Cigarette-Smoking Trajectories of Monoracial and Biracial Blacks: Testing the Intermediate Hypothesis.
In this study, we tested the intermediate biracial substance-use hypothesis, which suggests that the prevalence of substance use among biracial individuals falls intermediate to their monoracial counterparts. We examined cigarette-smoking trajectories of a de-aggregated sample of biracial Black adolescents and young adults. We used longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health; Harris et al., 2009). Our sample (N = 9,421) included 4 monoracial groups (Black, White, Hispanic, and American Indian [AI]) and 3 biracial groups (Black-AI, Black-Hispanic, and Black-White). Study...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Subjective Reactions to International Research Participation: An Illustration of Ethical Considerations With Women Heading Households in Sri Lanka.
In this study, trauma-affected Tamil women in Eastern Sri Lanka were asked to report on their research-participation experience after taking part in a larger study on risk and resiliency. Results indicated that most participants experienced emotional upset as a result of taking part in the study. However, the degree of distress was generally not more than they anticipated, and most participants reported they would have participated had they known in advance how they would feel. Most participants perceived some benefit as a result of participating and agreed that items were personally relevant. Emotional distress from parti...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Parenting Stress as a Mediator of Trauma Exposure and Mental Health Outcomes in Young Children.
Authors: Whitson ML, Kaufman JS Abstract Exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) significantly impacts outcomes for children in behavioral health systems of care (SOCs). The present study built on previous research that found parenting stress influences outcomes for children exposed to PTEs. The sample included 184 young children and their families who were enrolled in an early childhood SOC. Path analyses demonstrated that parenting stress mediated the relationship between the number of PTEs a child experienced and caregiver-reported internalizing/externalizing problem behaviors at baseline. Parenting stre...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Providing Social Services in a New Immigrant Settlement City: A Qualitative Inquiry.
This study, guided by social ecological theory, advances our limited understanding of social services in new immigrant settlement destinations by elucidating contextual and structural factors endemic to the social service delivery process in these new immigrant destinations. Twenty-nine social service providers who work with Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore were interviewed and Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) methods were used to analyze data through consensus and the use of multiple data "auditors." Findings extend our understanding of the context of social servic...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Understanding the Mental Health Consequences of Family Separation for Refugees: Implications for Policy and Practice.
Authors: Miller A, Hess JM, Bybee D, Goodkind JR Abstract Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in har...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Sexual Harassment Victimization, School Belonging, and Depressive Symptoms Among LGBTQ Adolescents: Temporal Insights.
Authors: Hatchel T, Espelage DL, Huang Y Abstract Peer victimization and the associated poor outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth have been the focus of countless studies. School climate is a factor that has garnered significant attention. Perceptions of school contexts may even be mechanisms that define how victimization relates to poor outcomes. However, there is a lack of rigorous scholarship that could demonstrate directionality and therefore further augment our understanding of these relations. Specifically, it is not clear if victimization is strictly an antecedent...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A Critical-Positive Youth Development Model for Intervening With Minority Youth at Risk for Delinquency.
This article proposes a model of intervening that was developed to address this limitation. The current model was informed by the findings of a 9-month ethnography of a leadership development program for African American youths as well as positive youth development and critical theory frameworks. It delineates the roles of key intervention features in enhancing important assets among minority youths that help them to better navigate adverse social-structural conditions, decrease problem behaviors, and increase prosocial behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 28617004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Using Adolescents' Drawings to Reveal Stereotypes About Ethnic Groups in Guatemala.
Authors: Ashdown BK, Gibbons JL, de Baessa Y, Brown CM Abstract It is important to identify stereotypes about indigenous people because those stereotypes influence prejudice and discrimination, both obstacles to social justice and universal human rights. The purpose of the current study was to document the stereotypes, as held by Guatemalan adolescents, of indigenous Maya people (e.g., Maya) and nonindigenous Ladinos in Guatemala (the 2 main ethnic groups in Guatemala). Guatemalan adolescents (N = 465; 38.3% female; Mage = 14.51 years; SDage = 1.81 years) provided drawings and written characteristics about indigeno...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Ethnographic Case Study of a Community Day Center for Asylum Seekers as Early Stage Mental Health Intervention.
