Trends and cyclical variation in the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in 26 European centres in the 25  year period 1989–2013: a multicentre prospective registration study
Conclusions/interpretationDespite reductions in the rate of increase in some high-risk countries, the pooled estimate across centres continues to show a 3.4% increase per annum in incidence rate, suggesting a doubling in incidence rate within approximately 20  years in Europe. Although four centres showed support for a cyclical pattern of incidence with a 4 year periodicity, no plausible explanation for this can be given. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, brain atrophy and cognitive decline in older people: a longitudinal study
Conclusions/interpretationIn older community-dwelling people, type 2 diabetes is associated with decline in verbal memory and fluency over ~5  years. The effect of diabetes on brain atrophy may begin earlier (midlife). (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Maternal metabolites during pregnancy are associated with newborn outcomes and hyperinsulinaemia across ancestries
Conclusions/interpretationThe maternal metabolome during pregnancy is associated with newborn outcomes. Maternal levels of amino acids, acylcarnitines, lipids and fatty acids and their metabolites during pregnancy relate to fetal growth, adiposity and cord C-peptide, independent of maternal BMI and blood glucose levels. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Randomised, phase 1, dose-finding study of MEDI4166, a PCSK9 antibody and GLP-1 analogue fusion molecule, in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusions/interpretationMEDI4166 was associated with an acceptable tolerability profile and significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes. However, there were no significant reductions in postprandial glucose levels at any dose of MEDI4166.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524782FundingThis study was funded by MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Anti-fumarase antibody promotes the dropout of photoreceptor inner and outer segments in diabetic macular oedema
AbstractAims/hypothesisIn diabetic macular oedema (DMO), blood components passing through the disrupted blood –retinal barrier cause neuroinflammation, but the mechanism by which autoantibodies induce neuroglial dysfunction is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify a novel autoantibody and to evaluate its pathological effects on clinically relevant photoreceptor injuries.MethodsBiochemical purification and subsequent peptide fingerprinting were applied to identify autoantigens. The titres of autoantibodies in DMO sera were quantified and their associations with clinical variables were evaluated. Two animal mo...
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

What do we know about the trends in incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes?
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neoepitopes: a new take on beta cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes
AbstractType 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. The epitopes recognised by pathogenic T cells in human type 1 diabetes are poorly defined; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that T cell responses against neoepitopes contribute to beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. Neoepitopes are formed when self-proteins undergo post-translational modification to create a new epitope that is recognised by T- or B cells. Here we review the role of human T cell responses against neoepitopes in the immune pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Speci...
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Tetraspanin 7 autoantibodies predict progressive decline of beta cell function in individuals with LADA
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe aim of this work was to investigate whether tetraspanin 7 autoantibodies (TSPAN7A) are valuable in predicting poor beta cell function in individuals with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).MethodsThe cross-sectional study involved participants with LADA (n = 173), type 1 diabetes (n = 158), type 2 diabetes (n = 204) and healthy control participants (n = 170). The longitudinal study involved 53 participants with LADA, with a 3-year follow-up. In both cohorts, TSPAN7A in the sera were measured by a luciferase immunoprecipitation syste...
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

One hour post-load plasma glucose and 3 year risk of worsening fasting and 2  hour glucose tolerance in the RISC cohort
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genomic annotation of disease-associated variants reveals shared functional contexts
AbstractVariation in non-coding DNA, encompassing gene regulatory regions such as enhancers and promoters, contributes to risk for complex disorders, including type 2 diabetes. While genome-wide association studies have successfully identified hundreds of type 2 diabetes loci throughout the genome, the vast majority of these reside in non-coding DNA, which complicates the process of determining their functional significance and level of priority for further study. Here we review the methods used to experimentally annotate these non-coding variants, to nominate causal variants and to link them to diabetes pathophysiology. I...
