Gelatinisation and milling whole-wheat increases postprandial blood glucose: randomised crossover study of adults with type 2 diabetes
ConclusionsBoth the nature of starch and the grain structure of whole-wheat influence the glycaemic response of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.FundingBaking Industry Research Trust of New Zealand and the Riddet Centre of Research Excellence.Trial registrationwww.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12617000328370Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - March 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of ertugliflozin on kidney composite outcomes, renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an analysis from the randomised VERTIS CV trial
Conclusions/interpretationAmong individuals with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic CVD, ertugliflozin reduced the risk for the pre-specified exploratory composite renal endpoint and was associated with preservation of eGFR and reduced UACR.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01986881Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - March 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Donor insulin therapy in intensive care predicts early outcomes after pancreas transplantation
AbstractAims/hypothesisApproximately 50% of organ donors develop hyperglycaemia in intensive care, which is managed with insulin therapy. We aimed to determine the relationships between donor insulin use (DIU) and graft failure in pancreas transplantation.MethodsUK Transplant Registry organ donor data were linked with national data from the UK solid pancreas transplant programme. All pancreas transplants performed between 2004 and 2016 with complete follow-up data were included. Logistic regression models determined associations between DIU and causes of graft failure within 3  months. Area under the receiver operatin...
Source: Diabetologia - March 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Productivity-adjusted life years lost due to type 2 diabetes in Germany in 2020 and 2040
Conclusions/interpretationOn the population level, a substantial increase in productivity burden associated with type 2 diabetes was projected for Germany between 2020 and 2040. Efforts to reduce the incidence rate of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications may attenuate this increase.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - March 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Discoveries from the study of longstanding type 1 diabetes
AbstractAward programmes that acknowledge the remarkable accomplishments of long-term survivors with type 1 diabetes have naturally evolved into research programmes to determine the factors associated with survivorship and resistance to chronic complications. In this review, we present an overview of the methodological sources of selection bias inherent in survivorship research (selection of those with early-onset diabetes, incidence –prevalence bias and bias from losses to follow-up in cohort studies) and the breadth and depth of literature focusing on this special study population. We focus on the learnings from th...
Source: Diabetologia - March 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Habitual exercise is associated with reduced risk of diabetes regardless of air pollution: a longitudinal cohort study
Conclusions/interpretationHigher physical activity and lower PM2.5 exposure are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Habitual physical activity can reduce the risk of diabetes regardless of the levels of PM2.5 exposure. Our results indicate that habitual physical activity is a safe diabetes prevention strategy for people residing in relatively polluted regions.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - March 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes induces dysregulation of microRNAs associated with survival, proliferation and self-renewal in cardiac progenitor cells
Conclusions/interpretationOur results demonstrate that diabetes mellitus induces a marked dysregulation of miRNAs associated with stem cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, and that therapeutic overexpression of prosurvival miR-30c-5p reduced diabetes-induced cell death and loss of MMP in CPCs via the newly identified target for miR-30c-5p, VDAC1.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - March 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fasting glucose, bone area and bone mineral density: a Mendelian randomisation study
AbstractAims/hypothesisObservational studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose levels are associated with a greater risk for hip fracture, smaller bone area and higher bone mineral density (BMD). However, these findings may be biased by residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomisation (MR) utilises genetic variants as instruments for exposures in an attempt to address these biases. Thus, we implemented MR to determine whether fasting glucose levels in individuals without diabetes are causally associated with bone area and BMD at the total hip.MethodsWe selected 35 SNPs strongly a...
Source: Diabetologia - March 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Elevated HDL-bound miR-181c-5p level is associated with diabetic vascular complications in Australian Aboriginal people
AbstractAims/hypothesisDiabetes is a major burden on Australia ’s Indigenous population, with high rates of disease and vascular complications. Diabetic vascular complications are associated with impaired ischaemia-driven angiogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in the regulation of angiogenesis. HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels are inversely associated with the risk of developing diabetic complications and HDL can carry miRNAs. HDL-miRNA profiles differ in disease states and may present as biomarkers with the capacity to act as bioactive signalling molecules. Recent studies have demonstrated that HDL becomes d...
