Neuron-specific biomarkers predict hypo- and hyperalgesia in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe individual risk of progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is difficult to predict for each individual. Mutations in proteins that are responsible for the process of myelination are known to cause neurodegeneration and display alteration in experimental models of diabetic neuropathy. In a prospective observational human pilot study, we investigated myelin-specific circulating mRNA targets, which have been identified in vitro, for their capacity in the diagnosis and prediction of diabetic neuropathy. The most promising candidate was tested against the recently established biomarker of neural...
Source: Diabetologia - September 3, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

AT2R deficiency in mice accelerates podocyte dysfunction in diabetic progeny in a sex-dependent manner
Conclusions/interpretationAT2R deficiency accelerated kidney programming in female progeny of diabetic dams, possibly due to loss of protective effects of ACE2 expression in the kidney.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

HLA class I genes modulate disease risk and age at onset together with DR-DQ in Chinese patients with insulin-requiring type 1 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe study aimed to investigate the effects of HLA class I genes on susceptibility to type 1 diabetes with different onset ages, in addition to the well-established effects of HLA class II genes.MethodsA total of 361 patients with type 1 diabetes (192 patients with onset
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Antihypertensive medication needs and blood pressure control with weight loss in the Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial (DiRECT)
Conclusions/interpretationReplacing antihypertensive medications with a 3470  kJ/day (830 kcal) diet to induce weight loss reduces BP substantially and may increase mild dizziness. It is safe to stop antihypertensives, but BP should be monitored regularly, particularly for those taking two or more antihypertensives, as over two-thirds will require reintroduction of some me dications. Long-term support to maintain weight loss is vital.Trial registrationISRCTN registry, number 03267836.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of mitochondrial fission factor
Conclusions/interpretationWe demonstrated that ablation of MFF in liver provoked ER stress and reduced hepatic TG secretion in vivo and in vitro. Moreover,MffLiKO mice were more susceptible to HFD-induced NASH phenotype than control mice, partly because of ER stress-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes and suppression of TG secretion from hepatocytes. This study provides evidence for the role of mitochondrial fission in the development of NASH.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Improving clinical utility of GAD65 autoantibodies by electrochemiluminescence assay and clinical phenotype when identifying autoimmune adult-onset diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisIt is important to differentiate the two major phenotypes of adult-onset diabetes, autoimmune type 1 diabetes and non-autoimmune type 2 diabetes, especially as type 1 diabetes presents in adulthood. Serum GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are the most sensitive biomarker for adult-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes, but the clinical value of GADA by current standard radiobinding assays (RBA) remains questionable. The present study focused on the clinical utility of GADA differentiated by a new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay in patients with adult-onset diabetes.MethodsTwo cohorts were analysed includin...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

HDL and type 2 diabetes: the chicken or the egg?