Source: Diabetologia - February 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diurnal rhythms in the white adipose tissue transcriptome are disturbed in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with lean control individuals
Conclusions/interpretationDiurnal clock and metabolic gene expression rhythms are decreased in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with lean control participants. Future investigation is needed to explore potential treatment targets as identified by our study, including clock enhancement and induction of EIF2 signalling.Data availabilityThe raw sequencing data and supplementary files for rhythmic expression analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis have been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO series accession number GSE104674). (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: The discovery of novel predictive biomarkers and early-stage pathophysiology for the transition from gestational diabetes to type 2 diabetes
Unfortunately, the graph in Fig. 5f became misaligned during typesetting. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on diabetes remission and complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a Danish population-based matched cohort study
Conclusions/interpretationIn routine clinical care, three out of four individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity treated by RYGB experienced diabetes remission after 1  year, whereas 27% of these individuals had relapsed at 5 years follow-up. RYGB was associated with substantially decreased risk of microvascular complications and non-significantly fewer macrovascular complications, with early diabetes remission as a clear predictor of reduced microvascular compl ications. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Black African men with early type 2 diabetes have similar muscle, liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity to white European men despite lower visceral fat
AbstractAims/hypothesisType 2 diabetes is more prevalent in black African than white European populations although, paradoxically, black African individuals present with lower levels of visceral fat, which has a known association with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance occurs at a tissue-specific level; however, no study has simultaneously compared whole body, skeletal muscle, hepatic and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity between black and white men. We hypothesised that, in those with early type 2 diabetes, black (West) African men (BAM) have greater hepatic and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, compared with white...
Source: Diabetologia - February 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

DOC2B promotes insulin sensitivity in mice via a novel KLC1-dependent mechanism in skeletal muscle
Conclusions/interpretationThese results suggest that DOC2B collaborates with KLC1 to regulate insulin-stimulated GLUT4 accumulation at the PM and regulates insulin sensitivity. Our observation provides a basis for pursuing DOC2B as a novel drug target in the muscle to prevent/treat type 2 diabetes. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - February 1, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and incident type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal cohort study
This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of exposure to ambient PM2.5 on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a population of Taiwanese adults.MethodsA total of 147,908 participants without diabetes, at least 18  years of age, were recruited in a standard medical examination programme between 2001 and 2014. They were encouraged to take medical examinations periodically and underwent at least two measurements of fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Incident type 2 diabetes was identified as FPG ≥7 mmol/l or sel f-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes in the subsequent medical visits. The PM2.5 concentratio...
Source: Diabetologia - January 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Operational immune tolerance towards transplanted allogeneic pancreatic islets in mice and a non-human primate
Conclusions/interpretationWe are currently evaluating the safety and efficacy of intraocular islet transplantation in a phase 1 clinical trial. In this study, we demonstrate immunosuppression-free long-term survival of intraocular islet allografts in mice and in a baboon using transient peri-transplant immune intervention. These results highlight the potential for inducing islet transplant immune tolerance through the intraocular route. Therefore, the current findings are conceptually significant and may impact markedly on clinical islet transplantation in the treatment of diabetes. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Empagliflozin enhances human and murine cardiomyocyte glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Adipokines and the insulin resistance syndrome in familial partial lipodystrophy caused by a mutation in lamin A/C
The authors regret that Alexandra Bargiota ’s name was spelt incorrectly in the author list. The details given in this correction are correct. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of combined GIP and GLP-1 infusion on energy intake, appetite and energy expenditure in overweight/obese individuals: a randomised, crossover study
Conclusions/interpretationWhile GLP-1 infusion lowered energy intake in overweight/obese men, simultaneous GIP infusion did not potentiate this GLP-1-mediated effect.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT02598791FundingThis study was supported by grants from the Innovation Fund Denmark and the Vissing Foundation. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Rationale for enteroviral vaccination and antiviral therapies in human type 1 diabetes
AbstractIn type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by chronic autoimmune responses. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals, but a role for environmental factors has been postulated. Viral infections have long been considered as candidates for environmental triggers but, given the lack of evidence for an acute, widespread, cytopathic effect in the pancreas in type 1 diabetes or for a closely related temporal association of diabetes onset with such infections, a role for viruses in type 1 diabetes remains unproven. Moreover, viruses have rarely been isolated from the pancreas of individuals ...
