Reflective Functioning in Parents of School-Aged Children.
In this study, we used a high-risk community sample of parent-child dyads (N = 117) to explore whether parental RF comprises self- and child-focused factors, whether parental RF is associated with parent and child attachment security, and whether parental RF mediates the association between parent and child attachment security. Results suggested that parental RF can be characterized as having both self- and child-focused components, and that child-focused parental RF is associated with child but not parent attachment security. Further, child-focused parental RF indirectly mediates the association between parent attachment ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Relation of Psychosocial Factors to Diverse Behaviors and Attitudes Among Somali Refugees.
Authors: Ellis BH, Abdi SM, Lazarevic V, White MT, Lincoln AK, Stern JE, Horgan JG Abstract Refugee studies have examined both resilience and adverse outcomes, but no research has examined how different outcomes co-occur or are distinct, and the social-contextual factors that give rise to these diverse outcomes. The current study begins to address this gap by using latent profile analysis to examine the ways in which delinquency, gang involvement, civic engagement, political engagement, and openness to violent extremism cluster among Somali refugees. We then use multivariable regression analyses to examine how adve...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Assessment of Anxiety Among Northern Plains Indians.
This study is an examination of the reliability and validity of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) in a sample of NPIs (N = 529). Validity was assessed by comparing BAI scores among 3 different diagnostic categories in a clinical sample (anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and comorbid anxiety/mood disorder diagnostic groups) and a community sample of participants with no self-reported mental health diagnoses. The BAI was also compared with depression, quality of life, and anxiety measures to assess validity. Support toward the validity of the BAI was demonstrated through high correlatio...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Responding to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system: Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative.
Authors: Kretschmar JM, Butcher F, Kanary PJ, Devens R Abstract Discusses how Ohio's responded to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system by establishing the Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative. The consequences of a willful neglect of some of our most vulnerable citizens were significant and severe. Many individuals ended up on the streets, and many more found themselves in local jails. Over time, jails became de facto mental health facilities. Unfortunately, jails were, and often continue to be, ill-prepared to effectively screen, assess, and treat indi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Are the risk and protective factors similar for gang-involved, pressured-to-join, and non-gang-involved youth? A social-ecological analysis.
This study examines the risk and protective factors for gang involvement among subgroups of youth (i.e., current or former gang members, youth who resisted gang membership, and non-gang-involved youth) using the social-ecological framework. Middle and high school students (N = 17,366) from school districts in a large Midwestern county participated. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to be involved in gangs. For the individual context, our findings indicate that racial and ethnic minorities, females, and youth with depression/suicidal ideation are likely to be at risk for gang involvement. For the fa...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Ecology matters: Neighborhood differences in the protective role of self-control and social support for adolescent antisocial behavior.
Authors: Anderson S, Donlan AE, McDermott ER, Zaff JF Abstract Adolescence can be characterized as a time when aggression, delinquency, and violence (taken together as antisocial behavior) increase. Adolescents who engage in antisocial behavior increase local crime and can create unsafe conditions for families. Understanding the protective factors that mitigate antisocial behavior can help to inform prevention practices. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (n = 1,072, 51.40% female, 39.18% Hispanic, 32.28% Black), we examined how self-control, social support, and neighborhood c...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological outcomes among adult international adoptees in Finland: Moderating effects of social support and sense of coherence.
Authors: Koskinen M, Elovainio M, Raaska H, Sinkkonen J, Matomäki J, Lapinleimu H Abstract Quantitative literature on international adoptees and racial/ethnic discrimination is lacking despite results in qualitative studies from Europe and the United States that have consistently indicated how racism constantly complicates adoptees' everyday lives. To advance the literature, the present study examined the prevalence of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among 213 adult international adoptees in Finland (59.6% women and 40.4% men, mean age 24.1 years), and the association between perceived racial/ethnic dis...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Arab youth involvement in delinquency and political violence and parental control: The mediating role of religiosity.
