Antiviral activity of cathelicidin 5, a peptide from Alligator sinensis, against WSSV in caridean shrimp Exopalaemon modestus
This study addresses the role of cathelicidin 5 in immune stimulatory and antiviral activities that could protect E. modestus from WSSV infection. (Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology)
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - July 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The disconnect between individual-level and population-level HIV prevention benefits of antiretroviral treatment
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Stefan Baral, Amrita Rao, Patrick Sullivan, Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya, Daouda Diouf, Greg Millett, Helgar Musyoki, Elvin Geng, Sharmistha MishraSummaryIn 2019, the HIV pandemic is growing and soon over 40 million people will be living with HIV. Effective population-based approaches to decrease HIV incidence are as relevant as ever given modest reductions observed over the past decade. Treatment as prevention is often heralded as the path to improve HIV outcomes and to reduce HIV incidence. Although treatment of an individual does eliminate onward t...
Source: The Lancet HIV - July 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The risk of a swine influenza pandemic: still a concern?
Authors: Loubet P, Enouf V, Launay O PMID: 31318298 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine)
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - July 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research

The Long-Lasting Influenza: The Impact of Fetal Stress During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic on Socioeconomic Attainment and Health in Sweden, 1968 –2012
This study combines several sources of contemporary statistics with full-population individual-level data for Sweden during 1968 –2012 to examine the influence of fetal exposure to the Spanish flu on health, adulthood income, and occupational attainment. For both men and women, fetal exposure resulted in higher morbidity in ages 54–87, as measured by hospitalization. For males, exposure during the second trimester also af fected mortality in cancer and heart disease. Overall, the effects on all-cause mortality were modest, with about three months shorter remaining life expectancy for the cohorts exposed during ...
Source: Demography - July 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

 Study of Impact of Glycemic Status (HbA1c) on Platelet Activity measured by Mean Platelet Volume & Vascular Complications in Diabetics.
 Study of Impact of Glycemic Status (HbA1c) on Platelet Activity measured by Mean Platelet Volume & Vascular Complications in Diabetics. J Assoc Physicians India. 2019 Apr;67(4):26-29 Authors: Saluja M, Swami YK, Meena SR Abstract Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a global pandemic. The increased platelet activity may play a role in the development of vascular complications of this metabolic disorder. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is an indicator of the average size and activity of platelets. Larger platelets are younger and exhibit more activity. Aims and Objectives: To determine the MP...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 18, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Protective Antibodies Against Influenza Proteins
The influenza A virus infection continues to be a threat to the human population. The seasonal variation of the virus and the likelihood of periodical pandemics caused by completely new virus strains make it difficult to produce vaccines that efficiently protect against this infection. Antibodies are very important in preventing the infection and in blocking virus propagation once the infection has taken place. However, the precise protection mechanism provided by these antibodies still needs to be established. Furthermore, most research has focused on antibodies directed to the globular head domain of hemagglutinin. Howev...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Concurrent Comparison of the Epidemiology and Clinical Presentation of Patients Hospitalized with Pandemic 2009 (H1N1) Influenza and Seasonal Influenza-A in Sub-himalayan Region of Himachal Pradesh.
Conclusions: The clinical features and outcomes of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and current circulating seasonal influenza A strains were comparable in hospitalised patients. However, since both seasonal and pandemic influenza can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, the impact of pre-existing seasonal influenza should not be underestimated during the pandemic period. PMID: 31304711 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India)
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 17, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 2603: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of EdAP, a 4 ′-Ethynyl-2′-Deoxyadenosine 5′-Monophosphate Analog, as a Potent Influenza a Inhibitor
Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 2603: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of EdAP, a 4′-Ethynyl-2′-Deoxyadenosine 5′-Monophosphate Analog, as a Potent Influenza a Inhibitor Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules24142603 Authors: Toshifumi Takeuchi Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen Ayako Sakuraba Ei Hayashi Shinji Kamisuki Yasuo Suzuki Hiroshi Ohrui Fumio Sugawara Influenza A viruses leading to infectious respiratory diseases cause seasonal epidemics and sometimes periodic global pandemics. Viral polymerase is an attractive target in inhibiting viral replication, and 4′-ethynyladenosi...
Source: Molecules - July 17, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Toshifumi Takeuchi Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen Ayako Sakuraba Ei Hayashi Shinji Kamisuki Yasuo Suzuki Hiroshi Ohrui Fumio Sugawara Tags: Article Source Type: research