Source: Diabetologia - March 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - March 1, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Altered hormonal and autonomic nerve responses to hypo- and hyperglycaemia are found in overweight and insulin-resistant individuals and may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisResults from animal models and some clinical work suggest a role for the central nervous system (CNS) in glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis by modulation of glucoregulatory hormones and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The aim of this study was to characterise the neuroendocrine response to various glucose concentrations in overweight and insulin-resistant individuals compared with lean individuals.MethodsOverweight/obese (HI,n = 15, BMI ≥27.0 kg/m2) and lean (LO,n = 15, BMI
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

HDL particle size is increased and HDL-cholesterol efflux is enhanced in type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe prevalence of atherosclerosis is increased in type 1 diabetes despite normal-to-high HDL-cholesterol levels. The cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of HDL is a better predictor of cardiovascular events than static HDL-cholesterol. This cross-sectional study addressed the hypothesis that impaired HDL function contributes to enhanced CVD risk within type 1 diabetes.MethodsWe compared HDL particle size and concentration (by NMR), total CEC, ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1)-dependent CEC and ABCA1-independent CEC (by determining [3H]cholesterol efflux from J774-macrophages to ApoB-de...
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The liver –alpha cell axis associates with liver fat and insulin resistance: a validation study in women with non-steatotic liver fat levels
AbstractAims/hypothesisMany individuals who develop type 2 diabetes also display increased glucagon levels (hyperglucagonaemia), which we have previously found to be associated with the metabolic syndrome. The concept of a liver –alpha cell axis provides a possible link between hyperglucagonaemia and elevated liver fat content, a typical finding in the metabolic syndrome. However, this association has only been studied in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hence, we searched for a link between the liver a nd the alpha cells in individuals with non-steatotic levels of liver fat content. We hypothesise...
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A healthy lifestyle mitigates the risk of heart disease related to type 2 diabetes: a prospective nested case –control study in a nationwide Swedish twin cohort
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to examine the association between type 2 diabetes and major subtypes of heart disease, to assess the role of genetic and early-life familial environmental factors in this association and to explore whether and to what extent a healthy lifestyle mitigates the risk of heart disease related to type 2 diabetes.MethodsIn this prospective nested case –control study based on the Swedish Twin Registry, 41,463 twin individuals who were aged ≥40 and heart disease-free were followed up for 16 years (from 1998 to 2014) to detect incident heart disease. Type 2 diabetes was ascertained from...
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Follow-Up Study: newborn anthropometrics and childhood glucose metabolism
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to examine associations of newborn anthropometric measures with childhood glucose metabolism with the hypothesis that greater newborn birthweight, adiposity and cord C-peptide are associated with higher childhood glucose levels and lower insulin sensitivity.MethodsData from the international, multi-ethnic, population-based Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and the HAPO Follow-Up Study were used. The analytic cohort included 4155 children (mean age [SD], 11.4 [1.2] years; 51.0% male). Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of primary predictors, bir...
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Overexpression of d -amino acid oxidase prevents retinal neurovascular pathologies in diabetic rats
Conclusions/interpretationAltogether, overexpression of DAAO before the onset of diabetes protects against neurovascular abnormalities in retinas from diabetic rats, which suggests a novel strategy for preventing diabetic retinopathy.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular health in early adulthood predicts the development of coronary heart disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes: 25  year follow-up from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study
We examined the use of the American Heart Association ’s cardiovascular health metrics (blood pressure, total cholesterol, glucose/HbA1c, BMI, physical activity, diet, smoking) to predict incidence of CHD among individuals with type 1 diabetes, with the hypothesis that a better American Heart Association health metric profile would be associated with lower incident CHD.MethodsPrevalence of the seven cardiovascular health metrics was determined using first and second visits from adult participants (mean age 28.6  years) in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications prospective cohort study of childhood-onset type...
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Family history of type 2 diabetes and characteristics of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisShared aetiopathogenetic factors have been proposed in type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes and both diseases have been shown to cluster in families. Characteristics related to type 2 diabetes have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes. We wanted to characterise the family history of type 2 diabetes and its possible effects on the phenotype and genotype of type 1 diabetes in affected children at diagnosis.MethodsA total of 4993 children under the age of 15  years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Re...