This study examines the involvement of Arab youth at risk from East Jerusalem in delinquent behaviors, such as crimes against a person, public disorder offenses, and political violence. The contribution of religiosity and parental control factors in explaining these different types of youth involvement in illegal behaviors is assessed. A total of 161 young males, aged 15-21, participated in the study. We found that the greater the parental control and the more religious the adolescent, the less likely they are to engage in delinquent behaviors and political violence. The relationship between parental control and youth invo...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Bringing trauma-informed practice to domestic violence programs: A qualitative analysis of current approaches.
This study aimed to address this gap. The authors of this study systematically identified key documents that describe trauma-informed approaches in DV services and then conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify core themes. Results yielded 6 principles (Establishing emotional safety, Restoring choice and control, Facilitating connection, Supporting coping, Responding to identity and context, and Building strengths), each of which comprised a set of concrete practices. Despite the common themes articulated across descriptions of DV-specific trauma-informed practices (TIP), we also found critical differences, with...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Identifying relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing: Using parent input to inform adaptation efforts.
This study provides important insights for informing parenting intervention adaptation and implementation efforts with homeless families in transitional housing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 26594926 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The role of the police in building community identity among young people.
Authors: Lyons P Abstract Discusses the role of the police in building community identity among young people. Whether one subscribes to the view that the police are law enforcement officers, or that they are peace officers who maintain social order, most agree that an important function of the police is reinforcing community norms and intervening when those norms are violated. Social order depends heavily on voluntary compliance with the law and community norms which, in turn, depend on community perceptions of the legitimacy of the police as an institution. Furthermore, trust and trustworthiness of government auth...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Creating conditions that promote trust and participation by young people . . . And why it matters.
Authors: McLeigh JD Abstract This editorial discusses the research of the notion that the well-being of individuals is linked to the well-being of others. For example, Emma Seppala, Science Director at Stanford University's Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education, has reported that people who feel more connected to others have lower rates of anxiety and depression. Further, these individuals tend to have higher self-esteem and are more empathic, trusting, and cooperative. Seppala reports, however, that the opposite is also true. Low levels of social connectedness have been associated with declines...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Youth finding meaning through a larger sense of community.
This article begins with a discussion of the implications of the new economy for mental health and draws from Sennett's first image in which individuals are on their own to manage lives made precarious by flexible capital. The remainder of the article draws examples from my program of work on adolescents' political theories and interpretations of the social contract that binds them with fellow members of their society. The case is made that civic engagement is beneficial for young people and for democracy, and draws attention to the practices in developmental settings that enable adolescents to experience a larger sense of...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Does it matter if students experience school as a place of community?
Authors: Grover HM, Limber SP, Boberiene LV Abstract Discusses whether or not it matters if students experience school as a place of community. Although the word community often elicits thoughts of a geographic area, it also denotes relationships among people. Undeniably, family is the first community to which most children belong. However, a growing body of research points to the importance of multiple positive relationships in the lives of children. As children grow and begin to interact more with others, the positive effects that strong families have on children's development are magnified when children also hav...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Listening to the voices of young people: Implications for working in diverse communities.
Authors: Cunningham M, Rious JB Abstract Comments on the implications for working in diverse communities. Too often, teenagers get a bad rap and are stereotyped as lazy, uninvolved in political and community issues, and too self-centered. However, most adolescents desire to be a part of social change, want to be involved in activities that engage their hearts and minds, and are actively involved in planning their respective futures. Challenging the disconnect between this negative perception and the lived reality of adolescents demands that we as researchers be willing to listen to their perspectives. Youth voices ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Why trust matters with juveniles.
Authors: Tyler TR Abstract Discusses why trust matters with juveniles. Several facts point to the importance of building trust in the law and legal authorities among the young. Most important, adolescence is the primary socialization period for attitudes about the law. Although adults can later change their views, the residue of socialization is strong and shapes later attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, those views have a broader impact. Legal authorities, in particular the police, are the face of government for most adolescents. Almost all of the contact that people, adolescents or adults, have with the legal s...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Extending the RENO Model: Clinical and Ethical Applications.
