Increased fractalkine and vascular dysfunction in obesity and in type 2 diabetes. Effects of oral antidiabetic treatment.
Abstract Activation of fractalkine and other chemokines plays an important role in atherogenesis and, in conjunction with endothelial dysfunction, promotes premature vascular damage in obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased circulating fractalkine coexists with impaired vasomotor function in metabolically healthy or unhealthy obesity, and that treatment with antidiabetic drugs may impact these abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. Compared to lean subjects, in both obese groups the vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were impaired (both P 
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - March 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schinzari F, Tesauro M, Campia U, Cardillo C Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Herbal Combination in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Conclusion: The results suggest that traditional herbal combination may safely improve glycemic control in type II diabetic patients with no significant adverse effect. PMID: 32081056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Dietary Supplements)
Source: Journal of Dietary Supplements - February 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: J Diet Suppl Source Type: research

S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR) is Not a Selective Inhibitor of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters but Also Blocks Efflux Activity of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein
ConclusionNBMPR at a concentration of 0.10  mM abolishes ABCG2 activity. Researchers using NBMPR to evaluate the effect of ENTs on pharmacokinetics must therefore interpret their results carefully if studying compounds that are substrates of both ENTs and ABCG2. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - February 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reducing the burden of diabetes treatment: A review of low-cost oral hypoglycemic medications.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The vast majority of individuals diagnosed with diabetes are low/middle income and may have access to only three of the 11 oral hypoglycemic medications (OHMs) due to cost: metformin intermediate release (IR) or extended release (ER), sulfonylureas (glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide), and pioglitazone. Sulfonylureas and pioglitazone have had significant controversy related to potential adverse events, but it remains unclear whether these negative outcomes are class-, drug-, or dose-related. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a narrative review of low-cost OHMs. METHODS: We evaluated the maximum...
Source: Current Diabetes Reviews - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vaughan EM, Rueda JJ, Samson SL, Hyman DJ Tags: Curr Diabetes Rev Source Type: research

Can glyburide be advocated over subcutaneous insulin for perinatal outcomes of women with gestational diabetes? A systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractPurposeTo obtain precise findings from published studies about the efficacy and safety of glyburide versus subcutaneous insulin in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).MethodsWe searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus, up to January 2019, for relevant studies that compared glyburide with subcutaneous insulin for patients with GDM. We extracted maternal and neonatal outcomes from included studies, performed meta-analysis, evaluated heterogeneity, assessed the risk of bias of included studies, and conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses.ResultsA total of 24 studies (11 randomize...
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - January 27, 2020 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Recent progress on the discovery of NLRP3 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this review confirmed the importance of developing NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors. Various NLRP3 inhibitors have been discovered as effective therapeutic treatments to multiples diseases such as type II diabetes, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, stress-related mood disorders, etc. The development of a full range of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors is still at its foundational phase. We are looking forward to identification of inhibitory agents which provide the most potent therapeutic strategies and efficiently treat NLRP3 inflammasome-related inflammatory diseases. PMID: 31971103 [Pu...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - January 22, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Su M, Wang W, Liu F, Li H Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research

Brucella abortus Infection Elicited Hepatic Stellate Cell-Mediated Fibrosis Through Inflammasome-Dependent IL-1 β Production
In human brucellosis, the liver is frequently affected. Brucella abortus triggers a profibrotic response on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) characterized by inhibition of MMP-9 with concomitant collagen deposition and TGF-β1 secretion through type 4 secretion system (T4SS). Taking into account that it has been reported that the inflammasome is necessary to induce a fibrotic phenotype in HSC, we hypothesized that Brucella infection might create a microenvironment that would promote inflammasome activation with concomitant profibrogenic phenotype in HSCs. B. abortus infection induces IL-1β secretion in HSCs in a T4SS...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - January 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

317: Population-level fetal growth outcomes before and after gestational diabetes treatment guideline change
The objective of this population-level study is to assess the impact of an insulin-first prescribing strategy on the incidence of accelerated fetal growth. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - December 31, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Esther Ellsworth Bowers, Shannon Santo, Bernadette O'Grady, Sue E. Sarsam, Suzanne Halt, Ronda Slickman, Avinash Patil Tags: Poster Session I Source Type: research