AbstractHDL is a complex macromolecular cluster of various components, such as apolipoproteins, enzymes and lipids. Quality evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies led to the principle that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely correlated with the risk of CHD. Nevertheless, the failure of many cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors to protect against CVD casts doubts on this principle and highlights the fact that HDL functionality, as dictated by its proteome and lipidome, also plays an important role in protecting against metabolic disorders. Recent data indicate that HDL-C levels and HDL particle...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Comparison between data-driven clusters and models based on clinical features to predict outcomes in type 2 diabetes: nationwide observational study
Conclusions/interpretationThis nationwide observational study found no evidence supporting the existence of a specific number of distinct clusters within type 2 diabetes. The results from this study suggest that a prediction model approach using simple clinical features to predict risk of diabetes complications would be more useful than a cluster sub-stratification.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events in patients with diabetes treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists vs DPP-4 inhibitors
This study aimed to determine the real-world outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus receiving GLP1RAs as compared with those receiving DPP4is in terms of major adverse cardiovascular and limb events.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was conducted with data collected by the Taiwan National Health Insurance database between 1 May 2011 and 31 December 2017. Patients who were treated for type 2 diabetes with a GLP1RA or DDP4i during this period (n = 1,080,993), were identified. The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse limb events, defined as peripheral artery disease (PAD), critical limb ischae...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Development and validation of a cardiovascular risk prediction model in type 1 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to report current rates of CVD in type 1 diabetes and to develop a CVD risk prediction tool for type 1 diabetes.MethodsA cohort of 27,527 people with type 1 diabetes without prior CVD was derived from the national register in Scotland. Incident CVD events during 199,552 person-years of follow-up were ascertained using hospital admissions and death registers. A Poisson regression model of CVD was developed and then validated in the Swedish National Diabetes Register (n = 33,183). We compared the percentage with a high 10 year CVD risk (i.e., ≥10%) using the model with th...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Potentially modifiable risk factors of preterm delivery in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to identify potentially modifiable risk factors and causes for preterm delivery in women with type 1 or type 2 (pre-existing) diabetes.MethodsA secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of 203 women with pre-existing diabetes (117 type 1 and 86 type 2 diabetes) was performed. Consecutive singleton pregnancies were included at the first antenatal visit between September 2015 and February 2018.ResultsIn total, 27% (n = 55) of the 203 women delivered preterm at median 36 + 0 weeks. When stratified by diabetes type, 33% of women with type 1 diabetes delive...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Young age at diabetes diagnosis amplifies the effect of diabetes duration on risk of chronic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study
Conclusions/interpretationYoung age at diabetes diagnosis amplified the effect of increasing diabetes duration on increased risk of CKD.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Polygenic risk scores predict diabetes complications and their response to intensive blood pressure and glucose control
Conclusions/interpretationThis novel multiPRS model stratified individuals with type 2 diabetes according to risk of complications and helped to target earlier those who would receive greater benefit from intensive therapy.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Are people with metabolically healthy obesity really healthy? A prospective cohort study of 381,363 UK Biobank participants
Conclusions/interpretationWeight management should be recommended to all people with obesity, irrespective of their metabolic status, to lower risk of diabetes, ASCVD, HF and respiratory diseases. The term ‘MHO’ should be avoided as it is misleading and different strategies for risk stratification should be explored.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Social networks and type 2 diabetes: a narrative review
AbstractIt has been known for decades that social networks are causally related to disease and mortality risk. However, this field of research and its potential for implementation into diabetes care is still in its infancy. In this narrative review, we aim to address the state-of-the-art of social network research in type 2 diabetes prevention and care. Despite the diverse nature and heterogeneity of social network assessments, we can draw valuable lessons from the available studies. First, the structural network variable ‘living alone’ and the functional network variable ‘lack of social support’ ha...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The effect of morning vs evening exercise training on glycaemic control and serum metabolites in overweight/obese men: a randomised trial
Conclusions/interpretationA short-term HFD in overweight/obese men induced substantial alterations in lipid- and amino acid-related serum metabolites. Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness were similar regardless of the time of day of exercise training. However, improvements in glycaemic control and partial reversal of HFD-induced changes in metabolic profiles were only observed when participants exercise trained in the evening.Trial registrationanzctr.org.au registration no. ACTRN12617000304336.FundingThis study was funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF14OC0011493).Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

M1 macrophage-derived exosomes impair beta cell insulin secretion via miR-212-5p by targeting SIRT2 and inhibiting Akt/GSK-3 β/β-catenin pathway in mice