This article extends the RENO Model core principles by describing how to apply these strategies to clinical practice. This discussion examines the central tenets of the model and includes a review of (a) the ethical principles that should guide the development, implementation, and practice of RENO Model responsible gambling activities; (b) a brief consideration of the various perspectives that influence the treatment of gambling-related problems; and (c) a discussion of key applied elements of responsible gambling programs. This article advances the argument that, to maximize positive outcomes and to avoid unintended harms...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Emergency Shelter Care Utilization in Child Welfare: Who Goes to Shelter Care? How Long Do They Stay?
Authors: Leon SC, Jhe Bai G, Fuller AK, Busching M Abstract Emergency shelter care for children entering foster care is widely used as a temporary first placement, despite its contraindications. However, little research has examined predictors of utilization (e.g., entry into care, length of stay in care). A sample of 123 children (ages 6-13) entering foster care was studied to explore the variables associated with an initial placement in shelter care versus kinship care and variables associated with children staying less than 30 days in the shelter versus 30 days or longer. After applying a classification tree ana...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Patterns of Depression Among Adolescent Mothers: Resilience Related to Father Support and Home Visiting Program.
Authors: Easterbrooks MA, Kotake C, Raskin M, Bumgarner E Abstract The negative consequences of maternal depression are a major public health concern, both for mothers and for their children. Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescent mothers, little is known about the patterns of adolescent mothers' depression in the early parenting years. The present study examined mothers' depression during the first 2 years following childbirth in a sample of 428 young mothers (20 or younger at first childbirth) who were participants in a randomized controlled trial of a home visiting parenting support program. ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Race/Ethnicity and the Perceived Experience of Mental Health Care.
Authors: Cai A, Robst J Abstract Although there is a vast amount of literature on differences in the perceived experiences of general health care among different racial/ethnic groups, few studies have examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and perceptions of mental health care. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics had more negative (or less positive) perceptions of the mental health treatment they receive compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Data were from the 1998-2006 Florida Health Services Surveys. The findings indicated that African Americans and...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Perceived Racial, Sexual Identity, and Homeless Status-Related Discrimination Among Black Adolescents and Young Adults Experiencing Homelessness: Relations With Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality.
Authors: Gattis MN, Larson A Abstract There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logist...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.
This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.
Authors: Lambert SF, Roche KM, Saleem FT, Henry JS Abstract Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communic...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The effects of racial heterogeneity on mental health: A study of detained youth across multiple counties.
Authors: Lau KS, Aalsma MC, Holloway ED, Wiehe SE, Vachon DD Abstract A majority of detained adolescents experience mental health and substance use problems. Limited research has examined the interaction between the race/ethnicity of an individual youth and county-level racial heterogeneity on adolescent mental health outcomes. Participants were identified through a statewide mental health screening project that took place in detention centers across 11 different counties in a Midwestern state during January 1, 2008, to May 10, 2010. A total of 23,831 detained youth (ages 11-18 years), identified as non-Hispanic Wh...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire across four ethnoracial groups in an undergraduate sample.
Authors: Talkovsky AM, Norton PJ Abstract Increasing awareness of cross-cultural issues in psychology has led many to question the validity and utility of instruments in nonmajority ethnic and racial groups. The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Clark & Watson, 1991) is a widely used measure of anxious and depressive symptoms. However, some of the most-cited investigations into the psychometric properties of the MASQ have failed to report the demographics of their samples. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the psychometric properties of the MASQ across ethnoracial groups. Results ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.
This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to sel...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children's school performance.
This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred b...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Ethnographic assessment of an alternative to incarceration for women with minor children.
Authors: Goshin LS Abstract Allowing criminal justice-involved women to remain with their children in the community may decrease some of the negative intergenerational effects of incarceration. Little is known about potential program models to safely support community coresidence in this population. Ethnographic methods were used to explore the historical development of and life within a supportive housing alternative to incarceration (ATI) program for women with minor children and the health and social needs of resident families. Participants included 8 current and former adult tenants, 12 of their resident childr...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Correlates of optimal behavior among child welfare-involved children: Perceived school peer connectedness, activity participation, social skills, and peer affiliation.
