Association of type 1 diabetes and school wellbeing: a population-based cohort study of 436,439 Danish schoolchildren
Conclusions/interpretationIn Denmark, children with type 1 diabetes generally feel well supported in school but have more headaches than other children. Poor glycaemic control is associated with worse psychological school-related wellbeing.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the underlying mechanisms of improved glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a secondary analysis of a randomised clinical trial
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe aim was to investigate whether an intensive lifestyle intervention, with high volumes of exercise, improves beta cell function and to explore the role of low-grade inflammation and body weight.MethodsThis was a randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled trial. Ninety-eight individuals with type 2 diabetes (duration
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of dulaglutide on liver fat in patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD: randomised controlled trial (D-LIFT trial)
Conclusions/interpretationWhen included in the standard treatment for type 2 diabetes, dulaglutide significantly reduces LFC and improves GGT levels in participants with NAFLD. There were non-significant reductions in PFC, liver stiffness, serum AST and serum ALT levels. Dulaglutide could be considered for the early treatment of NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT03590626FundingThe current study was supported by an investigator-initiated study grant from Medanta –The Medicity’s departmental research fund and a grant from the Endocrine and Diabetes Foundation (EDF), In...
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Low concentration IL-1 β promotes islet amyloid formation by increasing hIAPP release from humanised mouse islets in vitro
Conclusions/interpretationUnder amyloidogenic conditions, physiologically relevant levels of IL-1 β promote islet amyloid formation by increasing beta cell release of IAPP. Neutralisation of this effect of IL-1β may decrease the deleterious effects of islet amyloid formation on beta cell function and survival.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Loneliness and type 2 diabetes incidence: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Conclusions/interpretationLoneliness is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this relationship remain to be elucidated.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A personalised screening strategy for diabetic retinopathy: a cost-effectiveness perspective
Conclusions/interpretationThe personalised diabetic retinopathy screening model is more cost-effective than the Dutch guideline screening strategy. Although the personalised screening strategy was less effective, in terms of timely diagnosis of STR patients, than annual screening, the number of delayed STR diagnoses is low and the cost saving is considerable. With around one million people with type 2 diabetes in the Netherlands, implementing this personalised model could save €11.4 million per year compared with annual screening, at the cost of 658 delayed STR diagnoses with a maximum delayed time to diagnosis of 48&...
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

An atlas on risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a wide-angled Mendelian randomisation study
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe aim of this study was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to identify the causal risk factors for type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe first conducted a review of meta-analyses and review articles to pinpoint possible risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Around 170 possible risk factors were identified of which 97 risk factors with available genetic instrumental variables were included in MR analyses. To reveal more risk factors that were not included in our MR analyses, we conducted a review of published MR studies of type 2 diabetes. For our MR analyses, we used summary-level data from the DIAbetes Genetics ...
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Blood glucose levels and COVID-19. Reply to Sardu C, D ’Onofrio N, Balestrieri ML et al [letter] and Lepper PM, Bals R, Jüni P et al [letter]
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Next steps in the identification of gene targets for type 1 diabetes
AbstractThe purpose of this review is to provide a view of the future of genomics and other omics approaches in defining the genetic contribution to all stages of risk of type 1 diabetes and the functional impact and clinical implementations of the associated variants. From the recognition nearly 50  years ago that genetics (in the form of HLA) distinguishes risk of type 1 diabetes from type 2 diabetes, advances in technology and sample acquisition through collaboration have identified over 60 loci harbouring SNPs associated with type 1 diabetes risk. Coupled with HLA region genes, these varia nts account for the majo...
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Systemic risk factors contribute differently to the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular oedema
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe purpose of screening for diabetic retinopathy is to detect either of the two sight-threatening complications: proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or clinically significant diabetic macular oedema (DME). The aim of the study was to evaluate whether systemic risk factors affect the risk of developing these two complications differently.MethodsSurvival analysis with death as a competing risk was used to describe the effect of sex, age and time of onset of diabetes, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BPs, and the weighted exposure and CV of HbA1c for the development of PDR and DME from all 2773 ...
