Perceived socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life (HQoL) among urban adults: Evaluating the protective value of resilience.
Authors: Wippold GM, Tucker CM, Kroska EB, Hanvey GA Abstract Health-related quality of life (HQoL) is increasingly used as a measure of population health. The utility of HQoL lies in its ability to capture the subjectivity and totality of health-HQoL is an individual's subjective assessment of their physical, psychological, and social functioning. HQoL disparities exist in the United States, with some groups (e.g., individuals of low socioeconomic status [SES]) experiencing disproportionately low rates of HQoL, though little is known about the impact of perceived SES (PSES) on HQoL. Research is needed in order to ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Promoting a positive school climate for sexual and gender minority youth through a systems approach: A theory-informed qualitative study.
Authors: Fantus S, Newman PA Abstract Pervasive bias-based bullying of sexual and gender minority youth amid often hostile school climates signals the importance of systems approaches to effect change. Nevertheless, most research on bullying victimization tends to adopt either lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific approaches or broader approaches that omit mention of LGBT youth. We conducted a qualitative study, with the systems view of school climate as an organizing analytical framework, to explore determinants of school climate for LGBT youth and strategies for intervention. In-depth, semistruc...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Self and sibling care attitudes, personal loss, and stress-related growth among siblings of adults with mental illness.
Authors: Stein CH, Gonzales SM, Walker K, Benoit MF, Russin SE Abstract Although sibling ties are typically among the longest lasting family relationships, relatively little is known about how adult siblings navigate family caregiving when a brother or sister has a serious mental illness. The present study examined the role of primary caregiver status, perceived sibling illness severity, sibling relationship quality, and self and sibling caregiving attitudes in understanding reports of personal loss and stress-related personal growth among siblings of adults with serious mental illness. Online surveys were complete...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Intergenerational family conflict and ethnic identity among Chinese American college students.
Authors: Tummala-Narra P, Li Z, Yang EJ, Xiu Z, Cui E, Song Y Abstract There has been a call for increased attention to experiences of sociocultural contexts and their role in mental health and help-seeking among specific subgroups of Asian Americans (Leong, Park, & Kalibatseva, 2013). In particular, as suggested by the integrative contextual framework of minority youth development (García Coll & Marks, 2012), racial minority adolescents and emerging adults develop identity and psychological well-being through their experiences within multiple contexts. Guided by this perspective, the present study e...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Emotional states associated with being in the community and being with others among individuals with serious mental illnesses.
Authors: Nagata S, McCormick B, Brusilovskiy E, Zisman-Ilani Y, Wilson S, Snethen G, Townley G, Salzer MS Abstract Individuals with serious mental illnesses generally spend extensive amounts of time at home and alone. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in emotional states between being at home and being in the community, and between being alone and being with others. Ecological momentary assessment was utilized 3 times per day over 14 days with 91 individuals with serious mental illnesses to assess where they were, who they were with, and momentary feeling of depressed mood, loneliness, and hap...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Neighborhood, neighborliness, and family and child well-being.
This article reviews selected studies that linked neighborhood factors to specific domains of child and family well-being: parenting, safety, health, and educational outcomes. By focusing on neighborliness, a particular form of neighboring, the study aims to shift the focus from macrolevel indicators of neighborhood context, to a more dynamic set of attributes that characterize neighborhood life, with the hope of inspiring others to build upon the findings and begin to translate the conclusions to meaningful policies and programs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved). PMID: 32853007 [PubMed - as...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Latinx/@ immigrant inclusion trajectories: Individual agency, structural constraints, and the role of community-based organizations in immigrant mobilities.
Authors: Vasquez Guzman CE, Hess JM, Casas N, Medina D, Galvis M, Torres DA, Handal AJ, Carreon-Fuentes A, Hernandez-Vallant A, Chavez MJ, Rodriguez F, Goodkind JR Abstract Immigration is at the forefront of national, state, and local policy struggles in the United States, and Latinx/@ immigrants have experienced increased deportations, detention, and individual threats. A mobilities perspective allows analysis to extend our view of migration beyond frameworks confined to pre- and postmigration, examining trajectories of social inclusion and exclusion that are influenced by multiple factors in the receiving country...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

How far can stigma-based empathy reach? Effects of societal (in)equity of LGB people on their allyship with transgender and Black people.