Authors: Merritt DH, Snyder SM Abstract Understanding the association between children's behaviors and their perceptions regarding the quality of school friendships is useful for intervention strategies focusing on the interpersonal networks of children involved with the child welfare system. Rarely are measures of the strength of peer relationships assessed as a protective factor for maltreated children in the context of understanding their behaviors. This research investigates the link between these youth's expressed relational experiences and nonproblematic behavior. Analyses were conducted on 1,054 children (ag...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.
Authors: Lewis T, Schwebel DC, Elliott MN, Visser SN, Toomey SL, McLaughlin KA, Cuccaro P, Tortolero Emery S, Banspach SW, Schuster MA Abstract The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Addressing mental health challenges facing the "Next America": A call for culture change.
Addressing mental health challenges facing the "Next America": A call for culture change. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2015 Sep;85(5 Suppl):S1-3 Authors: McLeigh JD, Melton GB Abstract Provides an editorial addressing future mental health challenges. The articles in this issue highlight the need to create environments conducive to promoting the well-being of future generations. The articles build on symposia held by the American Orthopsychiatric Association in 2015, which focused on the effects on well-being of changing sociodemographics and labor market trends. Included in these pages are articles ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Becoming adults: Challenges in the transition to adult roles.
This article summarizes the reasons for the slower passage to adult status (at least measured by demographic markers) and discusses some of the important implications of what today's pattern of becoming an adult means for young people, their families, and the larger society. By no means should this article be considered a review of the growing body of evidence on the changing pattern of adult transition. Indeed, there are many reviews of the literature on this topic, including books by Richard Settersten and Barbara Ray (2010) and Jeffrey Arnett (2015). The authors intention, rather, is to provide a short overview of the t...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Children come first? A brief history of children's mental health services.
This article provides a brief history on the evolution of child mental health services. From 1961 when modern day mental health programming began with the Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness to key developments in children's mental health services and prevention in modern day. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 26460711 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Beyond "homophobia": Thinking more clearly about stigma, prejudice, and sexual orientation.
This article addresses the topic of homophobia. Recent events might make it seem as though it is dying out. Hate crimes based on a person's sexual orientation or gender presentation can now be prosecuted by the federal government, even when they occur in states lacking their own hate crime laws. Numerous states have changed their laws to permit same-sex couples to marry, some through the passage of legislation and others through ballot measures. Since the U.S. Supreme Court's 2013 decision overturning part of the Defense of Marriage Act, those marriages have been recognized by the federal government. With the dramatic and ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Millennial children of immigrant parents: Transnationalism, disparities, policy, and potential.
Authors: Yazykova E, McLeigh JD Abstract At 11% of their generational cohort, second-generation millennials account for the larger number of children of immigrants than any other generation before them. Second-generation millennials belong to a cohort that comprises about 80 million people, the largest cohort of young people that the United States has ever seen. The "creators" of the millennial generation, Neil Howe and William Strauss, proposed seven core millennials' traits that are now overwhelmingly accepted as being factual: They are special, sheltered, confident, team-oriented, conventional, achievi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The well-being of young adults in the "Next America".
The well-being of young adults in the "Next America". Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2015 Sep;85(5 Suppl):S4-S13 Authors: Taylor P Abstract Demographic change is a drama in slow motion, and the America of the early 21st century is undergoing two such dramas at the same time. Our population is en route to becoming majority non-White at the same time a record share of us are going gray. Either of these trends would be the dominant demographic story of this era. The fact that they are occurring simultaneously has created significant generation gaps. The paradox of these sorts of dramas is that even thoug...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Creating auspicious conditions for positive youth development in communities of color.
This article provides ways to move toward auspicious community conditions for youth development. To do so, it is necessary to delineate what is meant by positive youth development in terms of the outcomes desired as young people make the transition to adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 26460715 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The next Black America: Obstacles amidst opportunities for Black families.
Authors: Armah T Abstract In this article, the author offers personal accounts on how she feels about the current Black America and obstacles that people face reaching for opportunities for Black families. Focus relies on the current state of Black America, poverty, schools, academic achievement, raising children in the next Black America and much more. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 26460716 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Israeli Mothers' Meaning Reconstruction in the Aftermath of Homicide.