713: Oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus: a cost-effectiveness analysis
Recent studies have shown statistically significant adverse neonatal outcomes associated with the use of oral hypoglycemic agents in pregnancy for the treatment of GDM. Due to robust patient preference for oral agents over subcutaneous insulin, we sought to explore the cost-effectiveness and outcomes associated with both glyburide and metformin. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - December 31, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Caroline C. Davitt, Alyssa R. Hersh, Claire H. Packer, Allison Munn, Abigail Vinson, Aaron B. Caughey Tags: Poster Session III Source Type: research

651: Comparative impact of pharmacological treatments for gestational diabetes on neonatal anthropometry: systematic review and meta-analysis
Three commonly-used pharmacological options are available to treat gestational diabetes (GDM) that cannot be managed with lifestyle interventions alone: insulin, glyburide, and metformin. However, there is little international consensus on optimal management strategies. We aimed to compare the impacts of pharmacological treatments for GDM on birthweight, independent of maternal glycaemic control. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - December 31, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Catherine Aiken, Jane Tarry-adkins, Susan Ozanne Tags: Poster Session III Source Type: research

759: Comparing insulin, metformin, and glyburide in treating diabetes in pregnancy and analyzing obstetric outcomes
Oral medication was once a mainstay of treating diabetes in pregnancy. Recently, statements from national organizations recommend using only insulin in diabetes management in pregnancy. With few studies comparing the three commonly used agents (insulin, metformin, and glyburide), this study examines current patterns of antidiabetic medication use during pregnancy and describes maternal outcomes. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - December 31, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Meryl Sperling, Jason Bentley, Anna Girsen, Stephanie A. Leonard, Elizabeth B. Sherwin, Danielle M. Panelli, Sanaa Suharwardy, Yasser El Sayed, Tiffany Herrero Tags: Poster Session III Source Type: research

1124: Glyburide is the least effective gestational diabetes therapy to improve neonatal outcomes. A network Meta-analysis
Metformin and glyburide therapy of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) continues to increase. Our objective was to compare pre-selected neonatal outcomes in women with GDM treated with insulin, metformin, glyburide or any combination of these. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - December 31, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Julio Mateus, Luis Sanchez Ramos, Kathryn Gonzalez, Melanie Mitta, Jared Roeckner Tags: Poster Session V Source Type: research

The Use of Non-insulin Agents in Gestational Diabetes: Clinical Considerations in Tailoring Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo assess evidence to date for use of non-insulin agents in treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus.Recent FindingsThere has been increasing interest in the use of non-insulin agents, primarily metformin and glyburide (which both cross the placenta). Metformin has been associated with less maternal weight gain; however, recent studies have shown a trend toward increased weight in offspring exposed to metformin in utero. Glyburide has been associated with increased neonatal hypoglycemia.SummaryGlycemic control during pregnancy is essential to optimize both maternal and fetal outcomes. There are a...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - December 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GLP-1 Relaxes Rat Coronary Arteries by Enhancing ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Currents.
Abstract GLP-1 is a new type of antidiabetic agent that possesses many beneficial effects. Although its cardiovascular actions have been widely examined, little is known about GLP-1's effects on the rat coronary artery (RCA) or about the mechanisms underpinning these effects. Here, we report that GLP-1 inhibits depolarization- or thromboxane receptor agonist (U46619)-induced RCA contraction in a dosage-dependent manner. Vasorelaxation was attenuated by denuding the endothelium, L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and glyburide (KATP channel blocker) but was not affected by indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibi...
Source: Cardiology Research and Practice - November 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiong QF, Fan SH, Li XW, Niu Y, Wang J, Zhang X, Chen YF, Shi YW, Zhang LH Tags: Cardiol Res Pract Source Type: research

Effect of Berberine on In Vitro Metabolism of Sulfonylureas: A herb-drug interactions study.
CONCLUSIONS: The metabolism of sulfonylureas and berberine was affected when these compounds were co-incubated with each other. This may be attributable to competitive binding of the herb and drug to the catalytic sites of same isozymes. PMID: 31721320 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM)
Source: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM - November 12, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Singh A, Zhao K, Bell C, Shah AJ Tags: Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom Source Type: research