Conclusions/interpretationA novel exosome-modulated mechanism was delineated for macrophage-beta cell crosstalk that drove beta cell dysfunction and should be explored for its therapeutic utility.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Branched-chain amino acid metabolism is regulated by ERR α in primary human myotubes and is further impaired by glucose loading in type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationMetabolic inflexibility in type 2 diabetes impacts BCAA homeostasis and attenuates the decrease in circulating and skeletal muscle BCAA-related metabolites after a glucose challenge. Transcriptional regulation of BCAA genes in primary human myotubes via PGC-1 α is ERRα-dependent.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Donor insulin use during stay in the intensive care unit should not preclude pancreas transplantation. Reply to Ventura-Aguiar P, Montagud-Marrahi E, Amor AJ et al [letter]
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Donor insulin use during stay in the intensive care unit should not preclude pancreas transplantation
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up Front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

AT2R deficiency in mice accelerates podocyte dysfunction in diabetic progeny in a sex-dependent manner
Conclusions/interpretationAT2R deficiency accelerated kidney programming in female progeny of diabetic dams, possibly due to loss of protective effects of ACE2 expression in the kidney.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

HLA class I genes modulate disease risk and age at onset together with DR-DQ in Chinese patients with insulin-requiring type 1 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe study aimed to investigate the effects of HLA class I genes on susceptibility to type 1 diabetes with different onset ages, in addition to the well-established effects of HLA class II genes.MethodsA total of 361 patients with type 1 diabetes (192 patients with onset
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Antihypertensive medication needs and blood pressure control with weight loss in the Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial (DiRECT)
Conclusions/interpretationReplacing antihypertensive medications with a 3470  kJ/day (830 kcal) diet to induce weight loss reduces BP substantially and may increase mild dizziness. It is safe to stop antihypertensives, but BP should be monitored regularly, particularly for those taking two or more antihypertensives, as over two-thirds will require reintroduction of some me dications. Long-term support to maintain weight loss is vital.Trial registrationISRCTN registry, number 03267836.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of mitochondrial fission factor
Conclusions/interpretationWe demonstrated that ablation of MFF in liver provoked ER stress and reduced hepatic TG secretion in vivo and in vitro. Moreover,MffLiKO mice were more susceptible to HFD-induced NASH phenotype than control mice, partly because of ER stress-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes and suppression of TG secretion from hepatocytes. This study provides evidence for the role of mitochondrial fission in the development of NASH.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Improving clinical utility of GAD65 autoantibodies by electrochemiluminescence assay and clinical phenotype when identifying autoimmune adult-onset diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisIt is important to differentiate the two major phenotypes of adult-onset diabetes, autoimmune type 1 diabetes and non-autoimmune type 2 diabetes, especially as type 1 diabetes presents in adulthood. Serum GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are the most sensitive biomarker for adult-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes, but the clinical value of GADA by current standard radiobinding assays (RBA) remains questionable. The present study focused on the clinical utility of GADA differentiated by a new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay in patients with adult-onset diabetes.MethodsTwo cohorts were analysed includin...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

HDL and type 2 diabetes: the chicken or the egg?
AbstractHDL is a complex macromolecular cluster of various components, such as apolipoproteins, enzymes and lipids. Quality evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies led to the principle that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely correlated with the risk of CHD. Nevertheless, the failure of many cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors to protect against CVD casts doubts on this principle and highlights the fact that HDL functionality, as dictated by its proteome and lipidome, also plays an important role in protecting against metabolic disorders. Recent data indicate that HDL-C levels and HDL particle...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Comparison between data-driven clusters and models based on clinical features to predict outcomes in type 2 diabetes: nationwide observational study
Conclusions/interpretationThis nationwide observational study found no evidence supporting the existence of a specific number of distinct clusters within type 2 diabetes. The results from this study suggest that a prediction model approach using simple clinical features to predict risk of diabetes complications would be more useful than a cluster sub-stratification.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events in patients with diabetes treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists vs DPP-4 inhibitors