Authors: Chong ESK, Mohr JJ Abstract The shared experience of societal discrimination and affirmation can provide a basis for empathy among members of different marginalized groups. However, the potential mechanisms and moderating conditions involved in this process have been little studied. This experiment examined how perceived societal (in)equity of one's own group may influence one's reaction to other marginalized groups. We randomly assigned 310 cisgender White lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults to conditions varying in LGB (in)equity salience (discrimination, affirmation, control) and in the target outgr...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluating and dismantling an intervention aimed at increasing white people's knowledge and understanding of racial justice issues.
In this study, we built upon prejudice reduction interventions research (primarily in social psychology) and ally development investigations (primarily in applied psychology). We aimed to develop an intervention to foster knowledge and attitude change identified in both areas as central to reducing prejudice and increasing intentions to promote racial justice. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether online imaginal and psychoeducational interventions could contribute to White people's needed understandings to engage in racial justice work. Additionally, if some interventions were successful, we aimed to determine which...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Sources of functioning, symptoms of trauma, and psychological distress: A cross-sectional study with Palestinian health workers operating in West Bank and Gaza strip.
Authors: Veronese G, Pepe A, Alzaanin W, Shoman H Abstract Health-care workers operating in conflict zones are at severe risk of psychological consequences, given their extended exposure to traumatic events under conditions of stress and violence. This quantitative, cross-sectional study was designed to explore the relationships between personal resources (sources of functioning)-operationalized as sense of coherence, posttraumatic growth, and perceived well-being-psychological distress, and trauma symptoms in a specific population of health workers exposed to war and violence. Palestinian health professionals (N =...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Associations between children's self-system functioning and depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms following disaster.
This study examined correlates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms among 6- to 10-year-olds affected directly by Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. Research on the sequelae of disaster exposure for children has focused largely on aspects that contribute to increased distress or risk for disorder; fewer studies have investigated influences that may serve a positive function. This study sought to address that gap by examining the association between key children's socioemotional resources reflecting the self-system (perceived competence, future expectations, coping competency beliefs) and postdi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Educational trajectories of children in care across the early education and primary school years: A national cohort study in England.
Authors: Melkman EP Abstract The goals of this article were to (a) examine the changes in educational achievements of children in care from preschool through the end of primary school; (b) identify subgroups exhibiting distinct educational trajectories; and (c) explore key predictive individual, care, and school characteristics. To this end, the study investigated a cohort of 1,834 children in England who had been in care in their final year of preschool. Data from the National Pupil Database and from the Children Looked After Database was used to examine national assessments of literacy and numeracy in preschool a...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Acculturation processes and mental health of Asian Indian women in the United States: A mixed-methods study.
Authors: Joseph A, Jenkins SR, Wright B, Sebastian B Abstract Acculturation theories and research find that both new culture acquisition and heritage culture attachment are associated with positive outcomes. However, gender-related analyses are rare. In this mixed-method study of 73 Asian Indian American women who were first- or second-generation immigrants from Kerala, India, those classified as behaviorally bicultural, assimilated, separated, or marginalized did not differ significantly in well-being. Being older and married was related to higher self-esteem; unmarried women reported more Kerala attitudinal margi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Immigrant women living homeless in Madrid (Spain).
The objective of this article is to analyze the differences between women living homeless born in Spain (nonimmigrants) and those born abroad (immigrants). The study was carried out based on the data obtained from a sample of women living homeless in Madrid (Spain; N = 136). The information was collected using a structured interview. The results show major similarities between immigrant and nonimmigrant homeless women in terms of their basic sociodemographic characteristics (age, marital status, number of children), their state of health, satisfaction with their family and/or partner relationships, and feelings of loneline...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Racial/ethnic discrimination: Dimensions and relation to mental health symptoms in a marginalized urban American population.