Source: Diabetologia - January 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The PNPLA3 rs738409 C & gt;G variant interacts with changes in body weight over time to aggravate liver steatosis, but reduces the risk of incident type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationThePNPLA3 GG genotype interacted with changes in body weight to aggravate liver steatosis but reduced the risk of incident type 2 diabetes in metabolically unhealthy participants. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Trends in incidence and case fatality of acute myocardial infarction, angina and coronary revascularisation in people with and without type 2 diabetes in Scotland between 2006 and 2015
Conclusions/interpretationThe incidence of AMI, angina, revascularisation and AMI case fatality has declined over time, but the increased risk associated with type 2 diabetes has remained approximately constant. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of duration and burden of microvascular complications on mortality rate in type 1 diabetes: an observational clinical cohort study
Conclusions/interpretationNeuropathy and diabetic kidney disease are strong and independent risk markers of mortality in type 1 diabetes, whereas no evidence of higher mortality rate was found for retinopathy. We found no indication that the mortality risk with multiple complications exceeds the risk conferred by each complication separately. The duration spent with microvascular complications had only a marginal effect on mortality. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Maternal glucose levels during pregnancy and childhood adiposity in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Follow-up Study
Conclusions/interpretationExposure to higher levels of glucose in utero is independently associated with childhood adiposity, including being overweight/obese, obesity, skinfold thickness, per cent body fat and waist circumference. Glucose levels less than those diagnostic of diabetes are associated with greater childhood adiposity; this may have implications for long-term metabolic health. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The discovery of novel predictive biomarkers and early-stage pathophysiology for the transition from gestational diabetes to type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationWe reveal a novel predictive signature and associate reduced sphingolipids with the pathophysiology of transition from GDM to type 2 diabetes. Attenuating sphingolipid metabolism in islets impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ideal cardiovascular health, glycaemic status and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study
AbstractAims/hypothesisIdeal cardiovascular health (CVH) is associated with lower diabetes risk. However, it is unclear whether this association is similar across glycaemic levels (normal [
Source: Diabetologia - January 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preserved glucose response to low-dose glucagon after exercise in insulin-pump-treated individuals with type 1 diabetes: a randomised crossover study
Conclusions/interpretationModerate cycling for 45  min did not impair the glucose response to glucagon compared with the glucose response after resting. The glucose fall during cycling was diminished by a pre-exercise injection of 200 μg glucagon; however, no significant difference was seen in the number of events of hypoglycaemia.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov NCT02882737FundingThe study was funded by the Danish Diabetes Academy founded by Novo Nordisk foundation and by an unrestricted grant from Zealand Pharma (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Expression of GLP-1 receptors in insulin-containing interneurons of rat cerebral cortex
In this study, we aimed to determine whether GLP-1 receptors are present in insulin- containing neurons.MethodsWe harvested the cytoplasm of electrophysiologically and anatomically identified neurogliaform interneurons during patch-clamp recordings performed in slices of rat neocortex. Using single-cell digital PCR, we determined copy numbers ofGlp1r mRNA and other key genes in neurogliaform cells harvested in conditions corresponding to hypoglycaemia (0.5  mmol/l glucose) and hyperglycaemia (10 mmol/l glucose). In addition, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on neurogliaform cells to test the effects...
Source: Diabetologia - January 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Identification of an intracellular metabolic signature impairing beta cell function in the rat beta cell line INS-1E and human islets
As part of an institutional investigation by University of Bremen, the work carried out by Kathrin Maedler ’s laboratory has been reviewed. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The effect of dapagliflozin on glycaemic control and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a real-world observational study
Conclusions/interpretationDapagliflozin exposure was associated with reductions in HbA1c, SBP, body weight and BMI that were at least as large as in clinical trials. Dapagliflozin also prevented the expected rise in HbA1c and SBP over the period of study. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Carvedilol prevents counterregulatory failure and impaired hypoglycaemia awareness in non-diabetic recurrently hypoglycaemic rats
Conclusions/interpretationWe conclude that carvedilol may be a useful therapy to prevent counterregulatory failure and improve IAH. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Nuts as a replacement for carbohydrates in the diabetic diet: a reanalysis of a randomised controlled trial
In contrast to statements made in the above paper, measurements of waist and hip circumference were in fact available. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Therapeutic regulation of VE-cadherin with a novel oligonucleotide drug for diabetic eye complications using retinopathy mouse models
Conclusions/interpretationCD5-2 has therapeutic potential for individuals with vascular-leak-associated retinal diseases based on its ease of delivery and its ability to reverse vascular dysfunction and inflammatory aspects in three animal models of retinopathy. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The many secret lives of adipocytes: implications for diabetes
AbstractAdipose tissue remains a cryptic organ. The ubiquitous presence of adipocytes, the different fat pads in distinct anatomical locations, the many different types of fat, in each case with their distinct precursor populations, and the ability to interchange into other types of fat cells or even de-differentiate altogether, offers a staggering amount of complexity to the adipose tissue organ as a whole. Adipose tissue holds the key to improving our understanding of systemic metabolic homeostasis. As such, understanding adipose tissue physiology offers the basis for a mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiology of...
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Use of human islets to understand islet biology and diabetes: progress, challenges and suggestions
AbstractOver the last two decades, improved access to human islets and the development of human islet distribution networks have enabled the use of millions of human islets in hundreds of scientific research projects, leading to a dramatic increase in our understanding of human islet biology. Here we discuss recent scientific advances as well as methodological and experimental challenges that impact human islet quality, experimental outcomes and the reporting of human islets used in scientific publications. In a survey of over 200 scientific publications with human islet experimentation, we found that the reporting of crit...