The second-generation anti-diabetic sulfonylureas inhibit Candida albicans and Candidalysin mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Abstract Repurposing of currently approved medications is an attractive option for development of novel treatment strategies against physiological and infectious diseases. The anti-diabetic sulfonylurea glyburide has demonstrated off-target capacity to inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in a variety of disease models, including vaginal candidiasis caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans Therefore, we sought to determine which of the currently approved sulfonylurea drugs prevent release of IL-1β, a major inflammasome effector, during C. albicans challenge of the human macrophage-like...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - November 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lowes DJ, Hevener KE, Peters BM Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Metformin promotes Mycobacterium tuberculosis killing and increases the production of human β-defensins in lung epithelial cells and macrophages
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Microbes and InfectionAuthor(s): Adrian Rodriguez-Carlos, Claudia Valdez-Miramontes, Paulina Marin-Luevano, Irma González-Curiel, Jose A. Enciso-Moreno, Bruno Rivas-SantiagoAbstractDiabetes has been associated with an increased risk of developing tuberculosis. The reasons related to the increased susceptibility to develop TB in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) individuals, has not been completely elucidated. However, this susceptibility has been attributed to several factors including failures and misfunctioning of the immune system. In the present study, we a...
Source: Microbes and Infection - November 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effect of Olive leaves extract on the antidiabetic effect of glyburide for possible herb-drug interaction
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical JournalAuthor(s): Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Gamal A. Soliman, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Abdulaziz S. Saeedan, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam, Hanan A. OgalyAbstractThe concomitant use of olive leaves (OL) and glyburide (GLB) is a possible therapy for diabetic patients. However, there is no report about the effect of OL on the antidiabetic effect of GLB till now. In the current study, the possible interaction of olive leaves extract (OLE) with GLB was assessed to determine if there was any pharmacological benefit over GLB alone. Seven groups of male Sprague Dawle...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - October 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mechanisms underlying the effect of an oral antihyperglycemic agent glyburide on calcium ion (Ca2+ ) movement and its related cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells.
This study examined whether glyburide altered Ca2+ signaling and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells and investigated those underlying mechanisms. Intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]i ) in suspended cells were measured by using the fluorescent Ca2+ -sensitive dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by WST-1 assay. Glyburide at concentrations of 100-1000 μM induced [Ca2+ ]i rises. Ca2+ removal reduced the signal by approximately 60%. In Ca2+ -containing medium, glyburide-induced Ca2+ entry was inhibited by 60% by protein kinase C (PKC) activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate, PMA) and inhibitor (GF1092...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - September 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sun GC, Liang WZ, Jan CR Tags: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pilot Study of Intravenous Glyburide in Traumatic Brain Injury
Journal of Neurotrauma, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Neurotrauma)
Source: Journal of Neurotrauma - August 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Howard M. Eisenberg Martha E. Shenton Ofer Pasternak J. Marc Simard David O. Okonkwo Christina Aldrich Feng He Sonia Jain Erik G. Hayman Source Type: research