This study aimed to determine the real-world outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus receiving GLP1RAs as compared with those receiving DPP4is in terms of major adverse cardiovascular and limb events.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was conducted with data collected by the Taiwan National Health Insurance database between 1 May 2011 and 31 December 2017. Patients who were treated for type 2 diabetes with a GLP1RA or DDP4i during this period (n = 1,080,993), were identified. The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse limb events, defined as peripheral artery disease (PAD), critical limb ischae...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Development and validation of a cardiovascular risk prediction model in type 1 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to report current rates of CVD in type 1 diabetes and to develop a CVD risk prediction tool for type 1 diabetes.MethodsA cohort of 27,527 people with type 1 diabetes without prior CVD was derived from the national register in Scotland. Incident CVD events during 199,552 person-years of follow-up were ascertained using hospital admissions and death registers. A Poisson regression model of CVD was developed and then validated in the Swedish National Diabetes Register (n = 33,183). We compared the percentage with a high 10 year CVD risk (i.e., ≥10%) using the model with th...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Potentially modifiable risk factors of preterm delivery in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to identify potentially modifiable risk factors and causes for preterm delivery in women with type 1 or type 2 (pre-existing) diabetes.MethodsA secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of 203 women with pre-existing diabetes (117 type 1 and 86 type 2 diabetes) was performed. Consecutive singleton pregnancies were included at the first antenatal visit between September 2015 and February 2018.ResultsIn total, 27% (n = 55) of the 203 women delivered preterm at median 36 + 0 weeks. When stratified by diabetes type, 33% of women with type 1 diabetes delive...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Young age at diabetes diagnosis amplifies the effect of diabetes duration on risk of chronic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study
Conclusions/interpretationYoung age at diabetes diagnosis amplified the effect of increasing diabetes duration on increased risk of CKD.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Polygenic risk scores predict diabetes complications and their response to intensive blood pressure and glucose control
Conclusions/interpretationThis novel multiPRS model stratified individuals with type 2 diabetes according to risk of complications and helped to target earlier those who would receive greater benefit from intensive therapy.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Are people with metabolically healthy obesity really healthy? A prospective cohort study of 381,363 UK Biobank participants
Conclusions/interpretationWeight management should be recommended to all people with obesity, irrespective of their metabolic status, to lower risk of diabetes, ASCVD, HF and respiratory diseases. The term ‘MHO’ should be avoided as it is misleading and different strategies for risk stratification should be explored.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Social networks and type 2 diabetes: a narrative review
AbstractIt has been known for decades that social networks are causally related to disease and mortality risk. However, this field of research and its potential for implementation into diabetes care is still in its infancy. In this narrative review, we aim to address the state-of-the-art of social network research in type 2 diabetes prevention and care. Despite the diverse nature and heterogeneity of social network assessments, we can draw valuable lessons from the available studies. First, the structural network variable ‘living alone’ and the functional network variable ‘lack of social support’ ha...
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The effect of morning vs evening exercise training on glycaemic control and serum metabolites in overweight/obese men: a randomised trial
Conclusions/interpretationA short-term HFD in overweight/obese men induced substantial alterations in lipid- and amino acid-related serum metabolites. Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness were similar regardless of the time of day of exercise training. However, improvements in glycaemic control and partial reversal of HFD-induced changes in metabolic profiles were only observed when participants exercise trained in the evening.Trial registrationanzctr.org.au registration no. ACTRN12617000304336.FundingThis study was funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF14OC0011493).Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

M1 macrophage-derived exosomes impair beta cell insulin secretion via miR-212-5p by targeting SIRT2 and inhibiting Akt/GSK-3 β/β-catenin pathway in mice
Conclusions/interpretationA novel exosome-modulated mechanism was delineated for macrophage-beta cell crosstalk that drove beta cell dysfunction and should be explored for its therapeutic utility.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Branched-chain amino acid metabolism is regulated by ERR α in primary human myotubes and is further impaired by glucose loading in type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationMetabolic inflexibility in type 2 diabetes impacts BCAA homeostasis and attenuates the decrease in circulating and skeletal muscle BCAA-related metabolites after a glucose challenge. Transcriptional regulation of BCAA genes in primary human myotubes via PGC-1 α is ERRα-dependent.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Donor insulin use during stay in the intensive care unit should not preclude pancreas transplantation. Reply to Ventura-Aguiar P, Montagud-Marrahi E, Amor AJ et al [letter]
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Donor insulin use during stay in the intensive care unit should not preclude pancreas transplantation
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Up Front
(Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The CREBRF diabetes-protective rs373863828-A allele is associated with enhanced early insulin release in men of M āori and Pacific ancestry
Conclusions/interpretationrs373863828-A allele associates with increased glucose-stimulated insulin release without affecting insulin sensitivity, suggesting thatCREBRF p.Arg457Gln may increase insulin release to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 21, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin on plasma biomarkers TNFR-1, TNFR-2 and KIM-1 in the CANVAS trial
AbstractAims/hypothesisHigher plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) have been found to be associated with higher risk of kidney failure in individuals with type 2 diabetes in previous studies. Whether drugs can reduce these biomarkers is not well established. We measured these biomarkers in samples of the CANVAS study and examined the effect of the sodium –glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on these biomarkers and assessed whether the early change in these biomarkers predict cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in individuals with typ...