Authors: Chase LE, Rousseau C Abstract Clinical guidelines in refugee mental health increasingly advocate phased approaches to intervention that foreground the provision of pragmatic and social support in contexts of ongoing instability. However, the impact of such interventions has rarely been explored from the perspective of refugees themselves. We conducted ethnographic research on the experiences and perceptions of users of an intervention embodying this approach: a community Day Center for asylum seekers in Montreal. Data comprising 15 interviews and field notes from 50 participant observation visits were anal...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Resilient Family Processes, Personal Reintegration, and Subjective Well-Being Outcomes for Military Personnel and Their Family Members.
Authors: Clark MA, O'Neal CW, Conley KM, Mancini JA Abstract Deployment affects not just the service members, but also their family members back home. Accordingly, this study examined how resilient family processes during a deployment (i.e., frequency of communication and household management) were related to the personal reintegration of each family member (i.e., how well each family member begins to "feel like oneself again" after a deployment), as well as several indicators of subjective well-being. Drawing from the family attachment network model (Riggs & Riggs, 2011), the present study collected ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

"Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework": Correction to Grossman et al. (2017).
This article provides the outline of a new framework for treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Component-based psychotherapy (CBP) is an evidence-informed model that bridges, synthesizes, and expands upon several existing schools, or theories, of treatment for adult survivors of traumatic stress. These include approaches to therapy that stem from more classic traditions in psychology, such as psychoanalysis, to more modern approaches including those informed by feminist thought. Moreover, CBP places particular emphasis on integration of key concepts from evidence-based treatment models develope...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Sexual objectification: The common thread connecting myriad forms of sexual violence against women.
Authors: Gervais SJ, Eagan S Abstract In this article, the authors focus on the linkages between objectification and current societal manifestations of sexual violence toward women to make the case that everyday instances of objectification can provide the foundation for more extreme forms of violence. First, they formally introduce the notion of objectification and explain its origins and its consequences in those who perpetrate and those who experience it. Next, they use objectification as a lens through which to consider several related, but distinct, societal problems, including: sexual assault of college women...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health Services as a Vital Component of Psychosocial Recovery for Victims of Child Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
Authors: Rafferty Y Abstract There has been a plethora of outcomes associated with child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation; however little attention has been paid to how outcomes are addressed for children who are placed into residential aftercare recovery programs following their identification as victims. Field-based qualitative research was undertaken in South and Southeast Asia, and involved interviews with 213 representatives from U.N. and governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and residential aftercare recovery programs. Findings highlight the mental health needs of child victims o...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

School-Related Experiences of Adolescents in Foster Care: A Comparison With Their High-School Peers.
Authors: Benbenishty R, Siegel A, Astor RA Abstract Although adolescents in foster care are known to be more at risk for school-related academic challenges, there is a paucity of research on their school-related experiences, such as victimization and relationships with teachers, compared with their same-age peers not in care. The aim of this article is to compare foster-care adolescents and their schoolmates on data that was drawn from the statewide representative California Healthy Kids survey and includes 165,815 nonfoster youth and 706 foster youth in 9th and 11th grades. Findings indicate a consistent pattern: ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A Developmental Study of Community Participation of Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: Implications for Policy and Practice.
This study seeks to describe and compare the amount, importance, and sufficiency of community participation in younger adult, middle-aged adult, and older adult consumers. Participants were 879 adults with serious mental illnesses who completed the Temple University Community Participation Measure as part of several studies (only baseline data were analyzed). One-way analysis of variance tests and chi-square analyses were used to evaluate the effect of age group on community participation outcomes. The amount and importance of participation in specific participation areas differed across age groups in developmentally appro...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Attributions About Homelessness in Homeless and Domiciled People in Madrid, Spain: "Why Are They Homeless People?".
This article analyzes the differences in causal attributions of homelessness based on gender, age, nationality, educational background, perceived social class, evolution of personal economic situation, and future expectations between the members of 2 groups: (a) "homeless group", consisting of a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid, Spain (n = 188); and (b) "domiciled group", consisting of a sample of people in Madrid at no risk of homelessness (n = 180), matched for sex, age and nationality. Results show that among domiciled population, women, older people, those without university educat...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Interrelationships Among Length of Stay in a Domestic Violence Shelter, Help Received, and Outcomes Achieved.
Authors: Sullivan CM, Virden T Abstract Survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have a variety of reasons for turning to domestic violence shelter programs. Some are seeking temporary respite and immediate safety while others are seeking longer term assistance to heal from their trauma and begin new lives. In line with these differing needs, some survivors only stay in shelter for a few days, while others may need to stay for months or even years. The current study involved secondary data analysis of an 8-state study that collected information from survivors shortly after they arrived in shelter and shortly be...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Alcohol Use Among Arab Muslim Adolescents: A Mediation-Moderation Model of Family, Peer, and Community Factors.