Diversity, pathogenicity and pandemic potential of Henipavirus: an interview with Benhur Lee
Future Virology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Future Virology)
Source: Future Virology - July 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Benhur Lee Source Type: research

Plague before the Pandemics: The Greek Medical Evidence for Bubonic Plague before the Sixth Century.
This article evaluates the textual evidence for bubonic plague in classical antiquity from medical sources and discusses methodologies for "retrospective diagnosis" in light of new developments in microbiology. A close study of Greek medical texts suggests that bubonic plague was unfamiliar to medical writers until sometime before the second century AD, when sources cited by Rufus of Ephesus report a disease that resembles bubonic plague. Rufus of Ephesus describes this disease around AD 100, and Aretaeus (fl. ca. AD 50 or 150) appears to describe the same disease as well. Intriguingly, the disease then disappear...
Source: Medical History - July 16, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Mulhall J Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Narcolepsy and Pandemic Influenza Vaccination: What We Need to Know to be Ready for the Next Pandemic
After the initial identification of the H1N1 pandemic influenza strain in Mexico in April 2009 and its subsequent global spread, several monovalent influenza vaccines were developed as part of the pandemic response. Three of these vaccines, Pandemrix, Arepanrix and Focetria were adjuvanted. One of these, the AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix vaccine, was primarily used in Europe. Following widespread Pandemrix vaccine administration in Scandinavia, an increased risk of narcolepsy was noted in observational studies. Subsequently, this increased risk was also reported in other European countries as well. In contrast, studies from Ca...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Updating gender differences in the control of homeostatic and hedonic food intake: Implications for binge eating disorder
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Molecular and Cellular EndocrinologyAuthor(s): Marta G. Novelle, Carlos DiéguezAbstractIn an obesity pandemic context, eating disorders (ED) have arisen as serious illnesses associated with severe disturbances and has a clear gender dependent bias. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the oestrogen role in the homeostatic and hedonic control of food intake. We draw attention to the role of oestrogens in the various reward processes and their possible implication in the development of ED, a condition much more common in women. In here, we have summarized...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - July 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pandemic fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli clone ST1193 emerged via simultaneous homologous recombinations in 11 gene loci [Microbiology]
Global growth in antibiotic resistance is a major social problem. A high level of resistance to fluoroquinolones requires the concurrent presence of at least 3 mutations in the target proteins—2 in DNA gyrase (GyrA) and 1 in topoisomerase IV (ParC), which occur in a stepwise manner. In the Escherichia coli... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 16, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Veronika Tchesnokova, Matthew Radey, Sujay Chattopadhyay, Lydia Larson, Jamie Lee Weaver, Dagmara Kisiela, Evgeni V. Sokurenko Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Vitamin D for skeletal and non-skeletal health: What we should know
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2019Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and TraumaAuthor(s): Nipith Charoenngam, Arash Shirvani, Michael F. HolickAbstractVitamin D plays an essential role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism and maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton. Humans obtain vitamin D from sunlight exposure, dietary foods and supplements. There are two forms of vitamin D: vitamin D3 and vitamin D2. Vitamin D3 is synthesized endogenously in the skin and found naturally in oily fish and cod liver oil. Vitamin D2 is synthesized from ergosterol and found in yeast and mushrooms. Once vitamin...
Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma - July 14, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