This study is the first to our knowledge to provide an in-depth account of the meanings reconstructed by bereaved Israeli mothers of homicide victims. Homicide survivors tend to receive little or no support from society; this is especially true in Israel, where homicide victims are a neglected population whose voice is socially muted. Constructivist theories have informed understanding of grief, emphasizing the role of meaning reconstruction in adaptation to bereavement, as well as the role of social support in the process of meaning reconstruction. We derived 3 prototypes of meaning from interviews of 12 bereaved mothers:...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Robust Links Between Religious/Spiritual Struggles, Psychological Distress, and Well-Being in a National Sample of American Adults.
This study is one of the first attempts to examine the relationships between religious and spiritual struggles (r/s struggles) measured comprehensively and indicators of psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety) and well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, happiness) using a nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 2,208) dealing with a wide range of major life stressors. In addition, it examines the key question of whether these relationships persist after controlling for potentially confounding psychosocial/religious influences. Correlational analyses revealed that all 5 typ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Emotional Closeness to Parents and Grandparents: A Moderated Mediation Model Predicting Adolescent Adjustment.
Authors: Attar-Schwartz S Abstract Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparen...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Emergency Medical Services and "Psych Calls": Examining the Work of Urban EMS Providers.
Emergency Medical Services and "Psych Calls": Examining the Work of Urban EMS Providers. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2015 Jul 20; Authors: Prener C, Lincoln AK Abstract Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Happiness on the street: Overall happiness among homeless people in Madrid (Spain).
This article tests a hypothesized model of overall happiness among homeless people in Spain. The research was conducted based on a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 235), all adults, who had spent the night before the interview in a shelter for homeless people, on the street or in other places not initially designed for sleeping, or who were in supervised accommodation for homeless people at the time of the interview. Information was gathered using a structured interview. The results obtained show that around half of the homeless people in Madrid said that they were happy. A positive meta-stereotype a...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.
Authors: Salas-Wright CP, Lee S, Vaughn MG, Jang Y, Sanglang CC Abstract Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify accultur...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Differential accounts of refugee and resettlement experiences in youth with high and low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology: A mixed-methods investigation.
This study was conducted to broaden the conceptualization and examination of the outcomes of the refugee experience by jointly examining how adaptive processes, psychosocial factors, and psychopathology are implicated. A mixed-methods approach was used to specifically examine whether adolescents' (N = 10) accounts of their refugee and resettlement experiences differed according to their level, "high" or "low," of PTSD symptomatology. The superordinate themes of cultural belongingness and identification, psychological functioning, family unit functioning and relationships, and friendships and interperson...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Suicide Risk Assessments: Examining Influences on Clinicians' Professional Judgment.
This study revealed significant variations in clinical judgments of practitioners assessing suicide risk. While scores on standardized risk assessment measures were the strongest predictor of judgments regarding the need for hospitalization to ensure the safety of the patient, other influences included clinician age and levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Mental health clinicians and organizations that employ them should be aware of possible individual influences on professional judgments related to suicide risk. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 26075316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Jou...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 17, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Influence of Psychological Symptoms on Mental Health Literacy of College Students.
We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and ext...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

An Exploratory Study of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas.
We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 26052816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Building Resilience: A Qualitative Study of Spanish Women Who Have Suffered Intimate Partner Violence.
This study used grounded theory to explore the factors that contribute to building resilience in Spanish women who have undergone IPV. A sample of 22 women who had experienced IPV participated in the study (mean age = 46.45 years, SD = 10.49). Findings revealed that these women were capable of using various factors, both individual and external, that promoted resilience. The women employed the following individual factors: physical activity, rediscovering oneself, altruism, control over one's life, creativity, spirituality, focus on the present, sense of humor, introspection, optimism, and projects and goals. The external ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The new normal? Addressing gun violence in America.
Authors: McLeigh JD Abstract Despite the fact that children die every day from gun violence, school shootings upset us in ways that are difficult to comprehend. In our minds, schools serve as safe havens for children. When that image is shattered, the unpredictability and randomness of such heinous acts leave us wondering if anywhere is safe anymore. This issue of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry includes a set of commentaries that seek to help us better understand responses to gun violence, challenge some of the typical policy responses to such events, and seek to offer constructive strategies for preventin...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research