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Lifetime risk of diabetes in metropolitan cities in India
Conclusions/interpretationLifetime risk of diabetes in metropolitan cities in India is alarming across the spectrum of weight and rises dramatically with higher BMI. Prevention of diabetes among metropolitan Indians of all ages is an urgent national priority, particularly given the rapid increase in urban obesogenic environments across the country.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up Front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glucose management for exercise using continuous glucose monitoring: should sex and prandial state be additional considerations? Reply to Yardley JE and Sigal RJ [letter]
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The suitability of patient-reported outcome measures used to assess the impact of hypoglycaemia on quality of life in people with diabetes: a systematic review using COSMIN methods
Conclusions/interpretationNone of the hypoglycaemia-specific PROMs identified had sufficient evidence to demonstrate satisfactory validity, reliability and responsiveness. All were limited in terms of content and structural validity, which restricts their utility for assessing the impact of hypoglycaemia on QoL in the clinic or research setting. Further research is needed to address the content validity of existing PROMs, or the development of new PROM(s), for the purpose of assessing the impact of hypoglycaemia on QoL.Prospero registrationCRD42019125153Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The association of socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness with receipt of type 2 diabetes medications in Australia: a nationwide registry study
Conclusions/interpretationPeople with diabetes in more disadvantaged areas are less likely to receive newer diabetes medications, although this effect decreased over time. However, there are considerable and persistent differences in receipt of newer diabetes medications between major cities and remote areas of Australia.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Urinary podocyte-derived microparticles in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe release of podocyte-derived microparticles into the urine may reflect early kidney injury in diabetes. We measured the urinary excretion of podocyte-derived microparticles in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and related the values to blood pressure, renal function and blood glucose levels.MethodsCross-sectional, exploratory analysis of urine samples and clinical data from youth with type 1 (n = 53) and type 2 (n = 50) diabetes was carried out. Urinary podocyte-derived microparticle numbers, measured by flow cytometry, were assessed in relation to measures of bloo...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glycaemic markers and all-cause mortality in older adults with and without diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study
AbstractAims/hypothesisThere is controversy regarding the performance of HbA1c in old age. We evaluated the prognostic value of HbA1c and other glycaemic markers (fructosamine, glycated albumin, fasting glucose) with mortality risk in older adults (66 –90 years).MethodsThis was a prospective analysis of 5636 participants (31% with diagnosed diabetes, mean age 76, 58% female, 21% black) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, baseline 2011 –2013. We used Cox regression to examine associations of glycaemic markers (modelled in categories) with mortality risk, stratified by diagnosed diabetes...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Depression as a risk factor for dementia in older people with type 2 diabetes and the mediating effect of inflammation
Conclusions/interpretationDepression is an important risk factor for dementia in people with type 2 diabetes. Some inflammatory markers were associated with depression, but systemic inflammation does not appear to mediate the relationship between depression and dementia.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The interaction between metformin and physical activity on postprandial glucose and glucose kinetics: a randomised, clinical trial
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe aim of this parallel-group, double-blinded (study personnel and participants), randomised clinical trial was to assess the interaction between metformin and exercise training on postprandial glucose in glucose-intolerant individuals.MethodsGlucose-intolerant (2  h OGTT glucose of 7.8–11.0 mmol/l and/or HbA1c of 39 –47 mmol/mol [5.7–6.5%] or glucose-lowering-medication naive type 2 diabetes), overweight/obese (BMI 25–42 kg/m2) individuals were randomly allocated to a placebo study group (PLA,n = 15) or a metformin study group (MET,n ...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Association of cardiac autonomic dysfunction with higher levels of plasma lipid metabolites in recent-onset type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationHigher plasma levels of specific lipid metabolites are closely linked to cardiac autonomic dysfunction in recent-onset type 2 diabetes but not type 1 diabetes, suggesting a role for perturbed lipid metabolism in the early development of CAN in type 2 diabetes.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Brain JNK and metabolic disease