Inflammasome inhibition blocks cardiac glycoside cell toxicity [Molecular Bases of Disease]
We report that digoxin and related compounds activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages and cardiomyocytes at concentrations achievable during clinical use. Inflammasome activation initiates the maturation and release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the programmed cell death pathway pyroptosis in a caspase-1–dependent manner. Notably, the same fluxes of potassium and calcium cations that affect heart contraction also induce inflammasome activation in human but not murine cells. Pharmaceuticals that antagonize these fluxes, including glyburide and verapamil, also inhibit inflammasome activation by card...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - August 23, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Doris L. LaRock, Jenna S. Sands, Ethan Ettouati, Marine Richard, Paul J. Bushway, Eric D. Adler, Victor Nizet, Christopher N. LaRock Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor glyburide expedites diabetic-induced impaired fracture healing.
Abstract Localized inflammation is accompanied by the diabetic-induced fracture. The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of glyburide, an NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, in a diabetic-induced fracture model. An animal model of diabetic-induced fracture was established and the mice were administrated with metformin or glyburide for 3 weeks. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting were used to evaluate the relative expressions of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanning was applied to evaluate bone callus formation. Histopathology ...
Source: Immunobiology - August 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yang X, Qu C, Jia J, Zhan Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Calcification biomarkers and vascular dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes: influence of oral hypoglycemic agents.
Abstract Vascular aging in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with progressive vascular calcification, an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Pathways for vascular calcification modulate inhibition of bone matrix deposition thus regulating calcium deposits. We investigated the association between biomarkers of vascular calcification and vasodilator function in obesity or T2D, and whether antidiabetic therapies favorably impact those markers. Circulating levels of proteins involved in vascular calcification, such as osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), regulated on activation, normal...
Source: Am J Physiol Endocri... - August 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Schinzari F, Tesauro M, Bertoli A, Valentini A, Veneziani A, Cambia U, Cardillo C Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pharmacodynamic interaction of cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.) with glyburide in diabetes
Authors: Khurana, Ginpreet Kaur / Upadhyay, Nidhi / Tharappel, Leo J Philip / Invally, Mihir (Source: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine)
Source: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine - July 26, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Targeted Drug Delivery to Stroke via Chemotactic Recruitment of Nanoparticles Coated with Membrane of Engineered Neural Stem Cells
Here a membrane ‐coating approach to display large transmembrane protein receptors to the surface of nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain is developed and validated. The study also establishes a new formulation of glyburide that can be translated into clinical applications to improve clinical management of brain injuries. AbstractCell membrane coating has recently emerged as a promising biomimetic approach to engineering nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted drug delivery. However, simple cell membrane coating may not meet the need for efficient drug delivery to the brain. Here, a novel molecular engineering strategy ...
Source: Small - July 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Junning Ma, Shenqi Zhang, Jun Liu, Fuyao Liu, Fenyi Du, Miao Li, Ann T. Chen, Youmei Bao, Hee Won Suh, Jonathan Avery, Gang Deng, Yu Zhou, Peng Wu, Kevin Sheth, Haijun Wang, Jiangbing Zhou Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Glyburide, a NLRP3 inhibitor, decreases inflammatory response and is a candidate to reduce pathology in Leishmania braziliensis infection
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis is characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response that leads to parasite control, but is also the cause of tissue damage and ulcer formation (Carvalho et al., 2012). The NLRP3 Inflammasome is an intracellular protein complex which is activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), promoting activation of caspase 1 and release of active IL-1 β (Latz et al., 2013). In C57BL/6 mice infected with a nonhealing L. (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology)
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - June 25, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Augusto M. Carvalho, Fernanda O. Novais, Camilla S. Paix ão, Camila I. de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Lucas P. Carvalho, Phillip Scott, Edgar M. Carvalho Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Treatment of Diabetes in Pregnancy
Conclusions and Relevance Insulin is the preferred pharmacologic treatment according to ACOG. However, SMFM has stated that outcomes with metformin are similar, and it may also be considered as first-line therapy. Both agree that the available data show that metformin is safer and superior to glyburide, and glyburide is no longer recommended as a first-line therapy for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians. Learning Objectives After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to compare the maternal/fetal risks associated with glybu...
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - May 1, 2019 Category: OBGYN Tags: CME ARTICLES Source Type: research

Detecting Secular Trends in Clinical Treatment through Temporal Analysis
AbstractMedical treatments change over time for multiple reasons, including introduction of new treatments, availability of new scientific evidence, change in institutional guidelines, and market efforts by pharmaceutical and medical device companies. Monitoring and analyzing these secular trends will also inform the evaluation of evidence based practice as well as outcome research. Using a large national clinical dataset from the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we measured the change in prevalence of all diseases, medications, and procedures by year from 2001 to 2014. To assess statistical significance...
Source: Journal of Medical Systems - February 12, 2019 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

