Erratum: Comparison of methods for algorithmic classification of dementia status in the Health and Retirement Study
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

The Authors Respond
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re: Testing Differential Associations Between Smoking and Chronic Disease Across Socioeconomic Groups
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

The Authors Respond
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re: Is the Smog Lifting?
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

The Authors Respond
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Re: Excess Death Estimates in Puerto Rico have been Consistent all Along
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Using Genetic Instruments to Estimate Interactions in Mendelian Randomization Studies
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Life Expectancy Among Finnish Men and Women with Doctorate Degrees Over the Period 1971–2015
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Hospitalizations Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza in Children, Including Children Diagnosed with Asthma
Background: There is uncertainty about the burden of hospitalization associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza in children, including those with underlying medical conditions. Methods: We applied previously developed methodology to Health Care Cost and Utilization Project hospitalization data and additional data related to asthma diagnosis/previous history in hospitalized children to estimate RSV and influenza-associated hospitalization rates in different subpopulations of US children between 2003 and 2010. Results: The estimated average annual rates (per 100,000 children) of RSV-associated ho...
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Incident Infections: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that PTSD diagnosis is a risk factor for numerous infection types and that the associations between PTSD diagnosis and infections are modified by sex. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Estimating Hidden Population Sizes with Venue-based Sampling: Extensions of the Generalized Network Scale-up Estimator
Conclusions: Key population size estimation is vital to the successful implementation of efforts to combat HIV/AIDS. Venue-based network scale-up approaches offer another tool that researchers and policymakers can apply to these problems. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergency Department Visits for Acute Gastrointestinal Illness After a Major Water Pipe Break in 2010
Conclusions: This study suggests that a major water pipe break was associated with emergency department visits for acute gastrointestinal illness, particularly during the 0–3 days after the break, when a boil water order was in effect. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnosed Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: The Role of Measurement Error from Administrative Data
Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis in atrial fibrillation patients was strongly associated with reduced risk of incident cardiovascular disease. We discuss misclassification, selection bias, and residual confounding as potential explanations. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Sleep Source Type: research

Causal Effect of Sleep Duration on Body Weight in Adolescents: A Population-based Study Using a Natural Experiment
Conclusions: This study provides new population-level, causal evidence that corroborates consistent findings in the epidemiologic literature on the link between short sleep duration and increased body weight. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Sleep Source Type: research

Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System-based Antihypertensive Agents and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among Medicare Beneficiaries
Conclusions: Based on real-world antihypertensive utilization patterns in Medicare beneficiaries, our study suggests no association between ACEI/ARB initiation and the short-term CRC risk. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Pharmacoepidemiology Source Type: research

Comparison of Self-controlled Designs for Evaluating Outcomes of Drug–Drug Interactions: Simulation Study
Conclusion: In settings with independent or rare outcomes and no substantial event-dependent censoring ( (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Pharmacoepidemiology Source Type: research

External Radiation Dose, Obesity, and Risk of Childhood Thyroid Cancer After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey
Conclusion: Regional differences in radiation dose were not associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer among children in Fukushima within 4 to 6 years after the nuclear power plant accident. Obesity may be an important factor for further follow-up in Fukushima. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

Perineal Talc Use, Douching, and the Risk of Uterine Cancer
Conclusion: The positive association we observed between talc use and uterine cancer risk is consistent with findings from previous prospective cohort studies of endometrial cancer. The relationships between uterine cancer and both douching and talc use merit further consideration, particularly as both exposures are preventable. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

