The Role of Blood Cell Composition in Epidemiologic Studies of Telomeres
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

The Authors Respond
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re. Selecting Optimal Subgroups for Treatment Using Many Covariates
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Validity of Antineoplastic Procedure Codes in the Danish National Patient Registry: The Case of Colorectal Cancer
Conclusion: The validity of antineoplastic procedure codes in the Danish National Patient Registry is generally high and thus usable for epidemiologic research. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

Do Temporal Trends in Cancer Incidence Reveal Organ System Connections for Cancer Etiology?
Conclusions: These findings suggest that there may be organ system connections for cancers of the endocrine and digestive systems; etiologic approaches focused on clusters of cancers rather than individual cancers may prove fruitful. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

Stumped by the Hump: The Curious Rise and Fall of Norwegian Birthweights, 1991–2007
Conclusions: A distinct temporal hump in mean birthweight among Norwegian term births had no obvious explanations. Furthermore, these fluctuations in birthweight were not associated indirectly with adverse outcomes in measures of infant health. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Maternal and Child Health Source Type: research

Time-varying Effects of Screen Media Exposure in the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Background and Childhood Obesity
Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social inequalities in screen media exposure contribute substantially to social inequalities in childhood obesity. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Maternal and Child Health Source Type: research

Gone But Not Lost: Implications for Estimating HIV Care Outcomes When Loss to Clinic Is Not Loss to Care
Conclusions: The proposed approach relaxes the assumptions inherent in treating loss to follow up as a censoring or competing event in clinical HIV cohort studies. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious diseases Source Type: research

Estimating the Size of a COVID-19 Epidemic from Surveillance Systems
This article provides a Bayesian methodology to estimate outbreak size from one or more surveillance systems such as virologic testing of pneumonia cases or samples from a network of general practitioners. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious diseases Source Type: research

Weight-lowering Effects of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Detection of Breast Cancer Among Obese Women with Diabetes
Conclusions: In this population-based study, the detection of breast cancer gradually increased with GLP-1 RA weight loss categories, particularly among those achieving>10% weight loss. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that substantial weight loss with GLP-1 RAs may improve detection of breast cancer among obese patients with type 2 diabetes. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Pharmacoepidemiology Source Type: research

The Relative Economy and Drug Overdose Deaths
Conclusions: These findings point to important complexity in how the economic and contextual landscape differentially shapes overdose risks, underscoring a need for increased understanding of the mechanisms operating for women and minority groups. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Pharmacoepidemiology Source Type: research

Reducing Bias Due to Outcome Misclassification for Epidemiologic Studies Using EHR-derived Probabilistic Phenotypes
Epidemiologic studies using electronic health record (EHR)-derived phenotypes as outcomes are subject to bias due to phenotyping error. In the case of dichotomous phenotypes, existing methods for misclassified outcomes can be used to reduce bias. In this article, we present a bias correction approach for EHR-derived probabilistic phenotypes: continuous predicted probabilities of the outcome of interest. This approach makes use of correction factors that can be computed by hand and do not require specialized software. We used simulation studies to investigate the performance of the proposed approach under a variety of scena...
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Alcohol-related Outcomes and All-cause Mortality in the Health 2000 Survey by Participation Status and Compared with the Finnish Population
Conclusions: Rates of harms and mortality in non-participants exceed those in participants. Weighted participants’ rates reflected those in the population well by age and sex, but insufficiently by educational attainment. Despite relatively high participation levels (85%), social differentiating factors and levels of harm and mortality were underestimated in the participants. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Using Transportability to Understand Differences in Mediation Mechanisms Across Trial Sites of a Housing Voucher Experiment
Conclusions: Using transport estimators can provide an evidence-based approach for understanding the extent to which differences in compositional factors contribute to differences in indirect effect estimates across sites, and ultimately, to understanding why interventions may have different effects when applied to new populations. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

A Cautionary Note on Extended Kaplan–Meier Curves for Time-varying Covariates
The Kaplan–Meier curve is a standard statistical tool that is used in cohort studies to illustrate how survival during follow-up depends on time-fixed covariates that are measured at baseline. For time-varying covariates, an extended Kaplan–Meier curve has been proposed that is constructed by letting subjects move across risk sets as their covariate levels change during follow-up. It has been claimed, but not proven, that, under a particular independence assumption, this extended Kaplan–Meier curve has a causal interpretation as representing a hypothetical cohort whose covariate values remain constant dur...
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Adaptive Validation Design: A Bayesian Approach to Validation Substudy Design With Prospective Data Collection
An internal validation substudy compares an imperfect measurement of a variable with a gold-standard measurement in a subset of the study population. Validation data permit calculation of a bias-adjusted estimate, which has the same expected value as the association that would have been observed had the gold-standard measurement been available for the entire study population. Existing guidance on optimal sampling for validation substudies assumes complete enrollment and follow-up of the target cohort. No guidance exists for validation substudy design while cohort data are actively being collected. In this article, we use t...
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