AbstractObesity, which has long since reached epidemic proportions worldwide, is associated with long-term stress to a variety of organs and results in diseases including type 2 diabetes. In the brain, overnutrition induces hypothalamic stress associated with the activation of several signalling pathways, together with central insulin and leptin resistance. This central action of nutrient overload appears very rapidly, suggesting that nutrition-induced hypothalamic stress is a major upstream initiator of obesity and associated diseases. The cellular response to nutrient overload includes the activation of the stress-activa...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Increased particle size of triacylglycerol-enriched remnant lipoproteins, but not their plasma concentration or lipid content, augments risk prediction of incident type 2 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisType 2 diabetes prevention requires the accurate identification of those at high risk. Beyond the association of fasting serum triacylglycerols with diabetes, triacylglycerol-enriched remnant lipoproteins (TRLs) more accurately reflect pathophysiological changes that underlie progression to diabetes, such as hepatic insulin resistance, pancreatic steatosis and systemic inflammation. We hypothesised that TRL-related factors could improve risk prediction for incident diabetes.MethodsWe included individuals from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health cohort. We trained a logistic regression mo...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The impact of hospital-diagnosed depression or use of antidepressants on treatment initiation, adherence and HbA 1c /LDL target achievement in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to assess whether current antidepressant therapy or a history of hospital-diagnosed depression affects diabetes treatment initiation, adherence, and HbA1c and LDL-cholesterol target achievement.MethodsIn this register-based study, we included all individuals from Central and Northern Denmark with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, defined as a first-ever HbA1c measurement of ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%), between 2000 and 2016. Individuals either diagnosed with depression at a psychiatric hospital in the 2 years prior to their diabetes diagnosis or currently receiving treatment with an anti...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Circulating biomarkers of nitric oxide bioactivity and impaired muscle vasoreactivity to exercise in adults with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisEarly compromised endothelial function challenges the ability of individuals with type 1 diabetes to perform normal physical exercise. The exact mechanisms underlying this vascular limitation remain unknown, but may involve either formation or metabolism of nitric oxide (NO), a major vasodilator, whose activity is known to be compromised by oxidative stress.MethodsMuscle microvascular reactivity (near-infrared spectroscopy) to an incremental exhaustive bout of exercise was assessed in 22 adults with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 64.5  ± 15.7 mmol/mol; 8.0 &plus...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of long-term vitamin D and n -3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: secondary analyses from a randomised controlled trial
Conclusions/interpretationAmong adults with type 2 diabetes, supplementation with vitamin D3 orn-3 fatty acids did not reduce IL-6, hsCRP or NT-proBNP over 5  years.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684722FundingThe study was funded by grant R01DK088762 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding safety and tolerability study of the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody otelixizumab in new-onset type 1 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisNumerous clinical studies have investigated the anti-CD3 ɛ monoclonal antibody otelixizumab in individuals with type 1 diabetes, but limited progress has been made in identifying the optimal clinical dose with acceptable tolerability and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dose–response, safety and tolerability, beta c ell function preservation and the immunological effects of otelixizumab in new-onset type 1 diabetes.MethodsIn this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, 24  month study, conducted in five centres in Belgium via the Belgian Diabetes...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and liver fat response to exercise training in sedentary dysglycaemic and normoglycaemic men
Conclusion/interpretationPlasma BCAA concentration was largely unresponsive to long-term exercise and unrelated to exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, the insulin-sensitising effect of long-term exercise in men may be explained by enhanced SkM and, to a lesser degree, also by enhanced ScWAT BCAA catabolism.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Anti-M üllerian hormone levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women
Conclusions/interpretationWe observed that lower age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Longitudinal analyses did not show clear evidence of differing AMH trajectories between women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not, possibly because these analyses were underpowered. Further research is needed to investigate whether AMH is part of the biological mechanism explaining the association between reproductive ageing and type 2 diabetes.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Impact of age at type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis on mortality and vascular complications: systematic review and meta-analyses
AbstractAims/hypothesisFew studies examine the association between age at diagnosis and subsequent complications from type 2 diabetes. This paper aims to summarise the risk of mortality, macrovascular complications and microvascular complications associated with age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.MethodsData were sourced from MEDLINE and All EBM (Evidence Based Medicine) databases from inception to July 2018. Observational studies, investigating the effect of age at diabetes diagnosis on macrovascular and microvascular diabetes complications in adults with type 2 diabetes were selected according to pre-specified criteria....
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics in relation to oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity
AbstractAims/hypothesisMitochondria operate in networks, adapting to external stresses and changes in cellular metabolic demand and are subject to various quality control mechanisms. On the basis of these traits, we here hypothesise that the regulation of mitochondrial networks in skeletal muscle is hampered in humans with compromised oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity.MethodsIn a cross-sectional design, we compared four groups of participants (selected from previous studies) ranging in aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity, i.e. participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 11), obese participants withou...