Authors: Eseed R, Khoury-Kassabri M Abstract Alcohol use among Muslims has received scant research attention, and little is known about the factors that underlie Arab Muslim adolescents' use of alcohol. The data used in this study is based on a large and representative sample of 2,948 Arab Muslim students from Israel, aged 11-18. The results showed that almost 10% of the adolescents reported using alcohol. The findings indicated that greater exposure to community violence victimization increases the risk for adolescent affiliation with delinquent peers, which in turn increases the use of alcohol. Furthermore, it wa...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Readiness for Integrated Care Questionnaire (RICQ): An Instrument to Assess Readiness to Integrate Behavioral Health and Primary Care.
Authors: Scott VC, Kenworthy T, Godly-Reynolds E, Bastien G, Scaccia J, McMickens C, Rachel S, Cooper S, Wrenn G, Wandersman A Abstract Integration of behavioral health and primary care services is a promising approach for reducing health disparities. The growing national emphasis on care coordination has mobilized efforts to integrate behavioral health and primary care services across the United States. These efforts align with broader health care system goals of improving health care quality, health equity, utilization efficiency, and patient outcomes. Drawing from our work on a multiyear integrated care initiati...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Illness Disclosure Decision Making.
Authors: Pahwa R, Fulginiti A, Brekke JS, Rice E Abstract Disclosure related to mental illness has been linked to various positive outcomes, including better mental health. However, many individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to practice non-disclosure. Even though disclosure inherently occurs within the context of one's social relationships, research has generally conceptualized mental illness disclosure as an individual level phenomenon and neglected to consider preferences concerning to whom an individual discloses and the factors that influence this decision. The current study uses the disclosur...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Correlation Between Exposure to Neighborhood Violence and Perpetration of Moderate Physical Violence Among Arab-Palestinian Youth: Can It Be Moderated by Parent-Child Support and Gender?
Authors: Massarwi AA Abstract In the current study, we examined the role of parent-child support as a protective factor that moderates the correlation between exposure to neighborhood violence and perpetration of moderate physical violence among 3,187 Arab-Palestinian adolescents who live in Israel (aged 12 to 18), from 21 different schools who were selected randomly. The probability sampling method was a nonproportional multistage stratified cluster sample. We also examined gender differences across this protective process. Participants completed a structured, anonymous self-report questionnaire. The findings of t...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 31, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Identifying Variability in Permanent Supportive Housing: A Comparative Effectiveness Approach to Measuring Health Outcomes.
This article presents results from qualitative interviews with supportive housing providers in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Supportive housing varied according to housing configuration (scattered-site vs. project-based) and service provision model (low-intensity case management, intensive case management and behavioral health), resulting in 6 basic types. Supportive housing programs also differed in services they provided in addition to case management and the extent to which they followed harm-reduction versus abstinence policies. Results showed advantages and disadvantages of each of the 6 basic types. Compa...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Trajectories on the Path to Reciprocity-A Theoretical Framework for Collaborating With Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Communities.
This article presents a theoretical framework on the dynamics of reciprocity which resulted from grounded theory (GT) research involving 2 complementary studies. The first study involved 22 participants from different socioeconomic backgrounds engaged in "reflecting-team with appreciative audiences" sessions (Madsen, 2007) in Portugal. The second study involved participant observation of 15 community programs recognized as good-practices in collaboration with socioeconomically disadvantaged participants, at national and international levels, across 9 countries. The theoretical framework emphasizes the centrality ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Physical Family Violence and Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents.
Authors: Renner LM, Boel-Studt S Abstract Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level c...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Peer Victimization and Substance Use Among African American Adolescents and Emerging Adults on Chicago's Southside.
Authors: Hong JS, Voisin DR, Cho S, Smith DC, Resko SM Abstract Urban African-American youth residing in poorly resourced communities are at a heightened risk of peer victimization, which consequently increases their likelihood of risky behaviors such as substance use. The present study examined whether there was a direct relationship between peer victimization and substance use and whether it was mediated by negative peer norms, internalizing problems, and bullying perpetration. African-American youth (n = 638) completed a self-administered questionnaire on age, biological sex, socioeconomic status, lifetime subst...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Examining the Effects of a Novel Training Program and Use of Psychiatric Service Dogs for Military-Related PTSD and Associated Symptoms.