GSE134227 The effect of H1N1 vaccination on serum miRNA expression in children: a tale of caution for microRNA microarray studies
Contributors : R E Drury ; D O'Connor ; A PollardSeries Type : Non-coding RNA profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensTo describe vaccine associated changes in the expression of microRNAs 21 days after vaccination in children receiving one of two pandemic influenza (H1N1) vaccines. (Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus)
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - July 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Non-coding RNA profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2487: Race and 1918 Influenza Pandemic in the United States: A Review of the Literature
Mamelund During epidemics, the poorest part of the population usually suffers the most. Alfred Crosby noted that the norm changed during the 1918 influenza pandemic in the US: The black population (which were expected to have higher influenza morbidity and mortality) had lower morbidity and mortality than the white population during the autumn of 1918. Crosby’s explanation for this was that black people were more exposed to a mild spring/summer wave of influenza earlier that same year. In this paper, we review the literature from the pandemic of 1918 to better understand the crossover in the role of race...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - July 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Helene Økland Svenn-Erik Mamelund Tags: Article Source Type: research

Nonhemolysis of epidemic El Tor biotype strains of Vibrio cholerae is related to multiple functional deficiencies of hemolysin A
ConclusionsMechanisms responsible for nonhemolysis of the epidemic O1 El Tor strains are complex and not only confined to gene mutation but also deficiencies of transcription and extracellular transport of HlyA. Mutations in gene regulation and protein secretion systems of HlyA in the nonhemolyticV. cholerae strains should be areas of concern in future studies. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - July 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Circulation, Evolution and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N8) virus, 2016-2018
The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was first identified in China in 1996 [A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD)] and infected the human population in Hong Kong in 1997, with 18 recorded cases resulting in six deaths.1, 2 Since 2003, Gs/GD lineage H5N1 HPAIV infection in humans has been reported in 16 countries, with 860 laboratory-confirmed cases and 454 deaths as of 2018.3 Although human-to-human transmission has not been documented, H5N1 HPAIV has the potential to cause an influenza pandemic. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - July 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jianjun Chen, Biling Liang, Juefu Hu, Haizhou Liu, Jianqing Sun, Mingxin Li, Quanjiao Chen, Yubang He, Di Liu Source Type: research

Intensive Care Unit Preparedness During Pandemics and Other Biological Threats
In the twenty-first century, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 2009 A(H1N1) influenza, and Ebola have all placed strains on critical care systems. In addition to the increased patient needs common to many disasters, epidemics may further degrade ICU capability when staff members fall ill, including in the course of direct patient care. In a large-scale pandemic, shortages of equipment and medications can further limit an ICU ’s ability to provide the normal standard of care. Hospital preparedness for epidemics must include strategies to maintain staff safety, secure adequate supplies, and have plans for triag...
Source: Critical Care Clinics - July 12, 2019 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Ryan C. Maves, Christina M. Jamros, Alfred G. Smith Source Type: research

Application of Herbal Medicines with Heat-Clearing Property to Anti-Microinflammation in the Treatment of Diabetic Kidney Disease.
This article reviews the new clinical and experimental progress made in herbal medicines with heat-clearing property, in the treatment of DKD, as well as their safety aspects. PMID: 31281401 [PubMed] (Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - July 11, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Susceptibility of Influenza A, B, C, and D Viruses to Baloxavir1.
Abstract Baloxavir showed broad-spectrum in vitro replication inhibition of 4 types of influenza viruses (90% effective concentration range 1.2-98.3 nmol/L); susceptibility pattern was influenza A ˃ B ˃ C ˃ D. This drug also inhibited influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin, including viruses that have pandemic potential and those resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID: 31287050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mishin VP, Patel MC, Chesnokov A, De La Cruz J, Nguyen HT, Lollis L, Hodges E, Jang Y, Barnes J, Uyeki T, Davis CT, Wentworth DE, Gubareva LV Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Health outcomes of young children born to mothers who received 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination during pregnancy: retrospective cohort study
(Source: BMJ)
Source: BMJ - July 11, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

