus analogues aspart and lispro achieve postprandial targets with less hypoglycemia compared to regular insulin, with similar fetal outcomes. The long-acting insulin analogues glargine and detemir appear safe with similar mater...
Source: Drugs - September 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparative efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin in treating gestational diabetes mellitus: An updated PRISMA-compliant network meta-analysis
Conclusion: Our study concluded that metformin is fastest in glucose control, with a more favorable pregnancy outcomes—would be a better option, but its rate of glucose control is the lowest.However, glyburide is the optimumtreatment regarding the rate of glucose control, but withmore adverse outcomes. This NAMbased on 32 RCTs will strongly help to guide further development of management for GDM patients, clinicians should carefully balance the risk–benefit profile of different treatments according to various situations. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - September 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Source Type: research

Older Adults ’ Awareness of Deprescribing: A Population‐Based Survey
ConclusionHealthcare providers can facilitate patient‐initiated deprescribing conversations by providing information on medication harms and using the term “deprescribing.” (Source: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society)
Source: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society - September 1, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Justin P. Turner, Cara Tannenbaum Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

NLRP3/IL ‐1β mediates denervation during bladder outlet obstruction in rats
ConclusionsThe NLRP3/IL‐1β‐mediated inflammation pathway plays a significant role in denervation during BOO. (Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics)
Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics - September 1, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Robin L ütolf, Francis M. Hughes, Brian M. Inouye, Huixia Jin, Jennifer C. McMains, Elena S. Pak, Johanna L. Hannan, J. Todd Purves Tags: ORIGINAL BASIC SCIENCE ARTICLE Source Type: research

Bladder fibrosis during outlet obstruction is triggered through the NLRP3 inflammasome and the production of IL-1{beta}
Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) triggers inflammation in the bladder through the NLRP3 inflammasome. BOO also activates fibrosis, which is largely responsible for the decompensation of the bladder in the chronic state. Because fibrosis can be driven by inflammation, we have explored a role for NLRP3 (and IL-1β produced by NLRP3) in the activation and progression of BOO-induced fibrosis. Female rats were divided into five groups: 1) control, 2) sham, 3) BOO + vehicle, 4) BOO + the NLRP3 inhibitor glyburide, or 5) BOO + the IL-1β receptor antagonist anakinra. Fibrosis was assessed by Masson’s trichrome stain...
Source: AJP: Renal Physiology - September 1, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hughes, F. M., Sexton, S. J., Jin, H., Govada, V., Purves, J. T. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research