This study explored an intensive 3-week training program and use of psychiatric service dogs for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated symptoms. The sample included 2 separate cohorts of military veterans (n = 7 and n = 5) with prior diagnoses of PTSD. Participants completed self-report measures assessing PTSD, depression, perception of social support, anger, and overall quality of life 1 month prior to the training (baseline), at arrival to the training site, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated that, for this sample, there was a statistically significant decrease in PTSD and depression ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Subjective Social Status and Rumination in Relation to Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms and Psychopathology Among Economically Disadvantaged Latinos in Primary Care.
Authors: Talavera DC, Paulus DJ, Garza M, Ochoa-Perez M, Lemaire C, Valdivieso J, Bogiaizian D, Robles Z, Bakhshaie J, Manning K, Walker R, Businelle M, Zvolensky MJ Abstract The present investigation examined the interactive effects of subjective social status and rumination in relation to anxiety/depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 276 Latinos (82% female; Mage = 39.2, SD = 11.1; 97.0% reported Spanish as first language) who attended a community-based primary health care clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between rumination and subjective social status was significantly associated with depre...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

"His Skin Doesn't Match What He Wants to Do": Children's Perceptions of Stereotype Threat.
The objective of the current study is to determine whether children between the ages of 7-11 consciously perceive stereotype threat, and to examine children's descriptions of the phenomenon. Age-appropriate vignettes illustrated 6 forms of stereotype threat. 15 children from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds read and responded to 3 vignettes each. Interview transcripts were analyzed to determine if participants identified and articulated the core concept and eliciting conditions for each form of threat. All children were able to recognize and describe the core concept for at least 1 form of stereotype threat. Threats to a ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Moderating Role of Relationship Skills Education on Depressive Symptoms in Fathers With Young Children.
Authors: Roopnarine JL, Dede Yildirim E Abstract Drawing on couple-focused prevention intervention models that target family level processes, we used complier average causal effect (CACE) estimates to determine whether relationship skills education moderated the association between fathers' depressive symptoms assessed when their children were 15-months-old and again when their children were 36-months-old. The sample consisted of low-income Hispanic American, European American, and African American fathers (N = 2,540) from the Building Strong Families Study. Fathers from 8 sites across the United States were random...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Acculturation and Post-Migration Psychological Symptoms Among Iraqi Refugees: A Path Analysis.
Authors: LeMaster JW, Broadbridge CL, Lumley MA, Arnetz JE, Arfken C, Fetters MD, Jamil H, Pole N, Arnetz BB Abstract Refugees frequently experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression, which impede their acculturation in the new host country where they are resettling. There are few longitudinal studies investigating predictors of mental health and acculturation during the early postmigration period. We conducted a longitudinal study of 298 Iraqi refugees, assessing them upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year after migration. Premigration trauma was associated with increased PTSD and depressive symptoms at...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Moderating Effect of Child's Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnosis on Benefit Finding and Negative Affect of Parents.
This study seeks to explore the relationships between benefit finding and parental well-being and aims to bridge the research gaps in 3 ways. First, it seeks to examine the nature of relationships between benefit finding and parent positive and negative affect among parents whose children have ASD or other special needs. Second, we posit that this relationship would be moderated by the presence of ASD in the child. Third, we hypothesize that this moderation may vary with the children's age. Three hundred and 2 parents responded to a self-report questionnaire. Specifically, for parents of children who are non-ASD, higher le...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Characteristics of Foster Care History as Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disorders Among Youth in Care.
This study evaluates foster care history characteristics as risk factors for psychopathology. We examine characteristics of youths' foster care histories separately and as a gestalt (i.e., identification of latent classes). Six mental health disorders and lifetime suicide attempt were assessed via in-person interviews with a representative sample of older adolescents in California foster care (n = 706). Information on respondents' foster care histories were obtained from state administrative data. Half of the sample (47.3%) screened positive for a psychiatric disorder and 1/4 (25.2%) had attempted suicide. When assessed in...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Fragmented Inclusion: Community Participation and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer People With Diagnoses of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.
This article describes an in-depth qualitative study with 16 LGBTQ people; 18 social service workers; and 2 key informants in Toronto, Ontario that examined access to communities for LGBTQ people with mental health diagnoses. Results indicate that community participation is particularly relevant to this group given the functions of communities for marginalized people as a source of support and resistance. However, the participants faced barriers to accessing support and creating social networks due to the lack of intersectional inclusion in various contexts, including LGBTQ communities and mental health/mad communities. (P...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Alcohol and Drug Use Among Internationally Adopted Adolescents: Results From a Norwegian Population-Based Study.