Hot-melt extrusion process impact on polymer choice of Glyburide solid dispersions: The effect of wettability and dissolution
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2019Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Maen Alshafiee, Mohammad K. Aljammal, Daniel Markl, Adam Ward, Karl Walton, Liam Blunt, Sachin Korde, Sudhir K. Pagire, Adrian L. Kelly, Anant Paradkar, Barbara R. Conway, Kofi Asare-AddoAbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the choice of polymer and polymer level on the performance of the microstructure and wettability of hot-melt extruded solid dispersion of Glyburide (Gly) as a model drug. The produced solid dispersion were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), image analysis using a focus...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - January 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anandamide down-regulates placental transporter expression through CB2 receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP synthesis
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): John T. Szilagyi, Gabriella M. Composto-Wahler, Laurie B. Joseph, Bingbing Wang, Todd Rosen, Jeffrey D. Laskin, Lauren M. AleksunesAbstractThe BCRP/ABCG2 efflux transporter is expressed on the membrane of placental syncytiotrophoblasts and protects the fetus from toxicant exposure. Syncytiotrophoblasts arise from the fusion of cytotrophoblasts, a process negatively regulated by the endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA). It is unknown whether AEA can influence fetal concentrations of xenobiotics by modulating the expression of transporte...
Source: Pharmacological Research - January 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

492: Neonatal outcomes in gestational diabetes managed with insulin vs. glyburide therapy: a cost-effectiveness analysis
To compare neonatal outcomes and assess the cost-effectiveness of insulin therapy versus glyburide therapy in women with gestational diabetes in the context of most recent randomized controlled trials. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - December 25, 2018 Category: OBGYN Authors: Allison J. Munn, Alyssa R. Hersh, Abigail R. Vinson, Thomas D. Brennan, Amy M. Valent, Aaron B. Caughey Tags: Poster Session III Source Type: research

Bladder decompensation and reduction in nerve density in a rat model of chronic bladder outlet obstruction is attenuated with the NLRP3 inhibitor glyburide.
Abstract Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) leads to progressive voiding dysfunction. Acutely, obstruction triggers inflammation that drives bladder dysfunction. Over time, inflammation leads to decreased bladder nerve density and increased fibrosis that is responsible for eventual decompensation and irreversibility. We have previously shown that BOO triggers inflammation, reduced bladder nerve density and increased fibrosis via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in an acutely obstructed (12 day) rat model. However, as BOO progresses the bladder may become decompensated with an increase in post-void residual volum...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 24, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hughes FM, Sexton SJ, Ledig PD, Yun CE, Jin H, Purves JT Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Emergency Department Management of Hypercalcemia
A 55-year-old male with a medical history notable for diabetes mellitus and lung cancer was brought to the emergency department via emergency medical services for lethargy and confusion that started a few hours earlier. His family reported that his medications included tramadol 50  mg three times a day as needed for pain and glyburide 5 mg twice a day. A review of systems was taken from his family members, which was positive for nausea, abdominal pain, polyuria, polydipsia, and a recent renal stone. (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - October 15, 2018 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Dunya N. Alfaraj, Michael P. Wilson, Yahia Akeely, Gary M. Vilke, Kimberly Nordstrom Tags: Selected Topics Psychiatric Emergencies Source Type: research

Oral antidiabetic agents in gestational diabetes: a narrative review of current evidence.
Authors: Singh AK, Singh R Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) classically occurs when maternal glucose metabolism is unable to compensate the progressive development of insulin resistance that arises from the continuously rising diabetogenic placental hormones. Although most women can be treated satisfactorily with diet alone, some require more intensive treatment. Insulin has been the most reliable treatment strategy in GDM over several decades. Although a long time has passed since the publication of two randomized controlled trials suggesting comparable efficacy and safety of metformin and glibenclamid...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Glyburide vs Insulin for Gestational Diabetes
To the Editor Dr S énat and colleagues conducted a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of glyburide or insulin on perinatal complications among women with gestational diabetes. We wonder whether the study design can be applied to most women with gestational diabetes. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Glyburide vs Insulin for Gestational Diabetes —Reply
In Reply Our study included women with singleton pregnancies and gestational diabetes diagnosed between 24 and 34 weeks, since intervention studies have shown efficacy of treatment in preventing perinatal complications in this population. Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes diagnosed before 24 weeks were exclusion criteria, so our trial was not designed to compare the efficacy of insulin and glyburide in preventing perinatal complications in women with gestational diabetes before 24 weeks. We did not compare complications in women diagnosed earlier vs later in the 24- to 34-week period. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Detection of potential look-alike/sound-alike medication errors using Veterans Affairs administrative databases.
CONCLUSION: Through the use of administrative databases, potential LASA errors that could be reviewed for an actual error via chart review were identified. While a high rate of potential LASA errors was detected, the number of actual errors identified was low. PMID: 30257842 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP)
Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP - September 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zacher JM, Cunningham FE, Zhao X, Burk ML, Moore VR, Good CB, Glassman PA, Aspinall SL Tags: Am J Health Syst Pharm Source Type: research