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in prediabetes: a systematic review
Conclusions/interpretationThere is a higher than expected prevalence of CAN in prediabetes. Early detection of CAN in prediabetes through population screening needs careful consideration in view of the excess morbidity and mortality risk associated with this condition.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Urinary podocyte-derived microparticles in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
The names Fengxia Xiao and Thalia Medeiros were spelt incorrectly in the author list. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of long-term vitamin D and n -3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: secondary analyses from a randomised controlled trial
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05339-6 (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Association of T-wave abnormalities with major cardiovascular events in diabetes: the ACCORD trial
AbstractAims/hypothesisT-wave abnormalities (TWA) are often found on ECG and signify abnormal ventricular repolarisation. While TWA have been shown to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, the relationship between TWA and hard cardiovascular endpoints is less clear and may differ in the presence of diabetes, so we sought to explore these associations in participants from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial.MethodsTWA were operationally defined as the presence of any Minnesota Codes 5-1 through 5-4 in any lead distribution. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constru...
Source: Diabetologia - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with prior hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions/interpretationHDP are independently associated with a higher risk of diabetes. Further study is needed to determine how HDP contribute to diabetes risk prediction to develop evidence-based screening and prevention strategies.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glucose management for exercise using continuous glucose monitoring: should sex and prandial state be additional considerations?
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

SUR1-mutant iPS cell-derived islets recapitulate the pathophysiology of congenital hyperinsulinism
Conclusions/interpretationWe have created a model recapitulating the known pathophysiology of KATPHI both in vitro and in vivo. We have also identified a novel role for KATP-channel activity during human islet development. This model will enable further studies for the improved understanding and clinical management of KATPHI without the need for primary patient tissue.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Reducing intergenerational obesity and diabetes risk
AbstractTo address the intergenerational transmission of obesity and diabetes, strategies promoting the health of women of reproductive age appear to be urgently needed. In this narrative review, we summarise what has been learned from many prenatal clinical trials, discuss the emerging evidence from preconception clinical trials and highlight persistent gaps and critical future directions. Most trials tested prenatal interventions that resulted in a limited gestational weight gain of ~1  kg and reduced gestational diabetes by 20–30%. These interventions also reduced macrosomia by 20–40% but had little-to-...
Source: Diabetologia - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Lower insulin clearance is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Native Americans
AbstractAims/hypothesisImpaired insulin clearance is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, but prospective evidence remains limited. Therefore, we sought to identify factors associated with the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) and to investigate whether lower MCRI is associated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes.MethodsFrom a longitudinal cohort, 570 adult Native Americans without diabetes living in the Southwestern United States were characterised at baseline and 448 participants were monitored over a median follow-up period of 7.9  years with 146 (32%) incident cases of diabetes i...
Source: Diabetologia - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Association between diabetes and haematological malignancies: a population-based study
AbstractAims/hypothesisContemporary data for the association of diabetes with haematological malignancies are lacking. We evaluated the risk of developing haematological malignancies and subsequent mortality in individuals with diabetes compared with those without diabetes.MethodsWe conducted a population-based observational study using healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada. All Ontario residents 30  years of age or older free of cancer and diabetes between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Using Cox regression analyses, we explored the association between diabetes and the risk and m...
Source: Diabetologia - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Plasma concentrations of lipoproteins and risk of lower-limb peripheral artery disease in people with type 2 diabetes: the SURDIAGENE study
Conclusions/interpretationWe reported independent associations between HDL-cholesterol, ApoA-I, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio or non-HDL-cholesterol and the prevalence or the incidence of major PAD in people with type 2 diabetes. Our findings provide a picture of lipoprotein profile in people with type 2 diabetes.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

First-appearing islet autoantibodies for type 1 diabetes in young children: maternal life events during pregnancy and the child ’s genetic risk
The objective of this study was to examine the association between life events during pregnancy and first-appearing islet autoantibodies (IA) in young children, conditioned by the child’s type 1 diabetes-related genetic risk.MethodsThe IA status of 7317 genetically at-risk The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) participants was assessed every 3  months from 3 months to 4 years, and bi-annually thereafter. Reports of major life events during pregnancy were collected at study inception when the child was 3 months of age and placed into one of six categories. Life events duri...
Source: Diabetologia - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research