Authors: Askeland KG, Sivertsen B, Skogen JC, La Greca AM, Tell GS, Aarø LE, Hysing M Abstract Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mapping a Continuum of Adolescent Helping and Bystander Behavior Within the Context of Dating Violence and Bullying.
Authors: Casey EA, Storer HL, Herrenkohl TI Abstract Although research has identified factors that support and hinder proactive bystander behaviors among adolescents, less is known about the more specific bystander responses viewed by youth as feasible, or whether these responses are likely to be ultimately helpful in the context of bullying and teen dating violence (TDV). Goals of this exploratory study were to describe specific bystander behaviors that adolescents perceive as possible for addressing bullying and TDV among peers, to assess the potential impact of these behaviors, and to examine similarities and di...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Assessing the Role of Race/Ethnicity in the Relationships Among Spiritual Struggles, Health, and Well-Being.
We examined two ways in which race/ethnic variations may arise. First, the differential-exposure perspective suggests that some groups may experience more spiritual struggles than others. Findings from a recent nationwide survey suggest that Blacks experience more spiritual struggles than either Whites or Hispanics. Second, the differential-impact perspective suggests that the relationship between spiritual struggles, health, and well-being varies across racial/ethnic groups. Findings from the current study suggest that when spiritual struggles arise, Blacks experience fewer symptoms of physical illness, less anxiety, and ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Facilitating reintegration for military service personnel, veterans, and their families: An introduction to the special issue.
Authors: Elnitsky CA, Kilmer RP Abstract As service members return from active duty and, in some cases, exit the military, they face a process of reintegration (also referred to as community reintegration) as they seek to resume participation in their life roles as civilians. Facilitating this dynamic process of reintegration for service members, veterans, and their families-including outlining potential strategies for supporting this return to civilian life and its demands, roles, and responsibilities-is the focus of this Special Issue. Reintegration has been framed as a national priority (U.S. Department of Veter...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Military service member and veteran reintegration: A critical review and adapted ecological model.
Authors: Elnitsky CA, Blevins CL, Fisher MP, Magruder K Abstract Returning military service members and veterans (MSMVs) experience a wide range of stress-related disorders in addition to social and occupational difficulties when reintegrating to the community. Facilitating reintegration of MSMVs following deployment is a societal priority. With an objective of identifying challenges and facilitators for reintegration of MSMVs of the current war era, we critically review and identify gaps in the literature. We searched 8 electronic databases and identified 1,764 articles. Screening of abstracts and full-text review...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Perspectives of veterans with mild traumatic brain injury on community reintegration: Making sense of unplanned separation from service.
Authors: Libin AV, Schladen MM, Danford E, Cichon S, Bruner D, Scholten J, Llorente M, Zapata S, Dromerick AW, Blackman MR, Magruder KM Abstract For veterans separated from the military as a result of acquired mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), the transition from a military identity to a civilian one is complicated by health, cognitive, and psychosocial factors. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 veterans with mTBI to understand how they perceived the experience of departure from the military, rehabilitation services provided at a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma Network Site, and reentry into ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Burden and mental health among caregivers of veterans with traumatic brain injury/polytrauma.
This study utilized cross-sectional data from the Family and Caregiver Experiences Study, a survey of 564 caregivers caring for veterans who served after September 11, 2001, survived TBI/polytrauma during service, and received inpatient rehabilitation care in a Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between caregiver stress (i.e., veterans' neurobehavioral problems and intensity of care required), and caregiver well-being (i.e., caregiver burden and mental health). Analyses also examined how intrapersonal, family or social, and financial resource...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Exploring the post-deployment reintegration experiences of veterans with PTSD and their significant others.
This study contributes to the understanding of the prolonged postdeployment family reintegration experiences of veterans and their SOs. Findings underscore the importance of continuing to advance the current knowledge base about the long-term impact of deployment on veterans and their families, especially factors that contribute to positive postdeployment family functioning. Additional empirical studies are needed to provide more in-depth understanding of the long-term postdeployment reintegration experiences of veterans and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 28206802 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Ame...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mental health treatment utilization in OIF/OEF National Guard and Reserve troops with and without DSM diagnoses.