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Higher BMI is associated with smaller regional brain volume in older adults with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationIn older adults with type 2 diabetes, long-term adiposity may have a detrimental impact on volume of brain regions relevant to cognitive functioning. Further studies to identify the underlying mechanisms are warranted.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A 2  year physical activity and dietary intervention attenuates the increase in insulin resistance in a general population of children: the PANIC study
Conclusions/interpretationThe combined physical activity and dietary intervention attenuated the increase in insulin resistance over 2  years in a general population of predominantly normal-weight children. This beneficial effect was partly mediated by changes in physical activity, sedentary time and diet but not changes in body composition.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01803776Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Long-term glucose variability and risk of nephropathy complication in UKPDS, ACCORD and VADT trials
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Blood glucose, diabetes and metabolic control in patients with community-acquired pneumonia
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

John Fuller, 21 October 1937 –2 July 2020
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The making of insulin in health and disease
AbstractThe discovery of insulin in 1921 has been one of greatest scientific achievements of the 20th century. Since then, the availability of insulin has shifted the focus of diabetes treatment from trying to keep patients alive to saving and improving the life of millions. Throughout this time, basic and clinical research has advanced our understanding of insulin synthesis and action, both in healthy and pathological conditions. Yet, multiple aspects of insulin production remain unknown. In this review, we focus on the most recent findings on insulin synthesis, highlighting their relevance in diabetes.Graphical abstract ...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fasting blood glucose at admission is an independent predictor for 28-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 without previous diagnosis of diabetes: a multi-centre retrospective study
In this study, we examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 28-day mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients not previously diagnosed as having diabetes.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective study involving all consecutive COVID-19 patients with a definitive 28-day outcome and FBG measurement at admission from 24 January 2020 to 10 February 2020 in two hospitals based in Wuhan, China. Demographic and clinical data, 28-day outcomes, in-hospital complications and CRB-65 scores of COVID-19 patients in the two hospitals were analysed. CRB-65 is an effective measure for assessing the severi...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Functional changes in beta cells during ageing and senescence
In conclusion, cellular senescence could underlie the functional decline of beta cells during ageing and could represent a novel and promising approach for recovering insulin secretion.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Paracrine regulation of insulin secretion
AbstractPancreatic beta cells are the only cell type in our body capable of producing and secreting insulin to instruct the insulin-sensitive cells and tissues of our bodies to absorb nutrients after a meal. Accurate control of insulin release is of critical importance; too little insulin leads to diabetes, while an excess of insulin can cause potentially fatal hypoglycaemia. Yet, the pancreas of most people will control insulin secretion safely and effectively over decades and in response to glucose excursions driven by tens of thousands of meals. Because we only become aware of the important contributions of the pancreas...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Molecular and functional profiling of human islets: from heterogeneity to human phenotypes
AbstractEfforts to phenotype pancreatic islets have contributed tremendously to our present understanding of endocrine function and diabetes. A continued evolution in approaches to study islet physiology is important given the need to establish reference points for mature islet functionality, understanding biological variation amongst individuals and cells, and the ongoing appreciation of the role for islets in diabetes susceptibility. Recent efforts in islet biology have focused on technological improvements in imaging, molecular profiling and data analysis, along with a push for enhanced transparency and reporting. The i...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Single-cell transcriptome analysis of the Akimba mouse retina reveals cell-type-specific insights into the pathobiology of diabetic retinopathy
Conclusions/interpretationOur study identifies molecular pathways underlying inflammatory, metabolic and oxidative stress-mediated changes in the Akimba mouse model of diabetic retinopathy and distinguishes distinct functional subtypes of inflammatory and macroglial cells.Data availabilityRNA-seq data have been deposited in the ArrayExpress database at EMBL-EBI (www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) under accession number E-MTAB-9061.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A tale of two pancreases: exocrine pathology and endocrine dysfunction
AbstractThe islets of Langerhans are well embedded within the exocrine pancreas (the latter comprised of ducts and acini), but the nature of interactions between these pancreatic compartments and their role in determining normal islet function and survival are poorly understood. However, these interactions appear to be critical, as when pancreatic exocrine disease occurs, islet function and insulin secretion frequently decline to the point that diabetes ensues, termed pancreatogenic diabetes. The most common forms of pancreatogenic diabetes involve sustained exocrine disease leading to ductal obstruction, acinar inflammati...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Transcription factors that shape the mammalian pancreas