A cross-reactive human monoclonal antibody targets the conserved H7 antigenic site a from fifth wave H7N9-infected humans
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Mingxin Li, Li Chen, Qingguang Wang, Mengchan Hao, Xiaoqing zhang, Linlin Liu, Xiao Yu, Chunpeng Yang, Junqiang Xu, Jianjun Chen, Rui GongAbstractSubtype H7 avian influenza viruses have been found to be associated with human infection and represent a risk for global public health. In 2013, the emergence of H7N9 virus in human beings and persistent human infection in China raised the most serious pandemic threat. Here we identified a human monoclonal antibody, P52E03, targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) of subtype H7 influenza viruses (H7 antige...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - July 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Poly- γ-Glutamic Acid Complexed With Alum Induces Cross-Protective Immunity of Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine
The use of a good vaccine adjuvant may induce the higher immunogenicity profile of vaccine antigens. Here, we developed a new adjuvant by combining poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) with alum (PGA/Alum), and investigated its ability to enhance the immunogenicity and the cross-reactive efficacy of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine antigen. PGA/Alum enhanced antigen delivery to draining lymph nodes and antigen-specific immunogenicity in mice using OVA as a model antigen. It also greatly increased OVA-specific antibody production, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Trends in prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus from 2005 to 2014 in Taiwan
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Yi-Jing Sheen, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Yi-Der Jiang, Chien-Ning Huang, Jia-Sin Liu, Wayne Huey-Herng SheuBackground/PurposeDiabetes mellitus (DM) and DM-related complications place a high socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Updating nationwide information periodically is thus pivotal to preventing DM and improving its management in Taiwan.MethodsWe used the National Health Insurance Research Database; disease diagnosis codes were assigned according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, C...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - July 10, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Hospital Surge Capacity for an Influenza Pandemic in the Triangle Region of North Carolina
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2019Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Rachel L. Woodul, Paul L. Delamater, Michael EmchAbstractThis research investigates the geographic aspects of health care delivery in the event of a sudden increase in the need for care. We constructed an integrated disease outbreak and surge capacity model to evaluate the ability of a region's healthcare system to provide care in the event of a pandemic. In a case study, we implement the model to investigate how an influenza pandemic similar to the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic would affect the population of the Raleigh-Du...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Obesity-associated Risk in Open and Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
Abstract The rising pandemic of obesity in modern society should direct attention to a more comprehensive approach to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treatment in the affected population. Although overweight patients are considered prone to increased surgical risk, studies on the subject did not confirm or specify the risks well enough. Associated comorbidities inevitably lead to a selection bias leaning towards endovascular abdominal aortic repair (EVAR), as a less invasive treatment option, which makes it hard to single out obesity as an independent risk factor. Increased technical difficulty often results in pr...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Radak D, Tanaskovic S, Neskovic M Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Trials of the killed oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) in India and Bangladesh: Lessons learned and way forward.
The objective of this article is to illustrate the experience of OCV use in these endemic settings, its major challenges, and how policymakers can grant vaccine licenses as well as implement its use in the national immunization programme. The relevant aspects of the OCV studies, such as boosting the effect of vaccine, single-dose versus double-dose trials and thermal stability of the vaccine during delivery have generated strong evidence for recommendation of vaccine use in these settings. Studies have shown that a single dose is effective for children of five years of age and older age groups. The locally manufactured vac...
Source: Vaccine - July 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Islam MT, Chowdhury F, Qadri F, Sur D, Ganguly NK Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