This study investigates the dimensions of discrimination and explores their relation to depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Using the Brief Perceived Ethnic/Racial Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version, discrimination experiences were assessed among a community sample of African American and Latinx participants (N = 500). Factor analyses revealed 4 dimensions: Social Rejection, Stereotyping, Direct Threats/Attacks, and Police Mistreatment. In multivariate analyses, full regression models were significantly related to PTS and depression symptoms. Among the individual predictors, Social Rejection and...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A mixed methods investigation of Black college-attending emerging adults' experiences with multilevel racism.
Authors: Volpe VV, Katsiaficas D, Benson GP, Zelaya Rivera SN Abstract Experiences of racism contribute to the mental health burden of Black individuals in the United States, and during emerging adulthood, these impacts may be especially intensified. The majority of research on racism captures individual-level experiences and utilizes frequency-based measures. This mixed methods investigation examines convergence and divergence between a measure of recent experiences of racism and a measure of worst experiences of racism at multiple levels (individual, cultural, institutional). A sample of 186 Black college-attendi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The factor structure of self-esteem and its association with alcohol use in American Indian (AI) adolescents.
Authors: Schick MR, Nalven T, Spillane NS Abstract American Indian (AI) adolescents experience disproportionately higher rates of alcohol use and related consequences. While self-esteem has been found to be associated with alcohol use in non-AI samples, little is known about this relationship in AI adolescents. Further, there is a dearth of literature examining the psychometric properties of self-esteem measures for AI adolescents. The current study aims to examine the factor structure of the self-esteem items of the American Drug and Alcohol Survey (ADAS) and to better understand the relationships among self-estee...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Adjustment of children using supervised access services: Longitudinal outcomes, multiple perspectives, and correlates.
Authors: Saint-Jacques MC, Ivers H, Drapeau S, St-Amand A, Fortin MC Abstract Supervised access services (SAS) allow parents who represent a risk for their children or for the other parent to maintain contact with or exchange custody of their children in the presence of a third person. Even though these services have been designed in the children's best interest, few studies have, until now, documented the evolution in the parents' and children's adjustment or in the quality of the relationships between the family members throughout the services. To better understand this evolution, a longitudinal study comprising ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Examining social-ecological correlates of youth gang entry among serious juvenile offenders: A survival analysis.
This study, which used a time-to-event model with time-variant and time-invariant predictors, adds to this literature by using longitudinal social-ecological factors to examine increases in the hazard of gang entry among serious juvenile offenders followed for 7 years during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Lower socioeconomic status (SES), higher rates of exposure to violence, self-reported offending, and time spent in jail were associated with higher hazards rates of gang entry. Temperance (suppression of aggression and impulse control) was associated with decreases in the hazard of gang entry. Among f...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Racial differences in cyberbullying from the perspective of victims and perpetrators.
Authors: Kowalski RM, Dillon E, Macbeth J, Franchi M, Bush M Abstract Although cyberbullying has attracted a good deal of research attention in recent years, we know much less about how cyberbullying differs by race and ethnicity, and the few studies that have examined this topic have yielded conflicting findings. In the current study, 352 White and Black respondents answered questions about their victimization and perpetration experiences with both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. More than 80% of both White and Black participants indicated that they had been victims of traditional bullying, and over 45% ha...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Family and friend social support as mediators of adolescent sibling victimization and mental health, self-esteem, and delinquency.
We examined the mediating role of social support from family and friends in the relationship between sibling victimization and adolescents' mental health distress, self-esteem, and delinquency. A telephone survey (N = 850; 49% female) was conducted with a nationally representative sample of United States adolescents (Aged 10 to 17). Three mediation models were tested exploring (a) the unique effects of family and friend support, (b) the relative effects of each type of support, and (c) the effects of total support (family and friend support summed). The three models demonstrated partial mediation of adolescents' mental hea...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Stage and process models of consumer-oriented recovery among adults with serious mental illness: The role of personal loss and internalized stigma.