AbstractImproving our understanding of mammalian pancreas development is crucial for the development of more effective cellular therapies for diabetes. Most of what we know about mammalian pancreas development stems from mouse genetics. We have learnt that a unique set of transcription factors controls endocrine and exocrine cell differentiation. Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in studying the function of these transcription factors. Mouse and human pancreas development are very similar in many respects, but the devil is in the detail. To unravel human pancreas development in greater detail, in vitro cellula...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Increased risk of metabolic dysfunction in children conceived by assisted reproductive technology
Conclusions/interpretationChildren conceived by IVF/ICSI have a less favourable glucose and cardiovascular metabolic profile in childhood when compared with naturally conceived children. The underlying mechanisms and potential long-term consequences need to be elucidated in future studies.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Organisation of the human pancreas in health and in diabetes
AbstractFor much of the last century, our knowledge regarding the pancreas in type 1 and type 2 diabetes was largely derived from autopsy studies of individuals with these disorders or investigations utilising rodent models of either disease. While many important insights emanated from these efforts, the mode for investigation has increasingly seen change due to the availability of transplant-quality organ-donor tissues, improvements in pancreatic imaging, advances in metabolic assessments of living patients, genetic analyses, technological advances for laboratory investigation and more. As a result, many long-standing not...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: a 23  year cohort study
Conclusions/interpretationAll women with GDM should be intensively monitored for a decade, after which the risk for type 1 diabetes is minimal. However, the incidence of type 2 diabetes remains linear, and therefore individualised lifelong follow-up is recommended. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Metformin improves blood glucose by increasing incretins independent of changes in gluconeogenesis in youth with type 2 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisMetformin is the only approved oral agent for youth with type 2 diabetes but its mechanism of action remains controversial. Recent data in adults suggest a primary role for the enteroinsular pathway, but there are no data in youth, in whom metformin efficacy is only ~50%. Our objectives were to compare incretin concentrations and rates of glucose production and gluconeogenesis in youth with type 2 diabetes before and after short-term metformin therapy compared with peers with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).MethodsThis is a case –control observational study in youth with type 2 diabetes who were...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Transplant strategies for type 1 diabetes: whole pancreas, islet and porcine beta cell therapies
AbstractWhole-organ pancreas and islet transplantations are performed in a highly selected group of patients with diabetes mellitus, primarily those with type 1 diabetes mellitus, complicated by recurrent severe hypoglycaemia or renal failure requiring kidney transplantation. Clinical accessibility to pancreases or islets, and patient characteristics and therapeutic goals, may dictate choice of procedure. Pancreas transplantation is most often performed simultaneous with a kidney transplant, but patients with particularly labile type 1 diabetes may be considered for a pancreas transplant alone. While highly successful at r...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Alpha cell regulation of beta cell function
AbstractThe islet of Langerhans is a complex endocrine micro-organ consisting of a multitude of endocrine and non-endocrine cell types. The two most abundant and prominent endocrine cell types, the beta and the alpha cells, are essential for the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis. While the beta cell produces insulin, the only blood glucose-lowering hormone of the body, the alpha cell releases glucagon, which elevates blood glucose. Under physiological conditions, these two cell types affect each other in a paracrine manner. While the release products of the beta cell inhibit alpha cell function, the alpha cell relea...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Multi-layered epigenetic regulation of IRS2 expression in the liver of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationOur study highlights a new multi-layered epigenetic network that could be involved in subtle dysregulation ofIRS2 in the liver of individuals with type 2 diabetes. This might lead to fine-tuning ofIRS2 expression and is likely to be supplementary to the already known factors regulatingIRS2 expression. Thereby, our findings could support the discovery of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Type 1 diabetes in Africa: an immunogenetic study in the Amhara of North-West Ethiopia
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to characterise the immunogenic background of insulin-dependent diabetes in a resource-poor rural African community. The study was initiated because reports of low autoantibody prevalence and phenotypic differences from European-origin cases with type 1 diabetes have raised doubts as to the role of autoimmunity in this and similar populations.MethodsA study of consecutive, unselected cases of recently diagnosed, insulin-dependent diabetes (n = 236, ≤35 years) and control participants (n = 200) was carried out in the ethnic Amhara of rural North-West Ethiop...