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Association between maternal diabetes, being large for gestational age and breast-feeding on being overweight or obese in childhood
Conclusion/interpretationLGA is a stronger marker for risk of being overweight/obese in early childhood, compared with maternal diabetes during pregnancy. Rates of being overweight/obese in childhood were highest in LGA children born to mothers with gestational diabetes or pre-existing type 2 diabetes. Breast-feeding was associated with a lower risk of being overweight/obese in childhood in the majority of children; however, this association was not maintained in LGA children of mothers with diabetes. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A novel rare CUBN variant and three additional genes identified in Europeans with and without diabetes: results from an exome-wide association study of albuminuria
AbstractAims/hypothesisIdentifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants.MethodsWe performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Data from 33,985 individuals of European ancestry (15,872 with and 18,113 without diabetes) and 2605 Greenlanders wer...
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E 2 /EP 2 receptor signalling pathway promotes diabetic retinopathy in a rat model of diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationThe PGE2/EP2R signalling pathway is involved in STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy and could be considered as a potential target for diabetic retinopathy prevention and treatment. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Increased NEFA levels reduce blood Mg 2+ in hypertriacylglycerolaemic states via direct binding of NEFA to Mg 2+
Conclusions/interpretationThis study shows that elevated NEFA and triacylglycerol levels directly reduce blood Mg2+ levels, in part explaining the high prevalence of hypomagnesaemia in metabolic disorders. We show that blood NEFA level affects the free Mg2+ concentration, and therefore, our data challenge how the fractional excretion of Mg2+ is calculated and interpreted in the clinic. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Skin autofluorescence predicts incident type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population
AbstractAims/hypothesisEarlier studies have shown that skin autofluorescence measured with an AGE reader estimates the accumulation of AGEs in the skin, which increases with ageing and is associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we examined whether the measurement of skin autofluorescence can predict 4  year risk of incident type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in the general population.MethodsFor this prospective analysis, we included 72,880 participants of the Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study, who underwent baseline investigations between 2007 and 2013, had...
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of coronary artery calcification testing in incident coronary artery disease risk prediction in type 1 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationCAC is strongly associated with incident CAD events in individuals with type 1 diabetes; its inclusion in CAD risk models may lead to improvement in prediction over established risk factors. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the first trimester and subsequent development of gestational diabetes mellitus
This study investigates the relationship between NAFLD in the first trimester and the subsequent development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).MethodsA multicentre, prospective cohort study was conducted in which singleton pregnant Korean women were assessed for NAFLD at 10 –14 weeks using liver ultrasound, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Maternal plasma adiponectin and selenoprotein P concentrations were measured. Participants were screened for GDM using the two-step approach at 24–28 weeks.ResultsSix hundred and eight women were included in the final analysis. The pre...
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes and the risk of incident hearing loss
Conclusions/interpretationIn this large longitudinal study, type 2 diabetes was associated with a modestly higher risk of moderate or worse hearing loss. Furthermore, longer duration diabetes was associated with a higher risk of moderate or worse hearing loss. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gestational diabetes in young women predicts future risk of serious liver disease
Conclusion/interpretationGDM is associated with future risk of serious liver disease in young women, the development of which may be dependent upon progression to non-gestational diabetes. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A call for improved reporting of human islet characteristics in research articles
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Afternoon exercise is more efficacious than morning exercise at improving blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised crossover trial
Conclusions/interpretationAfternoon HIIT was more efficacious than morning HIIT at improving blood glucose in men with type 2 diabetes. Strikingly, morning HIIT had an acute, deleterious effect, increasing blood glucose. However, studies of longer training regimens are warranted to establish the persistence of this adverse effect. Our data highlight the importance of optimising the timing of exercise when prescribing it as treatment for type 2 diabetes. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A variant of the glucose transporter gene SLC2A2 modifies the glycaemic response to metformin therapy in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe aim of this study was to investigate the modifying effect of the glucose transporter (GLUT2) geneSLC2A2 (rs8192675) variant on the glycaemic response to metformin in individuals recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.MethodsIndividuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 508) from the prospective German Diabetes Study (age [mean ± SD] 53 ± 10 years; 65% male; BMI 32 ± 6 kg/m2, metformin use 57%) underwent detailed metabolic characterisation (hyperinsulinaemic –euglycaemic clamp, IVGTT) during the first year after diagnosis. Par...
Source: Diabetologia - January 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research