Erratum: Far from MCAR: Obtaining Population-level Estimates of HIV Viral Suppression
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Erratum: Meaningful Causal Decompositions in Health Equity Research: Definition, Identification, and Estimation Through a Weighting Framework
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Revisiting Overadjustment Bias
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

CMAverse: A Suite of Functions for Reproducible Causal Mediation Analyses
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

The Authors Respond
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re: The Use of Time to Pregnancy for Estimating and Monitoring Human Fecundity From Demographic and Health Surveys
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Statin Initiation and Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Danish Population-based Cohort Study
Conclusions: Statin initiation was largely unassociated with ALS diagnosis but was associated with an elevated risk of ALS in women, especially in the first year after initiation. The association could be explained by reverse causation, detection bias, early neurotoxic effects of statins that affect women more than men, or a combination thereof. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Chronic Diseases Source Type: research

Weight Change and the Onset of Cardiovascular Diseases: Emulating Trials Using Electronic Health Records
Conclusion: Among individuals with obesity, the weight-loss group had a lower risk of coronary heart disease but not of stroke. Weight gain was associated with increased risk of CVD across BMI groups. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B838. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Chronic Diseases Source Type: research

Life-course Psychological Distress and Total Mortality by Middle Age: The 1970 Birth Cohort Study
Conclusion: The suggestion of a strong association between life-course distress and death warrants replication in a study with a greater number of events. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Psychosocial Epidemiology Source Type: research

Bans on Cellphone Use While Driving and Traffic Fatalities in the United States
Conclusions: Comprehensive handheld bans were associated with fewer driver fatalities. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Psychosocial Epidemiology Source Type: research

Union Burying Ground: Mortality, Mortality Inequities, and Sinking Labor Union Membership in the United States
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first individual-level US-based study with repeated union-membership measurements to analyze the union–mortality relationship. We estimated a protective union–mortality association, but found little evidence declining union density has exacerbated mortality inequities; importantly, we did not incorporate contextual-level effects. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B839. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Psychosocial Epidemiology Source Type: research

Rejoinder to “The Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment Is Not Increasing in the United States: A Critique of Hale et al. (2020)”
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Psychosocial Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment Is Not Increasing in the United States: A Critique of Hale et al. (2020)
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Psychosocial Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence of HPV-related Anogenital Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cancer in Men With Diabetes Compared With the General Population
Conclusion: The incidence of penile and anal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and SCC in men with diabetes was increased compared with men without diabetes. For penile and anal SCCs, this was primarily due to an increased risk in men with T2D. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Leveraging Pathogen Sequence and Contact Tracing Data to Enhance Vaccine Trials in Emerging Epidemics
Conclusion: Pathogen genomics enhance identifiability of VEI, but imperfect transmission network reconstruction biases estimate toward the null and limits our ability to detect VEI. Given the consistent direction of the bias, estimates obtained from trials using these methods will provide lower bounds on the true VEI. A combination of sequence and epidemiologic data results in the most accurate estimates, underscoring the importance of contact tracing. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Identifiability and Estimation Under the Test-negative Design With Population Controls With the Goal of Identifying Risk and Preventive Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection
In this study, we consider an alternative design where we recruit among all individuals, symptomatic and asymptomatic, being tested for the virus in addition to population controls. We define a regression parameter related to a prospective risk factor analysis and investigate its identifiability under the two study designs. We review the difference between the prospective risk factor parameter and the parameter targeted in the typical TND where only symptomatic and tested people are recruited. Using missing data directed acyclic graphs, we provide conditions and required data collection under which identifiability of the p...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Epidemic Potential of Networks of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Two Cities
Conclusions: The FRP by age group revealed the additional utility of the measure beyond the temporal and cross-sectional network connectivity measures. Other nonnetwork factors are still necessary to infer total epidemic potential for any specific pathogen. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Early-life Farm Exposure and Ovarian Reserve in a US Cohort of Women
Background: In a previous exploratory study, we reported lower concentrations of the ovarian reserve biomarker anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in adulthood with prenatal farm exposure. We now examine this association as well as childhood farm exposure using enrollment data from the Sister Study, a large US cohort of women. Methods: We collected prenatal and childhood farm exposure data by questionnaire and telephone interview. However, serum AMH data were available only for a nested subset: premenopausal women ages 35–54 subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 418 cases) and their matched controls...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Perinatal Epidemiology Source Type: research