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The pancreas in health and in diabetes
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Impact of a comprehensive digital health programme on HbA 1c and weight after 12  months for people with diabetes and prediabetes: a randomised controlled trial
Conclusions/interpretationThis study did not demonstrate clinical effectiveness for this particular programme. Given their high costs, technology-assisted self-management programmes need to be individually assessed for their effectiveness in improving clinical outcomes for people with diabetes.Trial registrationwww.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12617000549325 (universal trial number U1111 –1189-9094)FundingThis study was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand, the Ministry of Health New Zealand and the Healthier Lives National Science Challenge.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Assessment of the potential role of natural selection in type 2 diabetes and related traits across human continental ancestry groups: comparison of phenotypic with genotypic divergence
Conclusions/interpretationThese analyses suggest that while type 2 diabetes and related traits differ significantly among continental ancestry groups, the differences are consistent with neutral expectations based on heritability and genetic distances. While these analyses do not exclude a modest role for natural selection, they do not support the hypothesis that differential natural selection is necessary to explain the phenotypic differences among these ancestry groups.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gut microbiota profile and selected plasma metabolites in type 1 diabetes without and with stratification by albuminuria
In this study we aimed to investigate the gut microbiota and a panel of targeted plasma metabolites in individuals with type 1 diabetes of long duration without and with different levels of albuminuria.MethodsIn a cross-sectional study we included 161 individuals with type 1 diabetes and 50 healthy control individuals. Individuals with type 1 diabetes were categorised into three groups according to historically measured albuminuria: (1) normoalbuminuria (
Source: Diabetologia - September 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Adiponectin treatment improves insulin resistance in mice by regulating the expression of the mitochondrial-derived peptide MOTS-c and its response to exercise via APPL1 –SIRT1–PGC-1α
Conclusions/interpretationOur findings showed that the APPL1 –SIRT1–PGC-1α pathway regulates the production and/or secretion of skeletal muscle MOTS-c by mediating adiponectin signalling. Our study provides an insight into the cellular and molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of diabetes and shows that MOTS-c is a potential novel therapeutic ta rget in the treatment of diabetes.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Label-free CARS microscopy reveals similar triacylglycerol acyl chain length and saturation in myocellular lipid droplets of athletes and individuals with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationIn contrast to reports of profound differences in the lipid composition of lipids extracted from skeletal muscle from trained and type 2 diabetic individuals, our in situ, LD-specific approach detected only modest differences in TAG composition in LD subpopulations, which were dependent on LD size and subcellular location. If, and to what extent, these modest differences can impact insulin sensitivity remains to be elucidated.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Intestinal microbial metabolites in human metabolism and type 2 diabetes
AbstractHumans with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have an altered gut microbiome. Emerging evidence indicates that it is not only the microorganisms and their structural components, but also their metabolites that influences the host and contributes to the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Here, we discuss some of the mechanisms underlying how microbial metabolites are recognised by the host or are further processed endogenously in the context of type 2 diabetes. We discuss the possibility that gut-derived microbial metabolites fuel the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 ...
Source: Diabetologia - September 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mucosal-associated invariant T cell alterations during the development of human type 1 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationChanges in the frequency and phenotype of circulating MAIT cells were detectable before, at the onset and after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in cross-sectional cohorts. Our results suggest a possible temporal association between peripheral blood MAIT cell alterations and the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - September 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Using genetics to decipher the link between type 2 diabetes and cancer: shared aetiology or downstream consequence?
AbstractRecent developments in the field of genetics have accelerated our understanding of the aetiology of complex diseases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer are no exception, with large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) facilitating exploration of the underlying pathology. Here, we discuss how genetics studies can be used to investigate the relationship between these complex diseases. Observational epidemiological studies consistently report that people with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of several types of cancer. Indeed, type 2 diabetes and cancer share many common risk factors, such as obesity, agei...
Source: Diabetologia - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus impairs circulating proangiogenic granulocytes
AbstractAims/hypothesisCardiovascular risk in diabetes is at least in part attributable to defective angiogenesis. Since diabetes negatively affects blood cells involved in angiogenesis, we herein evaluated whether diabetes impairs proangiogenic granulocytes (PAGs).MethodsWe characterised and quantified PAGs as CD49d+ granulocytes in peripheral blood of participants with type 2 or type 1 diabetes and in non-diabetic control participants. We evaluated PAG antigenic profile and assessed in vitro functional properties of CD49d+ granulocytes using 2D and 3D angiogenesis assays. We also quantified PAGs before and after glucose ...
Source: Diabetologia - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Antagonism of proNGF or its receptor p75 NTR reverses remodelling and improves bladder function in a mouse model of diabetic voiding dysfunction
AbstractAims/hypothesisAlthough 80% of diabetic patients will suffer from voiding difficulties and urinary symptoms, defined as diabetic voiding dysfunction (DVD), therapeutic targets and treatment options are limited. We hypothesise that the blockade of the pro-nerve growth factor (NGF)/p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) axis by an anti-proNGF monoclonal antibody or by a small molecule p75NTR antagonist (THX-B) can restore bladder remodelling (represented by bladder weight) in an animal model of DVD. Secondary outcomes of the study include improvements in bladder compliance, contractility and morphology, as well as in voi...
Source: Diabetologia - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Maternal hypothyroidism in mice influences glucose metabolism in adult offspring
Conclusions/interpretationTherefore, gestational hypothyroidism induces long-term alterations in endocrine pancreas function, which may have implications for type 2 diabetes prevention in affected individuals. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetic neuropathy: the future is promising. Reply to Uusitupa M, Niskanen L, Laitinen T [letter] and Coppini DV [letter]
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Divergent pathologies and treatment options for diabetic neuropathies
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetic neuropathy: are we still barking up the wrong tree and is change finally in sight?
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The association of hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance with incident depressive symptoms over 4  years of follow-up: The Maastricht Study
Conclusions/interpretationThe observed temporal association between hyperglycaemia and incident depressive symptoms in this study supports the presence of a mechanistic link between hyperglycaemia and the development of depressive symptoms.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research