The Role of Ambient Particle Radioactivity in Inflammation and Endothelial Function in an Elderly Cohort
Conclusion: Regional particle radioactivity is positively associated with inflammatory biomarkers, indicating a potential pathway for radiation-induced cardiovascular effects. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Do Election Laws Restricting Public Road Publicity Reduce Road Traffic Crashes and Their Consequences?
Conclusions: This study estimates that the regulation of public road publicity had an overall mild effect on reducing traffic injuries and fatalities in three large cities in Chile. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Residential Proximity to Intensive Animal Agriculture and Risk of Lymphohematopoietic Cancers in the Agricultural Health Study
Conclusion: Residential proximity to intensive animal agriculture was positively associated with risk of NHL and leukemia, even after consideration of occupational animal and pesticide exposures. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Among Older Adults Living Near Construction and Manufacturing Sites
Conclusions: This nationwide ecologic study of older adults suggests that residence in areas with more construction and manufacturing sites is associated with increased ARDS risk. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Young Kyung Do, Winner of the 2020 Rothman Epidemiology Prize
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Rothman Prize Source Type: research

Are Preregistration and Registered Reports Vulnerable to Hacking?
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

The Authors Respond
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re: Selecting Optimal Subgroups for Treatment Using Many Covariates
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

The Authors Respond
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re: Sponsorship by Big Oil, Like the Tobacco Industry, Should Be Banned by the Research Community
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re: Estimating the Population-level Effectiveness of Vaccination Programs in the Netherlands
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Neighborhood Deprivation and Mental Health Among Immigrants to Sweden
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Lung Cancer Mortality Among Smokers and Never-Smokers in the United States
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

E-Values for Mendelian Randomization
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Validation of Questionnaire-based Case Definitions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Conclusion: Our results can be used to parametrize misclassification assumptions for quantitative bias analysis when pulmonary function data are unavailable. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Pulmonary Disease Source Type: research

Is the Association of Early Day Care Attendance with Childhood Asthma Explained by Underlying Susceptibility?
Conclusions: In our study, among most children, early day care was associated with reduced asthma risk at 7 years, and increased risk in a small group of children with very high underlying susceptibility to asthma. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Pulmonary Disease Source Type: research

Cosmetic Tattooing and Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Population-based Case–Control Study from New Hampshire
Conclusion: Our preliminary findings support the possibility of an enhanced risk of early onset basal cell carcinomas at the site of cosmetic tattoos. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

Self-reported Prostate Cancer Progression Status Is Accurate: A Validation Study
Conclusion: Ascertaining prostate cancer progression through self-report provides an efficient and valid approach to enhancing existing cancer cohorts with updated data on progression status. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B658. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

The Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapies
Conclusions: There were increased risks of cardiovascular disease with the use of GnRH agonists and degarelix, but not with bicalutamide monotherapy. This is the first study to observe increased cardiovascular risks with degarelix, but the cause of this association is unclear and merits further investigation. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Cardiovascular Disease Source Type: research

Proton-pump Inhibitor Use and Myocardial Infarction: A Nested Case–Control Study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink
Conclusions: Our study results were not consistent with the hypothesis that PPI use increases MI risk among people without known heart disease. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Cardiovascular Disease Source Type: research

Accuracy of Blood Transfusion Records in a Population-based Perinatal Data Registry
Conclusion: Blood transfusion was documented with reasonable sensitivity in this large population perinatal database. However, validity varied according to risk factor status. Our findings enable researchers to better account for outcome misclassification in studies of obstetrical transfusion risk factors. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Women’s Health Source Type: research

Maternal Thyroid Disorders and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Progeny
Conclusions: Results indicate that maternal thyroid conditions are associated with increased ASD risk in progeny, but suggestively not due to direct effects of thyroid hormones. Instead, factors that influence maternal thyroid function could have etiologic roles in ASD through pathways independent of maternal gestational thyroid hormones and thus be unaffected by medication treatment. Factors known to disrupt thyroid function should be examined for possible involvement in ASD etiology. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Women’s Health Source Type: research