Test-Negative Designs: Differences and Commonalities with Other Case–Control Studies with “Other Patient” Controls
Test-negative studies recruit cases who attend a healthcare facility and test positive for a particular disease; controls are patients undergoing the same tests for the same reasons at the same healthcare facility and who test negative. The design is often used for vaccine efficacy studies, but not exclusively, and has been posited as a separate type of study design, different from case–control studies because the controls are not sampled from a wider source population. However, the design is a special case of a broader class of case–control designs that identify cases and sample “other patient” con...
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Mediational E-values: Approximate Sensitivity Analysis for Unmeasured Mediator–Outcome Confounding
Conclusions: Researchers can conduct sensitivity analysis using a method that describes the strength of the confounder–outcome relationship and the approximate strength of the confounder–mediator relationship that, together, would be required to explain away a direct or indirect effect. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Estimation of Natural Indirect Effects Robust to Unmeasured Confounding and Mediator Measurement Error
The use of causal mediation analysis to evaluate the pathways by which an exposure affects an outcome is widespread in the social and biomedical sciences. Recent advances in this area have established formal conditions for identification and estimation of natural direct and indirect effects. However, these conditions typically involve stringent assumptions of no unmeasured confounding and that the mediator has been measured without error. These assumptions may fail to hold in many practical settings where mediation methods are applied. The goal of this article is two-fold. First, we formally establish that the natural indi...
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Censoring for Loss to Follow-up in Time-to-event Analyses of Composite Outcomes or in the Presence of Competing Risks
Conclusions: The least biased censoring strategy for time-to-event analyses in the presence of LTFU depends on the event and estimand of interest. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Survival Bias in Mendelian Randomization Studies: A Threat to Causal Inference
It has been argued that survival bias may distort results in Mendelian randomization studies in older populations. Through simulations of a simple causal structure we investigate the degree to which instrumental variable (IV)-estimators may become biased in the context of exposures that affect survival. We observed that selecting on survival decreased instrument strength and, for exposures with directionally concordant effects on survival (and outcome), introduced downward bias of the IV-estimator when the exposures reduced the probability of survival till study inclusion. Higher ages at study inclusion generally increased...
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

On the Relation Between G-formula and Inverse Probability Weighting Estimators for Generalizing Trial Results
When generalizing inferences from a randomized trial to a target population, two classes of estimators are used: g-formula estimators that depend on modeling the conditional outcome mean among trial participants and inverse probability (IP) weighting estimators that depend on modeling the probability of participation in the trial. In this article, we take a closer look at the relation between these two classes of estimators. We propose IP weighting estimators that combine models for the probability of trial participation and the probability of treatment among trial participants. We show that, when all models are estimated ...
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Acute Air Pollution Exposure and the Risk of Violent Behavior in the United States
Conclusions: Our results suggest that short-term changes in ambient air pollution may be associated with a greater risk of violent behavior, regardless of community type. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Air Pollution Source Type: research

Source-Apportioned PM2.5 and Cardiorespiratory Emergency Department Visits: Accounting for Source Contribution Uncertainty
Conclusions: This study provides evidence of associations between PM2.5 sources and some cardiorespiratory outcomes and quantifies the impact of accounting for variability in source apportionment approaches. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Air Pollution Source Type: research

Talc, Asbestos, and Epidemiology: Corporate Influence and Scientific Incognizance
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: ISEE Source Type: research

Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, 1935–2019
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Remembrance Source Type: research

Re. Sensitivity Analyses Without Assumptions
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Adjustment for Urinary Creatinine or Serum Lipids for Analytes Assayed in Pooled Specimens
Conclusion: By implementing the proposed strategies when forming specimen pools, one can greatly improve the efficiency of case–control studies that involve an expensive-to-assay exposure measured in biospecimens. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Exposure Assessment Source Type: research

An Empirical Validation of the Within-subject Biospecimens Pooling Approach to Minimize Exposure Misclassification in Biomarker-based Studies
Conclusions: For nonpersistent chemicals, collecting and pooling three samples per day instead of all daily samples efficiently estimates exposures over a week or more. Collecting around 20 biospecimens can strongly limit attenuation bias for nonpersistent chemicals such as bisphenol A. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Exposure Assessment Source Type: research

Estimating Outcome-Exposure Associations when Exposure Biomarker Detection Limits vary Across Batches
Limit of detection (LOD) issues are ubiquitous in exposure assessment. Although there is an extensive literature on modeling exposure data under such imperfect measurement processes, including likelihood-based methods and multiple imputation, the standard practice continues to be naïve single imputation by a constant (e.g., JOURNAL/epide/04.02/00001648-201909000-00017/math_17MM1/v/2019-08-02T044318Z/r/image-tiff ). In this article, we consider the situation where, due to the practical logistics of data accrual, sampling, and resource constraints, exposure data are analyzed in multiple batches where the LOD and the ...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Exposure Assessment Source Type: research