Source: Diabetologia - August 20, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Associations between plasma kynurenines and cognitive function in individuals with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Maastricht Study
Conclusions/interpretationSeveral kynurenines were cross-sectionally associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment and better cognitive functioning in type 2 diabetes, while less widespread associations were seen in prediabetes. Low levels of kynurenines might be involved in the pathway of type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline but this needs further studies.Graphical abstract (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 19, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Association of maternal diabetes during pregnancy with high refractive error in offspring: a nationwide population-based cohort study
AbstractAims/hypothesisWe aimed to investigate the associations between maternal diabetes before or during pregnancy and the risk of high refractive error (RE) in offspring until the age of 25  years.MethodsThis nationwide register-based cohort study comprised 2,470,580 individuals born in 1977 –2016. The exposure was maternal diabetes during or before pregnancy (type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes). Cox regression was used to examine the association between maternal diabetes and the risk of high RE in offspring from birth until the age of 25 years, adjusting for m ultiple potential co...
Source: Diabetologia - August 17, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The effect of 6-day subcutaneous glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide infusion on time in glycaemic range in patients with type 1 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial
AbstractAims/hypothesisType 1 diabetes is characterised by reduced glucagon response to hypoglycaemia, increasing the risk of insulin treatment-associated hypoglycaemia known to hamper glycaemic control. We previously reported a glucagonotropic effect of exogenous glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Here we investigate the effect of a 6-day s.c. GIP infusion on time in glycaemic range as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in individuals with type 1 diabetes.MethodsIn a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover...
Source: Diabetologia - August 17, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Twenty-four hour assessments of substrate oxidation reveal differences in metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetes that are improved with aerobic training
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe aim of this study was to assess metabolic flexibility (MetFlex) in participants with type 2 diabetes within the physiologically relevant conditions of sleeping, the post-absorptive (fasting) state and during meals using 24  h whole-room indirect calorimetry (WRIC) and to determine the impact of aerobic training on these novel features of MetFlex.MethodsNormal-weight, active healthy individuals (active;n = 9), obese individuals without type 2 diabetes (ND;n = 9) and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 23) completed baseline metabolic assessmen...
Source: Diabetologia - August 17, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sleep disorders in people with type 2 diabetes and associated health outcomes: a review of the literature
AbstractSleep disorders are linked to development of type 2 diabetes and increase the risk of developing diabetes complications. Treating sleep disorders might therefore play an important role in the prevention of diabetes progression. However, the detection and treatment of sleep disorders are not part of standardised care for people with type 2 diabetes. To highlight the importance of sleep disorders in people with type 2 diabetes, we provide a review of the literature on the prevalence of sleep disorders in type 2 diabetes and the association between sleep disorders and health outcomes, such as glycaemic control, microv...
Source: Diabetologia - August 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research