Oral Agents for the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the current evidence of the safety and efficacy of the use of oral agents for treatment of gestational diabetes (GDM).Recent FindingsThe use of metformin and glyburide in pregnancy for treatment of GDM has dramatically increased since the early 2000s. Meta-analyses suggest that glyburide may increase the risk for large for gestational (LGA) infants and neonatal hypoglycemia. Conversely, metformin may potentially decrease rates of pregnancy-induced hypertension, LGA, neonatal hypoglycemia, and maternal weight gain. However, recent long-term offspring studies indicate a potential detrimenta...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Characterization of the cholesterol efflux of apolipoprotein E-containing high-density lipoprotein in THP-1 cells.
Authors: Horiuchi Y, Ohkawa R, Lai SJ, Yamazaki A, Ikoma H, Yano K, Kameda T, Tozuka M Abstract High-density lipoprotein (HDL), also known as anti-atherogenic lipoprotein, consists of heterogeneous particles in terms of size, density, and composition, suggesting differences among HDL subclasses in characteristics and functions. We investigated the role of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing HDL, a minor HDL subclass, in the cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of HDL, which is its predominant atheroprotective function. The CEC of apoE-containing HDL was similar to that of apoE-deficient HDL, but the former exhibited a ...
Source: Biological Chemistry - September 14, 2018 Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research

Effect of Glyburide vs Subcutaneous Insulin on Perinatal Complications Among Women With Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial
(Abstracted from JAMA 2018;319(17):1773–1780) Gestational diabetes continues to increase nationally and globally. The American Diabetes Association currently recommends insulin, the only Food and Drug Administration–approved pharmacologic agent, as first-line treatment for women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring medications. (Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey)
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - September 1, 2018 Category: OBGYN Tags: Obstetrics: Medical Complications of Pregnancy Source Type: research

Availability and affordability of essential medicines for diabetes across high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective epidemiological study
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: The Lancet Diabetes & EndocrinologyAuthor(s): Clara K Chow, Chinthanie Ramasundarahettige, Weihong Hu, Khalid F AlHabib, Alvaro Avezum, Xiaoru Cheng, Jephat Chifamba, Gilles Dagenais, Antonio Dans, Bonaventure A Egbujie, Rajeev Gupta, Romaina Iqbal, Noorhassim Ismail, Mirac V Keskinler, Rasha Khatib, Lanthé Kruger, Rajesh Kumar, Fernando Lanas, Scott Lear, Patricio Lopez-JaramilloSummaryBackgroundData are scarce on the availability and affordability of essential medicines for diabetes. Our aim was to examine the availability and affordability of metformin,...
Source: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology - August 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for gestational diabetes.
Authors: Patti AM, Giglio RV, Pafili K, Rizzo M, Papanas N Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents impaired carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy and is characterized by progressive insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia. If inadequately treated, it may lead to fetal macrosomia and other adverse outcomes. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the current evidence from studies on the use of insulin and other agents for the treatment of women with GDM. Expert opinion: Lifestyle management is of paramount importance for the treatment of GDM. In pharmacothe...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - August 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