Nowcasting the Number of New Symptomatic Cases During Infectious Disease Outbreaks Using Constrained P-spline Smoothing
We present a nowcasting method based on bivariate P-spline smoothing of the number of reported cases by time of symptoms onset and delay. Our objective is to predict the number of symptomatic-but-not-yet-reported cases and combine these with the already reported symptomatic cases into a nowcast. We assume the underlying two-dimensional reporting intensity surface to be smooth. We include prior information on the reporting process as additional constraints: the smooth surface is unimodal in the reporting delay dimension, is (almost) zero at a predefined maximum delay and has a prescribed shape at the beginning of the outbre...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Social Contact Surveys to Inform Transmission Models of Close-contact Infections
Conclusions: We found that the overall features of the contact patterns were remarkably robust across several countries, and irrespective of the study details. By considering the most common approach in each aspect of design (e.g., sampling schemes, data collection, definition of contact), we could identify recommendations for future contact data surveys that may be used to facilitate comparison between studies. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Exposure to Community Homicide During Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Within-Community Matched Design
Conclusions: Homicide exposure during early pregnancy is associated with a small increased risk of SGA. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Social Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessment of Inequality Alongside Policy-oriented Trials: An Empirical Framework Based on the Case of Screening
Discussion: We illustrated how decision uncertainty can be reduced by explicit assessment of inequality alongside trials and found some evidence of a possible equity–efficiency trade-off in the context of screening, although this depended on the definition of equality. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Social Epidemiology Source Type: research

Timing and Amount of Gestational Weight Gain in Association with Adverse Birth Outcomes
Conclusions: In our study, a pattern of gestational weight gain characterized by more rapid gains earlier in pregnancy was associated with improved pregnancy outcomes in some subgroups of pregnant women. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Reproductive Epidemiology Source Type: research

Polybrominated Biphenyl Exposure and Menstrual Cycle Function
Conclusion: Our results are consistent with a hypothesized effect of exposure to an exogenous estrogen agonist but the modest sample size of the study requires cautious interpretation. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Reproductive Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prenatal Diethylstilbestrol Exposure and Risk of Depression in Women and Men
Conclusions: Prenatal DES exposure was not associated overall with risk of depression in women or men. In women, exposure in early gestation or to a low cumulative dose may be weakly associated with an increased depression risk. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Reproductive Epidemiology Source Type: research

Misclassification of Sex Assigned at Birth in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and Transgender Reproductive Health: A Quantitative Bias Analysis
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the BRFSS methodology introduces substantial uncertainty into reproductive health measures, which could bias population-based estimates. These findings emphasize the importance of implementing validated sex and gender questions in health surveillance surveys. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B562. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Reproductive Epidemiology Source Type: research

Bayesian Methods for Exposure Misclassification Adjustment in a Mediation Analysis: Hemoglobin and Malnutrition in the Association Between: Ascaris: and IQ
Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that hemoglobin levels mediate the association between Ascaris infection and IQ scores. Additional research investigating the effect of including iron supplements in STH control programs is warranted. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

The Interaction Continuum
A common reason given for assessing interaction is to evaluate “whether the effect is larger in one group versus another”. It has long been known that the answer to this question is scale dependent: the “effect” may be larger for one subgroup on the difference scale, but smaller on the ratio scale. In this article, we show that if the relative magnitude of effects across subgroups is of interest then there exists an “interaction continuum” that characterizes the nature of these relations. When both main effects are positive then the placement on the continuum depends on the relative magn...
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Human Health and the Social Cost of Carbon: A Primer and Call to Action
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Increased Risk of Opioid Overdose Death Following Cold Weather: A Case–Crossover Study
Conclusions: Low average temperature may be associated with higher risk of death due to opioid overdose. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Advancing Substantive Knowledge by Asking New Questions, Best Done in the Light of Answers to Older Questions
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Air Pollution Source Type: research

Associations Between Ambient Air Pollutant Concentrations and Birth Weight: A Quantile Regression Analysis
Conclusions: Associations between air pollution and reduced birth weight were of greater magnitude for newborns at relatively heavy birth weights. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Air Pollution Source Type: research

Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Birthweight: Differences in Associations Along the Birthweight Distribution
Conclusions: In full-term live births, PM2.5 and birthweight were negatively associated with more severe associations at lower quantiles of birthweight. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Air Pollution Source Type: research

Sponsorship by Big Oil, Like the Tobacco Industry, Should be Banned by the Research Community
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: ISEE Source Type: research

Erratum: R Function for Additive Interaction Measures
No abstract available (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research