Estrogen Plus Progestin Hormone Therapy and Ovarian Cancer: A Complicated Relationship Explored
Conclusions: Given that estrogen-alone therapy has been shown to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adding a progestin each day ameliorates the carcinogenic effects of estrogen on the cells of origin for all histotypes of ovarian cancer. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Women’s Health Source Type: research

Rural–Urban Differences in Adult Life Expectancy in Indonesia: A Parametric g-formula–based Decomposition Approach
Conclusions: Adult life expectancy is lower in urban than in rural areas in Indonesia and we estimate that this difference is partly related to differences in BMI and systolic BP. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Social Epidemiology Source Type: research

Integrating Surveillance Data to Estimate Race/Ethnicity-specific Hysterectomy Inequalities Among Reproductive-aged Women: Who’s at Risk?
Conclusion: Through strategic surveillance data use and application of bias correction methods, we demonstrate wide differences in hysterectomy incidence by race and ethnicity. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B657. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Social Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Graphical Catalog of Threats to Validity: Linking Social Science with Epidemiology
Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), a prominent tool for expressing assumptions in epidemiologic research, are most useful when the hypothetical data generating structure is correctly encoded. Understanding a study’s data generating structure and translating that data structure into a DAG can be challenging, but these skills are often glossed over in training. Campbell and Stanley’s framework for causal inference has been extraordinarily influential in social science training programs but has received less attention in epidemiology. Their work, along with subsequent revisions and enhancements based on practical exp...
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Social Epidemiology Source Type: research

Effect Decomposition in the Presence of Treatment-induced Confounding: A Regression-with-residuals Approach
Analyses of causal mediation are often complicated by treatment-induced confounders of the mediator–outcome relationship. In the presence of such confounders, the natural direct and indirect effects of treatment on the outcome, into which the total effect can be additively decomposed, are not identified. An alternative but similar set of effects, known as randomized intervention analogues to the natural direct effect (rNDE) and the natural indirect effect (rNIE), can still be identified in this situation, but existing estimators for these effects require a complicated weighting procedure that is difficult to use in p...
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

A Graphical Description of Partial Exchangeability
Partial exchangeability is sufficient for the identification of some causal effects of interest. Here we review the use of common graphical tools and the sufficient component cause model in the context of partial exchangeability. We illustrate the utility of single world intervention graphs (SWIGs) in depicting partial exchangeability and provide an illustrative example of when partial exchangeability might hold in the absence of complete exchangeability. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Aim for Clinical Utility, Not Just Predictive Accuracy
The predictions from an accurate prognostic model can be of great interest to patients and clinicians. When predictions are reported to individuals, they may decide to take action to improve their health or they may simply be comforted by the knowledge. However, if there is a clearly defined space of actions in the clinical context, a formal decision rule based on the prediction has the potential to have a much broader impact. The use of a prediction-based decision rule should be formalized and preferably compared with the standard of care in a randomized trial to assess its clinical utility; however, evidence is needed to...
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Robust Metrics and Sensitivity Analyses for Meta-analyses of Heterogeneous Effects
We describe application of the robust methods to conducting sensitivity analyses for unmeasured confounding in meta-analyses. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Importance of Homogeneous Effect Modification for Causal Interpretation of Meta-analyses
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Toward Credible Patient-centered Meta-analysis
This article draws on econometric research on partial identification to propose principles for patient-centered meta-analysis. One specifies a patient prediction of concern and determines what each available study reveals. Given common imperfections in internal and external validity, studies typically yield credible set-valued rather than point predictions. Thus, a study may enable one to conclude that a probability of disease, or mean treatment response, lies within a range of possibilities. Patient-centered meta-analysis would combine the findings of multiple studies by computing the intersection of the set-valued predic...
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Toward Causally Interpretable Meta-analysis: Transporting Inferences from Multiple Randomized Trials to a New Target Population
We take steps toward causally interpretable meta-analysis by describing methods for transporting causal inferences from a collection of randomized trials to a new target population, one trial at a time and pooling all trials. We discuss identifiability conditions for average treatment effects in the target population and provide identification results. We show that the assumptions that allow inferences to be transported from all trials in the collection to the same target population have implications for the law underlying the observed data. We propose average treatment effect estimators that rely on different working mode...
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Tracing the Origin of Food-borne Disease Outbreaks: A Network Model Approach
Conclusions: Great care should be taken as to whether the underlying network model correctly captures the spreading mechanism of the outbreak in terms of spatial scale and single or multiple source outbreak. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research