Authors: Leith J, Stein CH Abstract Consumer-oriented models have conceptualized recovery in two main ways: as a multicomponent process across various life domains, and as a series of identifiable stages occurring over time. The main goal of the present study was to determine whether psychosocial factors, namely internalized stigma and personal loss, predicted a greater amount of variance in reports of consumer-oriented recovery than demographic, treatment, and illness severity characteristics. Recovery was measured as both a stage and process. Using a sample of 160 adults with serious mental illness from community...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mental health professionals with mental illnesses: A qualitative interview study.
This article reports on how these themes relate to practicing psychotherapists who are typically careful about with whom they share their mental health information. The results highlight that expressions of prejudice toward people with mental illnesses were commonplace among these mental health professionals and may contribute to an inclination among therapists to reveal their mental health history selectively, if at all, on the job. When it comes to sharing with clients, therapists tended to be thoughtful and deliberate about self-disclosure, only using it when they believed it would be beneficial to the client rather tha...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Meaning, social support, and resilience as predictors of posttraumatic growth: A study of the Louisiana flooding of August 2016.
Authors: Boullion GQ, Pavlacic JM, Schulenberg SE, Buchanan EM, Steger MF Abstract Individuals who survive natural hazards often develop posttraumatic stress symptoms or other forms of psychological distress. However, some experience psychological growth. Given that natural hazards will increase in the near future due to global warming, it would be helpful to examine predictors of growth across different kinds of natural hazards. The present study examined positive psychological factors that may serve as buffers against the negative effects of exposure to a natural hazard, specifically following the Louisiana flood...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Don't get it twisted: Untangling the psychology of hair discrimination within Black communities.
Authors: Mbilishaka AM, Clemons K, Hudlin M, Warner C, Jones D Abstract Systems of oppression have shaped the prejudicial treatment of Black people based on the appearance of their hair, from the era of chattel enslavement to present-day America. Hair discrimination is a social injustice characterized by unfairly regulating and insulting people based on the appearance of their hair. A sampling of 90 African American community members narrated memories of hair discrimination using the guided hair autobiography method. While the hair narratives revealed texture, length, and style were the most common entry points int...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Accuracy of case managers in estimating intelligence quotients and functional status of people experiencing homelessness.
Authors: Van Patten R, Vella L, Mahmood Z, Clark JMR, Maye JE, Twamley EW Abstract Adults who are homeless experience high rates of health conditions and psychological distress, including low IQ and functional status. Resources are available to help these individuals, but provision of support is often contingent upon the identification of a known disability. In this context, we examined case managers' (CMs') subjective estimates of IQ and functional status in 77 adult residents of an urban homeless shelter. Participants completed objective measures of IQ and functional capacity. CMs overestimated IQs of lower IQ (I...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Contributors to posttraumatic stress symptoms in women sex workers.
Authors: Alschech J, Regehr C, Logie CH, Seto MC Abstract Previous research has demonstrated that women who sell sex (women sex workers [WSWs]) consistently report high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. The present study explores multiple factors that may contribute to the variation in WSWs' experiences of posttraumatic stress symptoms, including workers' racial identity, experiences of discrimination and control over their working conditions, the site of selling sex, and their clients' perceived sexual entitlement and violence. The study sample consisted of 314 self-identified WSWs. Online invitations to pa...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Hazardous drinking, alcohol use disorders, and need for treatment among Pacific Islander young adults.
Authors: Subica AM, Guerrero E, Aitaoto N, Moss HB, Iwamoto D, Wu LT Abstract Pacific Islander (PI) young adults are suspected to bear heavy risk for hazardous drinking, alcohol use disorders (AUD), and alcohol-related harms. Yet, PIs remain among the most understudied racial groups in the United States-creating a lack of empirical data documenting their alcohol use problems and treatment needs. The present study presents the first known data on PI young adults' hazardous drinking, possible AUDs, alcohol-related harms, and treatment needs. Survey data were collected from 156 community-dwelling PI young adults (40% ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mental health, minority stress, and the Australian Marriage Law postal survey: A longitudinal study.