Fetal Growth Trajectories Among Small for Gestational Age Babies and Child Neurodevelopment
Background: Being born small for gestational age (SGA, (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Perinatal Epidemiology Source Type: research

Improving the Quality of Observational Data: Registries of Validated Outcomes and Other Patient Events
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

A (Flexible) Synthetic Control Method for Count Data and Other Nonnegative Outcomes
The synthetic control method is a covariate balancing method that exploits data from untreated regions to construct a synthetic control that approximates a single, aggregate treatment unit on a time series of preintervention outcomes and covariates. The method is increasingly being used to evaluate population-level interventions in epidemiology. Although the original version can be used with bounded outcomes, it imposes strong constraints on the balancing weights to ensure that the counterfactuals are based solely on interpolation. This feature, while attractive from a causal inference perspective, is sometimes too conserv...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Decreased Susceptibility of Marginal Odds Ratios to Finite-sample Bias
Parameters representing adjusted treatment effects may be defined marginally or conditionally on covariates. The choice between a marginal or covariate-conditional parameter should be driven by the study question. However, an unappreciated benefit of marginal estimators is a reduction in susceptibility to finite-sample bias relative to the unpenalized maximum likelihood estimator of the covariate-conditional odds ratio (OR). Using simulation, we compare the finite-sample bias of different marginal and conditional estimators of the OR. We simulated a logistic model to have 15 events per parameter and two events per paramete...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Proof of Concept Example for Use of Simulation to Allow Data Pooling Despite Privacy Restrictions
Discussion: Our approach has advantages over meta-analysis or individual-level pooling/data harmonization when privacy concerns preclude data sharing and key confounders are not uniformly measured across datasets. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

To Bound or Not to Bound: Is That the Question?
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Multiple-bias Sensitivity Analysis Using Bounds
Confounding, selection bias, and measurement error are well-known sources of bias in epidemiologic research. Methods for assessing these biases have their own limitations. Many quantitative sensitivity analysis approaches consider each type of bias individually, although more complex approaches are harder to implement or require numerous assumptions. By failing to consider multiple biases at once, researchers can underestimate—or overestimate—their joint impact. We show that it is possible to bound the total composite bias owing to these three sources and to use that bound to assess the sensitivity of a risk ra...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

The Importance of Making Assumptions in Bias Analysis
We describe the mathematical meaning of bounding factors and E-values and the plausibility of these methods in an applied context. We encourage researchers to pay particular attention to the assumption made, when using E-values, that the prevalence of the uncontrolled confounder among the exposed is 100% (or, equivalently, the prevalence of the exposure among those without the confounder is 0%). We contrast methods that attempt to bound biases or effects and alternative approaches such as quantitative bias analysis. We provide an example where failure to make this distinction led to erroneous statements. If the primary con...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Erratum: Explaining the Sex Effect on Survival in Cystic Fibrosis: A Joint Modeling Study of UK Registry Data
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum: A Graphical Description of Partial Exchangeability
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum: Regression Discontinuity Designs in Health: A Systematic Review
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Re. A Cautionary Note on Extended Kaplan–Meier Curves for Time-varying Covariates
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

The Authors Respond
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re. In Defense of the Weight-of-evidence Approach to Literature Review in the Integrated Science Assessment
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

An Aggregated Comorbidity Measure Based on History of Filled Drug Prescriptions: Development and Evaluation in Two Separate Cohorts
Conclusions: A new drug comorbidity index based on filled drug prescriptions improved prediction of survival beyond age and the CCI alone. The index will allow a more accurate baseline estimation of expected survival for comparing treatment outcomes and evaluating treatment guidelines in populations of people with cancer. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Pharmacoepidemiology Source Type: research

Estimating the Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccine Schedules
Conclusions: The proposed approach can generate important evidence about the consequences of delaying or skipping vaccine doses, and the impact of interventions to improve vaccine schedule adherence. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Pharmacoepidemiology Source Type: research

Validation of Hypertensive Disorders During Pregnancy: ICD-10 Codes in a High-burden Southeastern United States Hospital
Conclusions: We provide bias parameters for future US-based studies of hypertensive outcomes during pregnancy in high-burden populations using hospital ICD-10 codes. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Perinatal Epidemiology Source Type: research