A cross-reactive human monoclonal antibody targets the conserved H7 antigenic site a from fifth wave H7N9-infected humans.
Abstract Subtype H7 avian influenza viruses have been found to be associated with human infection and represent a risk for global public health. In 2013, the emergence of H7N9 virus in human beings and persistent human infection in China raised the most serious pandemic threat. Here we identified a human monoclonal antibody, P52E03, targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) of subtype H7 influenza viruses (H7 antigen), from a convalescent patient infected with H7N9 in 2017. P52E03 showed in vitro hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) and neutralizing activity against subtype H7 viruses belonging to both North American and Euras...
Source: Antiviral Research - July 9, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Li M, Chen L, Wang Q, Hao M, Zhang X, Liu L, Yu X, Yang C, Xu J, Chen J, Gong R Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Trends in prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus from 2005 to 2014 in Taiwan.
Abstract BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and DM-related complications place a high socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Updating nationwide information periodically is thus pivotal to preventing DM and improving its management in Taiwan. METHODS: We used the National Health Insurance Research Database; disease diagnosis codes were assigned according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. DM was defined as ≥3 outpatient visits or 1 hospitalization within a year. We excluded individuals with gestational DM, those with missing data, and tho...
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - July 9, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sheen YJ, Hsu CC, Jiang YD, Huang CN, Liu JS, Sheu WH Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research

Effective mosaic-based nanovaccines against avian influenza in poultry.
Abstract Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an extraordinarily diverse pathogen that causes significant morbidity in domesticated poultry populations and threatens human life with looming pandemic potential. Controlling avian influenza in susceptible populations requires highly effective, economical and broadly reactive vaccines. Several AIV vaccines have proven insufficient despite their wide use, and better technologies are needed to improve their immunogenicity and broaden effectiveness. Previously, we developed a "mosaic" H5 subtype hemagglutinin (HA) AIV vaccine and demonstrated its broad protection aga...
Source: Vaccine - July 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kingstad-Bakke BA, Chandrasekar SS, Phanse Y, Ross KA, Hatta M, Suresh M, Kawaoka Y, Osorio JE, Narasimhan B, Talaat AM Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Total Delay in Treatment of Tuberculosis and Associated Factors among New Pulmonary TB Patients in Selected Health Facilities of Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2017/18.
Conclusions: There was higher median total delay in treatment of TB (60 days) and an overall prevalence of 50.9% unacceptable/longer total delay in treatment of TB. Female gender, rural residence, not attending formal education, visiting nonformal health facility as first health care seeking, having poor knowledge of TB, and having antibiotic treatment before TB diagnosis were identified as independent significant associated factors. PMID: 31275370 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Risky sexual behaviours among young people in sub-Saharan Africa: how can parents use the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion for change?
Authors: Tarkang E, Pencille L, Amu H, Komesour J, Lutala P Abstract Despite progress made in the treatment of HIV and AIDS by making available the antiretroviral treatment in Africa, youth are still struggling with inadequate knowledge, a negative attitude towards AIDS and high-risk sexual behaviour. All of these are compounded by a lack of open communication between parents and youths which among others, which impedes on the control of the pandemic in this vulnerable group. Building on 'Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion' as one way of breaking all barriers in this communication, we suggest keys points in five d...
Source: Sahara J - July 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: SAHARA J Source Type: research

Health-Related Workplace Absenteeism Among Full-Time Workers - United States, 2017-18 Influenza Season.
This report describes the results of workplace absenteeism surveillance analyses conducted during the high-severity 2017-18 influenza season (October 2017-September 2018) (4). Absenteeism increased sharply in November, peaked in January and, at its peak, was significantly higher than the average during the previous five seasons. Persons especially affected included male workers, workers aged 45-64 years, workers living in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Region 6* and Region 9,† and those working in management, business, and financial; installation, maintenance, and repair; and production and relat...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - July 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Groenewold MR, Burrer SL, Ahmed F, Uzicanin A, Luckhaupt SE Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 620: A Global Perspective on H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus
r Iqbal H9N2 avian influenza viruses have become globally widespread in poultry over the last two decades and represent a genuine threat both to the global poultry industry but also humans through their high rates of zoonotic infection and pandemic potential. H9N2 viruses are generally hyperendemic in affected countries and have been found in poultry in many new regions in recent years. In this review, we examine the current global spread of H9N2 avian influenza viruses as well as their host range, tropism, transmission routes and the risk posed by these viruses to human health. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - July 5, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: T(homas). P. Peacock Joe James Joshua E. Sealy Munir Iqbal Tags: Review Source Type: research