This study documents the longitudinal effects on a minority group of a public vote and the enactment of legislation regarding their human rights. The results suggest the postal survey served as a significant stressor to Australia's LGBTQ community. Implications for policy and clinical practice are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved). PMID: 32338941 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mental health recovery: Peer specialists with mental health and incarceration experiences.
Authors: Barrenger SL, Maurer K, Moore KL, Hong I Abstract Mental health recovery has not been examined widely in individuals with mental illnesses reentering the community from correctional settings. An important component of mental health recovery is engaging in work and many with lived mental health experiences become peer support specialists, yet little is known how this process unfolds for individuals who also have incarceration histories. Using life history phenomenological interviewing, this study investigates recovery pathways for peer support specialists with incarceration histories. Findings show that exp...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Trialing the feasibility of a critical time intervention for youth transitioning out of homelessness.
This study was a pilot randomized controlled trial of one such critical time intervention, called the Housing Outreach Program-Collaboration (HOP-C). HOP-C is a multicomponent, multidisciplinary intervention that provides 6 months of mental health and peer support, along with transitional case management to youth who have transitioned into some form of stable housing out of homelessness. In this trial, 65 youth were randomized to receive HOP-C plus treatment as usual or transitional case management plus treatment as usual. Outcome assessments were completed by 30 treatment and 28 control participants. The findings suggest ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Homeplace: Care and resistance among public housing residents facing mixed-income redevelopment.
Authors: Hagan MJ, Hall AR, Mamo L, Ramos J, Dubbin L Abstract Low-income communities of color experience significant political, economic, and health inequities and, not unrelatedly, are disproportionately exposed to violent crime than are residents of higher income communities. In an effort to mitigate concentrations of poverty and crime, governmental agencies have partnered with affordable housing developers to redevelop public housing "projects" into mixed-income communities and to do so within a "trauma-informed" framework. The current study analyzes how residents have historically and conte...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Coping strategies and stress among resettled Bhutanese adults in Massachusetts.
This study assessed the association between coping strategies and perceived stress among resettled Bhutanese adults in Western Massachusetts. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 225 Bhutanese (men: 113, women: 112) refugees aged 20-65 years residing in Massachusetts. Coping was measured with the 32-item Tobin Coping-Strategies Inventory-Short Form (CSI-SF). The 32-item CSI-SF includes 8 subscales: problem-solving, cognitive-structuring, express-emotions, social-contact, problem-avoidance, wishful thinking, self-criticism, and social-withdrawal, each with 4 items. Four composite constructs were created from subscal...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Social isolation from family and friends and mental health among African Americans and Black Caribbeans.
This study investigated the association between social isolation from family and friends and the mental health of African Americans and Black Caribbeans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003), we explore 2 indicators of mental health: depressive symptoms (CES-D) and serious psychological distress (Kessler 6). The negative binomial regression analysis examined both objective isolation (infrequent contact) and subjective isolation (lack of emotional closeness) from family and friends. Overall study findings indicated that infrequent contact (objective social isolation) and diminished emotional clos...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Family social support buffers the intergenerational association of maternal adverse childhood experiences and preschoolers' externalizing behavior.
Authors: Hatch V, Swerbenski H, Gray SAO Abstract Despite previous work demonstrating that an accumulation of maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is associated with negative health outcomes across generations, few studies have investigated protective factors beyond the parent-child dyad in the intergenerational transmission of adversity. The current study extends previous findings by examining maternal family social support as a culturally relevant buffer in the association between mothers' ACEs and her children's behavior problems in early childhood. Participants included 121 African American mothers and...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The effects of a staff-training program in behavior management and social-learning principles on staff-patient interactions within a psychiatric rehabilitation inpatient unit.
Authors: Schenkel LS, Wilkniss SM, Savitz A, Spaulding WD, Silverstein SM Abstract Despite the existence of effective behavioral interventions for people diagnosed with serious mental illness (SMI), these continue to be underutilized. Barriers to implementation include a low frequency of staff-patient interactions, as well as a lack of knowledge about, and negative attitudes toward, behavioral interventions. Therefore, we examined the effects of a mandatory behavioral staff-training program on staff-patient interactions on a long-term psychiatric inpatient program for individuals with SMI. Staff-training consisted ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Applying the dual factor model of mental health to understanding protective factors in adolescence.