Term Birth Weight and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes
Conclusions: Reduced fetal growth is a powerful predictor of a wide variety of neurodevelopmental disabilities independent of preterm delivery. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Perinatal Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Mixtures of Persistent Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals and Birth Size in a Population-based Cohort of British Girls
Conclusions: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to mixtures of persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals affects birth size. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Perinatal Epidemiology Source Type: research

Identified Versus Interesting Causal Effects in Fertility Trials and Other Settings With Competing or Truncation Events
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Perinatal Epidemiology Source Type: research

Accounting for Repeat Pregnancies in Risk Prediction Models
Conclusions: In our study, a model including first deliveries had the best predictive accuracy but was not generalizable to women of varying parities. Moreover, including repeat pregnancies did not improve the predictive accuracy of the models. Multiple models may be needed to improve the transportability and accuracy of prediction models when the outcome of interest is influenced by parity. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Perinatal Epidemiology Source Type: research

Social Networks and HIV Care Outcomes in Rural Kenya and Uganda
Conclusions: HIV-positive persons named as a contact by fewer people may be at higher risk for poor HIV care outcomes, suggesting opportunities for targeted interventions. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Dengue, Severity Paradox, and Socioeconomic Distribution Among Afro-Colombians
Conclusion: The paradoxically increased severity among Afro-Colombians can be attributed to differential health-seeking behaviors and reporting among Afro-Colombians. Such differential reporting can be understood as a type of intersectionality between SES, insurance scheme, and ethnicity that requires a quantitative assessment in future studies. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Trial Emulation Approach for Policy Evaluations with Group-level Longitudinal Data
We present a stylized analysis of the impact of state-level stay-at-home orders on total coronavirus cases. We argue that estimates from panel methods—with the right data and careful modeling and diagnostics—can help add to our understanding of many policies, though doing so is often challenging. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Social Distancing and SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Potential Early in the Epidemic in Finland
Conclusions: We surmise that the large reduction in the daily numbers of social contacts in the early part of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Finland was likely a major contributor to the steady decline of the epidemic in the country since early April. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Estimating the Cumulative Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the Infection Fatality Ratio in Light of Waning Antibodies
Conclusions: The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection is underestimated using cross-sectional serology data without adjustment for waning antibodies. Our approach can help quantify the magnitude of underestimation and adjust estimates for waning antibodies. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Theoretical Framework for Retrospective Studies of the Effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines
Observational studies of the effectiveness of vaccines to prevent COVID-19 are needed to inform real-world use. Such studies are now underway amid the ongoing rollout of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines globally. Although traditional case-control and test-negative design studies feature prominently among strategies used to assess vaccine effectiveness, such studies may encounter important threats to validity. Here, we review the theoretical basis for estimation of vaccine direct effects under traditional case-control and test-negative design frameworks, addressing specific natural history parameters of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19...
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Congener-specific and Mixture Analysis of Plasma Polychlorinated Biphenyl Levels and Incident Breast Cancer
Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to PCB mixtures increase the risk of breast cancer, but studies of populations with different exposure profiles are needed. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Effects of Hot Nights on Mortality in Southern Europe
Conclusions: This study provides new evidence that, over a wider range of locations, hot night indices are strongly associated with cause-specific deaths. Modeling the impact of thermal characteristics during summer nights on mortality could improve decisionmaking for preventive public health strategies. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-term Exposure to PM2.5 and Mortality for the Older Population: Effect Modification by Residential Greenness
Conclusions: In our study, those in low SES and high-greenness areas had lower associations between PM2.5 and mortality than those in low SES and low greenness areas. Multiple aspects of disparity factors and their interactions may affect health disparities from air pollution exposures. Findings should be considered in light of uncertainties, such as our use of modeled PM2.5 data, and warrant further investigation. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Direct Estimate of the Impact of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 Exposure on Life Expectancy Using Propensity Scores
Conclusions: We estimated that reducing PM2.5 and O3 concentrations to levels below current standards would increase life expectancy by substantial amounts compared with the recent increase of life expectancy at age 65 of 0.7 years in a decade. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to NO2 decreases life expectancy. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Greening the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: ISEE Commentary Source Type: research