Consequences of Metabolic Disruption in Alzheimer ’s Disease Pathology
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive disease that slowly destroys cognitive function, such as thinking, remembering, and reasoning, to a level that one cannot carry out a daily living. As people live longer, the risk of developing AD has increased to 1 in 10 among people who are older t han 65 and to almost 1 in 2 among those who are older than 85 according to a 2019 Alzheimer’s Association report. As a most common cause of dementia, AD accounts for 60–80% of all dementia cases. AD is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, composed of extracellular aggre...
Source: Neurotherapeutics - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Recalling the Future: Immunological Memory Toward Unpredictable Influenza Viruses
We describe how CD8+ CTL memory is established following influenza virus infection, and how a robust CTL recall response can lead to more rapid virus elimination by destroying virus-infected cells, and recovery. Exploiting long-term, cross-reactive CTL against the continuously evolving and unpredictable influenza viruses provides a possible mechanism for preventing a disastrous pandemic comparable to the 1918-1919 H1N1 “Spanish flu”, which killed more than 50 million people worldwide. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Reactive school closure weakens the network of social interactions and reduces the spread of influenza [Applied Physical Sciences]
School-closure policies are considered one of the most promising nonpharmaceutical interventions for mitigating seasonal and pandemic influenza. However, their effectiveness is still debated, primarily due to the lack of empirical evidence about the behavior of the population during the implementation of the policy. Over the course of the 2015 to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 2, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Maria Litvinova, Quan-Hui Liu, Evgeny S. Kulikov, Marco Ajelli Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Normal Weight Obesity: An Underrecognized Problem in Individuals of South Asian Descent.
Abstract PURPOSE: Obesity has attained pandemic proportions across the world, and its prevalence in developing countries is also on the rise. Nevertheless, there is still a large gap in understanding the reasons behind a disproportionately high prevalence of diabetes as opposed to a lesser degree of obesity seen in individuals of South Asian origin. This research letter highlights the importance of identifying individuals with normal weight obesity, which may partially bridge this knowledge gap. METHODS: We reviewed recently published evidence on normal weight obesity. FINDINGS: Normal weight obesity is ...
Source: Clinical Therapeutics - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kapoor N, Furler J, Paul TV, Thomas N, Oldenburg B Tags: Clin Ther Source Type: research

One hundred years after the 1918 pandemic: new concepts for preparing for influenza pandemics
This article provides a brief overview of important advances in preparing for an influenza pandemic, viewed largely from the perspective of the healthcare system. Recent findings We have gained insights into influenza pathogenicity, the animal reservoir and have improved global surveillance for new strains and tools for assessing the pandemic risk posed by novel strains. Public health has refined plans for severity assessment, distribution of countermeasures and nonpharmaceutical approaches. Modest improvements in vaccine technology include cell culture-based vaccines, adjuvanted vaccine and recombinant technology. Conv...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

2019: A Year of Challenges and Change.
Authors: Abstract How to assess global health at the close of 2018 and project achievable goals for the new year? WHO began on a somber and urgent note by identifying Ten Threats to Global Health in 2019. They are: air pollution and climate change; noncommunicable diseases; global influenza pandemic; fragile and vulnerable settings; antimicrobial resistance; Ebola and other high-threat pathogens; weak primary health care; vaccine hesitancy, dengue and HIV. Cuba is vulnerable to many of these threats, but perhaps more importantly, it's already taking them on, proposing more intersectoral actions to address social d...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Prevalence of avian influenza viruses and their associated antibodies in wild birds in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Xuelong Chen, Chengxu Li, He-Ting Sun, Junyan Ma, Yanping Qi, Si-Yuan QinAbstractAvian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds pose a pandemic threat to humans and to the poultry industry. To assess AIV and AIV antibody prevalence in wild birds in China, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trial, VIP, CNKI, and WANFANG for published papers related to the prevalence of AIVs and their associated antibodies in wild birds in China from Mar. 10, 2005 to Sept. 20,...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - June 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prioritizing surveillance of Nipah virus in India
by Raina K. Plowright, Daniel J. Becker, Daniel E. Crowley, Alex D. Washburne, Tao Huang, P. O. Nameer, Emily S. Gurley, Barbara A. Han The 2018 outbreak of Nipah virus in Kerala, India, highlights the need for global surveillance of henipaviruses in bats, which are the reservoir hosts for this and other viruses. Nipah virus, an emerging paramyxovirus in the genusHenipavirus, causes severe disease and stuttering chains of transmission in humans and is considered a potential pandemic threat. In May 2018, an outbreak of Nipah virus began in Kerala,> 1800 km from the sites of previous outbreaks in eastern India in 2001 an...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - June 27, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Raina K. Plowright Source Type: research