Authors: Grych J, Taylor E, Banyard V, Hamby S Abstract Guided by the dual factor model of mental health and the resilience portfolio model, this study sought to identify protective factors that distinguish adolescents who exhibit different patterns of psychological symptoms and well-being. Participants were 466 twelve- to 17-year-old adolescents recruited from the Appalachian region of 3 Southern states who completed measures of psychological symptomatology, well-being and a range of protective factors. Analyses showed that, after accounting for adversity, the most consistent differences in both individual strengt...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Measurement and impacts of intersectionality on obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms across intensive treatment.
Authors: Wadsworth LP, Potluri S, Schreck M, Hernandez-Vallant A Abstract Historically, intensive obsessive-compulsive and related disorder (OCRD) treatment settings have been underrepresentative in terms of patient race and ethnicity. The present study piloted a novel technique to measure multiple marginalized identities and assess their impact on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and treatment response across intensive residential treatment (IRT). Participants included 715 residents receiving IRT for OCRD. Measures included the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Sca...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Teachers victimizing students: Contributions of student-to-teacher victimization, peer victimization, school safety, and school climate in Chile.
Authors: López V, Benbenishty R, Astor RA, Ascorra P, González L Abstract Although most of the school violence literature is focused on peer victimization, interest is growing in teachers being victimized by their students. However, there is far less interest in students being victimized by their teachers, patterns of mutual victimization, and how they are associated with other school factors. Using the conceptual framework of school violence in evolving contexts, the present study examined teacher-to-student victimization in Chile and tested, for the first time, the associations of student-to-teacher...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

From "crib to coffin": Navigating coping from racism-related stress throughout the lifespan of Black Americans.
From "crib to coffin": Navigating coping from racism-related stress throughout the lifespan of Black Americans. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2020;90(2):267-282 Authors: Jones SCT, Anderson RE, Gaskin-Wasson AL, Sawyer BA, Applewhite K, Metzger IW Abstract Despite the proclamation of a "postracial" society, racism in the United States remains "alive and sick" (S. P. Harrell, 2000), negatively impacting the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being of Black Americans. Moreover, the complex impact of racism throughout the life span is inadequately understood. Coping with the...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Childhood bereavement: Understanding prevalence and related adversity in the United States.
Authors: Burns M, Griese B, King S, Talmi A Abstract The death of a parent or sibling during childhood is an adverse experience that increases risk for future behavioral health, academic, and relational problems, as well as earlier mortality. Efforts to estimate childhood bereavement prevalence rates have been hampered by methodological, reporting, and data source limitations. In the absence of national tracking systems in the United States, a quantitative statistical model has been introduced with the aim of estimating the prevalence of this public health issue to aid in needs assessment and service provision. A h...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A critical review of current evidence on multiple types of discrimination and mental health.
Authors: Vargas SM, Huey SJ, Miranda J Abstract Little is known about people who experience multiple types of discrimination (e.g., racism and heterosexism). While some work suggests that multiply discriminated groups are at higher risk for poor mental health, other studies propose that they may develop resilience against additional kinds of discrimination. We conducted a review of published studies on the relationship between multiple types of discrimination and mental health to critically examine evidence in support of broad risk and resilience models. Using PRISMA guidelines, we identified 40 studies that met ou...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A repeated cross-sectional study of sympathy for violent radicalization in Canadian college students.
Authors: Rousseau C, Miconi D, Frounfelker RL, Hassan G, Oulhote Y Abstract The upsurge in violent radicalization is associated with a global increase in social inequalities and conflicts related to different markers of identity. To date, literature on the factors associated with legitimizing violence toward others is cross-sectional and does not provide information on the possible change of this phenomenon over time. Such information is necessary to design primary prevention programs that are adapted to and address a rapidly evolving social context. We use a repeated cross-sectional study design to explore the ass...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Caregivers as gatekeepers: Professional mental health service use among urban minority adolescents.