High-density lipoprotein inhibits serum amyloid A-mediated reactive oxygen species generation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation [Lipids]
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a high-density apolipoprotein whose plasma levels can increase more than 1000-fold during a severe acute-phase inflammatory response and are more modestly elevated in chronic inflammation. SAA is thought to play important roles in innate immunity, but its biological activities have not been completely delineated. We previously reported that SAA deficiency protects mice from developing abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) induced by chronic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. Here, we report that SAA is required for AngII-induced increases in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a potent proinflammatory cyto...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - August 24, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Preetha Shridas, Maria C. De Beer, Nancy R. Webb Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress is the Principal Contributor to Inflammasome Activation in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells with Defunct Proteasomes and Autophagy
Conclusion: Our data suggest that oxidative stress strongly contributes to the NLRP3 inflammasome activation upon dysfunctional cellular clearance. Clarification of inflammasome activation mechanisms provides novel options for alleviating pathological inflammation present in aggregation diseases, such as age-related macular disease (AMD) and Alzheimer ’s disease.Cell Physiol Biochem 2018;49:359 –367 (Source: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry)
Source: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry - August 23, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Sulfonylurea receptor 1 expression is variable in adult and pediatric brain tumors.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Edema is a significant cause of neuromorbidity in children and adults with brain tumors. Agents used to control this effect, such as corticosteroids, have their own associated morbidities. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) is a transmembrane protein that regulates the activity of ion channels in neurons, glia, and endothelial cells. SUR1 expression is upregulated in neuroinflammatory conditions. Inhibition of SUR1 with glyburide decreases edema and neuroinflammation by countering cytotoxic edema and apoptosis in rodent models of subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, trauma, and cerebral metastases. ...
Source: Clinical Neuropathology - August 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Thompson EM, Halvorson K, McLendon R Tags: Clin Neuropathol Source Type: research

Research Gaps in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Executive Summary of a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Workshop.
This article summarizes the proceedings of the workshop. In early pregnancy, the appropriate diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of GDM remain poorly defined, and an effect of early diagnosis and treatment on the risk of adverse outcomes has not been demonstrated. Despite many small randomized controlled trials of glucose-lowering medication treatment in GDM, our understanding of medication management of GDM is incomplete as evidenced by discrepancies among professional society treatment guidelines. The comparative effectiveness of insulin, metformin, and glyburide remains uncertain, particularly with respect to long-ter...
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 10, 2018 Category: OBGYN Authors: Wexler DJ, Powe CE, Barbour LA, Buchanan T, Coustan DR, Corcoy R, Damm P, Dunne F, Feig DS, Ferrara A, Harper LM, Landon MB, Meltzer SJ, Metzger BE, Roeder H, Rowan JA, Sacks DA, Simmons D, Umans JG, Catalano PM Tags: Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research

A Cautionary Response to SMFM Statement: Pharmacological Treatment of Gestational Diabetes
Use of oral agents to treat gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains controversial. Recent recommendations from the Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine (SMFM) assert that metformin may be a safe first line alternative to insulin for GDM treatment and preferable to glyburide. However, several issues should give pause to the widespread adoption of metformin use during pregnancy. Fetal concentrations of metformin are equal to maternal, and metformin can inhibit growth, suppress mitochondrial respiration, have epigenetic modifications on gene expression, mimic fetal nutrient restriction, and alter postnatal gluconeogenic re...
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - June 27, 2018 Category: OBGYN Authors: Linda A. Barbour, Christina Scifres, Amy M. Valent, Jacob E. Friedman, Thomas Buchanan, Donald Coustan, Kjersti Aagaard, Kent L. Thornburg, Patrick M. Catalano, Henry Galan, William W. Hay, Antonio E. Frias, Kartik Shankar, Rebecca A. Simmons, Robert G. M Source Type: research

A cautionary response to SMFM statement: pharmacological  treatment of gestational diabetes
Use of oral agents to treat gestational diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Recent recommendations from the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine assert that metformin may be a safe first-line alternative to insulin for gestational diabetes mellitus treatment and preferable to glyburide. However, several issues should give pause to the widespread adoption of metformin use during pregnancy. Fetal concentrations of metformin are equal to maternal, and metformin can inhibit growth, suppress mitochondrial respiration, have epigenetic modifications on gene expression, mimic fetal nutrient restriction, and alter postnatal glu...
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - June 27, 2018 Category: OBGYN Authors: Linda A. Barbour, Christina Scifres, Amy M. Valent, Jacob E. Friedman, Thomas Buchanan, Donald Coustan, Kjersti Aagaard, Kent L. Thornburg, Patrick M. Catalano, Henry Galan, William W. Hay, Antonio E. Frias, Kartik Shankar, Rebecca A. Simmons, Robert G. M Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research