Estimating age-stratified influenza-associated invasive pneumococcal disease in England: A time-series model based on population surveillance data
ConclusionsOur estimates suggested that a pandemic wave of influenza A/H1N1 with comparable severity to the 2009 pandemic could have a modest impact on school-age children and adults in terms of IPD and a small to negligible impact on infants and the elderly. The seasonal impact of other viruses such as RSV and rhinovirus was instead more important in the older population groups. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - June 27, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Chiara Chiavenna Source Type: research

Emergence of XDR International Clone IC-6 Acinetobacter baumannii carrying blaOXA-72 and blaCTX-M-115 in the Brazilian Amazon Region
Conclusionsthis study highlights the importance of surveillance of XDR strains, even outside densely populated cosmopolitan regions, to reveal the epidemiology of pandemic lineages, stressing their threat to public health. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparative studies of mucosal humoral and cellular immune responses to  2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice.
Comparative studies of mucosal humoral and cellular immune responses to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice. Acta Virol. 2019;63(2):203-210 Authors: Zhang YY, An J, Wang K, Han B, Liu YF, Jia HL, Li YS, Lei L, Jia N, Lv J Abstract The nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs), embedded in the submucosa of murine upper respiratory tract, represents an important site of induction for local mucosal immune responses to airborne pathogens and intranasal vaccines. Here, we systematically investigated the mucosal humoral and cellular immune responses of NALTs in mice infected with A/Beijing/501/2...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhang YY, An J, Wang K, Han B, Liu YF, Jia HL, Li YS, Lei L, Jia N, Lv J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Phylogenetic analysis of HA and NA genes of influenza H1N1 viruses from 1918 to 2017.
Abstract The 1918 "Spanish" pandemic is the earliest known influenza H1N1 virus. Since then H1N1 viruses circulated between humans and animals continuously. With the increased amount of samples of H1N1 viruses and technology development, researchers have been studying how the viruses evolved. Here, we analyzed HA and NA genes of H1N1 viruses from three aspects: host distribution, geographical distribution and phylogenetic analysis. The data showed hosts were predominantly human, swine and poultry, and other hosts were mainly cat, ferret, wild bear, canine, cheetah and seal. In terms of geographical distr...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yan HX, Xu HF, He WJ, Xie Y, Dong GY Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Phylogeographic Analyses Reveal the Early Expansion and Frequent Bidirectional Cross-Border Transmissions of Non-pandemic HIV-1 Subtype B Strains in Hispaniola
In this study, we reconstruct the dynamics of dissemination of early divergent non-pandemic subtype B lineages (designated BCAR) in Hispaniola. To this end, we analyzed 127 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences collected in Haiti between 2009 and 2014, combined with BCAR pol sequences from Haiti (n = 12) and the Dominican Republic (n = 123) previously described. Phylogenetic analyses supported that BCAR strains account for most (>70%) of HIV-1 subtype B infections in Haiti. The BCAR strains from Haiti and the Dominican Republic were highly intermixed among each other, although the null hypothesis of completely random mixing was...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Precarity and the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the Caribbean: Structural stigma, constitutionality, legality in development practice
. (Source: Global Public Health)
Source: Global Public Health - June 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Percy C. Hintzen Source Type: research