Authors: Tsang YT, Franklin M, Sala-Hamrick K, Kohlberger B, Simon VA, Partridge T, Barnett D Abstract Mental illness among adolescents frequently goes untreated, especially among low income and ethnic minority families. We sought to examine parent and adolescent psychological factors influencing mental health service use among 120 urban adolescents (82% African American, Age 13-18 years, M = 14.29, SD = 1.52) who had access to mental health treatment through their community primary care setting. We utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the independent and combined associations among parent and ado...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The manifestation of multilevel stigma in the lived experiences of transgender and gender nonconforming older adults.
Authors: Fabbre VD, Gaveras E Abstract Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people experience disparities in mental health when compared with non-TGNC sexual minorities and the general population. One line of inquiry with respect to these disparities is the examination of stigma and its connection to emotional and psychological well-being. Recent conceptualizations of stigma draw attention to multiple levels-individual, interpersonal, and structural-that are thought to impact well-being for TGNC people. However, little is known about how multilevel stigma is experienced by TGNC older adults, who navigate sti...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Stress-buffering versus support erosion: Comparison of causal models of the relationship between social support and psychological distress in military spouses.
This study examines temporal relationships between 3 dimensions of social support (social connectedness, dyadic satisfaction, and perceived support), and psychological distress in a sample of NG/R spouses during the first year after a service member returns from deployment. Data from 103 military spouses were drawn from a larger intervention development study. Autoregressive cross-lagged panel analyses examined the stress-buffering and support erosion hypotheses over a 3-month period. DRS were measured by the cumulative number of deployments and duration of most recent deployment. Distress was assessed using latent variabl...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The relationship of Oxford Houses across heterogeneous house and setting characteristics.
Authors: Kassanits J, Bobak TJ, Stevens E, Guerrero M, Light J, Jason LA Abstract Oxford Houses (OH) are democratically run, self-funded, substance-use recovery homes that operate across the United States and internationally. Previous research shows the OHs are present in diverse neighborhoods. The current study examined the neighborhoods of 42 OHs located in Oregon, Texas, and North Carolina to better quantify and understand house and neighborhood characteristics that are related to relapse rates. Independent variables were participants' length of stay in OH, wages earned from employment, and income/education neig...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Filial piety, internalized homonegativity, and depressive symptoms among Taiwanese gay and bisexual men: A mediation analysis.
Authors: Huang YT, Chan RCH, Cui L Abstract A theme emerging from the current literature is that Chinese gay and bisexual men are likely to struggle to accept themselves because of the cultural emphasis on filial piety. However, our understanding of this culturally particular process remains partial because most research has operationalized filial piety as either a component of Chinese values or an aggregate construct itself. To pinpoint this mechanism, this study deconstructed filial piety into pragmatic obligations and compassionate reverence to test a mediation model in which internalized homonegativity served a...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Incarceration and adversity histories: Modeling life course pathways affecting behavioral health.
Authors: Fleming CM, Nurius PS Abstract A consequence of a growing incarceration rate is that an increasing number of children face having an incarcerated household member, a known contributor to diverse lifelong behavioral health risks such as substance use and mental health impairment. Few studies have explored how household incarceration uniquely contributes to these subsequent behavioral health concerns, nor mediational contributors to these associations, within a theoretical framework. Using state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (n = 14,001), this study tests pathways of household incarc...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Parents' experiences of screening, diagnosis, and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder.
Authors: Yi H, Siu QKY, Ngan OMY, Chan DFY Abstract This mixed-methods study aimed to explore the experiences of screening, assessment, diagnosis, and intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among 249 parents of children with ASD in Hong Kong. Participants completed a survey and responded to open-ended questions regarding their experiences and views of ASD service provision. The quantitative analysis focused on (a) assessing parents' experiences of key milestones, including the time to access, professional support and consultation, referral and follow-up, and (b) examining the correlates of the milestone ex...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research