Authors: Primack JM, Borsari B, Benz MB, Reddy MK, Shea MT Abstract Military service members have an increased risk of developing mental health (MH) problems following deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan, yet only a small percentage seek mental health treatment. The aim of the present study was to explore patterns of MH service utilization within the first 12 months following return from combat deployment. Participants were 169 service members who had returned from war-zone deployment in either Iraq or Afghanistan and had assessments covering a 12-month period following their homecoming. The authors first examined th...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Student service members/veterans on campus: Challenges for reintegration.
In conclusion, there is a clear need to provide education to faculty, students, and staff regarding the experiences of SSM/Vs. Efforts to enhance screening for, availability of, and SSM/V engagement in mental health services would also be beneficial, as would improved availability of and SSM/V access to academic support. All future programs designed to address the unique challenges of SSM/Vs in the academic environment should also be systematically implemented and evaluated. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 28206804 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Facilitating successful reintegration: Attending to the needs of military families.
Authors: Gil-Rivas V, Kilmer RP, Larson JC, Armstrong LM Abstract Subsequent to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the experiences of military service members (MSVMs) and veterans have garnered increasing attention. A growing body of work has begun to shed light on their reintegration, a process that can bring with it transitions and challenges for service members and their families. Although many families adapt effectively, some have difficulty navigating this process, which can lead to a host of short- and long-term negative consequences for families. The literature to date is not well-developed regarding strategi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Fostering resilience in National Guard and Reserve families: A contextual adaptation of an evidence-based parenting program.
Authors: Pinna KL, Hanson S, Zhang N, Gewirtz AH Abstract Military deployment of a parent is a risk factor for children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This risk may be heightened in National Guard and Reserve (NG/R) families who tend to be isolated from other NG/R families and do not benefit from the centralized support system available to active duty families living on military bases. Isolation and trauma-related disorders may complicate the adjustment of military families during reintegration. An evidence-based parent training intervention was modified to meet the unique needs of recently deployed NG...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Continuing our organizational mission: A new name for a new time.
Authors: Walker DK, Kilmer RP, Armstrong MI Abstract This editorial explains the need for a new name for the American Orthopsychiatric Association (ORTHO). As ORTHO continues their work into the 21st century, they want to better reflect their global membership and focus, increasing the number of partnerships with individuals and organizations, and commitment to a just society. Therefore, ORTHO is changing their name to the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice. It is crucial to underscore that, although the organizations name is changing, the values and principles that inform their work will rema...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework.
This article provides the outline of a new framework for treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Component-based psychotherapy (CBP) is an evidence-informed model that bridges, synthesizes, and expands upon several existing schools, or theories, of treatment for adult survivors of traumatic stress. These include approaches to therapy that stem from more classic traditions in psychology, such as psychoanalysis, to more modern approaches including those informed by feminist thought. Moreover, CBP places particular emphasis on integration of key concepts from evidence-based treatment models develope...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Stressful Life Events and Perceived Parental Control in Formerly Homeless Families: Impact on Child-Internalizing Symptoms.
Authors: Utr┼żan DS, Piehler TF, Gewirtz AH, August GJ Abstract Research has neglected the potential role of perceived parental control as a moderator between stressful life events (SLEs) and child-internalizing symptoms. Using secondary data from the Early Risers "Skills for Success" Program (August, Realmuto, Hektner, & Bloomquist, 2001), this study examined the impact of perceived parental control on the association between SLEs and child internalizing symptoms in formerly homeless families. The sample consisted of 137 families with 223 children between 4 and 12 years of age (M = 8.1, SD = 2.3) liv...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Youth-Serving Institutional Resources and Neighborhood Safety: Ties With Positive Youth Development.
This study examined distinct features of the neighborhood, including youth-serving institutional resources (YSI) and safety, as they relate to PYD among adolescents from low-income neighborhoods in an urban setting (n = 491, 68.6% African American). Because neighborhood experiences during adolescence often differ based on gender, we also examined moderation by gender. Results from cross-sectional, multilevel data suggest that neighborhood safety, YSIs, and gender are differentially associated with indicators of PYD (i.e., hope, mastery, friend support). The pattern of results suggested that when associated with mastery, YS...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

What Children Think About Their Rights and Their Well-Being: A Cross-National Comparison.
Authors: Kosher H, Ben-Arieh A Abstract Recent years have brought a growing social and public commitment to the promotion of children's rights and children's well-being around the world, and these have become important goals of all those striving to improve children's lives. In spite of the intimate ideological connection between the concepts of children's rights and children's well-being, they have evolved separately both theoretically and empirically. In the current article, we present a study exploring the empirical association between these 2 concepts based on data from the International Survey on Children's We...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research